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1

Water governance and adaptation to climate change in the Indus River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conflicting approaches to water governance at multiple scales within large international river basins may have detrimental effects on the productivity of water resources and consequently the economic activities of the basin. In the Indus River Basin, local scale water productivity decisions are affected by international and intra-national scale water governance. Water availability and productivity is modulated by the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and within Pakistan by the agreements governing water allocation between and within provinces. Much of the literature on governance at multiple scales in the Indus basin, and others, has employed qualitative methods of institutional analysis. This paper extends that approach with quantitative modeling of surface water allocation rules at multiple scales and the consequent economic impact on water use and productivity in the Indus River of Pakistan. The effects of the existing water allocation mechanisms on the ability to adapt to possible future climate conditions are examined. The study is conducted using the Indus Basin Model Revised - Multi-Year (IBMR-MY), a hydro-agro-economic model of the Indus River within Pakistan that simulates river and canal flows, groundwater pumping, water use and economic activities with a distributed, partial equilibrium model of the local scale agro-economic activities in the basin. Results suggest that without changes in response to changing conditions, the current governance mechanisms impede the provinces' ability to adapt to changing climate conditions, in ways that are significant, inflicting economic costs under both high and low flow conditions. However surface water allocation between the provinces does not appear to hinder adaptation. The greatest gains for economic water allocation are achieved at the sub-provincial level. The results imply that adaptive mechanisms for water allocation that allow response to changing climate conditions within provinces may be a promising adaptive response in the Indus Basin.

Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Brown, Casey; Yu, Winston; Wescoat, James; Ringler, Claudia

2014-11-01

2

Two Years in the Life of the Indus River Basin [book chapter  

E-print Network

Reviews the major challenges and current water and agriculture context, plans, and policies following difficult years of drought and catastrophic monsoon flooding in Pakistan's Indus Basin. The years from 2009 through 2011 ...

Yu, Winston

3

Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra was dominated by reworking from the Thar Desert, at least prior to around 4 ka. Future work will deconvolve the relative influence of dunes versus fluvial components of the river. High-resolution clay mineralogy from the core sites will be carried out to establish a climate variability proxy. We will reconstruct a quantitative record of Indus Valley geomorphic-climate variability over the Holocene and test the hypothesis that cessation of flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra drove the Harappan people from the Indus valley 4,000 years ago.

Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

2009-12-01

4

Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

2014-10-01

5

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

6

Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

2014-05-01

7

Projected changes in climate over the Indus river basin using a high resolution regional climate model (PRECIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate modelling system, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, has been used to study future climate change scenarios over Indus basin for the impact assessment. In this paper we have examined the three Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions simulations selected from 17-member perturbed physics ensemble generated using Hadley Centre Coupled Module. The climate projections based on IPCC SRES A1B scenario are analysed over three time slices, near future (2011-2040), middle of the twenty first century (2041-2070), and distant future (2071-2098). The baseline simulation (1961-1990) was evaluated with observed data for seasonal and spatial patterns and biases. The model was able to resolve features on finer spatial scales and depict seasonal variations reasonably well, although there were quantitative biases. The model simulations suggest a non-uniform change in precipitation overall, with an increase in precipitation over the upper Indus basin and decrease over the lower Indus basin, and little change in the border area between the upper and lower Indus basins. A decrease in winter precipitation is projected, particularly over the southern part of the basin. Projections indicate greater warming in the upper than the lower Indus, and greater warming in winter than in the other seasons. The simulations suggest an overall increase in the number of rainy days over the basin, but a decrease in the number of rainy days accompanied by an increase in rainfall intensity in the border area between the upper and lower basins, where the rainfall amount is highest.

Rajbhandari, R.; Shrestha, A. B.; Kulkarni, A.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bajracharya, S. R.

2015-01-01

8

Projected changes in climate over the Indus river basin using a high resolution regional climate model (PRECIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate modelling system, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, has been used to study future climate change scenarios over Indus basin for the impact assessment. In this paper we have examined the three Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions simulations selected from 17-member perturbed physics ensemble generated using Hadley Centre Coupled Module. The climate projections based on IPCC SRES A1B scenario are analysed over three time slices, near future (2011-2040), middle of the twenty first century (2041-2070), and distant future (2071-2098). The baseline simulation (1961-1990) was evaluated with observed data for seasonal and spatial patterns and biases. The model was able to resolve features on finer spatial scales and depict seasonal variations reasonably well, although there were quantitative biases. The model simulations suggest a non-uniform change in precipitation overall, with an increase in precipitation over the upper Indus basin and decrease over the lower Indus basin, and little change in the border area between the upper and lower Indus basins. A decrease in winter precipitation is projected, particularly over the southern part of the basin. Projections indicate greater warming in the upper than the lower Indus, and greater warming in winter than in the other seasons. The simulations suggest an overall increase in the number of rainy days over the basin, but a decrease in the number of rainy days accompanied by an increase in rainfall intensity in the border area between the upper and lower basins, where the rainfall amount is highest.

Rajbhandari, R.; Shrestha, A. B.; Kulkarni, A.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bajracharya, S. R.

2014-06-01

9

Ganges and Indus river basin land use\\/land cover (LULC) and irrigated area mapping using continuous streams of MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to map irrigated areas in the Ganges and Indus river basins using near-continuous time-series (8-day), 500-m resolution, 7-band MODIS land data for 2001–2002. A multitemporal analysis was conducted, based on a mega file of 294 wavebands, made from 42 MODIS images each of 7 bands. Complementary field data were gathered from 196 locations.

Prasad S. Thenkabail; Mitchell Schull; Hugh Turral

2005-01-01

10

Future Climate Scenarios for the Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Examines the literature and available data on hydroclimatic variability and change on the Indus Basin plains, comparing historical fluctuations in climatic and hydrologic variables and reviewing scenarios of climate change ...

Yu, Winston

11

Application of the Regional Flood Frequency Analysis to the Upper and Lower Basins of the Indus River, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of an application of the L-moments based regional flood frequency analysis to annual maximum peak\\u000a (AMP) flows observed at seven stations (Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri) located on the main stream\\u000a of the Indus River, Pakistan. The results of Run-test and lag-1 correlation coefficient showed that the data series at given\\u000a sites is

Zamir Hussain

12

Impact assessment of hydroclimatic change on water stress in the Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Ninety percent of Pakistan's agricultural output is produced in fields irrigated by the Indus basin irrigation system, the world's largest network of canals, dams, barrages and tubewells. River flows, primarily fed by snow ...

Rasheed, Bilhuda

2013-01-01

13

Hydrology research in the upper Indus basin, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hydrological, meteoro­ logical and glaciological characteristics of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan as they influence water supply. In the past, apart from some long-term discharge records for the Indus and some of its major tributaries, hydrological measurements were very scarce. Meteorological measurements were almost wholly confined to valley bottom locations thus missing the hydrologically most active

G. J. YOUNG; K. HEWITT

1990-01-01

14

India, Pakistan and cooperation along the Indus River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite receiving accolades for being the example of cooperation, India and Pakistan's peaceful management of their Indus River system remains largely unexamined. Scholars that do consider this case classify it as passive cooperation. To support their classification, they point to the Indus Waters Treaty's allocation of the river system between India and Pakistan and suggest that it severed the interdependent

Neda A. Zawahri

2009-01-01

15

Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

Yu, Winston

16

Status assessment of the Indus River dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor, March–April 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in March and April 2001, to assess the status of the Indus River dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor, throughout its present range. A total of 1535km of survey effort was conducted, consisting of 1375km of the Indus River main channel, 136km of Indus River secondary channels, and 24km of the Panjnad River, a tributary of the Indus.

Gillian T. Braulik

2006-01-01

17

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

18

Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature data for seven instrumental records in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analyzed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 1961-2000 and compared with neighboring mountain regions and the Indian subcontinent. Strong contrasts are found between the behavior of winter and summer temperatures and between maximum and minimum tempera- tures.

H. J. Fowler; D. R. Archer

2006-01-01

19

Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

1984-01-01

20

Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

2013-04-01

21

Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

2013-12-01

22

Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reassesses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and provenance of the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. Using field observations, biostratigraphy, and petrographic and isotopic analyses we create a paleodepositional reconstruction within the paleotectonic setting of the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. We then re-examine existing constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision previously interpreted from the earliest occurrence of mixed Indian- and Eurasian-derived detritus in the succession. From mid-Cretaceous to early Paleocene times the Jurutze and Sumda Formations were deposited within an arc-bounded marine basin between the Dras and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arcs. The <51 Ma aged deltaic Chogdo Formation then filled the basin until deposition of the 50.8-49.4 Ma aged Nummulitic Limestone during a marine incursion, before continental facies developed in an evolving intermountain basin with the deposition of the Paleogene Indus Group. Within these systems, sediment was sourced from the Eurasian margin to the north and was transported southward into the suture zone. In this section, we see no unequivocal evidence of Indian Plate input to the sedimentary succession (and thus no evidence of mixed Indian-Eurasian-derived detritus indicative of India-Asia collision) until the upper stratigraphic horizons of the Indus Group, when facies are representative of an axial, northwesterly flowing river system. We suggest that the paleo-Indus River was initiated within the ITSZ during late Oligocene-early Miocene times. Sedimentation of the Indus Group continued until the late Miocene.

Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Barford, Dan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio

2010-12-01

23

Multi- Sensor Imaging and Space-Ground Cross-Validation for Flood Monitoring triggered by the 2010 Monsoon along Indus River, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-sensor network-based flood monitoring framework is developed by integrating space- borne optical, hyper-spectral, passive and active microwave sensors, with cross-validation using ground-based rain gauges and streamflow stations along the Indus River, Pakistan. First, the optical imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to delineate the extent of the 2010 flood along the Indus River, Pakistan. Moreover, the all-weather all-time capability of higher resolution imagery from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) is used to monitor flooding in the lower Indus river basin. Then a proxy for river discharge from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to retrieval streamflow time series and precipitation patterns. The AMSR-E detected water surface signal was cross-validated with ground-based river discharge observations at multiple streamflow stations along the main Indus River. A high correlation was found as indicated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7, 0.72, 0.7, 0.82, 0.84, 0.88, 0.83 for stations at Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur, Kotri, respectively. It is concluded that remote-sensing data integrated from optical, hyper-spectral and microwave sensors could be used to supplement stream gauges in sparsely gauged basins to detect floods. The study demonstrates that the capability to detecting ongoing flooding situations in its upper reaches can be valuable early warning for spatially distributed flood monitoring and even prediction in the lower reaches of the Indus river basin.

Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.

2013-12-01

24

Effect of climate change on water resources of the Upper Indus River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, accelerated glacier recession trends have been reported for the Himalayan region, based largely on the studies in the Eastern Himalayas. However, recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas, suggest an expansion of glaciers and a reduction in summer streamflow due to a significant decrease in summer temperatures. Snow and ice melt from these glaciers is the primary input to the Upper Indus River, upstream of Tarbela Reservoir, a water resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power in Pakistan. Given the complexity of variations in the Himalayan glaciers and their socio-economic significance, it is important to understand the mechanisms that governed these changes in the historical period. More importantly, it is critical to accurately project expected future changes in the extent of Himalayan glaciers due to anthropogenic variations in temperature and precipitation patterns and impacts of such changes on water supply and agriculture. Projecting future changes to perennial water supply or flood risk in the Upper Indus River requires a modeling tool that can represent the effect of glacier and snow cover fluctuations. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model is modified to better represent ice accumulation, ablation and transport in alpine glacier systems. Ice transport from the higher elevations to the lower elevations within a new glacial ice layer is represented via both ice deformation and basal sliding based on the Glen’s flow law. The transformation of snow to ice during the snow metamorphism process is implemented based on snow density changes within snowpack. The revised VIC model forced with daily precipitation and temperature data from the high resolution FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model for reference time period of 1961-1990, is evaluated at watershed scale using observed historical river discharge, glacier velocities and point observations of snow accumulation. Changes in streamflow seasonality in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are determined for the future climate period 2071-2100 relative to the reference period using daily precipitation and temperature data from RegCM3 climate model. The results from this analysis provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of glacier and snow cover variations on the magnitude and timing of total annual discharge of major rivers in the UIB.

Bowling, L. C.; Naz, B. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

2010-12-01

25

Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

2012-11-01

26

Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting

Mohsin Hafeez; Kaleem Ullah; Munir Ahmad Hanjra; Habib Ullah Bodla; Rai Niaz Ahmad

2010-01-01

27

Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network approach and water balance. Also, crop water demands, rainfall, and surface water are calculated to estimate the groundwater abstraction in different districts of Lower Chenb Canal East to understand its usage patterns in year 2008-09. Crop water demand has been estimated using SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm which is based on surface energy balance. Landsat 5 TM satellite images are used to estimate actual crop water demand and the results are compared with Penman Monteith method. The irrigation supplies are calculated from real time data collected by Project Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU), Punjab Irrigation Department. The PMIU envisaged for efficient and optimal canal operations oriented towards equity and transparency. Initial results from nodal network water balance model also provide the spatial variation in crop water demand for each node in LCC East. This work is also aimed at evaluating surface water availability and the assessment of spatial distribution of groundwater abstractions by considering the present crop water demand.

Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

2010-05-01

28

ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

29

Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.  

PubMed

Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements. PMID:21396072

Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

2008-09-01

30

Constraints to the timing of IndiaEurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the IndusTsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India  

E-print Network

Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus­Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India Alexandra L. Henderson a , Yani, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks

Najman, Yani

31

Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976–2005, 2006–2035, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041–2050 and 2071–2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976–2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071–2100 in contrast with 2041–2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071–2100) in comparison to 2041–2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

2015-01-01

32

Human induced flooding of the Indus River in 2010: How it changed the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major rivers in densely populated areas are typically heavily engineered to fulfill. water needs and importantly to ensure protection for citizens and structures. The Indus River forms no exception to this. The river has been dammed and engineered for centuries, comprising one of the largest irrigation networks in the world. The engineered river system results in a reduction of its outflow to 10% of its historical value, with commonly no flow at the outlet for several months of the year. During July 2010, extensive flooding occurred causing ~2,000 fatalities and ~20 million people were displaced for weeks to months due to a peak discharge that was not exceptional in any sense (~10 year reoccurrence interval). The northern breach was located near the Sukkur Barrage and likely caused by undercapacity of the engineered channel. We analyzed AMSR-E, ASTER-A1 and MODIS satellite data to map the propagation of the Indus flood wave in the main channel and through the major breaches. The flood wave traveled through the main channel in ~20 days and much slower through newly-formed avulsion pathway onwards from the breach at Sukkur Barrage (~42 days).Analysis of MODIS reflectance changes between pre- and post-flood imagery allowed analysis of the extent of sandy flood deposition as well as quantification of channel migration patterns. The river channel migrates over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event controlled by massive pointbar accretion and river cutbank erosion and slumping. Lateral migration averaged ~340m in just 52 days along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River. Crevasse splaying is widespread and appears to occur as a flow stripping process both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Crevasse deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. The mapped flood deposits are analyzed for different river stretches and quantitatively related to river gradient and sinuosity. The 2010 Indus flood shows an example of a heavily engineered system, it provides us with insights on flood water propagation and sedimentation and river migration in a river system with many dams and stopbanks.

Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

2012-12-01

33

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

34

A quantitative assessment of the genetic sources of the hydrologic flow regimes in Upper Indus Basin and its significance in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable quantitative estimates of contributions melt water of different genetic sources make to river flows in Himalayan river basins are largely unknown. Here we provide such estimates for Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Analyses of historical flow records at 11 gauging stations spanning 14-48 years during a period of record from 1962 to 2010 reveal: a uniform character of annual flow distributions at all gauging stations given by a Gaussian function implying a unique glacio-hydrometeorological condition prevailing throughout the basin controlling four hydrologic flow regimes within UIB. Two low flow regimes occur during the months of October to December (L1) and January to March (L2) and two high flow regimes that occur during April-June (H1) and July-September (H2). For all stations, flow magnitudes follow, H2 > H1 > L1 > L2. In the main stem of Upper Indus River, the contributions to total annual flow volumes (m3) during these flow regimes are 53-62% during H2, 24-32% during H1, 8-9% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. In the main tributaries, these ranges are 47-74% during H2, 15-38% during H1, 8-10% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. Separation of annual hydrographs by linear smoothing and recursive digital filtering technique shows that the annual contribution of melt water (M2) from an elevation band 3500-5300 m to total annual flow volume (m3) varies from 41% to 54% along the main stem of Indus, upstream of the Himalayan foothills. Contribution of melt water (M1) from an elevation band 2500-3500 m varies from 16% to 29%. In the tributaries, annual contributions of M2 vary from 37% to as high as 65%. Similarly, annual contributions of M1 in the tributaries vary from as low as 12% to 34%. Thus, the relative importance of melt water originating from high-altitudes far overweighs that originating from mid-altitudes, in river runoff within UIB. The chief component of M1 is seasonal snows whereas M2 is a mixture of glacial melts, seasonal snows falling in winter and spring, and monsoonal snows falling in the summer (July-September). The M2 component contributes to base flows during L1 regime. Base flow recession occurs during L2 regime. During the H2 regime, three watersheds with greatest glaciated surfaces straddling the Karakoram Mountains contribute 48-54% of flows at Shatial Bridge, a point upstream of Tarbela reservoir up to which rainfall contributions to river discharges in UIB are inconsequential. During the H1 regime, these watersheds drained by Shyok, Shigar, and Hunza rivers contribute 20-31% of flows at this point. During L1 and L2 regimes, their contributions are 33-39% and 31-32% respectively. Contributions of glacial melt and snowmelt to annual river flows vary from 18-35% and 38-50% respectively in the major tributaries and the main stem of Upper Indus, depending on the location. Upper Indus River just upstream of Tarbela Reservoir carries annual flows constituted of 70% melt water of which 21% is contributed by glacial melts and 49% by snowmelts. Thus, changes in climatic trends will greatly control the future water availability within UIB. If glacial retreat and reduction of the perennial snow and ice covers are happening in UIB in a changing climate, then there will indeed be long-term reductions in river flows in UIB and hence sustainability of water resources in this basin will potentially be at risk.

Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Khan, Asif

2014-02-01

35

Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ˜200 ka and ˜50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ˜30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late- or post-glacial sediment pulse seems a more likely source of this widespread sedimentation that has partly buried the dissected bedrock topography. Overall, the long residence times of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine deposits in the region (>500 ka) support previous studies, but remain striking given the dominantly steep slopes and deeply carved valleys that characterise this high-altitude mountain desert. Recalculated late Quaternary rates of fluvial bedrock incision in the Indus and Zanskar of 1.5 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 are at odds with the longevity of juxtaposed valley-fill deposits, unless a lack of decisive lateral fluvial erosion helps to preserve these late Pleistocene sedimentary archives. We conclude that alternating, ˜104-yr long, phases of massive infilling and incision have dominated the late Quaternary history of the Indus valley below the western Tibetan Plateau margin.

Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

2014-06-01

36

Designing river commissions to implement treaties and manage water disputes: the story of the Joint Water Committee and Permanent Indus Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

States have signed hundreds of treaties and protocols over their shared rivers. Many of these agreements established commissions to implement the accords and maintain cooperation. Consistent with this expectation, the Israeli–Jordanian Peace Treaty established the Joint Water Committee (JWC). Through a comparison of the JWC with the Permanent Indus Commission, established to manage the Indus River between India and Pakistan,

Neda A. Zawahri

2008-01-01

37

UNCOMPAHGRE RIVER BASIN SELENIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Uncompahgre River Basin Selenium Phytoremediation Project will evaluate the ability of selected agricultural crops and trees to accumulate and volatilize selenium from contaminated soils in the basin. Three different species of plants (two types will be campanion planted) an...

38

Constraints to the timing of India–Eurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposited within the Indus–Tsangpo suture zone, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing of India–Eurasia collision, a conclusion challenged by data presented here. The Eurasian derived 50.8–51Ma Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks in sedimentary contact, thus constraining the timing of collision as having

Alexandra L. Henderson; Yani Najman; Randall Parrish; Darren F. Mark; Gavin L. Foster

2011-01-01

39

How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when there are areas of internal drainage nearby.

Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

2014-02-01

40

The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use planning and soil conservation as well as flood management, with a focus on the reduction of erosion and resulting sedimentation as well as the restoration of ecosystem services like wetlands and natural floodplains. Water demand management options include: (1) the management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; as well as (2) the rehabilitation and modernization of existing infrastructure. Other demand management options are: (3) the increase of water productivity for agriculture; (4) crop planning and diversification including the critical assessment of agricultural export, especially (basmati) rice; (5) economic instruments and (6) changing food demand patterns and limiting post-harvest losses.

Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

2012-04-01

41

Timing of Indian-Eurasian collision from the Indus Basin in Ladakh, northwestern Indian Himalaya: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Cenozoic Indus Basin of northwest India straddles the Indus suture zone and has long been regarded as having the potential to yield important constraints on the timing of collision between India and Eurasia and final closure of the intervening Neo-Tethys ocean basin. Unfortunately, three issues have frustrated previous attempts to capitalize on that potential. First, outcrops in the Indus Basin are deformed, making accurate reconstructions of basin stratigraphy difficult. As a consequence, published maps of the basin are discrepant - in some cases significantly so. Second, previously published detrital zircon U-Pb data for Pre-Oligocene sandstone units point to a distinctive Eurasian source, with scant evidence for Indian detritus, leaving open the possibility that deposition could have been prior to the docking of India. Finally, much of the succession does not contain age-diagnostic fossils and datable volcanic units (e.g., tuffs) have not been found. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study that has permitted us to overcome these obstacles and better constrain the timing of collision at this sector of the orogen. Detailed photogeologic analysis of most of the Indus Basin using all bands (visible to thermal infrared) of ASTER satellite imagery, coupled with topical ground-truthing in the field, has allowed for both improved mapping of the macroscopic structure and improved resolution of key stratigraphic characteristics. Based upon our map, we present both isotopic and trace element geochemical data from various, carefully selected samples. First, the distribution of U-Pb dates for detrital zircons from quartzite cobbles within the oldest Indus Basin unit are comparable to those found in Indian passive margin units. Trace element geochemistry of mafic pebbles from throughout the older Indus Basin units appear to demonstrate derivation from the Shyok suture zone, situated north of the local Eurasian source area. However, several clasts are geochemically similar to ophiolitic material found within the Indus suture zone, implying sourcing from fragments of the Neo-Tethys ocean basin caught up in the suture or obducted onto the Indian passive margin prior to collision. 40Ar/39Ar cooling dates for detrital biotite from a sandstone unit intercalated with an upper Ypresian marine limestone (the youngest marine unit in the Indus Basin) are more consistent with an Indian plate source region than a Eurasian provenance. These results collectively point to an Early Eocene (upper Ypresian) minimum age for India-Eurasia collision in this sector of the orogenic system, consistent with conventional wisdom but seemingly inconsistent with suggestions of Oligocene-aged collision (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007). Aitchison, J. C., J. R. Ali, and A. M. Davis (2007), When and where did India and Asia collide?, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.

Tripathy, A.; Hodges, K.; Edwards, C. S.; Gordon, G. W.; Wartho, J.

2012-12-01

42

Dynamic reorganization of river basins.  

PubMed

River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology. PMID:24604204

Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-03-01

43

Sediment storage and reworkingon the shelf and in the Canyon of the Indus River-Fan Systemsince the  

E-print Network

Sediment storage and reworkingon the shelf and in the Canyon of the Indus River-Fan Systemsince on to the deep-water submarine fan is complicated by temporary storage within large clinoforms on the shelf on either side of the submar- ine canyon, where most of the sedimentation since the start of the Holocene

Clift, Peter

44

Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world’s most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world’s most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin’s range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

2014-01-01

45

Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

2014-01-01

46

Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

2011-02-01

47

Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the principles of low-risk adaptation, participative decision making and local capacity building.

Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

2010-05-01

48

Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely Early-Mid Holocene, erosional state, in which the Lesser Himalaya were more important as sediment suppliers. Early-Mid Holocene sands show much less erosion from the Karakoram-Transhimalaya compared to those deposited at the Last Glacial Maximum, or calculated from the modern discharge. We favour variations in summer monsoon intensity as the primary cause of these temporal changes.

Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

2011-03-01

49

Constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposited within the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing of India-Eurasia collision, a conclusion challenged by data presented here. The Eurasian derived 50.8-51 Ma Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks in sedimentary contact, thus constraining the timing of collision as having occurred by this time. Using isotopic analysis (U-Pb dating on detrital zircons, Ar-Ar dating on detrital white mica, Sm-Nd analyses on detrital apatite), sandstone and conglomerate petrography, mudstone geochemistry, facies analysis and geological mapping to characterize and correlate the formations of the Indus Basin Sedimentary rocks, we review the nature of these contacts and the identification and correlation of the formations. Our results reveal that previously interpreted stratigraphic contacts identifying Chogdo Formation unconformably overlying Indian plate sedimentary rocks are incorrect. Rather, we suggest that the inaccuracy of previous interpretations is most likely a result of Formation misidentification and thus cannot be used to constrain the timing of India-Asia collision.

Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Mark, Darren F.; Foster, Gavin L.

2011-06-01

50

Indus Waters and the 1960 Treaty Between India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internationally shared river Indus and its five main tributaries rise in the Himalaya, carry a very large flow seasonally\\u000a and have served as a cradle for one of the ancient civilizations of the world. The river basin supports the largest irrigated\\u000a agricultural area and can be viewed as the birth-place of the art and science of irrigation. This chapter,

Chandrakant D. Thatte

51

River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2014-08-01

52

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-03-01

53

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-08-01

54

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

55

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

56

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

57

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

58

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

59

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

60

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

61

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

62

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

63

Separating snow, clean and debris covered ice in the Upper Indus Basin, Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas, using Landsat images between 1998 and 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hindukush Karakoram Himalayan mountains contain some of the largest glaciers of the world, and supply melt water from perennial snow and glaciers to the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) upstream of Tarbela dam, which constitutes greater than 80% of the annual flows, and caters to the needs of millions of people in the Indus Basin. It is therefore important to study the response of perennial snow and glaciers in the UIB under changing climatic conditions, using improved hydrological modeling, glacier mass balance, and observations of glacier responses. However, the available glacier inventories and datasets only provide total perennial-snow and glacier cover areas, despite the fact that snow, clean ice and debris covered ice have different melt rates and densities. This distinction is vital for improved hydrological modeling and mass balance studies. This study, therefore, presents a separated perennial snow and glacier inventory (perennial snow-cover on steep slopes, perennial snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice) based on a semi-automated method that combines Landsat images and surface slope information in a supervised maximum likelihood classification to map distinct glacier zones, followed by manual post processing. The accuracy of the presented inventory falls well within the accuracy limits of available snow and glacier inventory products. For the entire UIB, estimates of perennial and/or seasonal snow on steep slopes, snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice zones are 7238 ± 724, 5226 ± 522, 4695 ± 469 and 2126 ± 212 km2 respectively. Thus total snow and glacier cover is 19,285 ± 1928 km2, out of which 12,075 ± 1207 km2 is glacier cover (excluding steep slope snow-cover). Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) estimates based on the Snow Line Elevation (SLE) in various watersheds range between 4800 and 5500 m, while the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) ranges between 7% and 80%. 0 °C isotherms during peak ablation months (July and August) range between ? 5500 and 6200 m in various watersheds. These outputs can be used as input to hydrological models, to estimate spatially-variable degree day factors for hydrological modeling, to separate glacier and snow-melt contributions in river flows, and to study glacier mass balance, and glacier responses to changing climate.

Khan, Asif; Naz, Bibi S.; Bowling, Laura C.

2015-02-01

64

INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY FOR RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are adopting water policies and legislative instruments for water management in conformance to the agenda 21. According to this agenda, the use and protection of surface water and groundwater are coordinated at a river basin level. The success of river basin management systems relies upon coordinated actions, including provision of and access to information as well as the

Jackson Roehrig

65

Seasonality of the hydrological cycle in major South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate how PCMDI/CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs) represent the seasonal properties of the hydrological cycle in four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong). First, we examine the skill of the GCMs by analysing their performance in simulating the 20th century climate (1961-2000 period) using historical forcing (20c3m experiment), and then we analyse the projected changes for the corresponding 21st and 22nd century climates under the SRESA1B scenario. The CMIP3 GCMs show a varying degree of skill in simulating the basic characteristics of the monsoonal precipitation regimes of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins, while the representation of the hydrological cycle over the Indus Basin is poor in most cases, with a few GCMs not capturing the monsoonal signal at all. While the model outputs feature a remarkable spread for the monsoonal precipitation, a satisfactory representation of the western mid-latitude precipitation regime is instead observed. Similarly, most of the models exhibit a satisfactory agreement for the basin-integrated runoff in winter and spring, while their spread is large for the runoff during the monsoon season. For the future climate scenarios, most models foresee a decrease in the winter P - E over all four basins, while agreement is found on the decrease of the spring P - E over the Indus and Ganges basins only. Such decreases in P - E are mainly due to the decrease in precipitation associated with the western mid-latitude disturbances. Consequently, for the Indus and Ganges basins, the runoff drops during the spring season while it rises during the winter season. Such changes indicate a shift from rather glacial and nival to more pluvial runoff regimes, particularly for the Indus Basin. Furthermore, the rise in the projected runoff, along with the increase in precipitation during summer and autumn, indicates an intensification of the summer monsoon regime for all study basins.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.; Böhner, J.

2014-02-01

66

Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is confined in its valley. Upon entering the sedimentary basin, the Brahmaputra River develops a DFS and becomes broadly braided in form. Distally on the DFS, the braided system bifurcates, leaving relatively large areas where floodplain deposits may be preserved. At the toe of the DFS, the Brahmaputra River becomes the axial system for this portion of the foreland basin. In this axial position, it is held between opposing DFS, thus the channel system migrates back and forth between these DFS and fills this portion of the basin with coarse-grained material. Other large rivers show similar change as they enter a continental sedimentary basin. In areal extent, DFS from smaller rivers occupy more of the modern continental sedimentary basins than the big rivers (either in axial or DFS position), therefore deposits of all rivers in sedimentary basins must be considered in order to fully interpret the rock record.

Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

2010-12-01

67

Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

of water flow between April and September. The lowest volumes flow from December to February. · From its are the dominant water system in the Pacific Northwest. #12;Fast Facts Abut the columbia River Basin · The Columbia River is 1,214 miles long. · The Columbia River originates at Columbia Lake in British Columbia

68

Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ˜4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers such as the Indus.

Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)

2011-09-01

69

Shared Water Resources in the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of river basin development plans of the Jordan River basin riparians (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, and Syria) and to analyze the agreements among the Jordan River basin riparians in light of international law principles. The relationship among the Jordan River basin riparians is complicated by the fact that

Karen Hudes

70

Bedrock geology and chemistry of rivers basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth’s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river and ocean chemistry, is striking. While some attempts have been made to quantify the lithologic composition of bedrock in individual river basins (e.g., Reeder et al., 1972; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2002), the geologic age distribution of bedrock in river basins has not been investigated. We have therefore initiated a project aimed at generating a worldwide dataset on the bedrock lithology and age distribution of river basins, using the latest digital geologic maps and modern geographic information system technology. To date we have completed analysis of the digital geologic maps North America. These data have been used in conjunction with digital river basin polygons (Revenga et al., 1998, World Resources Institute) to compute the lithologic composition and geologic age structure of major river basins in North America. The lithologic composition of 14 large river basins range from predominantly igneous rocks dominated (Frazer, Columbia), to those dominated by sedimentary rocks (Brazos, Susquehanna, Mississippi), to basins with an equal mix of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock (Thelon). Subdividing sedimentary rocks into marine and continental rocks reveals that continental sediments account for no more than 25% of sedimentary rocks in these river basins (e.g., Nelson, Colorado, Mississippi). A further subdivision of igneous rocks into intrusive and volcanic rocks reveals the entire range of igneous composition, from basins dominated by intrusive rocks (Hudson, Mackenzie, Nelson) to those dominated by volcanic rocks (Susquehanna, Colorado, Frazer, Columbia). We are currently analyzing the age distribution of major lithologic units in each river basin. In cases where detailed hydrochemical data is available for major tributaries we will expand the analysis to sub-basins (e.g., Frazer, Mississippi). Basins smaller than about 40,000 km^2 will require analysis of higher-resolution digital geologic bedrock maps. In the next project phase we will combine bedrock data for major river basins with hydrochemical data to investigate the influence bedrock exerts on river chemistry, specifically radiogenic isotopes and macronutrients. Combining digital information on bedrock geology with digital maps of precipitation will allow us to use precipitation-weighted bedrock area rather than simple area-lithology relationships. Extending this analysis to pre-Quaternary periods is beyond the current focus of the project, but will be necessary to fully utilize reconstructions of ocean paleochemistry in models of global biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Bluth and Kump, 1991).

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

2003-04-01

71

75 FR 38833 - Walker River Basin Acquisition Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Walker River Basin Acquisition Program AGENCY...Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Walker River Basin Acquisition Program (Acquisition...INFORMATION: Since 1882, diversions from the Walker River, primarily for irrigated...

2010-07-06

72

Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin, Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The thematic layers of soils, landuse, hydrology, infrastructure and climate were developed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. Integration of GIS with groundwater modelling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analysing and monitoring groundwater status and its associated land conditions. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater modelling, integration and presentation of image processing and modelling results. The groundwater behaviour of the regional model shows a gradual decline in watertable from year 1999 onward. The persistent dry condition and high withdrawal rates play an influential role in lowering down the groundwater levels. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The results of the study provide useful information regarding the behaviour of aquifer in order to organize management schemes on local and regional basis to monitor future groundwater development in the area.

Ashraf, A.; Ahmad, Z.

2008-04-01

73

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

PubMed

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-07-19

74

Metabolic principles of river basin organization  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-01-01

75

Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

76

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

77

The Columbia River Estuary the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

The Columbia River Estuary and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Independent Riddell November 28, 2000 ISAB 2000-5 #12;ISAB 2000-5 Estuary Report i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Northwest the impact of changes in the estuary relative to specific program or management actions taken in the upper

78

Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.  

PubMed

This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

2015-02-01

79

Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1993-07-01

80

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes long-term (1935–99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations\\/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in

Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Douglas L. Kane

2004-01-01

81

Conservation in the Delaware River Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

Featherstone, J. [Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01

82

Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

2001-01-01

83

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

84

Measurement of natural radioactivity in sand samples collected along the bank of rivers Indus and Kabul in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radioactivity is a part of the natural environment. The presence of natural radioactivity in sand and other building materials results in internal and external exposure to the general public. Therefore, it is desirable to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides, namely (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in sand, bricks and cement which are commonly used as building materials in Pakistan. In this context, sand samples were collected from 18 different locations covering an area of ?1000 km(2) along the banks of river Indus (Ghazi to Jabba) and river Kabul (Nowshera to Kund) in the northern part of Pakistan, whereas bricks and cement samples were collected from local suppliers of the studied area. In order to measure the specific activities in these samples, a P-type coaxial high-purity germanium-based gamma-ray spectrometer was used. In sand samples, the average specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were found to be 30.5±11.4, 53.2±19.5 and 531±49 Bq kg(-1), whereas in brick samples, specific activities of 30±14, 41±21 and 525±183 Bq kg(-1) were observed, respectively. In cement samples, measured specific activity values were 21±5, 14±3 and 231±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated and found to be 143.8±38.6, 124±49.8 and 56.69±7 Bq kg(-1) for sand, brick and cement samples, respectively. The annual mean effective dose for the studied sand samples was found to be 0.40 mSv. External and internal hazard indices were less than unity for all the studied samples. The present results have been compared with those reported in the literature. PMID:21062802

Malik, F; Matiullah; Akram, M; Rajput, M U

2011-01-01

85

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia  

E-print Network

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia 24 September 2013 the Lynnhaven River Basin. The watershed is located within the City of Virginia Beach in Southeastern Virginia is the City of Virginia Beach. The study area consists of the entire Lynnhaven River Basin, a 64-square- mile

US Army Corps of Engineers

86

The "normal" elongation of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

Castelltort, Sebastien

2013-04-01

87

GOLF COURSES FRASER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

: Fraser Pollution Abatement Office Fraser River Action Plan Environment Canada North Vancouver, B judgement in light of the knowledge and information available to UMA at the time of preparation. UMA denies by Environment Canada under the Fraser River Action Plan through the Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. The views

88

77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

2012-08-01

89

Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

90

Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

E-print Network

reintroducing salmon and steelhead into blocked areas, notably above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams in each state #12;#12;Council Responsibilities Protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife affected by hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin Assure an adequate, efficient, economical and reliable power

91

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

92

Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ?W = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

Belozerova, Ekaterina

2013-04-01

93

SOURCE AREAS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN: ILLS AND CURES IN THE YAZOO RIVER BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mississippi River drains two thirds of the continental United States. This basin contains the largest amount of concentrated livestock and crop agriculture in the United States. Because of size and land use, the river transports enough nutrients produce plankton blooms. The dying plankton neg...

94

Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage by four NWS NEXRAD Doppler radar systems. 9) Long history of national interest and investment including flood control projects, wetland restoration, and dredging by the US Army Corps of Engineers, an intensively instrumented national watershed observatory by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Goodwin Creek, and numerous other projects by over 20 federal and state agencies. 10) Availability of a 2300 square meter research facility within the watershed for housing research and administrative activities.

Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

2004-12-01

95

Analysis of long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower Indus Basin of Pakistan-A non-parametric statistical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus basin of Pakistan is vulnerable to climate change which would directly affect the livelihoods of poor people engaged in irrigated agriculture. The situation could be worse in middle and lower part of this basin which occupies 90% of the irrigated area. The objective of this research is to analyze the long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower parts of Indus basin of Pakistan. We used monthly data from 1971 to 2010 and applied non-parametric seasonal Kendal test for trend detection in combination with seasonal Kendall slope estimator to quantify the magnitude of trends. The meteorological parameters considered were mean maximum and mean minimum air temperature, and rainfall from 12 meteorological stations located in the study region. We examined the reliability and spatial integrity of data by mass-curve analysis and spatial correlation matrices, respectively. Analysis was performed for four seasons (spring-March to May, summer-June to August, fall-September to November and winter-December to February). The results show that max. temperature has an average increasing trend of magnitude + 0.16, + 0.03, 0.0 and + 0.04 °C/decade during all the four seasons, respectively. The average trend of min. temperature during the four seasons also increases with magnitude of + 0.29, + 0.12, + 0.36 and + 0.36 °C/decade, respectively. Persistence of the increasing trend is more pronounced in the min. temperature as compared to the max. temperature on annual basis. Analysis of rainfall data has not shown any noteworthy trend during winter, fall and on annual basis. However during spring and summer season, the rainfall trends vary from - 1.15 to + 0.93 and - 3.86 to + 2.46 mm/decade, respectively. It is further revealed that rainfall trends during all seasons are statistically non-significant. Overall the study area is under a significant warming trend with no changes in rainfall.

Ahmad, Waqas; Fatima, Aamira; Awan, Usman Khalid; Anwar, Arif

2014-11-01

96

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes long-term (1935-99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in the late melt season. These changes in snowmelt runoff pattern suggest a delay in snowcover melt in the Yenisei basin perhaps associated with cooling trends during the snowmelt months over central Siberia. This study also demonstrates that the reservoir regulation has significantly altered the monthly discharge regimes in northeast and the upper portions of the Yenisei basin. Constructions of four large dams in the northeast Yensiei regions reduced the summer peak flows in the Angara valley by 15-30% and increased the winter low flows by 5-30%. Operations of two large reservoirs in the upper Yenisei regions enhanced the winter flows by 45-85% and reduced the summer flows by 10-50%. These alterations lead to a streamflow regime change toward less seasonal variation over the eastern and lower Yenisei basin. Because of reservoir regulations, discharge records collected at the Yenisei basin outlet do not always represent natural changes and variations, they tend to underestimate the natural streamflow trends in summer and overestimate the trends in winter and fall seasons. Cold season discharge increase over the Yenisei river is not natural-caused, but mainly the effect of reservoir regulations in the Yenisei basin.

Yang, Daqing; Ye, Baisheng; Kane, Douglas L.

2004-08-01

97

Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.  

PubMed

We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

2014-04-01

98

Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).  

PubMed

A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100m above sea level; masl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650masl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management. PMID:25461078

Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

2015-02-01

99

Multiscale Trend Analysis of River Basin Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storm runoff hydrographs are the signature of a basin's dynamics to a given precipitation forcing. As such, their study across basins and over a range of scales offers the opportunity to detect and quantify nonlinearities and scaling laws in river basin dynamics. Manual extraction of hydrograph characteristics (e.g., time to peak, relaxation time and peak magnitude) however, is tedious and has prevented extensive regional analyses of such observations for the purpose of scaling and regionalization. In this paper, (1) we propose a new methodology, called multiscale trend analysis (MTA) for the automatic and reliable extraction of hydrograph characteristics from hourly or finer scale streamflow series, and (2) we report the results of a regional multiscaling analysis of hydrologic response characteristics from 31 stations for drainage areas ranging from 10 to 104 km2 over the Kansas/Oklahoma region. Our results suggest the presence of statistical multiscaling in hydrologic response characteristics and a change of scaling regimes at a scale of approximately 700 km2. We relate this scale to the scale at which channel morphometry properties, fluvial regimes, and statistical properties of floods also change and highlight the interconnection of physical processes and statistical laws in river basin dynamics.

Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Zaliapin, I.; Dodov, B.

2004-12-01

100

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

101

Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested system of observations, will intersect the important landforms, climate zones, ecology, and human activities of the basin. Characterizing how humans and climate impact the sustainability of water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin will require an evolutionary approach, involving coordination of historical information and a phased-design for the new observing system. Detecting change (past and present) requires that the atmosphere, vegetation, geochemistry, and hydrology of the Susquehanna, are all observed coherently from the headwaters to the Chesapeake, from the boundary layer to the water table. The River Basin Adaptive Monitoring and Modeling Plan (RAMP) represents the design strategy to coherently select and assess core monitoring sites as well as new sites targeted for both short-term and long term scientific campaigns. Rich in historical research and infrastructure, SRBHOS will serve as a fundamental resource for the hydrologic science community into the future, while providing a "characteristic" hydrologic node in the national network.

Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

2004-12-01

102

Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

2005-12-01

103

Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

2014-05-01

104

Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

Fretwell, M.O.

1984-01-01

105

The Corps, the Environment, Upper Mississippi River Basin  

E-print Network

The Corps, the Environment, and the Upper Mississippi River Basin Raymond H. Merritt #12;On The Cover A tow of barges Is pushed along the river through part of the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and urbanization In the late 1800s took their toll on both the falls and the Mississippi River. Minnesota

US Army Corps of Engineers

106

Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Gascó, Jose

2013-04-01

107

Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

2014-10-01

108

The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system  

E-print Network

The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system Keywords: Amazon basin Amazon River Late Miocene Paleogeography Paleoecology fossil vertebrates palinology

Bermingham, Eldredge

109

Environmental and Hydrologic Overview of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska and Canada  

E-print Network

Environmental and Hydrologic Overview of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska and Canada Water model of the Yukon River Basin #12;Environmental and Hydrologic Overview of the Yukon River Basin and History of the Yukon River Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Yukon River and its Major

110

USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control  

E-print Network

7 USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control John D. Hedlund Soil Conservation been underway since 1973 to reduce salinity problems in the Colorado River Basin. The experience gained in planning and implementing onfarm salinity control measures will prove valuable in other parts

111

Ecology and restoration of the Delaware River basin  

SciTech Connect

This book describes and analyzes the physical, biological and human problems that have evolved over time in the utilizations of water in the Delaware River Basin. It discusses the environmental problems of a major river basin, and provides solutions to these problems.

Majumdar, S.K. (Lafayette College, Easton, PA (US)); Miller, E.W. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geography); Sage, L.E. (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1988-01-01

112

Greater Platte River Basins Symposium PROGRAM Thursday, October 7  

E-print Network

of Research and Economic Development Perspectives on Hydrology and Water Management in a Changing World Climate-Change Effects Assessment in the Greater Plate River Basins Update ­ Robert Swanson, U and Groundwater in the Lower Platte River Basin ­ Gengxin Ou, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Scoring the Platte

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

113

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

114

Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas, Ouachita River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas, determined in accordance with procedure recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology of the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee, are listed for points on streams in the Ouachita River basin in Arkansas. Points on the streams are identified by some topographic feature and by latitude and longitude. (USGS).

Yanchosek, John J.; Hines, Marion S.

1979-01-01

115

Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin  

E-print Network

#12;Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin DOE FRAP 1996-09 Prepared by 700-1200 West 73rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6H 6P9 #12;i Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons canadensis) in the Fraser River Basin between 1977 and 1993. The most common chlorinated hydrocarbons

116

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

distribution in the Wyodak- Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin. PQ-3. Ash yield in the WyodakChapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey

117

Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

Karthe, Daniel

2013-04-01

118

New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

119

AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2011-01-01

120

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

121

Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

2004-12-01

122

The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

Vanham, Davy

2014-05-01

123

Cape Fear River Basin Action Plan for Migratory Fish  

E-print Network

Cape Fear River Basin Action Plan for Migratory Fish C ape Fear Rive r Pa rt n er ship developed) Cape Fear Public Utility Authority (CFPUA) Cape Fear River Assembly Cape Fear River Watch (CFRW) City Conservation (NCDSWC) North Carolina Forest Service North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural

124

Paleogeography of Paleocene Wind River basin  

SciTech Connect

The Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin was deposited in response to Laramide deformation between south-verging faults to the north (Owl Creek and Casper thrusts) and south (Wind River and Granite thrusts). Exposures in this asymmetric basin include a lower fluvial member overlain by the Waltman (lacustrine) and time-equivalent Shotgun (fluvial) members in the northeast and a single fluvial unit in the southeast. In the northeast, low sinuosity, ribbon channel sandstones (northwest paleoflow, about 40 m thick) are overlain by sheet-sand deposits interspersed with channel sandstones (southwest paleoflow, about 700 m thick), which are in turn overlain by the Waltman Member. The basal channel sands are wide (about 100 m perpendicular to flow), thick (5 to 10 m), and trough cross-bedded. The sheet-sand deposits consist of upward-fixing cycles 1 to 10 m thick. These facies are interpreted to be the product of longitudinal drainage flowing parallel to the Casper thrust, overlain by fan-delta sediments prograding perpendicular to the thrust. Palynology suggests a nearly complete Paleocene record for this sequence. To the south along the Rattlesnake Hills, trough cross-bedded sheet sandstones and gravel channel deposits (northward, 140 m thick) are overlain by layered mudstones and siltstones (180 m thick). The top of these high-energy braided-stream deposits and overlying low-energy delta-plain sediments are equivalent in age to the Waltman Member. A topographic low paralleled the Casper arch thrust during the earliest Paleocene. Prograding alluvial-fan sedimentation gradually shifted this topographic low away from the Casper thrust. Southern exposures record drainage toward, and ponding in, the topographic low.

Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.

1986-08-01

125

Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California  

E-print Network

for the Kansas basin of the High Plains. Within the Colorado River Basin, the Lower Colorado and Gila were foundResponse surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains the vulnerability of water supply to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains

126

Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia A. Sorg governance Transboundary river basin Syr Darya river basin a b s t r a c t This paper discusses how climatic-hydrological and socio-political developments will affect water allocation in the Syr Darya river basin and which

Stoffel, Markus

127

59 FR- Upper Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Strategy, Northern and Intermountain Regions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Upper Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management...subregions within the basin. This guidance will address forest ecosystem health...and all National Forest System lands in the Columbia River Basin within the...

1994-12-07

128

Seismicity in the Triassic Deep River Basin, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep River Basin in central North Carolina is one of a series of Triassic rift basins along the east coast called the Newark Supergroup. Although the east coast lies on a passive plate margin, there is recorded seismicity within all of the coastal states, much of which is attributed to boundary faults of the Newark Supergroup basins. However, this seismicity is conspicuously absent around the Deep River Basin and most of North Carolina east of the Appalachian Mountains. In March 2012 we installed a 12 station broadband seismic network surrounding the Sanford Sub-Basin of the Deep River Basin to measure unrecorded seismicity. Through fifteen months of data collection, we have confidently detected and located more than 160 low magnitude seismic events within the array. However, the event locations cluster in four locations - three of which are near local rock quarries and one is near an unidentified anthropic feature. Further, these events consistently occur between the hours of 9am and 6pm local time, Monday through Friday indicating that they are anthropogenic. The Deep River Basin is one of the most likely places east of the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina to be seismically active, yet we have measured no natural seismicity. Using receiver functions and known origins of the local seismic events we will be examining the crustal structure beneath the Deep River Basin to explain the conspicuous lack of local seismic activity.

Portner, D. E.; Wagner, L. S.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Roman, D. C.; Golden, S.

2013-12-01

129

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

130

Negotiating nature : expertise and environment in the Klamath River Basin  

E-print Network

"Negotiating Nature" explores resource management in action and the intertwined roles of law and science in environmental conflicts in the Upper Klamath River Basin in southern Oregon. I follow disputes over the management ...

Buchanan, Nicholas Seong Chul

2010-01-01

131

Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

McCabe, Gregory J.

1994-01-01

132

BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, EASTERN ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

conducted palynological studies of outcrop sections in the region, which established the biostratigraphic Tertiary in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Palynology, v. 2, p. 93-112. 1999 Resource assessment

133

A Bitterbrush Dieback in the Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado  

E-print Network

(Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) in the Chance Gulch area was observed to be defoliated, with plants partially bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata [Pursh] DC.) occurred in the Upper Gunnison River Basin of Colorado. The area

134

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

135

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

136

18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

137

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS, VIEW FROM MODEL BED. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

138

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

139

The distribution of organic carbon in the Brazos River basin  

E-print Network

THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN A Thesis by James Nark Brooks Submitted to the Graduate College of. Texas ASYi Hniversity in partial fulfillment. of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August..., 1970 Najor Subject: Oceanography THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN A Thesis by James Mark Brooks Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commrttee) (Head o Depa tme ) (Member) kJ. ( &. ) i & (Member...

Brooks, James Mark

2012-06-07

140

Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering Analysis of Salt Concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. Wurbs (Chair of Committee) James S. Bonner...

Ganze, Charles Keith

2012-06-07

141

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

142

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 ± 1 Bq l–1, which is consistent with the data of 1998–99. However, it has been found that there are surface

A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

2003-01-01

143

Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present major and trace element data on the suspended and dissolved phases of the Amazon River and its main tributaries. The Sr isotopic composition of the dissolved load is also reported. Special attention is paid to the abundances of REE and to their fractionation between the dissolved and suspended phase. The rivers of the Amazon Basin are among the

Jérôme Gaillardet; Bernard Dupre; Claude J. Allegre; Philippe Négrel

1997-01-01

144

Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

1982-01-01

145

Drops to the Ocean: A GIS Study of River Basins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water is a critical element of life. It plays a crucial role at many scales from singles cells to huge river systems. In this investigation, students explore local, regional, and global river basins using GIS as a tool. The study begins with an examinatio

Amy R. Taylor

2009-04-01

146

Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California  

E-print Network

Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains and California and assess California and the San Joaquin-Tulare basins. Large sensitivity is also found for the Kansas basin

Ramírez, Jorge A.

147

Origin of the dissolved U-Sr fluxes in the Himalayan rivers: cases of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rivers draining the Himalaya are recognised as major contributors to the dissolved riverine flux to the oceans, with a non-negligible effect on the global budget of elements such as Sr and U. The precise characterisation of the different sources contributing to these fluxes is important and has to be done to model correctly the Himalayan river chemical flux variations

A. Schmitt; F. Chabaux; S. Singh; J. Veizer; A. Karim

2003-01-01

148

Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

2014-10-01

149

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

2008-01-01

150

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

2008-01-01

151

Digital Earth system based river basin data integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Earth is an integrated approach to build scientific infrastructure. The Digital Earth systems provide a three-dimensional visualization and integration platform for river basin data which include the management data, in situ observation data, remote sensing observation data and model output data. This paper studies the Digital Earth system based river basin data integration technology. Firstly, the construction of the Digital Earth based three-dimensional river basin data integration environment is discussed. Then the river basin management data integration technology is presented which is realized by general database access interface, web service and ActiveX control. Thirdly, the in situ data stored in database tables as records integration is realized with three-dimensional model of the corresponding observation apparatus display in the Digital Earth system by a same ID code. In the next two parts, the remote sensing data and the model output data integration technologies are discussed in detail. The application in the Digital Zhang River basin System of China shows that the method can effectively improve the using efficiency and visualization effect of the data.

Zhang, Xin; Li, Wanqing; Lin, Chao

2014-12-01

152

Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

2014-05-01

153

Drought in the Klamath River Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

2002-01-01

154

Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 1: Quinebaug River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quinebaug River basin is blessed with a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 to 67 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 44-year period. Approximately 21 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Quinebaug River. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basin, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered ground-water levels.

Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.; Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Baker, John A.

1966-01-01

155

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

1991-01-01

156

Assessing agriculture–water links at the basin scale: hydrologic and economic models of the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a basin-wide hydrologic model to assess the hydrologic and economic effects of expanding agriculture in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. It then uses a basin-wide economic model of agriculture to examine the effects of implementing water use regulations. Preliminary results suggest that substantially expanding agriculture would put pressure on some of the river's environmental flows. Agricultural

Marco Maneta; Marcelo Torres; Stephen A. Vosti; Wesley W. Wallender; Summer Allen; Luís H. Bassoi; Lisa Bennett; Richard Howitt; Lineu Rodrigues; Julie Young

2009-01-01

157

Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations\\u000a showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought\\u000a in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of\\u000a various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter

Robert C. Balling Jr; Gregory B. Goodrich

2007-01-01

158

Impact of GRACE signal leakage over the Congo River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size, and second only to the Amazon River in discharge. The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the region's climate, biogeochemical cycling, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), especially in wetlands, is clearly of great importance. Yet, there is a great lack of published research documenting the Congo Basin terrestrial water balance. This lack of research is related in part to the limited amount of in-situ data; however, the abundance of spaceborne data suggests an opportunity for discovery. The Congo River is the only major river to cross the equator twice. In doing so, the basin lies in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere such that it receives year-round rainfall from the migration of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). After the north has its wet season in the spring and summer, the ITCZ moves south and the remainder of the basin receives large amounts of rain. Consequently, the movement of ITCZ can also be observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) TWS changes over the northern and southern boundaries over the Congo. This spatial pattern of the TWS variations are different from that over the Amazon Basin, where the strongest positive or negative annual water storage anomalies are observed to be centered inside the basin. In this study, we examine individual monthly geographical distribution of GRACE TWS changes from various RL05 products, and determine the leakage-contaminated monthly solutions by comparison with reproduced TWS variations from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in sub-basin scale. We also present a methodology to empirically remove the signal leakage, and consequently improve the GRACE TWS estimates over the entire Congo Basin.

Lee, H.; Beighley, R. E.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Andreadis, K.

2013-05-01

159

Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Mathes, M.V.

1977-01-01

160

Application of a stochastic weather generator to assess climate change impacts in a semi-arid climate: The Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing local climate change impacts requires downscaling from Global Climate Model simulations. Here, a stochastic rainfall model (RainSim) combined with a rainfall conditioned weather generator (CRU WG) have been successfully applied in a semi-arid mountain climate, for part of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), for point stations at a daily time-step to explore climate change impacts. Validation of the simulated time-series against observations (1961-1990) demonstrated the models' skill in reproducing climatological means of core variables with monthly RMSE of <2.0 mm for precipitation and ?0.4 °C for mean temperature and daily temperature range. This level of performance is impressive given complexity of climate processes operating in this mountainous context at the boundary between monsoonal and mid-latitude (westerly) weather systems. Of equal importance the model captures well the observed interannual variability as quantified by the first and last decile of 30-year climatic periods. Differences between a control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) regional climate model (RCM) time-slice experiment were then used to provide change factors which could be applied within the rainfall and weather models to produce perturbed ‘future' weather time-series. These project year-round increases in precipitation (maximum seasonal mean change:+27%, annual mean change: +18%) with increased intensity in the wettest months (February, March, April) and year-round increases in mean temperature (annual mean +4.8 °C). Climatic constraints on the productivity of natural resource-dependent systems were also assessed using relevant indices from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) and indicate potential future risk to water resources and local agriculture. However, the uniformity of projected temperature increases is in stark contrast to recent seasonally asymmetrical trends in observations, so an alternative scenario of extrapolated trends was also explored. We conclude that interannual variability in climate will continue to have the dominant impact on water resources management whichever trajectory is followed. This demonstrates the need for sophisticated downscaling methods which can evaluate changes in variability and sequencing of events to explore climate change impacts in this region.

Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Harpham, C.; Hashmi, M. Z.

2014-09-01

161

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

162

Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments-river basin view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments.\\u000a So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that\\u000a not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade.\\u000a \\u000a In the following overview, special emphasis

Ulrich Förstner

2003-01-01

163

Coupled modelling of cryosphere dynamics and hydrological processes at the watershed scale in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of the UIB (above the Tarbela reservoir) is overwhelmingly dominated by nival (seasonal snowmelt) and glacial regimes exhibited by its constituent tributaries. Similarly the future of glaciers in this western extremity of the Himalayan arc is dependent upon changes in precipitation and energy (most easily indexed by temperature). While previous large-scale modelling studies primarily stipulated fixed scenarios of glacial retreat (e.g. areal reductions of 25 to 100%), recent climatological and remote sensing studies have shown evidence of glacial stagnation or expansion in the Karakoram coupled with decreases in summer temperature. Summer cooling is part of seasonally asymmetric temperature change in the region over recent decades with large winter temperature increases yielding net annual warming. In light of this uncertainty in present glacial mass balance sign and rate, it was decided to develop a custom large-scale (>1000km2), high resolution (500m grid) model capable of simulating cryosphere response to variable mass and energy inputs along with the resulting hydrological impacts in meltwater generation. The model presented here yields improvements over previous studies including: i) modelling of snow covered area (SCA) as an output; ii) modelling of glacial catchment fractions variable both in mass and area; and iii) modelling of mass transfer between grid cells based on gravity-driven basal sliding. Simulation results are presented for two UIB tributary catchments, a nival and a glacial dominated regime, for both calibration/validation runs as well as a simulated synthetic control climate and two contrasting scenarios of Summer temperature. The resulting divergence in glacial mass balance and seasonality of river flows between the future scenarios is striking with strong warming leading to drastic glacier retreat but Summer cooling yielding consistent glacial expansion. Furthermore, prior to simulation of future conditions remote sensing data products (MODIS, AVHRR) are utilised in novel ways to calibrate and validate the model. This includes not only using the SCA and land surface temperature (LST) data products to tune and test model output, but also using the product of SCA and LST as a proxy for the 'degree days' measure of energy-to-runoff conversion used in meltwater generation calculations in order to assess spatial variability in mass inputs. In terms of calibration and validation results the model very accurately captured the timing and magnitude of annual hydrological cycles for both nival and glacial regime catchments. The model performed reasonably in capturing interannual variability in runoff volumes. Work is on-going to improve the accuracy of vertical gradient in glacial mass balance and matching of the simulated equilibrium line altitude with values reported in the literature for major glaciers.

Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.; Blenkinsop, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Rutter, N.; Brock, B. W.; Archer, D.

2013-12-01

164

SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON SURVIVAL AND STREAMFLOW  

E-print Network

SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON entitled: Seasonal Stochastic Streamflow Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications for Salmon Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications to Salmon Survival and Streamflow Management Thesis

165

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

166

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

167

River quality assessment: implications of a prototype project. [Willamette River basin, Oregon; study by USGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed an intensive river quality assessment study of the Willamette River basin, Oregon. The most noteworthy finding was that across-the-board advanced waste treatment was not the answer to the problem of meeting stringent water quality standards established for the Willamette River. This implies that rigid nationwide standards and regulations are likely to result in unneeded

D. A. Rickert; W. G. Hines

1978-01-01

168

Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

2010-05-01

169

Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

2013-09-01

170

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

171

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: SOCIAL VALUES AND ENERGY POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives of the analysis are to identify American social values and to examine their relationship to ...

172

A CHECKLIST OF AVIFAUNA OF THE BHARATHAPUZHA RIVER BASIN, KERALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bharathapuzha river basin of Kerala state was surveyed from Parali to Purathoor estuary region during January 1998 to December 2004 period. A total of 140 species of birds in 49 families were recorded. Sixty-five per cent of the bird species recorded was resident forms and 35% migrants. In Kerala the Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and Brahminy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea)

A. Biju Kumar

173

Resource demands for energy development in the Yellowstone River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a mathematical model for forecasting energy development in the Yellowstone study area for the years 1985 and 2000, and determining the associated economic demands for water, land, labor, capital, and mineral resources. The study was prepared for use by the Missouri River Basin Commission in conducting a comprehensive, ''Level B'' planning study of

Jerry W. Knapp; F. Larry Leistritz

1978-01-01

174

Boreal forest anomalies in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forests are being impacted by climate change though productivity declines (browning), increased fire extents, frequencies, and intensities, more abundant insects, a thickening active layer, and projected increases in deciduous forest components. Quantification of the regional boreal forest impacts in the Yukon River Basin was achieved though remote sensing and productivity modeling which separated weather and non-weather interannual variations in

B. K. Wylie; J. A. Rover; K. Murnahan; J. Long; L. L. Tieszen; B. Brisco

2010-01-01

175

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City\\/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended

Mickie Chamness; Scott Abernethy; Cherylyn Tunnicliffe

2007-01-01

176

Organonitrogen herbicides in the lower Kansas River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help managers, planners, and regulators determine when and where surface waters are likely to be adversely affected by organonitrogen herbicides, the authors analyzed various data on the distribution of these compounds in the lower Kansas River basin. They found that atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide, was found in the highest concentrations, and was most likely to exceed

John K. Stamer; Ronald B. Zelt

1994-01-01

177

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

178

EVALUATION OF WATERSHED QUALITY IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose for this research was Lo evaluate the baseline (existing) watershed conditions in the Minnesota River basin. he field work was conducted during 1989-1992). hree kinds of procedures were employed: physical (habitat related), chemical (surface and sediment quality) and biol...

