Sample records for indus river basin

  1. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    E-print Network

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  2. Water governance and adaptation to climate change in the Indus River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Brown, Casey; Yu, Winston; Wescoat, James; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Conflicting approaches to water governance at multiple scales within large international river basins may have detrimental effects on the productivity of water resources and consequently the economic activities of the basin. In the Indus River Basin, local scale water productivity decisions are affected by international and intra-national scale water governance. Water availability and productivity is modulated by the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and within Pakistan by the agreements governing water allocation between and within provinces. Much of the literature on governance at multiple scales in the Indus basin, and others, has employed qualitative methods of institutional analysis. This paper extends that approach with quantitative modeling of surface water allocation rules at multiple scales and the consequent economic impact on water use and productivity in the Indus River of Pakistan. The effects of the existing water allocation mechanisms on the ability to adapt to possible future climate conditions are examined. The study is conducted using the Indus Basin Model Revised - Multi-Year (IBMR-MY), a hydro-agro-economic model of the Indus River within Pakistan that simulates river and canal flows, groundwater pumping, water use and economic activities with a distributed, partial equilibrium model of the local scale agro-economic activities in the basin. Results suggest that without changes in response to changing conditions, the current governance mechanisms impede the provinces' ability to adapt to changing climate conditions, in ways that are significant, inflicting economic costs under both high and low flow conditions. However surface water allocation between the provinces does not appear to hinder adaptation. The greatest gains for economic water allocation are achieved at the sub-provincial level. The results imply that adaptive mechanisms for water allocation that allow response to changing climate conditions within provinces may be a promising adaptive response in the Indus Basin.

  3. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

  4. Two Years in the Life of the Indus River Basin [book chapter

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Reviews the major challenges and current water and agriculture context, plans, and policies following difficult years of drought and catastrophic monsoon flooding in Pakistan's Indus Basin. The years from 2009 through 2011 ...

  5. Land surface hydrological investigation in Upper Indus River Basin (UIB), North Pakistan under the Framework of TPE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is home to three of the world's mightiest mountain ranges. The Karakoram in north and the Himalaya in northeast while the Hindukush in the northwest of Pakistan. The Indus River emerges from the Tibetan Plateau and flows toward northern areas of Pakistan where it changes its direction toward the south and flows into the Arabian Sea. The catchment area of Indus River is located in Pakistan, China and India, but most part covered in Pakistan. The Upper Indus Basin lies within the variable influence of three major weather systems: the sub-Mediterranean regime of mainly winter, westerly storms; the summer monsoon; and the Tibetan anticyclone. The Upper Indus River Basin has a total catchment area of approx. 206,000 km2. The UIB includes the Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar and Shyok sub-basins. Nearly 11.5% (22,000 km2) of the total area of the UIB is covered by perennial glacial ice (including most of the largest valley glaciers) making it the largest area outside the polar and Greenland regions (Hewitt, 2007). UIB has a mean elevation of 4750 m with almost 60% of its total area above an elevation of 4500 m and 12% of its area (almost the same area is glacier covered) above 5500 m. Glacial melt is one of the major sources of inflow in the Upper Indus Basin, 44.8% of its river flow depends upon glacial melting. Its mean discharge at Tarbela dam is 5533 m3/s (IUCN, IWMI). Most of the annual precipitation in the UIB falls in the winter and spring and originates from the west (Young and Hewitt, 1990). Several researchers reported that 80% of the flow of the Upper Indus River is contributed by less than 20% of its area, essentially from the zones of heavy snowfall and glaciated basins above 3500m in elevation. Under the Framework of TPE Program, observational researches have been lunched since last year. The project aim to the objective of hydrological consequence of snow cover in UIB; impact of glacier dynamic to basin drainage and response of discharge to climatic changes during past 50 years. The presentation will highlight the research including field expedition in 2011, objective and strategies, and request to cooperation as well.

  6. Sea-level responses to erosion and deposition of sediment in the Indus River basin and the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Giosan, Liviu; Clift, Peter D.

    2015-04-01

    Changes in sea level are of wide interest because they shape the sedimentary geologic record, modulate flood-related hazards, and reflect Earth's climate. One driver of sea-level change is the erosion and deposition of sediment, which induces changes in sea level by perturbing Earth's crust, gravity field, and rotation axis. Here we use a gravitationally self-consistent global model to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected sea level during the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle in the northeastern Arabian Sea and the Indus River basin, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. We drive the model with a widely used reconstruction of ice mass variations over the last glacial cycle and a sediment loading history that we constructed from published erosion and deposition rate measurements. Our modeling suggests that sediment fluxes from the Indus River are large enough to produce meter-scale changes in sea level near the Indus delta in as little as a few thousand years. These sea-level perturbations are largest closest to the center of the Indus delta, and they grow larger over time as sediment deposition increases. This implies that the elevation of sea-level markers near the Indus delta will be significantly altered by sediment transfer over millennial timescales, and that such deformation should be accounted for in studies that use paleo-sea-level markers to infer past ice sheet volume or explore local processes such as sediment compaction. Our analysis highlights the role that massive fluvial sediment fluxes play in driving sea-level changes over >1000-yr timescales from the Indus River, and, by implication, from other rivers with large sediment fluxes.

  7. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

  8. The Geographic, Geological and Oceanographic Setting of the Indus River

    E-print Network

    Clift, Peter

    -west monsoon of Asia that largely fill the Indus River although most of the run-off north of the Tarbela Dam comes from snow and ice melt. About 37% of the Karakoram Mountains and about 17% of the Himalaya in the upper basin carry glaciers (Tarar, 1982). The Indus, Jhelum and Chenab Rivers are the major sources

  9. Projected changes in climate over the Indus river basin using a high resolution regional climate model (PRECIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbhandari, R.; Shrestha, A. B.; Kulkarni, A.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bajracharya, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    A regional climate modelling system, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, has been used to study future climate change scenarios over Indus basin for the impact assessment. In this paper we have examined the three Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions simulations selected from 17-member perturbed physics ensemble generated using Hadley Centre Coupled Module. The climate projections based on IPCC SRES A1B scenario are analysed over three time slices, near future (2011-2040), middle of the twenty first century (2041-2070), and distant future (2071-2098). The baseline simulation (1961-1990) was evaluated with observed data for seasonal and spatial patterns and biases. The model was able to resolve features on finer spatial scales and depict seasonal variations reasonably well, although there were quantitative biases. The model simulations suggest a non-uniform change in precipitation overall, with an increase in precipitation over the upper Indus basin and decrease over the lower Indus basin, and little change in the border area between the upper and lower Indus basins. A decrease in winter precipitation is projected, particularly over the southern part of the basin. Projections indicate greater warming in the upper than the lower Indus, and greater warming in winter than in the other seasons. The simulations suggest an overall increase in the number of rainy days over the basin, but a decrease in the number of rainy days accompanied by an increase in rainfall intensity in the border area between the upper and lower basins, where the rainfall amount is highest.

  10. Future Climate Scenarios for the Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the literature and available data on hydroclimatic variability and change on the Indus Basin plains, comparing historical fluctuations in climatic and hydrologic variables and reviewing scenarios of climate change ...

  11. Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Sutton, S.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

  12. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  13. Impact assessment of hydroclimatic change on water stress in the Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Rasheed, Bilhuda

    2013-01-01

    Ninety percent of Pakistan's agricultural output is produced in fields irrigated by the Indus basin irrigation system, the world's largest network of canals, dams, barrages and tubewells. River flows, primarily fed by snow ...

  14. Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

  15. Nature of particulate organic matter in the River Indus, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venugopalan Ittekkot; Rafee Arain

    1986-01-01

    Suspended sediments from the Indus River collected during 1981 through 1983 were analyzed for POC and its constituent fractions including amino acids, amino sugars and sugars. Percentage of POC decreased with increasing suspended matter concentrations, which suggested dilution of organic matter by mineral matter. The concentrations of amino acids, amino sugars and sugars varied, respectively, between 180 and 2000 g\\/l,

  16. Spatial quantification of groundwater abstraction in the irrigated Indus basin.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M J M; Immerzeel, W W; Bastiaanssen, W G M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to derive total annual irrigation applied in the irrigated areas of the basin during the year 2007. The SWAT model was parameterized by station corrected precipitation data (R) from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission, land use, soil type, and outlet locations. The model was calibrated using a new approach based on spatially distributed ET fields derived from different satellite sensors. The calibration results were satisfactory and strong improvements were obtained in the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (0.52 to 0.93), bias (-17.3% to -0.4%), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.78 to 0.93). Satellite information on R and ET was then combined with model results of surface runoff, drainage, and percolation to derive groundwater abstraction and depletion at a nominal resolution of 1 km. It was estimated that in 2007, 68 km³ (262 mm) of groundwater was abstracted in the Indus Basin while 31 km³ (121 mm) was depleted. The mean error was 41 mm/year and 62 mm/year at 50% and 70% probability of exceedance, respectively. Pakistani and Indian Punjab and Haryana were the most vulnerable areas to groundwater depletion and strong measures are required to maintain aquifer sustainability. PMID:23441997

  17. Quaternary Indus River Terraces as Archives of Summer Monsoon Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonell, Tara N.; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-04-01