179

AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

180

BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

181

Gases of mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases emitted from mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin of Alaska fall into two distinct types which are not mixed during vertical migration. The gases in the eastern volcanoes are nearly pure carbon dioxide, whereas the western ones contain methane and nitrogen and almost no carbon dioxide. Chemical and carbon isotopic compositions suggest the carbon dioxide rich gases

Robert H. Reitsema

1979-01-01

182

Water, agriculture and poverty in the Niger River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livelihoods in the Niger River basin rely mainly on rainfed agriculture, except in the dry extreme north. Low yields and water productivity result from low inputs, short growing seasons, dry spells, and excessive water. The overlap of traditional and modern rules impedes secure access to water and investments in agriculture by generating uncertain land tenure. Improved agriculture and water management

Andrew Ogilvie; Gil Mahé; John Ward; Georges Serpantié; Jacques Lemoalle; Pierre Morand; Bruno Barbier; Amadou Tamsir Diop; Armelle Caron; Regassa Namarra; David Kaczan; Anna Lukasiewicz; Jean-Emmanuel Paturel; Gaston Liénou; Jean Charles Clanet

2010-01-01

183

Coherence between atmospheric teleconnections and Mackenzie River Basin lake levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Athabasca (LA), Great Slave Lake (GSL) and Great Bear Lake (GBL) lie within the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB), with GBL and GSL being the ninth and tenth largest lakes in the world by volume. How these lake levels fluctuate in time is important in management of the Peace-Athabasca delta, the ecology of these lakes, and for estimating sediment flux.

Sergio Sarmiento; Akilan Palanisami

184

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP),

Sergio Eduardo Sarmiento

2010-01-01

185

Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

1978-01-01

186

Three Genetic Stocks of Upriver Bright Fall Chinook Salmon Detected in the Columbia River Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect stock structure in the Columbia River basin, we analyzed 694 upriver bright fall chinook salmon samples from seven locations at seven microsatellite loci. Results indicate three main stocks of upriver bright fall chinook salmon in the Columbia basin above Bonneville Dam. These three stocks are Deschutes River, Snake River (natural origin), and Columbia River mainstem (plus

Shawn R. Narum; Doug Hatch; John Whiteaker; Matt Powell

187

Hydrogeologic data in the Quinebaug River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during an investigation of water resources in the Quinebaug River basin of Connecticut in cooperation with the Connecticut Water Resources Commission. The Quinebaug River basin occupies about 425 square miles in the northeastern part of the State, including the towns of Brooklyn, Griswold, Killingly, Plainfield, Pomfret, Putnam, Sterling, and Thompson, and parts of Canterbury, Hampton, Lisbon, North Stonington, Preston, Voluntown, and Woodstock. A companion interpretive report evaluating the water resources of the basin will be published as Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin 8. The data on the following pages serve to document and supplement that report, and should be especially useful in planning the development of water resources at specific localities.

Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.

1966-01-01

188

Contaminants in suspended sediment from the Fraser River basin  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of trace organic contaminants were measured in suspended sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of six pulp mills located in the Fraser River basin. Sampling occurred at three hydrological periods; fall low flow, winter base flow (under ice) and spring freshet. Suspended sediments were analyzed for dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenolics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Initial results indicate that (i) trace organic contaminants are detectable in suspended sediments collected over 265 river kilometers downstream of the nearest pulp mill; (ii) the 1992 to 1994 levels of 2,3,7,8-TCD-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-TCD-furan in Fraser river suspended sediments are lower than the levels measured in 1990; (iii) there is a measurable increase in trace organic contaminant levels in Fraser River suspended sediments associated with the initial rise in the Fraser River hydrograph at freshet.

Sekela, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Moyle, G.; Brewer, R.

1995-12-31

189

Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

1981-01-01

190

Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

1995-01-01

191

Selected basin characteristics and water-quality data of the Minnesota River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected basin characteristics and water-quality dam for the Minnesota River Basin are presented in this report as 71 maps, 22 graphs, and 8 tables. The data were compiled as part of a four-year study to identify non-point sources of pollution and the effect of this pollution on water quality. The maps were prepared from geographic information system data bases. Federal, State, and local agencies, and colleges and universities collected and assembled these data as part of the Minnesota River Assessment Project.

Winterstein, T.A.; Payne, G.A.; Miller, R.A.; Stark, J.R.

1993-01-01

192

Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

1978-01-01

193

Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

1979-01-01

194

Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management  

SciTech Connect

Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

2010-01-01

195

Estimation of the Water Budget for Major Canadian River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding regional water budgets is essential in water resources management, particularly for irrigation planning, drought, flood and pollution control, drainage system design, and climate modelling. A water budget for a drainage basin is needed to determine the magnitude of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on terrestrial water cycle and to evaluate possible mitigation actions. In this study, the monthly and 30-year (1979-2008) average water budgets were calculated for large Canadian river basins with an area > 90,000 km2. The total area studied takes about 58% of the entire Canadian landmass. The datasets used include two gridded precipitation products based on measurement, the land surface evapotranspiration product derived from the EALCO model, the river discharge measured from hydrometric stations, and the total water (surface water+groundwater) storage anomaly derived from GRACE satellite observations. These datasets are deemed as the best-available long-term national scale datasets that meet the requirement of this study. Our objectives are to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water budget across the vast Canadian landmass and to answer the questions of (1) how well can we close the water budget at both long-term and monthly time scales for the major Canadian river basins and (2) which component(s) of the water budget (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge, or total water storage change) and in which season and which region contribute the main error source to the water budget imbalance? We also examined the decadal change in total water storage in the major Canadian river basins and quantified the bias in evapotranspiration estimation by using the widely-accepted surface water budget approach. Our results show that the national scale water budget imbalance is very close to 0 (-0.2 mm year-1) due to the offset of positive and negative imbalances among the studies basins. Basins with positive imbalances were located mostly in the south and basins with negative imbalances were more commonly located in the north. The mean absolute annual water budget imbalance of river basins studied is 49.1 mm year-1, or 9.7% of the mean annual precipitation. The mean absolute monthly water budget imbalance is 12.1 mm month-1, or 2.5% of the mean annual precipitation. The basins of the Cordillera showed large negative trend in the total water storage over the past decade, consistent with the observations of glacier and snow cover shrinkage, permafrost degradation, and river discharge increase. Different error source was identified with different river basins in different seasons. The results will contribute to a reduction in uncertainties and a better understanding of the water cycles and water resources across the country.

Wang, S.; Huang, J.; Li, J.; Rivera, A.; Russell, H.

2012-12-01

196

Forecasting Severe Floods for the Meghna River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate prediction of extreme floods in Bangladesh is vital for the agricultural practices and planning in the region, and to provide warnings for evacuation in case of flooding. Hopson and Webster (2010) developed and implemented a short-term flood forecasting scheme in Bangladesh for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins that performs significantly better than the climatological and persistence forecasts at all lead times. Probabilistic forecast of river discharge at two entry points into Bangladesh of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers was developed using a hydrologic multimodel initialized by NASA and NOAA rainfall products, whose fluxes were forecasted forward using calibrated ECMWF ensemble prediction system products. We investigate whether extreme floods in the Bangladesh for the Meghna river basin are equally predictable on a 1-15 day time scale. The Hopson and Webster meteorological-hydrological forecast model developed for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins is calibrated and adapted for the Meghna basin at Bhairab Bazar. It is found that, on 1-15 day time scales, the floods for the summers of 2007-2010 are well predicted.

Toma, V. E.; Jian, J.; Hopson, T. M.; Webster, P. J.

2010-12-01

197

Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the chemical composition of the streams. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration and hardness of water observed in major irrigation areas were 507 and 262 parts per million, respectively, for the. Walla Walla River near Touchet, Wash. In terms of the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff classification (1954, p. 80), water in most streams in the basin has low salinity and sodium hazards and is suitable for irrigation. A salt-balance problem does exist in the Hermiston-Stanfield, Oreg., area of the Umatilla River basin, and because of poor drainage, improper irrigation practices could cause salt-balance problems in the Willamette River Valley, Oreg., in which irrigation is rapidly increasing. Pollution by sewage disposal has reached undesirable levels in the Walla Walla River, in the Willamette River from Eugene to Portland, Oreg., and in the Columbia River from Portland to Puget Island. In the lower reaches of the Willamette River, the pollution load from sewage and industrial-waste disposal at times depletes the dissolved oxygen in the water to concentrations below what is considered necessary for aquatic life. Water in most of the tributaries to the lower Columbia River is of excellent quality and after some treatment could be used for industrial and municipal supplies. The principal treatment required would be disinfection and turbidity removal.

Santos, John F.

1965-01-01

198

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

2003-01-01

199

Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

2014-05-01

200

Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

2001-05-01

201

Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past.

Woodhouse, Connie A.; Gray, Stephen T.; Meko, David M.

2006-05-01

202

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

203

Floods in the English River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An appraisal-level engineering economic cost analysis was performed for two primary types of irrigation systems in a portion of the Columbia Basin Project- a surface-water irrigation system in which water is supplied via canals and laterals, and a system in which surface water is brought to recharging wells and eventually to farms using the transmissive properties of the aquifer and pumping. At 1979 electric power rates, the artificial-recharge irrigation scheme is a viable alternative to surface-distributed irrigation systems, but as electric rates increase, its viability decreases. At three times the 1979 rate, the recharge scheme is uneconomical. (USGS)

Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

1981-01-01

204

Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical

R. R. Ray; W. R. Keefer

1985-01-01

205

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

206

Streams and rivers in the Yazoo River Basin in Mississippi, particularly the lower portion of the basin referred to as the  

E-print Network

Streams and rivers in the Yazoo River Basin in Mississippi, particularly the lower portion of the basin referred to as the Mississippi Delta, have been altered through intense agricultural activities (Alexander and others, 2008), and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) has listed

207

Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

2011-12-01

208

Generation of synthetic seasonal hydrographs for a large river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper describes a methodology for the generation of synthetic seasonal stage hydrographs with a number of flood waves for a large braided river basin based on statistical analysis of the historical stage records. The synthetic seasonal hydrographs in a river is required for different purposes such as assessing the hydraulic performances of various river training structures, morphological predictions, environmental impact analysis. The typical stage hydrograph of such a river has two components: flood waves and seasonal (monsoonal) response. Using historical stage records, flood waves in a seasonal stage record were identified and their characteristics were approximated using Maxwell distribution. The extracted characteristics of flood waves such as time of occurrence and successive flood lifts were analysed with various probability distribution function to find out their best distribution. The frequency analysis of the annual maximum flood lift was carried out. Beside this, seasonal responses were also approximated using Maxwell distribution. A relationship between the seasonal lift and total monsoonal rainfall was established. For a given total seasonal rainfall and return period of annual maximum flood wave lift, synthetic seasonal hydrograph is generated by superimposing both seasonal response and flood waves. The generated hydrographs are evaluated by comparing the cumulative frequency function of river stage and relative frequency of daily stage changes (rise/fall) for three seasons with different flood wave return periods, at two river gauging stations for the river Brahmaputra, India.

Karmaker, Tapas; Dutta, Subashisa

2010-02-01

209

The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)] [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others] [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); and others

1995-11-01

210

Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.  

PubMed

The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration. PMID:25142344

Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

2015-01-01

211

The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin  

SciTech Connect

Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

Geslin, J.K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

1993-04-01

212

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Environmental Protection Agency

213

Carbon stocks in the Alaska Yukon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest systems in Alaska maybe vulnerable to long-term ecological changes related to climate change and shifting fire regimes. Future projections of boreal forest carbon stocks are improved with more accurate quantification of current baseline soil carbon stocks. Above ground biomass (R2 = 0.66) and soil organic layer thickness (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) were quantified using field plots parameters estimated with regression tree techniques using 30 m resolution Landsat and ancillary data as inputs within the Yukon Flats ecoregion of Alaska. Soil organic layer thickness was converted to soil carbon stocks with a regression (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01). We extended these Landsat-based regression tree mapping techniques with Fish and Wildlife and Natural Resources Conservation Service collaborators and additional collected field observations, airborne electromagnetic surveys, Landsat Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), and ancillary data to map carbon stocks at a 30 m spatial resolution for the Alaskan portion of the Yukon River basin. The carbon stocks in non-disturbed and previously burned fire scar areas within the boreal forests of this region were then assessed. Future boreal forest above ground biomass for boreal forests through the entire Yukon River basin was mapped for 2070 using the ecosystem performance modeling approach. Undisturbed boreal forest biomass was expected to increase in the south central areas of the Yukon River basin and decline in portions of the eastern extents. Current to 2070 precent difference in biomass for boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin.

Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, L.; Rigge, M. B.; Johnson, K. D.

2012-12-01

214

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monthly water balance (WB) model was developed for the Yukon River Basin (YRB). The WB model was calibrated using mean monthly\\u000a values of precipitation and temperature derived from the Precipitation-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)\\u000a data set and by comparing estimated mean monthly runoff with runoff measured at Pilot Station, Alaska. The calibration procedure\\u000a used the Shuffled Complex

Lauren E. Hay; Gregory J. McCabe

2010-01-01

215

Characterizing Drought Risk in a Sicilian River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter summarizes the results of the application of proposed methodologies for drought characterization and risk assessment\\u000a in water supply systems to the Italian case study, namely the Simeto River basin in Sicily. In particular, after a general\\u000a description of the case study, the results of the drought identification, carried out by means of several drought indices\\u000a and methods such

Giuseppe Rossi; Brunella Bonaccorso; Vincenzo Nicolosi; Antonino Cancelliere

216

Point-nonpoint nutrient trading in the Susquehanna River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable interest in the use of pollution trading between point and nonpoint sources to improve the cost-effectiveness of water pollution control but little literature to guide the design of trading systems involving nonpoint sources. Expanding on prior theoretical work, this paper provides empirical evidence about design and performance issues for two types of trading systems that would allow nutrient trading among and between point and nonpoint sources in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania.

Horan, Richard D.; Shortle, James S.; Abler, David G.

2002-05-01

217

Hydrogeologic data for the Farmington River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains hydrologic and geologic data collected and compiled as part of a water resources investigation of the Farmington River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report, Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 29 (in preparation), contains the interpretation of ground-water, quality-of-water, and surfacewater data collected for the study.

Hopkins, Herbert T.; Handman, Elinor H.

1975-01-01

218

Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0?28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

2014-11-01

219

Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G.E.

1981-01-01

220

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local  

E-print Network

931 Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia quality. A Spatial Analysis of Phosphorus in the Mississippi River Basin Linda M. Jacobson, Mark B. David,* and Laurie E. Drinkwater Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) have been

David, Mark B.

221

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001 Open of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Cover photo--Yukon River, looking north near Grayling, Alaska. Photo by Paul F. Schuster, 2003. #12;WATER AND SEDIMENT QUALITY IN THE YUKON RIVER BASIN, ALASKA, DURING WATER

222

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2004  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2004 Open.S. Geological Survey scientist collecting a water-quality sample from under the ice of the Yukon River near the Dalton Highway Bridge in central Alaska #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

223

Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers

B. Dupre; D. Rousseau; J. Gaillardet; C. J. Allegre

1996-01-01

224

Survey of Contaminants in Suspended Sediment and Water in the Fraser River Basin  

E-print Network

#12;Survey of Contaminants in Suspended Sediment and Water in the Fraser River Basin - ­ -- -- ­ -- - 7 The Fraser River Basin M. Sekela, R Brewer, C. Baldazzi, G. Moyle and T. Tuominen Science Division River and supporting the field operations. We are greatly indebted to C. MacDonal~ G. McGdlivary, I

225

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002 Open at Eagle, Alaska. #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002-File Report 2005-1199 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Cover photograph: Yukon River

226

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2003  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2003 Open at Eagle, Alaska, just after ice breakup. #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska-File Report 2005-1397 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Cover photograph: Yukon River

227

Two unique weathering regimes in the Changjiang and Huanghe drainage basins: geochemical evidence from river sediments  

E-print Network

from river sediments Shouye Yanga,*, Hoi-Soo Jungb , Congxian Lia a Laboratory of Marine Geology in the drainage basins of the Changjiang and Huanghe based on the chemical compositions of the river sediments of chemical weathering in the Huanghe Basin imply that the river sediments can be considered

Yang, Shouye

228

Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

Samples, Bob, Ed.

229

Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

230

Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

2012-04-01

231

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

2009-12-03

232

Capturing the nature of cooperation, unstable cooperation and conflict over international rivers: the story of the Indus, Yarmouk, Euphrates and Tigris rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the existing definitions of conflict and cooperation over international rivers and introduces new definitions to remedy some of the shortcomings. Conflict tends to be defined as militarised confrontation, firing guns, political flare-ups or deterioration in relations. This range of violence is too wide. To remedy this weakness, it is necessary to incorporate the category of unstable cooperation

Neda A. Zawahri

2008-01-01

233

Exhumation history of eastern Ladakh revealed by 40Ar\\/39Ar and fission-track ages: the Indus River-Tso Morari transect, NW Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission-track and 40Ar\\/39Ar ages place time constraints on the exhumation of the North Himalayan nappe stack, the Indus Suture Zone and Molasse, and the Transhimalayan Batholith in eastern Ladakh (NW India). Results from this and previous studies on a north-south transect passing near Tso Morari Lake suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappe stack (comprising the Mata, Tetraogal and Tso

M. Schlup; A. Carter; M. Cosca; A. Steck

2003-01-01

234

Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

2013-12-01

235

Summary of the river-quality assessment of the upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The river-quality assessment of the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin included studies of (1) the impact of heat loads on river quality, (2) sediment transport and deposition, (3) magnitude and nature of point and nonpoint discharges, and (4) phytoplankton growth in the river and reservoirs. The combined thermal effects of flow regulation and powerplants effluents resulted in mean daily river temperature downstream of the powerplants about equal to or less than computed natural temperatures. The average annual river temperature in 1976 was 14.0 ? Celsius just upstream of the Atkinson-McDonough thermoelectric powerplants and 16.0 ? Celsius just downstream from the powerplants. During a low-flow period in June 1977 the heat load from the two powerplants caused an increase in river temperatures of about 7 ? Celsius and a subsequent decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration of about 0.2 milligrams per liter. During the June low-flow period, point sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand and 97 percent of ammonium as nitrogen at the Franklin station. Oxidation of ultimate biochemical demand and ammonium caused dissolved-oxygen concentrations to decrease from about 8.0 milligrams per liter at river mile 299 to about 4.5 milligrams per liter at river mile 271. Dissolved orthophosphate is the nutrient presently limiting phytoplankton growth in the West Point Lake when water temperatures are greater than about 26 ? Celsius.

Cherry, R.N.; Faye, R.E.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

1980-01-01

236

Effects of river regulation on riparian box elder ( Acer Negundo ) forests in Canyons of the upper Colorado River Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canyon riparian zone vegetation is vulnerable to effects of upstream river regulation. We studied box elder (Acer negundo) dominated canyon riparian forests intensively on the Green and Yampa rivers in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado, and\\u000a extensively in four other major rivers of the upper Colorado River Basin to determine the effects of river regulation on riparian\\u000a tree establishment patterns. We:

John M. DeWine; David J. Cooper

2007-01-01

237

Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations alone. Verification of these results by local, in-situ measurements can increase our confidence in these methods. However, this work demonstrates the ability to establish a starting point for water resources planners in southern Africa and other regions with intermittent or sparse streamflow observations.

Minihane, M.

2011-12-01

238

Inventing the Charles River Basin : urban images and civic discourse in Boston, 1844-1994  

E-print Network

The Charles River Basin, extending from the foot of Beacon Hill upstream past Harvard's Soldiers Field, has been called Boston's "Central Park." The river looks to all appearances tranquil and unchanging, one of the most ...

Haglund, Karl T

1997-01-01

239

Fish passage and protective facilities, Yakima River basin, Washington: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), propose to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at 20 existing irrigation and/or hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River basin, Washington, for the improvement of anadromous fish populations. This action would implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for natural propagation activities to mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the Yakima basin and to provide offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River basin. The Yakima River basin is located in south-central Washington (see frontispiece map) and drains an area of about 6000 square miles. The basin centers around the city of Yakima and includes most of Yakima, Kittitas, and Benton Counties. The Yakima River heads near the eastern crest of the Cascade Range and flows generally southeastward for over 200 miles to its confluence with the Columbia River near Richland. Major tributaries include the Kachess, Cle Elum, and Teanaway Rivers and the Naches River, which has several major tributaries of its own--the Bumping, American, and Tieton Rivers. Ahtanum, Toppenish, and Satus Creeks join the Yakima River in the lower part of the basin. Natural runoff for the basin above Parker (Sunnyside Diversion Dam) averaged about 3.5 million acre-feet annually for the period 1940-1976. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1984-07-01

240

Near real time water resources data for river basin management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

241

Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre-projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

2010-12-01

242

Successful Transboundary River Basin and Estuary Cooperation: Benchmarks for the Ural River Basin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s new Water Code means its water resources remain under federal jurisdiction. However, this shouldn’t rule out transboundary\\u000a water cooperation. After acknowledging the current situation regarding water resources management in Russia, this paper presents\\u000a three instances of transboundary cooperation, two case studies concerning nations within the Danube basin: the Sava and Tisza\\u000a sub-basins, and a third concerning the Scheldt Estuary

Jerome Simpson; Stephen Stec; Wim Cofino; Helle Peeters; Bert Hove; Annemiek Verhallen

243

Flood frequency analysis for Germany's Weser River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of flood risk is more challenging outside of the U.S., as other countries typically do not have centralized agencies such as the USGS and FEMA that provide easily-accessible stream gauge data and flood maps. Therefore, modifications to the typical flood frequency methods used in the U.S. (e.g., USGS Bulletin 17b with regional regression, or regional frequency analysis using L-Moments) are often necessary with limited data. For the Weser River Basin in northern Germany, we obtained discharge data from 114 stream gauges, but full records of instantaneous annual maximum discharges were available for only 19 of those gauges. The 19 gauges were located along larger rivers draining areas greater than approximately 2500 sq km. The other 95 gauges draining areas less than 2500 sq km contained only the 10 largest observations (top 10) over the period of record. In order to make use of all available data, we used a hybrid approach, applying 1) regional frequency analysis using L-Moments for the annual maximum data for large (greater than 2000 sq km) watersheds, and 2) regional regression analysis for small (less than 2000 sq km) watersheds using the top 10 data, to estimate flood (i.e., 100-yr and 500-yr) discharges for all river and stream reaches throughout the basin. This presentation highlights the challenges and solutions for using a limited number of gauges and incomplete record lengths to estimate flood discharges for both large and small watersheds.

McCollum, J.; Qu, Y.; Beighley, E.

2013-12-01

244

Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

2008-12-01

245

On the occurrence of Anaecypris hispanica, an extremely endangered Iberian endemism, in the Guadalquivir River basin.  

PubMed

The jarabugo Anaecypris hispanica, considered endemic to the Guadiana River basin, has been found in the Guadalquivir River. First genetic data showed a high degree of similarity to those of the Guadiana River populations. The genetic study recovered five different groups of haplotypes, the Guadalquivir River specimens belong to the largest and most widely extended group. PMID:20537024

De Miguel, R; Pino, E; Ramiro, A; Aranda, F; Peña, J P; Doadrio, I; Fernández-Delgado, C

2010-04-01

246

Basin-Wide Distribution of Land Use and Human Population: Stream Order Modeling and River Basin Classification in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type—paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.—and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis.

Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

2011-05-01

247

Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

1981-01-01

248

PHAHs in 14 principal river sediments from Hai River basin, China.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from 14 principal rivers of the Hai River basin. The concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediments were measured using GC-MS/MS technique. The highest PBB levels were detected in sediments from River Daqing: PBB3, 10, 4, 15, 26, 31, and 49 were observed in the sediments. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were in River Tuhe (G.M.=2.10 ng g(-1) dw), and PBDE15 was the most predominant congener in the sediments from all of the rivers of this study, except for River Tuhe, which accounted for >13.5% of the total PBDEs in sediments. PBDE209 was detected in sediments from the Beijingpaiwu, Nanyun, Majia and Tuhe rivers, with observed values ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 ng g(-1) dw. PCBs had the highest concentrations in sediment samples collected from River Luan and River Daqing, with levels of 18.13 and 25.62 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The most predominant PCB congener in these samples was PCB138, which accounted for about 24% of the sum of the seven indicator PCB congeners (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) measured in the two rivers. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with recent results, reported in the literature, and the respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwaters from other regions. This suggests that, in these rivers, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota-due to PHAH contamination of sediments-can be expected to be negligible. Thus, in terms of PHAHs, the sediments can be regarded as relatively uncontaminated. PMID:22560245

Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Li, Kun; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang

2012-06-15

249

The cost of noncooperation in international river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

2012-01-01

250

Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

Petersen, James C.

2004-01-01

251

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

2007-01-01

252

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

253

Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Rivers 2012 international conference (http://www.crearamazonia.org/tropicalrivers2012/) was part of the International Geoscience Programme 582 project of The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's International Union for Geological Sciences (UNESCO-IUGS). The aim of the IGCP 582 is to provide an integrated assessment of long-term direct effects of climate variability and human-induced change and management of tropical river basins. This assessment is to be achieved by identification, quantification, and modeling of key hydro-geomorphologic indicators during the past and present times, and assessment of the potential influences of global change on fluvial systems and the socio-economic implications of these changes.

Abad, Jorge D.; Montoro, Hugo; Latrubesse, Edgardo

2013-01-01

254

Decrease of Metagonimus yokogawai Endemicity along the Tamjin River Basin  

PubMed Central

The Tamjin River which flows from Jangheung-gun via Gangjin-gun to the South Sea was reported to be a highly endemic area of Metagonimus yokogawai infection in 1977 and 1985. However, there were no recent studies demonstrating how much change occurred in the endemicity, in terms of prevalence and worm burden, of metagonimiasis in this river basin. Thus, a small-scale epidemiological survey was carried out on some residents along the Tamjin River basin in order to determine the current status of M. yokogawai infection. A total of 48 fecal samples were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. The egg positive rate of all helminths was 50.0%, and that of M. yokogawai was 37.5%, followed by C. sinensis 22.9% and G. seoi 4.2%. To obtain the adult flukes of M. yokogawai, 6 egg positive cases were treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium sulfate. A total of 5,225 adult flukes (average 871 specimens per person) of M. yokogawai were collected from their diarrheic stools. Compared with the data reported in 1977 and 1985, the individual worm burdens appeared to have decreased remarkably, although the prevalence did not decrease at all. It is suggested that the endemicity of M. yokogawai infection along the Tamjin River has been reduced. To confirm this suggestion, the status of infection in snail and fish intermediate hosts should be investigated. PMID:19127339

Lee, Jin-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Jae; Yi Lee, Jo Woon; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Ji-Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jae-Lip

2008-01-01

255

Application of the coupled model to the Somme river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHydrological modeling of the Somme river basin situated in the north of France was made with special emphasis on the stream-aquifer interaction. Due to immense groundwater storage in the chalk aquifer, a damaging flood took place in the basin in spring 2001. To best represent the phenomena occurring in the basin, the coupled model also known as MODCOU was selected to be applied to this particular basin. The whole model structure consists of several components, namely, surface model, groundwater model, unsaturated zone model, and the coupled model. In order to run the surface model, meteorological forcing, land use, and soil type data were acquired. By using land use and soil type data, production zones were obtained. The surface model partitions the precipitation between surface runoff, infiltration, and actual evapotranspiration according to the parameters of production zones. The unsaturated zone model computes the recharge of groundwater by using infiltration from the surface using a Nash cascade model. By using the groundwater model, a steady-state piezometric head distribution is obtained to serve as an initial condition to the coupled model. The unsteady groundwater and surface flow simulations are carried out by the coupled model. Initially, spatial information on the basin was extracted by using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis. After acquiring the necessary spatial data, the surface and aquifer grids were generated by using nested grid generators which make refinement on the stream network and subcatchment boundaries in order to increase the accuracy of numerical solution. A very detailed calibration was performed by following a step-by-step procedure in which the best fit in flow and piezometric head hydrographs was sought. In the surface model, concentration time and parameters of production zones are calibrated. For coupled surface-groundwater flows transmissivity, specific yield and discharge coefficient; and for flow in unsaturated zone storage constant were calibrated. During the simulations, intense and interrupted exfiltrations were observed over the basin. Two algorithms were developed in order to correct the issue caused by the coarse resolution of the DEM: (1) a 'fill' algorithm was used to remove the sinks and obtain a smoother surface; and (2) a correction procedure for river cell elevations is proposed to acquire continuous exfiltration along the stream network. Validation of the model was made using the discharges at two points on the Somme, namely, Hangest-Sur-Somme and Peronne, which had not been used in any stage of the modeling process and satisfactory results were obtained. The groundwater behavior, its effect on the surface flow and the flood of 2001 are satisfactorily represented.

Korkmaz, Serdar; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Önder, Halil

2009-03-01

256

Hack's relation and optimal channel networks: The elongation of river basins as a consequence of energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.

Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

1993-08-01

257

The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

2013-12-01

258

Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

2014-05-01

259

Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.; Kurath, G.

2003-01-01

260

Sulfur Isotopes in the Rivers of the Mackenzie River Basin: Implication for CO2 Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass budgets of chemical weathering in hydro-systems usually assume that the dissolution of CO2 in rain and soil waters provides most of the protons that attack rock minerals. However, the oxidative weathering of reduced species containing sulfur, such as pyrite, can be a significant source of protons. On a global scale, the origin of sulfate in rivers is still unclear. At least three possibilities can be envisaged: sulfate from sedimentary gypsum, atmospheric pollution and oxidative weathering of sulfide. As shown by previous studies, S and O isotopes of the sulfate molecule can allow deciphering between the different sources. In the aim of constraining the origin of sulfate delivered to the ocean by rivers and to refine CO2 consumption budgets for chemical weathering reactions, we have started to measure S and O isotopes in the largest river systems. Among them, the Mackenzie River basin is an ideal case, because it has been recognized by geologists to contain both gypsum and reduced sediments, mainly black-shales, rich in pyrite. The O and S isotopes of the sulfate molecule do show large discrepancies between the two main geomorphic units of the Mackenzie River basin: the Rocky-Mackenzie Mountains to the West and the interior platform to the East. For example, river samples from the lowlands are characterized by values of ? 34S ranging from \\ -3.25‰ to \\ -18.47‰ and those from the mountains varying between 2.06\\permil and 9.87\\permil. We interpret these values and the relationships between isotopic composition of sulfate and major elements as showing the dominant contribution of sulfide oxidation in the lowlands and gypsum dissolution in the mountains. The details of our mixing model, e.g. end-member choices, will be discussed in detail; but based on our data we calculate that 54 to 96% and 18 to 40% of dissolved sulfate come from sulfide oxidation in lowland rivers and mountain rivers, respectively. The mean value obtained for the Mackenzie River Basin is 32%. Assuming that protons added in water by pyrite oxidation react preferentially with carbonate rocks, we calculate that 30% of the protons reacting with carbonate minerals do not originate from the dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in soil water. For a long-term perspective and at a global scale, the oxidative weathering of sulfide coupled to rock weathering can lead to a release in the atmosphere of CO2 originating from the carbonate reservoir. This process may be significant in mountainous regions, such as Himalayas, where surface rocks have been recently exhumed and where high physical weathering rates sustain a continuous contact between fresh rocks and water.

Calmels, D.; Gaillardet, J.; Brenot, A.; France-Lanord, C.

2004-12-01

261

Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA  

E-print Network

the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levelsEffects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA is the growth of suburban areas into previously undisturbed forests, shrublands, and deserts (Katz and Bradley

McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

262

Ground water use in an energy development area: the Tongue River basin, southeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water, of relatively good quality, occurs throughout southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin and can be procured cheaply and easily. The widespread occurrence of springs and the development of shallow aquifers enables settlement to occur away from perennial streams and allows for extensive grazing of the range. Ground water in the Tongue River basin occurs in five aquifers ranging from

David H. Hickcox

1982-01-01

263

Freshwater fishes of the Amazon River basin: their biodiversity, fisheries, and habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stretching more than seven million square kilometers, the Amazon River basin is the largest river basin in the world and discharges about one-sixth of all freshwater from the continents to the oceans of the world. The age of this ecosystem, its position near the equator and the enormous diversity of its aquatic habitats, have produced the most diverse fish fauna

Wolfgang J. Junk; Maria Gercilia Mota Soares; Peter B. Bayley

2007-01-01

264

Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

265

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho  

E-print Network

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho Chunling in the Salmon River Basin (SRB) of Idaho and are anticipated to contin- ue increasing in the future, leading and ecological processes. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Climate changes have occurred in the Salmon

Crosby, Benjamin T.

266

Water Saving in the Yellow River Basin, China. 1. Irrigation Demand Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water saving in irrigation is a main issue in the Yellow River basin. Field studies were conducted in two areas: The Huinong Irrigation District (HID), Ningxia Province, in the upper reaches, where excess irrigation water is applied giving rise to water-logging and salinity problems, and the Bojili Irrigation District (BID), Shandong Province, in the lower reaches of the river basin,

A. A Campos; L S. Pereira; J. M. Gonçalves; M. S. Fabião; Y. Liu; Y. N. Li; Z. Mao; B. Dong

267

Integrated Hydrologic Models for Closing the Water Budget: Whitewater River Basin, Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater and its recharge are unobserved and unmeasured components of the water cycle of a river basin. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the groundwater component of the water balance for the Whitewater River Basin using a 3-D saturated groundwater model, 2) to compare the groundwater model results with a fully integrated hydrologic model and, 3) to

P. Beeson; C. Duffy; E. Springer; S. Panday

2004-01-01

268

Regional estimation of base flow and groundwater recharge in the Upper Mississippi river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge and discharge (base flow) estimates from two methods were compared in the Upper Mississippi River basin (USGS hydrologic cataloging unit 07). The Upper Mississippi basin drains 491,700km2 in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and outlets in the Mississippi River north of Cairo, Illinois. The first method uses the water balance components from the soil and water assessment

J. G. Arnold; R. S. Muttiah; R. Srinivasan; P. M. Allen

2000-01-01

269

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Sheridan coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. PH-11. Ash yieldChapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U

270

An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin  

E-print Network

of the Great Lakes basin employed a total of 425 gages (259 in U.S., 166 in Ontario) and the most recent (toAn Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin David Allan and Leon Hinz With: Edward for analytic advice. #12;1 Executive Summary River flows, typically measured in cubic meters or cubic feet per

Allan, David

271

NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native  

E-print Network

NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin Including Recommendations for Evaluating the Use of Non-native Species in Resident

272

FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

273

Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

274

Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

1975-01-01

275

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

2002-01-01

276

Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salmon River basin drains approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho underlain by the Idaho batholith. Geologic units in the basin include igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and granitic rocks predominate. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30 degrees to 184 degrees Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old and may be considerably older. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single area of recharge or a single hot-water reservoir supplies all hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 27 million calories per second. (USGS)

Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

1982-01-01

277

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

278

Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

279

Reconnaissance investigation of the ground-water resources of the Brazos River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Brazos River Basin in Texas extends from the New Mexico State line southeastward to the Gulf of Mexico. The basin is about 600 miles long and ranges in width from 1 to 120 miles--an area of about 42,000 square miles, which includes all or parts of 69 counties. About 1,385,000 persons reside in the basin.

Cronin, J.G.; Follett, C.R.; Shafer, G.H.; Rettman, P.L.

1973-01-01

280

70 FR 71801 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; Arapahoe Basin Ski Area and Montezuma Bowl Projects  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; Arapahoe Basin Ski Area and Montezuma...Need for Action The Forest Service and A-Basin cooperatively identified...alternatives to A-Basin's proposal. To assist the Forest Service in...

2005-11-30

281

Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: the Indus Water Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated Objectives: negotiate an equitable allocation of the flow of the Indus River and its tributaries between the riparian states; develop a rational plan for integrated watershed development Additional issues: Water-related: financing for development plans, whether storage facilities are \\

Aaron T. Wolf; Joshua T. Newton

282

Modeling methane emissions from the Alaskan Yukon River basin, 19862005, by coupling a large-scale hydrological model  

E-print Network

Modeling methane emissions from the Alaskan Yukon River basin, 1986­2005, by coupling a large modeling framework was applied to the Yukon River basin at a spatial resolution of 1 km from 1986 to 2005 emissions from the Alaskan Yukon River basin, 1986­2005, by coupling a large-scale hydrological model

283

Source water controls on the character and origin of dissolved organic matter in streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska  

E-print Network

of the Yukon River basin, Alaska Jonathan A. O'Donnell,1 George R. Aiken,2 Evan S. Kane,3 and Jeremy B. Jones4 examined seasonal variation of DOC chemistry in 16 streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska. Our primary of the Yukon River basin, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., 115, G03025, doi:10.1029/2009JG001153. 1. Introduction [2

Wagner, Diane

284

Suspended sediment and carbonate transport in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Fluxes and potential future responses to climate  

E-print Network

Suspended sediment and carbonate transport in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Fluxes and potential , respectively, with 50% of the suspended sediment load originating in the Tanana River Basin and 88% of the carbonate load originating in the White River Basin. About half the annual suspended sediment export

285

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models  

E-print Network

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models J extreme drought event in the Amazon river basin, regarded as the worst in over a century. GRACE measures. Yang, and G. Y. Niu (2009), 2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE

Yang, Zong-Liang

286

Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin  

E-print Network

Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin Amherst, ***University of Massachusetts Amherst Abstract - The Niger River Basin of West Africa comprises data and the Observed data Acknowledgement and Reference · The Niger River Basin: Vision

Mountziaris, T. J.

287

Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River basin, Alaska, during water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2004 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented.

Schuster, Paul F.

2006-01-01

288

A Water Balance Derived Drought Index for Pinios River Basin, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates hydrological drought characteristics using a water balance derived drought index in Pinios river basin,\\u000a Thessaly, Greece. The concept of hydrological management at subwatershed scale has been adopted because it encompasses the\\u000a areal extent of a drought event. Fourteen (14) sub-watersheds of Pinios river basin were delineated according to the major\\u000a tributaries of Pinios river using GIS. For

Lampros Vasiliades; Athanasios Loukas; Nikos Liberis

2011-01-01

289

Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin.  

PubMed

The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan. PMID:15195438

Matsui, S

2004-01-01

290

A distributed hydrological model for drought and flood forecast in the upper Yangtze River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangzte River (also called Changjiang in Chinese) is the largest river basin in China, which has frequent flood and drought. Building on the physically-based description of hydrological processes, a distributed model has been established in the upper Yangtze River for drought and flood forecast have been addressed in this study. For assessing water resources and drought, a large scale

X. Jijun; Y. Dawen; L. Zhidong; H. Wei

2007-01-01

291

Snow water equivalent survey of the Souris River Basin. Date of survey: March 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of a large snow pack in the Souris River Basin in Saskatchewan and North Dakota dictated the need to obtain as much water equivalent of snow (WE) information as reasonable. This WE information could then be used by Kansas City River Forecast Center and the Bismarck, North Dakota Weather Service Forecast Office to forecast the Souris River peak

Fritzsche

1977-01-01

292

Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

Eash, David A.

2006-01-01

293

Remote Sensing-based Estimates of Potential Evapotranspiration for Hydrologic Modeling in the Upper Colorado River Basin Region  

E-print Network

Evapotranspiration on Western US Rivers Estimated Using thewithin major river basins throughout the U.S. In the SAC-River Forecast System --Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model', NOAA technical memorandum NWS HYDRO-17, U.S.

Barik, Muhammad Ghulam

2014-01-01

294

Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis of WF changes from the perspective of the river basin is more scientific. To address this perspective, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model and the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) model for WF could be implemented in a river basin by computing IO data for the river basin with the Generating Regional IO Tables (GRIT) method. This framework is illustrated in the Haihe River Basin (HRB), which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1% to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF; however, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy making in other water-limited river basins.

Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

2013-12-01

295

Factors affecting pesticide occurrence and transport in a large Midwestern River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several factors affect the occurrence and transport of pesticides in surface waters of the 29,400 km2 White River Basin in Indiana. A relationship was found between pesticide use and the average annual concentration of that pesticide in the White River, although this relationship varies for different classes of pesticides. About one percent of the mass applied of each of the commonly used agricultural herbicides was transported from the basin via the White River. Peak pesticide concentrations were typically highest in late spring or early summer and were associated with periods of runoff following application. Concentrations of diazinon were higher in an urban basin than in two agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas. Concentrations of atrazine, a corn herbicide widely used in the White River Basin, were higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, well-drained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Although use of butylate and cyanazine was comparable in the White River Basin between 1992 and 1994, concentrations in the White River of butylate, which is incorporated into soil, were substantially less than for cyanazine, which is typically applied to the soil surface.