    If we are to interpret the marine stratigraphic record in terms of evolving continental environmental conditions or tectonics, it is essential to understand the transport processes that bring sediment from mountain sources to its final marine depocenter. We investigate the role that climate plays in modulating this flux by looking at the Indus River system, which is dominated by the strong forcing of the Asian monsoon and the erosion of the western Himalaya. Lake, paleoceanographic, and speleothem records offer high-resolution reconstructions of monsoon intensity over millennial timescales. These proxies suggest the monsoon reached peak intensity at ~9-10 ka in central India, followed by a steady decline after ~7 ka, with a steep decline after 4 ka. New lake core records (Tso Kar and Tso Moriri), however, suggest a more complex pattern of monsoon weakening between 7-8 ka in the Greater Himalayan region, which contrasts with a time of strong monsoon in central India. This indicates that the floodplains of the major river systems may not experience the same climatic conditions as their mountain sources, resulting in different geomorphologic responses to climate change. Earlier research has established that the northern part of the Indus floodplain adjacent to the mountains experienced incision after ~10 ka. Incision and reworking is even more intense in the Himalayas but its timing is not well-constrained. High altitude river valleys, at least north of the Greater Himalaya, appear to be sensitive to monsoon strength because they lie on the periphery of the Himalayan rain shadow. These valleys may be affected by landslide damming during periods of strong monsoonal precipitation, such as slightly after the monsoon maximum from 9-10 ka. Damming of these river valleys provides sediment storage through valley-filling and later sediment release through gradual incision or dam-bursting. Terraces of a major tributary to the Indus, the Zanskar River, indicate valley-filling prior to ~10 or even ~30 ka, and suggest periods of strong summer rains; although existing dates on these landslide-dammed terraces are sparse. New OSL ages help constrain the timing of valley-filling events and the timing of river incision when this sediment was released to the Indus river and thus to the delta. Initial work suggests that sediment storage in mountain terraces may be the greatest source of sediment (~80%) to the post-glacial Indus, and that the timing of sediment release may be modulated by periods of strong precipitation . In order to interpret the marine erosional archive as an environmental record, it is fundamental to understand how this sediment is stored on the continent and released to the ocean.

  18. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  19. Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay

    E-print Network

    Seamons, Kent E.

    Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay A thesis;ABSTRACT Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria N. Asay Department of Geological Sciences, BYU Master of Science Quantifying the contribution of glaciers to water resources

  20. Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

  1. Multi- Sensor Imaging and Space-Ground Cross-Validation for Flood Monitoring triggered by the 2010 Monsoon along Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-sensor network-based flood monitoring framework is developed by integrating space- borne optical, hyper-spectral, passive and active microwave sensors, with cross-validation using ground-based rain gauges and streamflow stations along the Indus River, Pakistan. First, the optical imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to delineate the extent of the 2010 flood along the Indus River, Pakistan. Moreover, the all-weather all-time capability of higher resolution imagery from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) is used to monitor flooding in the lower Indus river basin. Then a proxy for river discharge from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to retrieval streamflow time series and precipitation patterns. The AMSR-E detected water surface signal was cross-validated with ground-based river discharge observations at multiple streamflow stations along the main Indus River. A high correlation was found as indicated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7, 0.72, 0.7, 0.82, 0.84, 0.88, 0.83 for stations at Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur, Kotri, respectively. It is concluded that remote-sensing data integrated from optical, hyper-spectral and microwave sensors could be used to supplement stream gauges in sparsely gauged basins to detect floods. The study demonstrates that the capability to detecting ongoing flooding situations in its upper reaches can be valuable early warning for spatially distributed flood monitoring and even prediction in the lower reaches of the Indus river basin.

  2. Structural separation of river flow regimes and paleo-landscape decoupling: a case study on the Indus River, northwest Himalayas. 

    E-print Network

    Haworth, Chris

    2012-11-29

    New evidence derived from remotely sensed data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) on the Indus River and its tributaries suggests that structural features of the area’s geology exert a much greater influence than was previously thought. A...

  3. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  4. Constraints to the timing of IndiaEurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the IndusTsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India

    E-print Network

    Najman, Yani

    Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus­Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India Alexandra L. Henderson a , Yani, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks

  5. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976–2005, 2006–2035, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041–2050 and 2071–2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976–2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071–2100 in contrast with 2041–2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071–2100) in comparison to 2041–2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

  6. ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    Thorp, James H.

    #12;983 22 ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN system can travel at least 3260km from western Lake Superior the river system draws sustenance from nine states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio surviving record of the basin's exploration by Europeans dates to 1535, during a period of exploration

  7. ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

  8. Human induced flooding of the Indus River in 2010: How it changed the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Major rivers in densely populated areas are typically heavily engineered to fulfill. water needs and importantly to ensure protection for citizens and structures. The Indus River forms no exception to this. The river has been dammed and engineered for centuries, comprising one of the largest irrigation networks in the world. The engineered river system results in a reduction of its outflow to 10% of its historical value, with commonly no flow at the outlet for several months of the year. During July 2010, extensive flooding occurred causing ~2,000 fatalities and ~20 million people were displaced for weeks to months due to a peak discharge that was not exceptional in any sense (~10 year reoccurrence interval). The northern breach was located near the Sukkur Barrage and likely caused by undercapacity of the engineered channel. We analyzed AMSR-E, ASTER-A1 and MODIS satellite data to map the propagation of the Indus flood wave in the main channel and through the major breaches. The flood wave traveled through the main channel in ~20 days and much slower through newly-formed avulsion pathway onwards from the breach at Sukkur Barrage (~42 days).Analysis of MODIS reflectance changes between pre- and post-flood imagery allowed analysis of the extent of sandy flood deposition as well as quantification of channel migration patterns. The river channel migrates over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event controlled by massive pointbar accretion and river cutbank erosion and slumping. Lateral migration averaged ~340m in just 52 days along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River. Crevasse splaying is widespread and appears to occur as a flow stripping process both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Crevasse deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. The mapped flood deposits are analyzed for different river stretches and quantitatively related to river gradient and sinuosity. The 2010 Indus flood shows an example of a heavily engineered system, it provides us with insights on flood water propagation and sedimentation and river migration in a river system with many dams and stopbanks.