Crawford, C.G.

2001-01-01

296

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by

R. E. Beighley; Y. He; R. L. Ray; J. Guo; C. Shum

2009-01-01

297

[Ecological safety assessment of Manas River Basin oasis, Xinjiang].  

PubMed

By using analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, an index system for ecological safety assessment was built, and 18 indices in the aspects of water resource, environment, and social economy were selected to assess the ecological safety of Manas River Basin oasis in 2006. In the study area, the ecological situation in 2006 was basically safe, with the membership degree being 0. 3347 and the integrated evaluation score being 0. 551. The water resource safety index, social economy index, and environmental safety index were in the levels of relatively safe, extremely safe, and unsafe, respectively. Water resource index could represent the sustainable development degree of oasis, while social economy index and environment safety index could indicate the oasis development level and environment situation, respectively. These three indices could most reflect the ecological safety level of the oasis. PMID:20030146

Ling, Hong-bo; Xu, Hai-liang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Qing-qing

2009-09-01

298

Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

2012-04-01

299

Environmental and hydrologic overview of the Yukon River basin, Alaska and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yukon River, located in northwestern Canada and central Alaska, drains an area of more than 330,000 square miles, making it the fourth largest drainage basin in North America. Approximately 126,000 people live in this basin and 10 percent of these people maintain a subsistence lifestyle, depending on the basin's fish and game resources. Twenty ecoregions compose the Yukon River Basin, which indicates the large diversity of natural features of the watershed, such as climate, soils, permafrost, and geology. Although the annual mean discharge of the Yukon River near its mouth is more than 200,000 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs in the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Eight major rivers flow into the Yukon River. Two of these rivers, the Tanana River and the White River, are glacier-fed rivers and together account for 29 percent of the total water flow of the Yukon. Two others, the Porcupine River and the Koyukuk River, are underlain by continuous permafrost and drain larger areas than the Tanana and the White, but together contribute only 22 percent of the total water flow in the Yukon. At its mouth, the Yukon River transports about 60 million tons of suspended sediment annually into the Bering Sea. However, an estimated 20 million tons annually is deposited on flood plains and in braided reaches of the river. The waters of the main stem of the Yukon River and its tributaries are predominantly calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters with specific conductances generally less than 400 microsiemens per centimeter. Water quality of the Yukon River Basin varies temporally between summer and winter. Water quality also varies spatially among ecoregions

Brabets, Timothy P.; Wang, Bronwen; Meade, Robert H.

2000-01-01

300

Trends in Extremes Rainfall over the São Francisco River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to analyze trends in rainfall extreme over the basin São Francisco (SF) using climate extreme indices (CEI). Also, it was analyzed the relationship between CEI and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). São Francisco River system is one of Brazil's most significant water bodies; it is the fourth largest river system of the continent, one of the two main plateau rivers, and the largest river wholly within Brazil. Inside it are installed a series of hydroelectric dams and irrigation projects that sustain the energy and economy in the Northeast region of Brazil. In order to facilitate the spatial analysis of the trends São Francisco basin was divided in four sectors, called geo-morphological regions. From upstream to downstream, the sectors are: Upper (USF), Middle (MSF), Sub-Middle (SSF) and Lower São Francisco (LSF). The CEI were derived from daily precipitation of Climatic Prediction Center (CPCp) for period of 1979-2005, and from a set of 10 stations' records of daily precipitations within the period 1960-1999. Most of the CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R50mm) and flood events (RX5day, RX1day and R95p). Droughts (CDDd) are identified by means of two indicators: the longest dry period (CDD) and the cycle annual. Additionally, it was used the ETA_HadCM3 model in order to simulate the present climate (1961-1990) and future projections (2011- 2099) of climate extremes in the basin. The results showed a high interannual variability of the indices and a good relationship between the CEI and SOI. Drought (CDDd), and short period of rainfall (RX1day, RX5day and R30mm) occurred with more frequency and intensity in the El Niño events. This would suggest that extreme rainfall events in short periods of time (RX1day and RX5day) can occur in very rainy or dry years, the difference could be assessed in terms of their impacts. In wet years, with the highest frequency of days with rain and with a moist soil, an extreme event could cause flooding or landslides. Already, an extreme event in a dry year could compensate the deficit of water that the soil of that region can be suffering, not disregarding the possibility of severe impacts due to urbanization problems on river slopes. The spatial distribution of trends showed increase of CDD in Upper SF. R95p showed opposite tends in Upper SF (increase) and Lower SF (decrease). Increasing trend of RX5day was observed in Lower and Lower-Middle SF. Extreme events obtained from model ETA_HadCM3 for the period 1979-1990 are compared with the same obtained from the CPCp. It was showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, suggesting dry periods with greater magnitude and short-term precipitation more intense. In future scenarios, dry periods are projected to increase in length and frequency until 2071-2099, while RX1day will be more intense. It is suggested that model outputs are needed to be calibrated with the observed datasets in daily-scale, especially in obtaining rainfall extremes.

Valverde, M. C.; Marengo, J. A.

2013-05-01

301

Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

Snell, Leonard J.

1979-01-01

302

A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

Benson, L.V.; Spencer, R.J.

1983-01-01

303

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

304

Recent morphodynamics of the Indus delta shore and shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In natural conditions, the Indus River had one of the largest sediment loads in the world, building an extensive delta on the high-energy coast of the Arabian Sea. However, water and sediment discharge have been drastically altered in the Indus since the early 1960s, when several barrages were built along the river to feed the world's largest irrigation system. A digital terrain model based on detailed 19th century surveys has been constructed to assess the morphology of the Indus shelf. Comparison of the digital terrain model to a 1950s Pakistani bathymetric survey allowed an estimation of the natural sedimentation regime before extensive human-induced changes. Digital analysis of the Indus delta coastline based on satellite imagery was used to explore the effects of the drastic decrease in sediment delivery following extensive dam building. The Indus Canyon is a dominant feature of the region dissecting the shelf to within 20 m water depth and 3.5 km of the coast. Theoretical considerations based on estimates of the relative importance of wave energy vs. fluvial sediment delivery suggest that the Indus delta should develop a mid-shelf subaqueous clinoform. Instead, the Indus shelf exhibits a compound clinoform morphology. A shallow delta front clinoform extends along the entire delta coast from the shoreline to the 10-25 m water depth. A mid-shelf clinoform developed probably as a prodelta clinoform between ˜30 and 90 m water depth. The advanced position of the mid-shelf clinoform east of the Indus Canyon might reflect either a prolonged sediment delivery from the Indus River in that area compared to the shelf west of the canyon or the presence of a relict pre-Holocene mid-shelf delta. A distinct lobe of the mid-shelf clinoform developed along the Kutch (Kachchh) coast probably as sediment advected alongshore was redeposited on the mid-shelf by strong offshore-directed tidal currents at the Gulf of Kutch mouth. Accumulation and erosion between 1895/96 and 1952/54 occurred primarily on the delta front clinoform, but also on the prodelta clinoform sector covered by both the surveys. During that time period, at the active Indus mouths, the delta front clinoform has built directly into the Indus Canyon, where sedimentation rates exceeded 50 cm/year. A sediment budget for the shelf for the 1895/96-1952/54 period suggests that the previous estimate of an Indus sediment discharge rate of 250 million tons per year in natural conditions is probably a minimum estimate. For the same time interval, the shoreline advanced along most of the delta coast. The progradation rate at the active mouths along the central delta coast surpassed 100 m/year. Following the 80% reduction in sediment discharge after the late 1950s, the deltaic shoreline along the central delta coast started to recede at average rates of ˜50 m/year. The abandoned delta shore (southeastern and northwestern sectors of the delta coast) remained largely progradational over the same period, with the southeastern sector prograding at an even greater rate than before. This differential behavior of the delta shoreline suggests a significant role for delta front sediment transfer processes in the evolution of abandoned deltaic coast.

Giosan, Liviu; Constantinescu, Stefan; Clift, Peter D.; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammed; Inam, Asif

2006-09-01

305

Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

2012-12-01

306

Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

2005-01-01

307

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2003-03-01

308

Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

E-print Network

Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Columbia/Snake Rivers elements of the Council's 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program effect of the Federal Columbia River Power System on Snake River anadromous salmon and steelhead

309

UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

310

Floodplain River Foodwebs in the Lower Mekong Basin  

E-print Network

The Mekong River is one of the world’s most important rivers in terms of its size, economic importance, cultural significance, productivity, and biodiversity. The Mekong River’s fisheries and biodiversity are threatened by major hydropower...

Ou, Chouly

2013-11-15

311

Nutrient limitation of a thermokarst lake and large river ecosystem in the Kolyma River basin (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Productivity (autotrophic phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria) are important food web components that govern the carbon cycling dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. Productivity is often regulated by macro- and micro micronutrient availability which can vary across the globe (polar, temperate, tropical, continents, latitude, etc.) and ecosystem (lake, river, estuary). Until recentely, very little research has been conducted in Polar aquatic ecosystems, particularly continuous permafrost regions, to understand nutrient limitation of lake productivity even though large scale disturbances from permafrost thaw may be changing the nutrient availability to these ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient limitation to surface productivity of a river and lake in the Kolyma River Basin, an area where observed methane and dissolved organic carbon transport from upland sources to the ocean has been observed. After 4 days and elevating nutrients to 10 times the background concentrations in a 75 L volume mesocosms, we determined autochthonous production in the Panteleja river was colimited by nitrogen and phosphorus before and during an algal bloom. In contrast, Suchi Lake, a thermokarst ecosystem, exhibited no response to nutrient additions indicating that other factors may limit production.

Chandra, S.; Heslop, J.; Sobczak, W. V.; Schade, J. D.; Spektor, V.; Holmes, R. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Bulygina, E. B.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Frey, K. E.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2010-12-01

312

A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins  

E-print Network

This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

Cook, John Henry

313

Mean annual runoff in the upper Ohio River basin, 1941-70, and its historic variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map of the Ohio River basin above the Muskingum River shows patterns of mean annual runoff for the climatologic and hydrologic reference period, 1941-70. The primary data base consisted of 98 long-term gaging-station records collected within this 27,300-square-mile headwater area of the Ohio River basin. Supplemental information was derived from 83 short-term records. Mean annual runoff is at a regional minimum of less than 12 inches in an area extending from the northern West Virginia panhandle to the headwaters of the Mahoning River in Ohio. Mean annual runoff of more than 32 inches occurs in parts of the upper Cheat River basin in West Virginia. The zone of high runoff trends northeastward along the western slopes of the Allegheny Mountains; magnitudes diminish to about 25 inches at the eastern basin boundary near Ebensburg, Pennsylvania. Runoff of this magnitude occurs also in a band across the upper Allegheny River basin in Pennsylvania. Ratios of mean annual discharge to the 30-year reference-period average were computed for each year of record for all long-term gaging stations. Annual discharges have ranged from about 30 percent to 200 percent of the 30-year mean. Graphed summaries of the annual ratios document the relative duration and magnitude of wet and dry periods during the past 65 years in the upper Ohio River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Beall, Robert M.

1976-01-01

314

Predicting Future Regime Shifts in Flow of the Gunnison River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research and paleo-reconstructions of past streamflow note persistent dry and wet regimes over the Colorado River Basin. These persistent dry and wet periods may impact water supply and management conditions for Colorado River stakeholders and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Streamflow projections by Reclamation and other water management agencies have traditionally been based upon historical streamflow records and have assumed that past observations of streamflow are characteristic of future conditions. Under changing climate conditions, the assumption that past hydrology is representative of future conditions may no longer be valid. The Gunnsion River Basin contributes approximately 16% of the annual natural streamflow to the Upper Colorado River Basin. Current studies indicate that under projections of future climate, streamflow over the Gunnison River Basin may decrease on the order of 10% through 2099. In this study, past regime change characteristics over the Gunnison River Basin are compared to projections of future regime change in an attempt to understand how the frequency and duration of persistent dry and wet periods may change as the impacts of climate change are realized over the Gunnison River Basin.

Miller, W. P.; DeRosa, G.

2011-12-01

315

Seasonal cycle of Precipitation over Major River Basins in South and Southeast Asia: A Review of the CMIP5 climate models data for present climate and future climate projections  

E-print Network

We review the skill of thirty coupled climate models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 in terms of reproducing properties of the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the major river basins of South and Southeast Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for historical period (1961-2000). We also present projected changes by these models by end of century (2061-2100) under extreme scenario RCP8.5. First, we assess their ability to reproduce observed timings of the monsoon onset and the rate of rapid fractional accumulation (RFA slope) - a measure of seasonality within active monsoon period. Secondly, we apply a threshold-independent seasonality index (SI) - a multiplicative measure of precipitation and extent of its concentration relative to the uniform distribution (relative entropy - RE). We apply SI distinctly for monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR), westerly precipitation regime (WPR) and annual precipitation regime. For present climate, neither any single model nor the multi-mod...

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Böhner, Jürgen

2015-01-01

316

Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological variation between the two basins. The weathering process is largely controlled by the higher run-off accompanied by warm temperature in the Swarna river basin. The intense silicate weathering is also supported by the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) ranging between 0.7195 and 0.7304 in the Swarna river water. The average 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7249 in the river water is found to be higher than the global river average. Keywords: Major ion, Radiogenic strontium isotope, Silicate weathering rate, Carbon-dioxide consumption rate, Tropical river, Southwestern India. Reference: Gurumurthy GP, Balakrishna K, Riotte J, Braun J-J, Audry S, Udayashankar HN, Manjunatha BR (2012), Controls on intense silicate weathering in a tropical river, southwestern India. Chemical Geology, 300-301, 61-69.

Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

2013-12-01

317

Basin-Wide Distribution of Land Use and Human Population: Stream Order Modeling and River Basin Classification in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton–Strahler’s stream order to describe basin-wide distributions\\u000a of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features.\\u000a We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type—paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.—and\\u000a the human population form a geometric sequence, which

Hitoshi Miyamoto; Tsubasa Hashimoto; Kohji Michioku

2011-01-01

318

Seed banks and their implications of rivers with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China.  

PubMed

The seed banks of three rivers, with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China, were investigated to explore the dynamics of seed bank under the pressure of eutrophication. A total of 60 species from 25 family 43 genera were identified from the seed banks of the three rivers. In the eutrophic Paihe River, the species richness and mean seed density were the highest, followed by the oligotrophic Hangbuhe River and the hypereutrophic Nanfeihe River. Various compositions of three functional group assemblage of hydro-ecotypes were found in different rivers. The dominant and endemic species were aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species in Hangbuhe River, Paihe River, and Nanfeihe River, respectively. The shift trend of seed bank in three rivers probably presented past vegetation dynamics under the trophic process in the rivers of Chaohu Lake Basin. Seed bank in the river bed might be quickly assessed by its trophic level. Additionally, it might imply that the seed bank with more aquatic species in the oligotrophic river would be a potential seed resource for vegetation restoration of severely degraded river ecosystems. PMID:25178861

Cui, Naxin; Wu, Juan; Zhong, Fei; Yang, Lihua; Xiang, Dongfang; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhou, Qi

2015-02-01

319

Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

320

RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

321

Fish-performance ecoassay of urbanizing streams in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas  

E-print Network

Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus, a sunfish species) were used to perform an ecological assay of stream health in urbanizing watersheds of the upper San Antonio River Basin, Texas. Ecoassays were conducted during summer 1999 and 2000, and during...

Fontaine, Lance Pierre

2002-01-01

322

Stochastic Models Applied to Operation of Reservoirs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Texas  

E-print Network

river basin. The model is entitled "Monthly Operational Hydrometeorological Simulator (MOHS)." Use of the 30-day meteorological forecast categories of light, moderate, or heavy precipitation and below normal, near normal, or above normal temperature...

Clark, R. A.; O'Connor, G. E.; Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.

323

77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...delivery and use will result in improved streamflows for fish and wildlife and improve the reliability of water supplies for irrigation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Timothy McCoy, Manager, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project,...

2012-03-21

324

75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...delivery and use will result in improved streamflows for fish and wildlife and improve the reliability of water supplies for irrigation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Dawn Wiedmeier, Deputy Area Manager, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement...

2010-03-11

325

A BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF COAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed information is provided on coal production and employment by county, the consumption and distribution o...

326

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

327

Effects of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena on precipitation and flooding in the Manafwa River Basin  

E-print Network

An investigation was performed to determine the relationship between certain oceanic and atmospheric phenomena and the precipitation patterns in the Manafwa River Basin of eastern Uganda. Such phenomena are the El Niño ...

Finney, William W., III (William Warner)

2014-01-01

328

Precipitation analysis for a flood early warning system in the Manafwa River Basin, Uganda  

E-print Network

The communities living in the Manafwa River Basin experience frequent floods threatening their lives and property. Climate change and anthropogenic perturbations to the natural environment increase flooding frequency. This ...

Cecinati, Francesca

2013-01-01

329

THE WATER BALANCE OF THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN AND ITS RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. (R824995)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Historical precipitation, temperature and streamflow data for the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) are analyzed with the objective of developing simple statistical and water balance models of streamflow at the watershed's outlet. Annual streamflow is highly corre...

330

Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin  

E-print Network

Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin that nutrient loading to the Gulf has decreased during this period. Here we discuss the biophysical and social

David, Mark B.

331

Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin R.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. GoodrichR.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. Goodrich  

E-print Network

Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin CityDecision Center for a Desert City IntroductionIntroduction Ongoing drought in the Colorado River in drought in this region. We use principal components analysis to independently assess the influence

Hall, Sharon J.

332

EVALUATION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS IN THE ALTAMAHA-OCMULGEE- OCONEE RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phosphorus (TP) data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between 1992 and 2003 for 23 mainstem river and headwater tributary stations in the Altamaha-Ocmulgee-Oconee (AOO) river basin were evaluated. The highest mean TP concentrations occurred at stations in the vicinities of Athens and Macon, the largest cities in the basin. Mean concentrations exhibited more variability at stations in

Josh Romeis; Rhett Jackson

333

Interaction of Mercury and Organic Matter in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yukon River Basin, the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, provides a unique opportunity to study the interaction of mercury (Hg) and organic matter (OM) at a large scale in a relatively undisturbed system. The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed an extensive five-year water-quality study of the Yukon River from its headwaters in Canada to Pilot Station, Alaska

P. F. Schuster; G. R. Aiken; M. M. Reddy; D. P. Krabbenhoft; R. G. Striegl; J. F. Dewild; M. L. Olson; S. D. Olund; M. Dornblaser; A. Dawson

2006-01-01

334

Research on forest carbon pool and carbon release by human activity of Tanjiang River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We researched the relation between forest carbon pool and human activity carbon release of Tanjiang river basin, the finding is: (1)Since 1990, Forest of Tanjiang river basin always act as carbon sink, and the forest carbon sink is more and more obvious. Forest absorbed carbon is 1057.90×10 4 t in 1990, and in 2002, the amount is 1280.61×10 4 t,

Chen Zhiliang; Wu Zhifeng; Liu Xulong; Cheng Jiong; Liu Ping; Xia Nianhe

2005-01-01

335

Distribution of uranium isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is presented on the distribution of 234U, 238U, 235U isotopes in surface water of the Llobregat river basin (Northeast Spain), from 2001 to 2006. Sixty-six superficial water samples were collected at 16 points distributed throughout the Llobregat river basin. Uranium isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors). The test procedure was validated according to the quality requirements

A. Camacho; R. Devesa; I. Vallés; I. Serrano; J. Soler; S. Blázquez; X. Ortega; L. Matia

2010-01-01

336

Effect-Directed Analysis of Key Toxicants in European River Basins. A Review (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Extensive monitoring programs on chemical contamination are run in many European river basins. With respect to the implementation\\u000a of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD), these programs are increasingly accompanied by monitoring the\\u000a ecological status of the river basins. Assuming an impact of chemical contamination on the ecological status, the assignment\\u000a of effects in

Damià Barceló; Hans J. C. Klamer; Maria López de Alda

2007-01-01

337

Chemometric application in identifying sources of organic contaminants in Langat river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing urbanization and changes in land use in Langat river basin lead to adverse impacts on the environment compartment.\\u000a One of the major challenges is in identifying sources of organic contaminants. This study presented the application of selected\\u000a chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify\\u000a the pollution sources in Langat river basin

Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Hafizan Juahir

338

Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

Bassick, M.D.

1986-01-01

339

Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

Hamilton, S.J.

1999-01-01

340

Causes of Variations in Water Quality and Aquatic Ecology in Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical and aquatic biological conditions differ among the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (the St. Croix and Minnesota Rivers) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The quality of surface water and the ecological condition of rivers affect the ways in which we use them. The St. Croix River is used for recreation; the Mississippi River is used for recreation and is a corridor for commerce; and the Minnesota River primarily drains agricultural lands. Analysis of the environmental framework of the basins and water-quality and ecological information by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program shows that the conditions of the rivers are a product of a combination of factors including climate, hydrology, geology, soils, land use, land cover, water management, and water use.

Stark, James R.

1996-01-01

341

Geological remote sensing of Palaeogene rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies of Palaeogene sediments in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) were used for mapping stratigraphic units, sedimentary features and facies, and structural patterns. Thematic Mapper principal component images for the central and eastern Wind River Basin along with geological investigations and spectral analyses allowed: mapping of the Fort Union, Wind River, and Wagon Bed formations (Fm) and their subunits; recognition of two subunits in the Wind River Fm, one of which can be traced for 75 km; determination of sediment source and depositional environment of units within the Wind River Fm; correlation of the Wagon Bed Fm across the basin; and apparent confirmation of different sources of volcanic debris in the western and southeastern exposures of the Wagon Bed Fm.

Krishtalka, L.; Stucky, R. K.; Redline, A. D.

1988-01-01

342

An entropy-based morphological analysis of river basin networks  

E-print Network

according to the Horton-Strahler ordering scheme, a linear relation is found between the drainage basin entropy and the basin order. This relation can be characterized as a measure of the basin network complexity. The basin entropy is found to be linearly...

Fiorentino, Mauro; Claps, Pierluigi; Singh, Vijay P.

343

Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

2013-12-01

344

Frontier formation stratigraphy on the Moxa Arch, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontier Formation terrigenous clastics record early Late Cretaceous shoreline progradation and cyclic marine and nonmarine sedimentation in a foreland basin. In this study well-log correlations and studies of core were used to establish the stratigraphic framework of the Frontier along the Moxa Arch, a north-trending intrabasin structure in the western Green River Basin. Regional marine flooding surfaces and surfaces of

Hamlin

1996-01-01

345

Water quality issues in the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for evaluating alternative management strategies for the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was developed and applied jointly by Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, USA, and the Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology in Pohang, South Korea. Water from this basin, the second largest in South Korea, supports a total population of

K. C. Chun; R.-W. Chang; G. P. Williams; Y.-S. Chang; D. Tomasko; K. E. LaGory; J. D. Ditmars; H.-D. Chun; B.-K. Lee

2001-01-01

346

Impact of energy development in the Tongue River basin, Southeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation

David H. Hickcox

1982-01-01

347

Frequency and Spatial Characteristics of Droughts in the Conchos River Basin, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts are investigated to provide a framework for sustainable water resources management in a semi-arid region. Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) as an indicator of drought severity, the characteristics of droughts are examined in the Conchos River Basin in Mexico. This basin is important to both the United States and Mexico, because

Tae-Woong Kim; Juan B. Valdés; Javier Aparicio

2002-01-01

348

FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OF HYDROLOGICAL DROUGHT IN THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) considering multiple drought variables for the past 500 years and positions the current drought in terms of the magnitude and frequency. Drought characteristics were developed considering water-year data of UCRB's streamflow, and basin-wide averages of the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) and the Palmer Z Index. Streamflow and

Janak Timilsena; Thomas C. Piechota; Hugo Hidalgo; Glenn Tootle

349

SIMULATION MODELING OF LIMITED IRRIGATION CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTH PLATTE RIVER BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South Platte River Basin is located primarily in Northeastern Colorado, with lesser parts in Nebraska and Wyoming. Agriculture is the predominant water user in the basin and demand frequently exceeds supply, particularly in times of drought. Further exacerbating the problem is water demand from ...

350

Snow modeling in the Klamath River Basin: understanding the factors controlling snow distribution and melt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Point and spatially distributed models have been applied to the 4053 km2 Sprague River Basin which is one of three main tributaries to the Upper Klamath Basin in Southern Oregon, USA. The simulations cover entire water years to understand the physics controlling snow distribution during the accumul...

351

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE YAMPA AND WHITE RIVER BASINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Yampa and White River Basins are key areas in the Nation's search for untaped resources to supplement increasing energy demands. The basins contain vast beds of low-sulfur, strippable coal that potentially will support a large number of coal-fired powerplants as well as some ...

352

Water demand and flows in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) with increased irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most activities that support economic growth in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) need water. Allocation of the water resources to each competing use needs quantification in order to develop an integrated water management plan. Irrigation agriculture is the largest water consuming activity in the basin. It has produced large economic and social advancements in the region and has potential

M. P. Maneta; M. Torres; W. W. Wallender; S. Vosti; M. Kirby; L. H. Bassoi; L. N. Rodrigues

2009-01-01

353

An Ecologic Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Humboldt River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The Humboldt River Basin covers a large part of northern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The people living in this area depend on clean water. Not knowing about water quality is a concern because people will need to manage the negative...

354

Statistical profiles of petroleum development in Niger River delta and North Sea basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of exploration and production in a petroleum basin is illustrated objectively in the accumulated geophysical and drilling statistics. The subjective judgments guiding the process are not amenable to statistical treatment, but presumably are reflected in the results. The authors summarized the exploration\\/discovery process for the Niger River delta and the North Sea basins using a series of maps

E. D. Attanasi; D. H. Root; R. M. Turner

1986-01-01

355

Assessing Climate Risks on the Investment Plans in the Niger River Basin, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern that the Niger River Basin (NRB) system is vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. The projected impacts of climate change, in particular, may induce some potential risks to an investment plan of $7.8 billion for building new water infrastructures in the basin. For this reason, water resource managers and policy makers seek the best possible

Y. B. Ghile; C. M. Brown

2010-01-01

356

MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE GENERATION FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of backcast and forecast land use maps of the Ohio River Basin (ORB) was developed that could be used to assess the spatial-temporal patterns of land use/land cover (LULC) change in this important basin. This approach was taken to facilitate assessment of integrated sustain...

357

Nitrate-nitrogen retention in wetlands in the Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate-nitrogen retention as a result of river water diversions is compared in experimental wetland basins in Ohio for 18 wetland-years (9 years×2 wetland basins) and a large wetland complex in Louisiana (1 wetland basin×4 years). The Ohio wetlands had an average nitrate-nitrogen retention of 39g-Nm?2year?1, while the Louisiana wetland had a slightly higher retention of 46g-Nm?2year?1 for a similar loading

William J. Mitsch; John W. Day; Li Zhang

2005-01-01

358

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

359

Nutrient (N, P) loads and yields at multiple scales and subbasin types in the Yukon River basin, Alaska  

E-print Network

Nutrient (N, P) loads and yields at multiple scales and subbasin types in the Yukon River basin) and phosphorus (P) were measured and modeled at three locations on the Yukon River (YR) and on the Tanana at multiple scales and subbasin types in the Yukon River basin, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S57, doi:10

360

Composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a disturbed watershed of southeast Brazil (Piracicaba River basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental and isotopic composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter was investigated in the Piracicaba River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Comparison of riverine organic matter from the Piracicaba River basin, a region where rivers and streams receive urban sewage and industrial effluents, with data reported for the pristine Amazon system revealed significant differences associated with anthropogenic impacts. One

Alex V Krusche; Luiz A Martinelli; Reynaldo L Victoria; Marcelo Bernardes; Plinio B de Camargo; Maria V Ballester; Susan E Trumbore

2002-01-01

361

Fluvial dynamics of an anabranching river system in Himalayan foreland basin, Baghmati river, north Bihar plains, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anabranching river systems are now regarded as a separate class in river classifications owing to their distinctive morphological/hydrological characteristics and fluvial processes. A better understanding of anabranching rivers still needs detailed data from different environmental and geographical settings. This paper presents a detailed account of an anabranching river system from the Himalayan foreland basin. The Baghmati river system from north Bihar Plains, eastern India provides a typical example of an anabranching river system located in the interfan area between the Kosi and the Gandak megafans. The river system is braided in upstream reaches and meandering in downstream reaches, but the midstream anabranching reach is characterized by low width-depth ratio (11-16), gentle gradient (0.00018-0.00015), variable peak discharge, frequent flooding and high sediment load. The anabranching in the midstream reaches is a response to its inability to transport high sediment load due to gentle channel slope and dominance of aggradation process. The development of anabranches is related to rapid and frequent avulsions of the river channels with eight major avulsions observed in the 30-km-wide floodplain in the last 230 years. The decadal scale avulsion history of the Baghmati river system makes it 'hyperavulsive' and the major causative factors for such channel instability are sedimentological readjustments and active tectonics in the basin area.

Jain, Vikrant; Sinha, R.

2004-05-01

362

Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Upper Wapsipinicon River, Upper Cedar River, Shell Rock River and Winnebago River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Upper Wapsipinicon River, Upper Cedar River, Shell Rock River, and Winnebago River Basins, located in southern Minnesota and northern Iowa are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and marsh, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

Sanocki, Christopher A.

2000-01-01

363

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

U.S. Geological Survey

2006-01-01

364

Data-based scale-extrapolation: estimating regional water resources using data from small river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of world water resources under a changing climate is a key scientific issue for many environmental research areas with profound socio-economic significance. A new data-based scale-extrapolation method (Gong 2012) is proposed to estimate continental and regional water resources. The new method builds upon the assumption (Gong 2012) that, the dynamic interaction between climate and hydrology of a large river basin can be equally well resembled by multiple small regions, each characterized by a number of small river basins, which are typically two-orders-of-magnitude smaller than the large basin. Those small river basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics of the large region. Therefore, those multiple small regions can provide an ensemble of water recourse estimations for the large basin. The new method makes it possible for regional water resource estimations to benefit from a multitude of readily available measurements from small river basins. The scale-extrapolation methods also made it possible to study the interaction between climate and hydrology, and the climate change impact in un-gauged or partially gauged large river basins from data alone. The method offers ensemble predictions that bracket the estimation uncertainty. Because the scale-extrapolation uses different data and method compared to the modelling approach, it provides a unique opportunity to be compared with modelling results. Gong L., 2012. Data-based discharge extrapolation: estimating annual discharge for a partially gauged large river basin from its small sub-basins. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 6829-6856, 2012. doi:10.5194/hessd-9-6829-2012.

Gong, Lebing

2013-04-01

365

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-01-01

366

Boreal forest anomalies in the Yukon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are being impacted by climate change though productivity declines (browning), increased fire extents, frequencies, and intensities, more abundant insects, a thickening active layer, and projected increases in deciduous forest components. Quantification of the regional boreal forest impacts in the Yukon River Basin was achieved though remote sensing and productivity modeling which separated weather and non-weather interannual variations in boreal forest productivity. This “ecosystem performance anomaly” approach uses weather data and coarse resolution (250m) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Regression tree models developed from 2000-2005 data were robust when applied to 2006-08 data and predicted interannual growing season NDVI with good accuracy (R2=0.84) Confidence intervals of 90 percent were used to determine anomalous vegetation responses to weather conditions. Boreal forest areas which underperformed relative to weather conditions were often associated with fire events, likely reflecting early stages of succession. Areas which overperformed, relative to weather conditions, were associated with Aspen and Birch establishment after older fires and in mesic areas. Time series analysis of performance anomalies tracked non-linear temporal responses which corresponded well with fire burn dates and fire perimeters. Stressed and changing boreal systems can be identified with this approach and boreal forest productivity projections can be made from future climate projections. These data sets can focus field studies and remediation. Potential climate change refugia can be assessed relative to current stressed systems and future expected boreal forest productivity.

Wylie, B. K.; Rover, J. A.; Murnahan, K.; Long, J.; Tieszen, L. L.; Brisco, B.

2010-12-01

367

An analysis of stream temperatures, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for estimating temperatures of streams in the Green River basin, Wyoming, utilizes a regional model for estimating mean daily temperatures of streams at unmeasured sites. The regional model was developed by describing annual temperature patterns at 43 measured sites and by applying the harmonic function T = M + A -sin (0.0172 t + C)- where: T is mean daily temperature; M, A, and C are harmonic coefficients calculated from data for each stream-temperature station; and t is the day of the water year. Application of the equation for estimating temperatures at unmeasured sites requires regionalized estimates of M, A, and C. Regional estimates were developed with the aid of multiple-regression techniques, whereby the calculated harmonic coefficients were regressed against physical and climatic characteristics of the stream-temperature stations. Stream elevation was a significant factor affecting water temperature. Analysis of areal and temporal variations in temperature showed that springs, irrigation return flows, and reservoir storage were affecting reaches of several major streams. (Woodard-USGS)

Lowham, H.W.

1978-01-01

368

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2004-05-01

369

Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

1999-12-01

370

Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for

J Kammerbauer; J Moncada

1998-01-01

371

Trace Metal Concentrations in Snow From the Yukon River Basin, Alaska and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on metal concentrations in snow collected from the Yukon River basin. Atmospheric transport of metals and subsequent deposition is a known mechanism for introducing metals into the northern environment. Potential sources of airborne elements are locally generated terrestrial sources, locally derived anthropogenic sources, and long range atmospheric transport. Sites were distributed along the Yukon River corridor and

B. Wang; L. Gough; H. Todd; J. Garbarino; P. Lamothe

2003-01-01

372

Metaphor in Natural Resource Gaming: Insights from the RIVER BASIN GAME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The RIVER BASIN GAME is a dialogue tool for decision makers and water users tested in Tanzania and Nigeria. It comprises a physical representation of a river catchment. A central channel flows between an upper watershed and a downstream wetland and has on it several intakes into irrigation systems. Glass marbles, representing water, roll down the…

Lankford, Bruce; Watson, Drennan

2007-01-01

373

Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming—focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus

Daniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell

2011-01-01

374

Connecting science to managers in river restoration in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-arid Upper Klamath Basin is a complex landscape of agricultural land, pasture and forests, drained by rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Unique characteristics of the river systems include high natural nutrient loadings, large springs, low gradients, high sinuosity, fine sediment, herbaceous-dominated riparian vegetation, and habitat for salmonid and sucker fish. Following listing of several fish species under the Endangered Species

P. F. McDowell

2009-01-01

375

Physicochemical Effects of the Flood Pulse on Fishes in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships between physicochemistry and the distribution and abundance of fishes at 36 sites in the lower Atchafalaya River basin (ARB), Louisiana, a bottomland hardwood swamp fed by waters (distributaries) of the Mississippi and Red rivers. We used principal components analysis (PCA) of the 29 most common ARB fishes to examine fish assemblage structure and then related the

D. Allen Rutherford; Kevin R. Gelwicks; William E. Kelso

2001-01-01

376

Patterns of Habitat Use among Vegetation-Dwelling Littoral Fishes in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information regarding the relative value of different aquatic macrophytes as fish habitat is lacking for large floodplain river systems, such as the Atchafalaya River basin in south-central Louisiana. We made seasonal comparisons of fish (total length, <100 mm) density, diversity, and biomass and physicochemistry among submersed hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata, emergent bulltongue Sagittaria lancifolia, and floating water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. In

John P. Troutman; D. Allen Rutherford; W. E. Kelso

2007-01-01

377

Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1997 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin at least three times each between April 30 and August 22, 1997. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the river. Data were collected to determine if velocities in

S. Blanton; C. Neitzel; C. Abernethy

1998-01-01

378

BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

379

Where rivers near the coastline, the re-ceiving basin begins to influence flow, and  

E-print Network

- tion for open-channel flow, and it is scaled by characteristic flow depth (H) and water-surface slope400 ABSTRACT Where rivers near the coastline, the re- ceiving basin begins to influence flow, and gradually varied, nonuniform flow condi- tions arise. The section of the river affected by nonuniform flow

380

Relations between pesticide use and riverine flux in the Mississippi River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an intensive subcontinental study of pesticides in surface waters of the United States, concentrations of 26 high-use pesticides were measured at nine sites in the Mississippi River basin from May 1991 through March 1992. Calculated total fluxes were combined with agricultural-use data to estimate the percentage of applied pesticide reaching the mouths of the Mississippi River and six major

Steven J. Larson; Paul D. Capel; Donald A. Goolsby; Steven D. Zaugg; Mark W. Sandstrom

1995-01-01

381

Late Pleistocene and early Holocene rivers and wetlands in the Bonneville basin of western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations at Dugway Proving Ground in western Utah have produced new data on the chronology and human occupation of late Pleistocene and early Holocene lakes, rivers, and wetlands in the Lake Bonneville basin. We have classified paleo-river channels of these ages as “gravel channels” and “sand channels.” Gravel channels are straight to curved, digitate, and have abrupt bulbous ends.

Charles G. Oviatt; David B. Madsen; Dave N. Schmittc

2003-01-01

382

Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw  

E-print Network

Territories (Canada) highlight a long-term increase in winter streamflow, 1 U.S. Geological Survey, BoulderDissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications; published 17 November 2012. [1] Groundwater discharge to rivers has increased in recent decades across

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

383

AN APPLICATION OF GIS BASED NONPOINT SOURCE MODELING TO LITTLE MIAMI RIVER BASIN: PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE USING BASINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality has improved significantly in the Little Miami River Basin, OH, over the past few decades because of improvements in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. However, water quality modeling is necessary to assess the relative impacts of point and nonpoint s...

384

Total basin discharge for the Amazon and Mississippi River basins from GRACE and a land-atmosphere water balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater discharge along continental margins is a key Earth system variable that is not well monitored globally. Here we propose a method for estimating monthly river basin outflows based on the use of new GRACE satellite estimates of terrestrial water storage changes in a coupled land-atmosphere water balance. Using GRACE land water storage changes (which include changes in groundwater storage)

T. H. Syed; J. S. Famiglietti; J. Chen; M. Rodell; S. I. Seneviratne; P. Viterbo; C. R. Wilson

2005-01-01

385

Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)  

E-print Network

Basin (Venezuela) V. Bout-Roumazeilles,1 A. Riboulleau,1 E. Armynot du Châtelet,1 L. Lorenzoni,3 N for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10

Meyers, Steven D.

386

Original quartz grain shape characteristics of the recent sediments of the Colorado River drainage basin  

E-print Network

-ORDOVICIAN PE N N SY LV A N I AN - PE R M I A N gg TRIASSIC ~ CRETACEOUS ~ CENOZOIC GULF COASTAL PLAIN CENOZOIC HIGH PLAINS ~ DALLAS AUSTIN HOUSTON SAN ANTONIO 0 50 Lm Figore l. Base Map of Colorado River Drainage Basin with Sampling Locations... escarpment, the river incises the Edwards Plateau, a relatively broad, resistant area of Upper Cretaceous limestones and marls. Southeastward of these carbonates, the river flows through the unconsolidated Tertiary and Ouaternary sands and shales...

Magenheimer, Stewart Jacob

1985-01-01

387

Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

2003-04-01

388

Mapping and assessment of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, arid northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the arid inland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects of environmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resource utilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, such as its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based on field observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classification and evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River. There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in the southern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the low reaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2, 22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin was evaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils, land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Qi, Shanzhong; Cai, Yumin

2007-01-01

389

Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples.

Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

2014-01-01

390

Optional water development strategies for the Yellow River Basin: Balancing agricultural and ecological water demands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River Basin is of the utmost importance for China in terms of food production, natural resources management, and socioeconomic development. Water withdrawals for agriculture, industry, and households in the past decade have seriously depleted environmental and ecological water requirements in the basin. This study presents a modeling scenario analysis of some water development strategies to harmonize water withdrawal demand and ecological water demand in the Yellow River Basin through water savings and interbasin water transfers. A global water and food analysis model including the Yellow River Basin as one of the modeling units is applied for the analysis. The model demonstrates that there is little hope of resolving the conflict between agriculture water demand and ecological water demand in the basin if the current water use practices continue. Trade-offs exist between irrigation water use and ecological water use, and these trade-offs will become more intense in future years with population growth, urbanization, and industrial development as well as growing food demand. Scenario analysis in this study concludes that increasing basin water use efficiency to 0.67 first and then supplementary water availability by interbasin water transfer through the South-North Water Transfer Project may provide a solution to water management of the Yellow River Basin in the next 25 years.

Cai, Ximing; Rosegrant, Mark W.

2004-08-01

391

Implementing the water framework directive in Bulgaria: Integrated river basin management on the Black Sea coast.  