  9. CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

  10. Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments

    E-print Network

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahma...

  11. A quantitative assessment of the genetic sources of the hydrologic flow regimes in Upper Indus Basin and its significance in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Khan, Asif

    2014-02-01

    Reliable quantitative estimates of contributions melt water of different genetic sources make to river flows in Himalayan river basins are largely unknown. Here we provide such estimates for Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Analyses of historical flow records at 11 gauging stations spanning 14-48 years during a period of record from 1962 to 2010 reveal: a uniform character of annual flow distributions at all gauging stations given by a Gaussian function implying a unique glacio-hydrometeorological condition prevailing throughout the basin controlling four hydrologic flow regimes within UIB. Two low flow regimes occur during the months of October to December (L1) and January to March (L2) and two high flow regimes that occur during April-June (H1) and July-September (H2). For all stations, flow magnitudes follow, H2 > H1 > L1 > L2. In the main stem of Upper Indus River, the contributions to total annual flow volumes (m3) during these flow regimes are 53-62% during H2, 24-32% during H1, 8-9% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. In the main tributaries, these ranges are 47-74% during H2, 15-38% during H1, 8-10% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. Separation of annual hydrographs by linear smoothing and recursive digital filtering technique shows that the annual contribution of melt water (M2) from an elevation band 3500-5300 m to total annual flow volume (m3) varies from 41% to 54% along the main stem of Indus, upstream of the Himalayan foothills. Contribution of melt water (M1) from an elevation band 2500-3500 m varies from 16% to 29%. In the tributaries, annual contributions of M2 vary from 37% to as high as 65%. Similarly, annual contributions of M1 in the tributaries vary from as low as 12% to 34%. Thus, the relative importance of melt water originating from high-altitudes far overweighs that originating from mid-altitudes, in river runoff within UIB. The chief component of M1 is seasonal snows whereas M2 is a mixture of glacial melts, seasonal snows falling in winter and spring, and monsoonal snows falling in the summer (July-September). The M2 component contributes to base flows during L1 regime. Base flow recession occurs during L2 regime. During the H2 regime, three watersheds with greatest glaciated surfaces straddling the Karakoram Mountains contribute 48-54% of flows at Shatial Bridge, a point upstream of Tarbela reservoir up to which rainfall contributions to river discharges in UIB are inconsequential. During the H1 regime, these watersheds drained by Shyok, Shigar, and Hunza rivers contribute 20-31% of flows at this point. During L1 and L2 regimes, their contributions are 33-39% and 31-32% respectively. Contributions of glacial melt and snowmelt to annual river flows vary from 18-35% and 38-50% respectively in the major tributaries and the main stem of Upper Indus, depending on the location. Upper Indus River just upstream of Tarbela Reservoir carries annual flows constituted of 70% melt water of which 21% is contributed by glacial melts and 49% by snowmelts. Thus, changes in climatic trends will greatly control the future water availability within UIB. If glacial retreat and reduction of the perennial snow and ice covers are happening in UIB in a changing climate, then there will indeed be long-term reductions in river flows in UIB and hence sustainability of water resources in this basin will potentially be at risk.

  12. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ˜200 ka and ˜50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ˜30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late- or post-glacial sediment pulse seems a more likely source of this widespread sedimentation that has partly buried the dissected bedrock topography. Overall, the long residence times of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine deposits in the region (>500 ka) support previous studies, but remain striking given the dominantly steep slopes and deeply carved valleys that characterise this high-altitude mountain desert. Recalculated late Quaternary rates of fluvial bedrock incision in the Indus and Zanskar of 1.5 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 are at odds with the longevity of juxtaposed valley-fill deposits, unless a lack of decisive lateral fluvial erosion helps to preserve these late Pleistocene sedimentary archives. We conclude that alternating, ˜104-yr long, phases of massive infilling and incision have dominated the late Quaternary history of the Indus valley below the western Tibetan Plateau margin.

  13. How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when there are areas of internal drainage nearby.

  14. Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

  15. Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, V.; Ul Hasson, S.; Pascale, S.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because precipitations are determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

  16. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use planning and soil conservation as well as flood management, with a focus on the reduction of erosion and resulting sedimentation as well as the restoration of ecosystem services like wetlands and natural floodplains. Water demand management options include: (1) the management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; as well as (2) the rehabilitation and modernization of existing infrastructure. Other demand management options are: (3) the increase of water productivity for agriculture; (4) crop planning and diversification including the critical assessment of agricultural export, especially (basmati) rice; (5) economic instruments and (6) changing food demand patterns and limiting post-harvest losses.

  17. A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential implications of the vertical (hypsometric) distribution of these parameters are considered. Interlinkages between observed changes in these parameters and the evolution of large-scale circulation indices (ENSO, NAO, local vorticity) are also investigated. In parallel to these climatological considerations, the study presents the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- including interannual variability as quantified from the available river gauging record. In order to begin to assess potential implications of future climate change on UIB hydrology, key modes of variability in the climate parameters are identified. The study then analyses in detail the corresponding observed anomalies in UIB discharge for years exemplifying these modes. In conclusion, this work postulates potential impacts of changes in the hydrological variability stemming from continuation of estimated present local climatic trends.

  18. Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation,

    E-print Network

    Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Reporting (MERR) Plan Council document 2010-4 #12;9 March 2010 Draft 2 Executive Summary This Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Reporting Plan (MERR Plan) ensures the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) goals

  19. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)

    PubMed Central

    Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world’s most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world’s most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin’s range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  20. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    PubMed

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  1. Environmental impacts of climate change and water development in the Indus delta region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin M. Leichenko; James L. Wescoat Jr

    1993-01-01

    The prospect of global warming raises particular concern in delta regions, many of which are already experiencing severe environmental strain as the result of human activity. This paper considers the potential environmental effects of climatic change and water development in the delta region of Pakistan's Indus River Basin. The impact assessment is conducted using regional output from a river basin

  2. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water Resources and Management of Tarbela Reservoir under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios in Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Water resources play a vital role in agriculture, energy, industry, households and ecological balance. The main source of water to rivers is the Himalaya-Karakorum-Hindukush (HKH) glaciers and rainfall in Upper Indus Basin (UIB). There is high uncertainty in the availability of water in the rivers due to the variability of the monsoon, Western Disturbances, prolonged droughts and melting of glaciers in the HKH region. Therefore, proper management of water resources is undeniably important. Due to the growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. For the assessment of possible climate change, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation were investigated and evidence was found in favor of climate change in the region. Due to large differences between historical meteorological data and Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulated data, different statistical techniques were used for bias correction in temperature and precipitation. The hydrological model was calibrated for the period of 1995-2004 and validated for the period of 1990-1994 with almost 90 % efficiencies. After the application of bias correction techniques output of RCM, Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS) were used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at Tarbela reservoir on Indus River. For climate change assessment, the results show that the above mentioned variables have greater increasing trend under A2 scenario compared to B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to Tarbela reservoir show that overall 59.42 % and 34.27 % inflow increasing to Tarbela Reservoir during 2040-2069 under A2 and B2 scenarios will occur, respectively. Highest inflow and comparatively more shortage of water is noted in the 2020s under A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climate are investigated on the operation of the Tarbela reservoir. The results show that there will be shortage of water in some months over different years. There are no chances of overtopping of the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under A2 and B2 scenarios. _______________________________________________________________________________KEY WORDS: Climate Model, Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Climate Change Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Inflow, Outflow, Evaporation, Indus River, Calibration, Bias Correction.

  3. Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin Pocket Guide 2013 Edition #12;PAGe 2 > POCKET GUIDE Basin , and fish and wildlife affected by, the columbia River Basin hydropower dams. the council is a unique

  4. Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cheng; G. Davidson; M. Altinakar; R. Holt

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems and their contribution to environmental change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Mohsin; Goheer, M. Arif

    2008-11-01

    There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHG concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from different agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  6. Hydrological cycle over South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate how the climate models contributing to the PCMDI/CMIP3 dataset describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the 20th, 21st (13 models) and 22nd (10 models) centuries. For the 20th century, some models do not seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. The simulated precipitation minus evaporation (P - E), total runoff (R) and precipitation (P) quantities are neither consistent with the observations nor among the models themselves. Most of the models underestimate P - E for all four river basins, which is mainly associated with the underestimation of precipitation. This is in agreement with the recent results on the biases of the representation of monsoonal dynamics by GCMs. Overall, a modest inter-model agreement is found only for the evaporation and inter-annual variability of P - E. For the 21st and 22nd centuries, models agree on the negative (positive) changes of P - E for the Indus basin (Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins). Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of P - E for the Ganges and Mekong basins, thus suggesting an increase in large low-frequency dry/wet events. Instead, no considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of P - E is found for the Indus and Brahmaputra basins.