PubMed

EC member states and candidate countries are in the process of implementing the requirements of the EC Water Framework Directive 2000/60, which came into force on 22 December 2000. At the core of the Directive is an integrated approach for sustainable water management in river basin districts. The overall objective is to reach good water status for all waters by the year 2015. The challenges for countries implementing the Directive are substantial not least for the River Basin Management Authorities who will be the implementing unit at the regional level. The Black Sea River Basin Directorate in Varna is one of four Directorates established in Bulgaria in 2002 in accordance with the Bulgarian Water Act and is the regional operational unit under the Ministry of Environment and Water for the Black Sea Basin catchment area. The catchment area covers 20% of Bulgaria and 100% of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Current implementation activities in the Black Sea Basin Directorate and also at the national level are supported by the Danish EPA through its DANCEE programme in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and Water. This paper highlights the main activities and outputs of the technical and institutional undertakings in the Black Sea Basin Directorate focusing on the preparation of the River Basin Overview by Dec. 2004. PMID:16114617

Pratt, A; Lønholdt, J; Jørgensen, P E; Persson, B; Nikolov, V; Ianev, R; Dontchev, V; Klint, M

2005-01-01

392

Ground-water data on the Hudson River basin, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the Hudson River basin occurs in unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock. Sand and gravel units of the unconsolidated deposits, which occur principally in valley bottoms, form the best aquifers and commonly provide well yields of several hundred gallons per minute. Carbonate aquifers are the most productive consolidated rock units. Ground water in the Hudson River basin is generally hard and may contain appreciable amounts of iron, salts in solution, or sulfur locally. Basic data on the availability of ground water in the Hudson River drainage area are compiled in (1) a hydrogeologic map of the drainage basin; (2) a table of well depths, yields, concentrations of selected chemical constituents, and hardness of ground water, listed by county and aquifer type; (3) a short text describing the occurrence of ground water in the basin; and (4) a bibliography of ground-water reports pertinent to the area studied. (Woodard-USGS)

Hammond, Deborah S.; Heath, Ralph C.; Waller, Roger Milton

1978-01-01

393

Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

2010-03-01

394

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

395

Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per liter in November 1999. Montrose Arroyo was the largest selenium source to Cedar Creek. On an annual basis, about 20 percent of the selenium load in Cedar Creek originates in the basin upstream from Miguel Road. Selenium concentrations in Loutzenhizer Arroyo ranged from 157 to 347 micrograms per liter in February 2000. A significant increase in selenium concentrations occurred in the stream reach between the Selig Canal and Falcon Road (LZU7). Although selenium concentrations in the west tributary of Loutzenhizer Arroyo were lower than in the main stem, the west tributary contributed about 41 percent of the selenium load. Downstream from the confluence with the west tributary to the mouth, selenium concentrations in the arroyo gradually decreased, and the increase in selenium load in the lower reach was small.

Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

2002-01-01

396

The Quality of Water Discharging From the New River and Clear Fork Basins, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of water discharging from a strip-mined basin and a relatively unmined basin on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee are examined and compared. The chemical and aesthetic quality of these waters will directly affect the chemical and aesthetic quality of the water flowing through a proposed national river and recreation area. Water from the heavily mined New River basin is characterized by neutral pH, low dissolved solids (less than 300 milligrams per liter), and high concentrations of suspended sediment. More than 90 percent of the suspended sediment is silt and clay. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the thousands of milligrams per liter are not uncommon for New River and often impart a highly turbid appearance to the water. Approximately 590,000 tons of suspended sediment were discharged from the New River basin in 1977, as compared to an estimated 20,000 tons from the relatively unmined Clear Fork basin. In association with these fine-grain suspended sediments are sorbed trace metals. In 1977 the New River basin discharged an estimated 17,000 tons of suspended iron while Clear Fork discharged an estimated 600 tons. Suspended-sediment concentration was found to be highly correlated with both suspended and total trace-metal concentrations. This correlation coupled with the nearly neutral pH of the water indicates that trace metals are transported primarily in the suspended phase. The most promising indicator of the presence of coal mining was found to be dissolved sulfate. All unmined basins sampled in this study showed dissolved sulfate concentrations less than 20 milligrams per liter, whereas all mined basins had dissolved-sulfate concentrations in excess of 20 milligrams per liter regardless of basin size or discharge.

Parker, R.S.; Carey, W.P.

1980-01-01

397

Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a context frames the current and further observations and assists with translating measured changes into links with the varied HO ecosystems.

Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.

2004-12-01

398

Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.  

SciTech Connect

The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

1993-07-01

399

Simulated effects of climatic change on runoff and drought in the Delaware River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various projection of climatic change were applied to watershed models of the Delaware River basin. Simulations indicate that a warming could reduce annual runoff by as much as 25 percent if current precipitation patterns continue. Simulations indicate that the largest changes in basin drought are in response to relatively small changes in precipitation. Basin drought was less sensitive to increases in temperature, reservoir capacity, ground-water pumpage during drought, and consumptive water use--in that order of importance. The effects of global warming on basin runoff and drought cannot be determined precisely, as yet, principally because of the unreliability of precipitation projections.

Ayers, Mark A.; Tasker, Gary D.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.

1990-01-01

400

Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

401

Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin).  

PubMed

The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V

2014-01-01

402

Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.

Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-06-01

403

Milankovitch Forcing in Equatorial, Late Triassic Pangea: (Deep River; Dan River, and Richmond Basins, Southeastern USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Milankovitch character of lake level fluctuations in the tropics of central Pangea has been well established since the pioneering work of Van Houten in the 1960's (1) that laid the foundation for quantitative analysis of core and outcrops in the 1990's (2,3). In the region from about 3° to 10° N latitude giant rift lakes fluctuated to the classic Milankovitch frequencies of precessional forcing of ~20, 96, 128, and 404 ky, as well as the less well known 1.75 and 3.5 m.y. cycles. The latter are the Triassic values for the periods of g4-g3 of eccentricity related precessional forcing and the secular resonance, theta (2(g4- g3) - (s4-s3)), of precessional and obliquity related forcing. We attribute the forcing of lake depth largely to modulation of the strength of tropical convergence. Late Triassic rifts located from 0° to 3° N latitude show similar patterns, except with a strong tendency towards a doubling of the climatic precessional frequency and a lack of evaporites as previously reported from the Dan River basin (4,5,6). Here we report on new analyses of coal-bearing cores and drill holes from the Deep River, Dan River, and Richmond basin of older Late Triassic lacustrine strata that reinforce this pattern but show that the doubling of the precessional frequency is not ubiquitous at the equator and also show that very strong climatic transitions appear related to the 1.75 and 3.5 m.y. cycles juxtaposing coals and caliches in vertical sequence and sometimes coinciding with major faunal and floral transitions. (1) Van Houten FB. 1964. Kansas Geol. Surv. Bull. 169:497. (2) Olsen PE & Kent DV. 1996. Palaeogeo. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 122:1-26. (3) Olsen PE & Kent DV. 1999. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. (A) 357:1761-1787. (4) Olsen PE & Kent DV.1996. Eos, Trans., AGU 77(46), Suppl.:301. (5) Olsen PE. 1997. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 25:337-401. (6) Olsen PE & Kent DV. 2000. in Bachmann G. and Lerche I. (eds.), Epicontinental Triassic, Vol. 3, Zent. Geol. Palaont. VIII:1475-1496.

Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Letourneau, P. M.

2003-12-01

404

Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

2014-01-01

405

SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli  

SciTech Connect

At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

1993-05-01

406

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only lociAat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's FIS , FIT and FST over all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statunascendi. PMID:21637702

2009-01-01

407

Estimating annual precipitation for the Colorado River Basin using oceanic-atmospheric oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating long-lead time precipitation under the stress of increased climatic variability is a challenging task in the field of hydrology. A modified Support Vector Machine (SVM) based framework is proposed to estimate annual precipitation using oceanic-atmospheric oscillations. Oceanic-atmospheric oscillations, consisting of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for a period of 1900-2008, are used to generate annual precipitation estimates with a 1 year lead time. The SVM model is applied to 17 climate divisions encompassing the Colorado River Basin in the western United States. The overall results revealed that the annual precipitation in the Colorado River Basin is significantly influenced by oceanic-atmospheric oscillations. The long-term precipitation predictions for the Upper Colorado River Basin can be successfully obtained using a combination of PDO, NAO, and AMO indices, whereas coupling AMO and ENSO results in improved precipitation predictions for the Lower Colorado River Basin. The results also show that the SVM model provides better precipitation estimates compared to the Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Linear Regression models. The annual precipitation estimates obtained using the modified SVM modeling framework may assist water managers in statistically understanding the hydrologic response in relation to large scale climate patterns within the Colorado River Basin.

Kalra, Ajay; Ahmad, Sajjad

2012-06-01

408

Impact of Impervious Surface on River Discharge in Lake Kasumigaura Basin, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impervious Surface Area (ISA) is defined as the constructed surface that prevents water from infiltrating into the soil. The ISA has emerged not only as an indicator of the degree of urbanization, but also as a major indicator of environmental quality for drainage basin management. This study focused on the relation between ISA ratio calculated by remote sensing technology and river discharge in Lake Kasumigaura Basin, Japan. ISA ratio was estimated by satellite image using Prescreened and Normalized Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (PNMESMA) developed for drainage basin with the estimating error smaller than 10%. Three types (vegetation, impervious surface, soil) of endmember were selected from the image, and the fraction of each endmember was calculated based on linear mixing model. River discharge dataset was collected from Kasumigaura River Office. Since the monitoring sites do not locate in the down stream, the up stream river basins of the monitoring sites were extracted by hydrological model in Geographic Information System (GIS) instead of the existing basin map. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data with spatial resolution of 10m was collected from Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) to estimate the area of drainage. For the extracted drainage basins, the statistical relation between ISA ratio and river discharge were studied in 2000 and 2007 since the Landsat images used to estimate the fraction of ISA were in good image quality. The long-term change of river discharge was also investigated to provide the background value of this research. Results of spatial analysis suggested that the increase of the ISA raised the discharge in the rainy season, and reduced the discharge in the period of water shortage in Lake Kasumigaura Basin.

Yang, F.; Matsushita, B.; Fukushima, T.; Lab of Environmental Modeling; Creation

2011-12-01

409

Sediment supply as a driver of river meandering and floodplain evolution in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of externally imposed sediment supplies on the evolution of meandering rivers and their floodplains is poorly understood, despite analytical advances in our physical understanding of river meandering. The Amazon river basin hosts tributaries that are largely unaffected by engineering controls and hold a range of sediment loads, allowing us to explore the influence that sediment supply has on river evolution. Here we calculate average annual rates of meander migration within 20 reaches in the Amazon Basin from Landsat imagery spanning 1985-2013. We find that rivers with high sediment loads experience annual migration rates that are higher than those of rivers with lower sediment loads. Meander cutoff also occurs more frequently along rivers with higher sediment loads. Differences in meander migration and cutoff rates between the study reaches are not explained by differences in channel slope or river discharge. Because faster meander migration and higher cutoff rates lead to increased sediment-storage space in the resulting oxbows, we suggest that sediment supply modulates the reshaping of floodplain environments by meandering rivers. We conclude that imposed sediment loads influence planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon.

Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Ahmed, Joshua; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

2014-12-01

410

Floodplain biogeochemical processing of floodwaters in the Atchafalaya River Basin during the Mississippi River flood of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2011 flood in the Lower Mississippi resulted in the second highest recorded river flow diverted into the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). The higher water levels during the flood peak resulted in high hydrologic connectivity between the Atchafalaya River and floodplain, with up to 50% of the Atchafalaya River water moving off channel. Water quality samples were collected throughout the ARB over the course of the flood event. Significant nitrate (NO3-) reduction (75%) occurred within the floodplain, resulting in a total NO3- reduction of 16.6% over the flood. The floodplain was a small but measurable source of dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium (NH4+). Collectively, these results from this large flood event suggest that enhancing river-floodplain connectivity through freshwater diversions will reduce NO3- loads to the Gulf of Mexico during large annual floods.

Scott, Durelle T.; Keim, Richard F.; Edwards, Brandon L.; Jones, C. Nathan; Kroes, Daniel E.

2014-04-01

411

Pollutant sources investigation and remedial strategies development for the Kaoping River Basin, Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Kaoping River Basin, located in southern Taiwan, flows through approximately 171 km and drains towards the South Taiwan Strait. It is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. Based on the results from the pollutant sources investigation and water quality analysis, the main water pollution sources of the Kaoping River were livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, leachate from riverbank landfills, and non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in the upper catchment. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. The following remedial strategies have been taken to improve the river water quality since 2001: (1) hog ban in the upper catchment of the Kaoping River Basin, thus, 510 thousand hogs have been removed/relocated; (2) removal of riverbank landfills; (3) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards; (4) sewer system construction in five cities along the river corridor; (5) application of best management practices for NPS pollutant control; (6) application of natural wastewater treatment systems (e.g. land treatment, constructed wetland, overland flow, riverbank sedimentation/aeration pond) for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas; and (7) construction of the watershed geographical information system (GIS) and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively monitor and manage the watershed. Recent water quality investigation results indicate that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient loadings to the Kaoping River have been significantly reduced and the water quality has been improved after the implementation of the remedial strategies described above. Results and experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing the watershed management strategies for other similar river basins. PMID:14653639

Kao, C M; Wu, F C; Chen, K F; Lin, T F; Yen, Y E; Chiang, P C

2003-01-01

412

Mean annual runoff in the upper Ohio River basin, 1941-70, and its historical variation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map of the Ohio River basin above the Muskingum River shows patterns of mean annual runoff for the new climatologic and hydrologic reference period, 1941-70, and provides an up-to-date, consistent basis for consideration of this streamflow characteristic. The primary data base consisted of 98 long-term gaging-station records collected within this 27,300-square-mile (70,700-square-kilometer) headwater area of the Ohio River basin. Supplemental information was derived from 83 short-term records. Mean annual runoff is at a regional minimum of less than 12 inches (300 millimeters) in an area extending from the northern West Virginia panhandle to the headwaters of the Mahoning River in Ohio. Mean annual runoff of more than 32 inches {810 millimeters) occurs in parts of the upper Cheat River basin in West Virginia. The zone of high runoff trends northeastward along the western slopes of tile Allegheny Mountains; magnitudes diminish to about 25 inches (630 millimeters) at the eastern basin boundary near Ebensburg, Pa. Runoff of this magnitude occurs also in a band across tile upper Allegheny River basin in Pennsylvania. Ratios of mean annual discharge to the 30-year reference-period average were computed for each year of record for all long-term gaging stations. Annual discharges have ranged from about 30 percent to 200 percent of the 30-year mean. Graphed summaries of the annual ratios document the relative duration and magnitude of wet and dry periods during the past 65 years in the upper Ohio River basin.

Beall, Robert M.

1978-01-01

413

Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have been assessed. Within the largest basin in terms of watershed area of the Volga, the Oka and the Kama (2-nd rank river basins) have been singled out and characterized separately. The method of river basins boundaries overlapping (in digital map scaled 1:1000000) on zonal spaces in «Arc GIS» has been applied. The biggest phytomass reserve is concentrated in the Neva and the Oka river basins, in the southern direction phytomass reserve is gradually declining due to the decrease of forest area. The most productive areas are the Don, the Ural, the Kuban basins. Productivity of the Volga basin ecosystems as a whole is medial (the highest values are typical for the Oka basin). The highest humus content is registered in the Kuban river basin, the lowest - in the North Dvina basin. The most favourable bioclimatic conditions are observed in the Dnieper basin. As a result high values of soil-productive potential are typical for the ecosystems of the Dnieper, the Kuban and the Volga basins where this value is high only due to the Oka basin area. The received values of soil-productive potential were correlated to hydraulogic characteristics of these basins, peculiarities of land use and arable land condition (according to SEI and crop capacity). High discharge module is stated to be typical for the northern rivers basins of little soil-productive potential (the Pechora, the Mezen); river basins of high soil-productive potential are characterized by low or average values of discharge module (the Dnieper, the Oka, the Kuban). The most agriculturally developed area is the Don basin, as here agricultural load reaches the highest limit, about 60% of the area is ploughed up though natural ecosystems and agricultural systems potential is not the highest, that may threaten the proper functioning of the basin. Ecosystem high soil-productive potential in the Kuban basin corresponds to good condition of arable lands, high crop capacity and great agricultural development of the area.

Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

2014-05-01

414

UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER BASIN STATUS REPORT, 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

The Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) begins with relatively high water quality, with nutrient levels below those considered potentially causative to algal activity. Below Heise, nutrient concentrations rise and the quality of the river is degraded. Phosphorus enters the S...

415

Glacial lake McConnell: Paleogeography, age, duration, and associated river deltas, mackenzie river basin, western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial Lake McConnell lasted from 11.8 to 8.3 ka BP while occupying parts of the Great Bear, Great Slave and Athabasca Lake basin. The retreating Laurentide ice-front formed the eastern margin, whereas low rolling hills formed the north, west and south shorelines. Three major deltas were deposited at the mouths of the Laird, Peace and Athabasca rivers. The total extent of all phases of the lake was 240,000 km2, while the largest extent was 210,000 km2 at 10.5 ka BP. Downwarping of the basin by glacial ice was the main cause of the lake, whereas sediment blockage between Jean Marie River and Fort Simpson was secondary. Initially, glacial Lake McConnell occupied the northwestern corner (Smith Arm) of the Great Bear Lake basin and discharged through the Hare Indian River outlet. By 11.5 ka BP the enlarged water body flowed out the Great Bear River, but only for a short period of time. The Mackenzie River formed the third outlet near Jean Marie River at 11 ka BP and flow in the Great Bear River ceased until 9 ka BP. At 9.9 ka BP glacial Lake McConnell was impacted by a major flood from glacial Lake Agassiz with a peak discharge of 2-7 × 106 m3/sec. Flood water discharged from glacial Lake McConnell, peaking at 0.35-0.57 × 106 m3/sec and receding flow continued for 30 months. The massive influx of floodwater into glacial Lake McConnell caused an abrupt increase of discharge, which enlarged the outlet channel to between 6 and 13 km wide between Fort Simpson and Jean Marie River. At 8.3 ka BP, isostatic rebound ended the 3500-year-old extensive lake by dividing it into the Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca.

Smith, Derald G.

416

Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

Quinodoz, H. A.

2006-12-01

417

History of suspended-sediment data collection and inventory of available data for the Tennessee and Cumberland River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1934 and 1935, the Tennessee Valley Authority established 51 daily record suspended-sediment stations on the Tennessee River and its major tributaries. Most of these stations were operated for 8 years. From 1962 to 1965, the Tennessee Valley Authority again collected daily sediment record at 10 of the original 49 stations. In addition to the data sets collected on the major rivers, the Tennessee Valley Authority has conducted several intensive studies of small watersheds throughout the Tennessee River basin. In the Cumberland River basin, daily sediment records have been collected primarily by the Survey. Daily stations have been operated for various periods on 17 basins ranging in size from 0.67 to 1,977 sq mi, with the earliest data of daily record being October 1953. All of these daily stations are located in the upper Cumberland River basin upstream of any major impoundments. Periodic sediment data have been collected by the Survey at 194 stations in the Tennessee River basin and at 106 stations in the Cumberland River basin, however; the number of samples/station is quite low. 86% of the periodic stations in the Tennessee River basin and 91% of the periodic stations in the Cumberland River basin have 30 samples or less. (USGS)

Carey, William P.; Brown, Russell T.; Chatham, Carrie G.

1988-01-01

418

Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.

1980-01-01

419

Free-living and particle-associated bacterioplankton in large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin demonstrate biogeographic patterns.  

PubMed

The different drainage basins of large rivers such as the Mississippi River represent interesting systems in which to study patterns in freshwater microbial biogeography. Spatial variability in bacterioplankton communities in six major rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin was characterized using Ion Torrent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. When all systems were combined, particle-associated (>3 micron) bacterial assemblages were different from free-living bacterioplankton in terms of overall community structure, partly because of differences in the proportional abundance of sequences affiliated with major bacterial lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes). Both particle-associated and free-living communities ordinated by river system, a pattern that was apparent even after rare sequences or those affiliated with Cyanobacteria were removed from the analyses. Ordination of samples by river system correlated with environmental characteristics of each river, such as nutrient status and turbidity. Communities in the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri, and the Ohio and the Tennessee, pairs of rivers that join each other, contained similar taxa in terms of presence/absence data, but differed in the proportional abundance of major lineages. The most common sequence types detected in particle-associated communities were picocyanobacteria in the Syn/Pro clade, while free-living communities also contained a high proportion of LD12 (SAR11/Pelagibacter)-like Alphaproteobacteria. This research shows that while different tributaries of large river systems such as the Mississippi River harbor distinct bacterioplankton communities, there is also microhabitat variation such as that between free-living and particle-associated assemblages. PMID:25217018

Jackson, Colin R; Millar, Justin J; Payne, Jason T; Ochs, Clifford A

2014-09-12

420