  7. Atlas of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    #12;Atlas of the Columbia River Basin Oregon State University Computer-Assisted Cartography Course & GEOVISUALIZATION GROUP UNIVERSITY #12;2013 Oregon State University Atlas of the Columbia River Basin FOREWORDAtlas, Montana, Nevada, Wyoming, and Utah. 2013 Oregon State University Atlas of the Columbia River Basin

  8. 3, 37273770, 2006 Colorado River basin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 3, 3727­3770, 2006 Colorado River basin climate change impacts N. Christensen and D and water resources of the Colorado River basin N. Christensen and D. P. Lettenmaier Department of Civil@u.washington.edu) 3727 #12;HESSD 3, 3727­3770, 2006 Colorado River basin climate change impacts N. Christensen and D

  9. LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

  10. Basin scale natural gas source, migration and trapping traced by noble gases and major elements: the Pakistan Indus basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battani, Anne; Sarda, Philippe; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2000-08-01

    He, Ne and Ar concentrations, He and Ar isotopic ratios, carbon isotopic ratios and chemical compositions of hydrocarbon gases were measured in natural gas samples from gas-producing wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan, where no oil has ever been found. 3He/ 4He ratios are in the range 0.01-0.06 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric value of 1.38×10 -6) indicating the absence of mantle-derived helium despite the Trias extension. 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios range from 296 to 800, consistent with variable additions of radiogenic argon to atmospheric, groundwater-derived argon. Rare gas concentrations show large variations, from 6×10 -5 to 1×10 -3 mol/mol for 4He and from 3×10 -7 to 3×10 -5 mol/mol for 36Ar. In general, 36Ar concentrations are high compared to literature data for natural gas. CO 2 and N 2 concentrations are variable, ranging up to 70 and 20%, respectively. Mantle-derived He is not observed, therefore CO 2 and N 2 are not mantle-derived either. Hydrocarbon gas maturity is high, but accumulation efficiency is small, suggesting that early-produced hydrocarbons, including oil, were lost as well as mantle helium. This is consistent with the generally late, Pliocene, trap formation, and explains the high N 2 concentrations, since N 2 is the final species generated at the end of organic matter maturation. Based on ? 13C data, CO 2 originates from carbonate decomposition. Very elevated 20Ne/ 36Ar ratios are found, reaching a maximum of 1.3 (compared to 0.1-0.2 for air-saturated water and 0.5 for air), and these high values are related to the lowest rare gas concentrations. We suggest that this highly fractionated signature is the trace of the past presence of oil in the basin and appeared in groundwater. We propose a model where oil-water contact is followed by gas-water contact, both with Rayleigh distillation for rare gas abundance ratios, thereby generating the fractionated 20Ne/ 36Ar signature in groundwater first and transferring it to gas later. Assuming the gas-water contact occurred shallower than present reservoir depths, this model explains the generally high 36Ar concentrations and low CH 4/ 36Ar ratios compared to other studies on younger basins. It thus provides a historical perspective on fluid transfer in a sedimentary basin, where a gas accumulation may have been buried to greater depth since formation. Rare gas and major element data point to mixing between two gas pulses produced successively. The very CO 2-N 2-rich gases are terminal products of organic matter maturation which have been trapped after important migration. This gas was followed by a more typical thermogenic gas which mixed with it.

  11. GOLF COURSES FRASER RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    #12;INVENTORY OF GOLF COURSES IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN FINAL REPORT DOE FRAP 1996-25 Prepared for of Environment Canada. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Environment Canada appreciates the contributions of the golf courses who Prevention Section Environment Canada 224 W. Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 #12;ABSTRACT The golf

  12. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, upper Indus basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Böhner, J.; Lucarini, V.

    2015-03-01

    Largely depending on meltwater from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus basin (UIB) contribute to half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, we present a comprehensive hydro-climatic trend analysis over the UIB, including for the first time observations from high-altitude automated weather stations. We analyze trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures (Tx, Tn, and Tavg, respectively), diurnal temperature range (DTR) and precipitation from 18 stations (1250-4500 m a.s.l.) for their overlapping period of record (1995-2012), and separately, from six stations of their long term record (1961-2012). We apply Mann-Kendall test on serially independent time series to assess existence of a trend while true slope is estimated using Sen's slope method. Further, we statistically assess the spatial scale (field) significance of local climatic trends within ten identified sub-regions of UIB and analyze whether the spatially significant (field significant) climatic trends qualitatively agree with a trend in discharge out of corresponding sub-region. Over the recent period (1995-2012), we find a well agreed and mostly field significant cooling (warming) during monsoon season i.e. July-October (March-May and November), which is higher in magnitude relative to long term trends (1961-2012). We also find general cooling in Tx and a mixed response in Tavg during the winter season and a year round decrease in DTR, which are in direct contrast to their long term trends. The observed decrease in DTR is stronger and more significant at high altitude stations (above 2200 m a.s.l.), and mostly due to higher cooling in Tx than in Tn. Moreover, we find a field significant decrease (increase) in late-monsoonal precipitation for lower (higher) latitudinal regions of Himalayas (Karakoram and Hindukush), whereas an increase in winter precipitation for Hindukush, western- and whole Karakoram, UIB-Central, UIB-West, UIB-West-upper and whole UIB regions. We find a spring warming (field significant in March) and drying (except for Karakoram and its sub-regions), and subsequent rise in early-melt season flows. Such early melt response together with effective cooling during monsoon period subsequently resulted in a substantial drop (weaker increase) in discharge out of higher (lower) latitudinal regions (Himalaya and UIB-West-lower) during late-melt season, particularly during July. These discharge tendencies qualitatively differ to their long term trends for all regions, except for UIB-West-upper, western-Karakorum and Astore. The observed hydroclimatic trends, being driven by certain changes in the monsoonal system and westerly disturbances, indicate dominance (suppression) of nival (glacial) runoff regime, altering substantially the overall hydrology of UIB in future. These findings largely contribute to address the hydroclimatic explanation of the "Karakoram Anomaly".

  13. Ecological River Basin Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  14. Separating snow, clean and debris covered ice in the Upper Indus Basin, Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas, using Landsat images between 1998 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Naz, Bibi S.; Bowling, Laura C.

    2015-02-01

    The Hindukush Karakoram Himalayan mountains contain some of the largest glaciers of the world, and supply melt water from perennial snow and glaciers to the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) upstream of Tarbela dam, which constitutes greater than 80% of the annual flows, and caters to the needs of millions of people in the Indus Basin. It is therefore important to study the response of perennial snow and glaciers in the UIB under changing climatic conditions, using improved hydrological modeling, glacier mass balance, and observations of glacier responses. However, the available glacier inventories and datasets only provide total perennial-snow and glacier cover areas, despite the fact that snow, clean ice and debris covered ice have different melt rates and densities. This distinction is vital for improved hydrological modeling and mass balance studies. This study, therefore, presents a separated perennial snow and glacier inventory (perennial snow-cover on steep slopes, perennial snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice) based on a semi-automated method that combines Landsat images and surface slope information in a supervised maximum likelihood classification to map distinct glacier zones, followed by manual post processing. The accuracy of the presented inventory falls well within the accuracy limits of available snow and glacier inventory products. For the entire UIB, estimates of perennial and/or seasonal snow on steep slopes, snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice zones are 7238 ± 724, 5226 ± 522, 4695 ± 469 and 2126 ± 212 km2 respectively. Thus total snow and glacier cover is 19,285 ± 1928 km2, out of which 12,075 ± 1207 km2 is glacier cover (excluding steep slope snow-cover). Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) estimates based on the Snow Line Elevation (SLE) in various watersheds range between 4800 and 5500 m, while the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) ranges between 7% and 80%. 0 °C isotherms during peak ablation months (July and August) range between ? 5500 and 6200 m in various watersheds. These outputs can be used as input to hydrological models, to estimate spatially-variable degree day factors for hydrological modeling, to separate glacier and snow-melt contributions in river flows, and to study glacier mass balance, and glacier responses to changing climate.

  15. River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

  16. Seasonality of the hydrological cycle in major South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.; Böhner, J.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate how PCMDI/CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs) represent the seasonal properties of the hydrological cycle in four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong). First, we examine the skill of the GCMs by analysing their performance in simulating the 20th century climate (1961-2000 period) using historical forcing (20c3m experiment), and then we analyse the projected changes for the corresponding 21st and 22nd century climates under the SRESA1B scenario. The CMIP3 GCMs show a varying degree of skill in simulating the basic characteristics of the monsoonal precipitation regimes of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins, while the representation of the hydrological cycle over the Indus Basin is poor in most cases, with a few GCMs not capturing the monsoonal signal at all. While the model outputs feature a remarkable spread for the monsoonal precipitation, a satisfactory representation of the western mid-latitude precipitation regime is instead observed. Similarly, most of the models exhibit a satisfactory agreement for the basin-integrated runoff in winter and spring, while their spread is large for the runoff during the monsoon season. For the future climate scenarios, most models foresee a decrease in the winter P - E over all four basins, while agreement is found on the decrease of the spring P - E over the Indus and Ganges basins only. Such decreases in P - E are mainly due to the decrease in precipitation associated with the western mid-latitude disturbances. Consequently, for the Indus and Ganges basins, the runoff drops during the spring season while it rises during the winter season. Such changes indicate a shift from rather glacial and nival to more pluvial runoff regimes, particularly for the Indus Basin. Furthermore, the rise in the projected runoff, along with the increase in precipitation during summer and autumn, indicates an intensification of the summer monsoon regime for all study basins.

  17. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

  18. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  19. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  20. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  1. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

  2. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  3. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  5. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

  6. Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project 5 October 2012 ABSTRACT: The study area encompasses the Neuse River Basin, the third-largest river basin in North Carolina. The Basin. The study investigated the quality of the overall Neuse River Basin ecosystem and the level of flood risk

  7. Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is confined in its valley. Upon entering the sedimentary basin, the Brahmaputra River develops a DFS and becomes broadly braided in form. Distally on the DFS, the braided system bifurcates, leaving relatively large areas where floodplain deposits may be preserved. At the toe of the DFS, the Brahmaputra River becomes the axial system for this portion of the foreland basin. In this axial position, it is held between opposing DFS, thus the channel system migrates back and forth between these DFS and fills this portion of the basin with coarse-grained material. Other large rivers show similar change as they enter a continental sedimentary basin. In areal extent, DFS from smaller rivers occupy more of the modern continental sedimentary basins than the big rivers (either in axial or DFS position), therefore deposits of all rivers in sedimentary basins must be considered in order to fully interpret the rock record.

  8. Seasonality of the hydrological cycle in major South and Southeast Asian River Basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.; Böhner, J.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigate how PCMDI/CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs) represent the seasonal properties of the hydrological cycle in four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra and Mekong). First, we examine the skill of GCMs by analysing their simulations for the XX century climate (1961-2000) under present-day forcing, and then we analyse the projected changes for the corresponding XXI and XXII century climates under SRESA1B scenario. CMIP3 GCMs show a varying degree of skill in simulating the basic characteristics of the monsoonal precipitation regimes of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins, while the representation of the hydrological cycle over the Indus basin is poor in most cases, with few GCMs not capturing the monsoon signal at all. Although the models' outputs feature a remarkable spread for the monsoonal precipitations, a satisfactory representation of the western mid-latitude precipitation regime is instead observed. Similarly, most of the models exhibit a satisfactory agreement for the basin-integrated runoff in winter and spring, while the spread is large for the runoff during the monsoon season. For future climate scenarios, winter (spring) P - E decreases over all four (Indus and Ganges) basins due to decrease in precipitation associated with the western mid-latitude disturbances. Consequently, the spring (winter) runoff drops (rises) for the Indus and Ganges basins. Such changes indicate a shift from rather glacial and nival to more pluvial runoff regimes, particularly for the Indus basin. Furthermore, the rise in the projected runoff along with the increase in precipitations during summer and autumn indicates an intensification of the summer monsoon regime for all study basins.

  9. Environmental management in the Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Crawford; D. F. Peterson

    1974-01-01

    THe needs, conditions, and prospects for achieving a coordinated and basin-wide program of environmental management in the Colorado River Basin were explored. Analyses are presented. Political and institutional perspectives and the prospects of using environmental indices and the concept of carrying capacity in comprehensive planning are discussed. Since aridity and the limited assimilative capacity of the basin's environmental media place

  10. Geoinformatics for assessing the morphometric control on hydrological response at watershed scale in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Bhat, Shakeel Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan

    2012-06-01

    Five watersheds (W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5) in the upper Indus basin were chosen for detailed studies to understand the influences of geomorphology, drainage basin morphometry and vegetation patterns on hydrology. From the morphometric analysis, it is evident that the hydrologic response of these watersheds changes significantly in response to spatial variations in morphometric parameters. Results indicate that W1, W2 and W5 contribute higher surface runoff than W3 and W4. Further, the topographic and land cover analyses reveal that W1, W2 and W5 generate quick runoff that may result in flooding over prolonged rainy spells. A physically based semi-distributed hydrologic model (soil and water assessment tool, SWAT) was used for simulating the hydrological response from the watersheds. As per the simulations, W5 watershed produces the highest runoff of 11.17 mm/year followed by W1 (7.9 mm/year), W2 (6.6 mm/year), W4 (5.33 mm/year) and W3 (4.29 mm/year). Thus, W5 is particularly more vulnerable to flooding during high rain spells followed by W1, W2, W4 and W3, respectively. Synthetic unit hydrograph analysis of the five watersheds also reveals high peak discharge for W5. The simulated results on the hydrological response from the five watersheds are quite in agreement with those of the morphometric, topographic, vegetation and unit hydrograph analyses. Therefore, it is quite evident that these factors have significant impact on the hydrological response from the watersheds and can be used to predict flood peaks, sediment yield and water discharge from the ungauged watersheds.

  11. Biogeochemistry of the Madeira river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Ferreira; L. A. Martinelli; R. L. Victoria; A. C. F. Tancredi

    1989-01-01

    A biogeochemical characterization of the Madeira river basin has been made to evaluate the local and global effects of possible alterations in the ecosystem caused by recent intensive occupation in Rondonia state. During the period April 1983—January 1986, sampling was made both by land and river along the tributaries and main channel of the Madeira river. The parameters analysed lead

  12. Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

  13. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a) The...

  14. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a) The...

  15. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a) The...

  16. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a) The...

  17. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

    2015-02-01

    This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

  18. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  19. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  20. Improving Flood Forecasting in International River Basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal Hossain; Nitin Katiyar

    2006-01-01

    In flood-prone international river basins (IRBs), many riparian nations that are located close to a basin's outlet face a major problem in effectively forecasting flooding because they are unable to assimilate in situ rainfall data in real time across geopolitical boundaries. NASA's proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, which is expected to begin in 2010, will comprise high-resolution passive microwave

  1. Hydrological applications of Landsat imagery used in the study of the 1973 Indues River floor, Pakistand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris; Ruggles, F.H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    During August and September 1973, the Indus River Valley of Pakistan experienced one of the largest floods on record, resulting in damages to homes, businesses, public works, and crops amounting to millions of rupees. Tremendous areas of lowlands were inundated along the Indus River and major tributaries. Landsat data made it possible to easily measure the extent of flooding, totaling about 20,000 km2 within an area of about 400,000 km2 south from the Punjab to the Arabian Sea. The Indus River data were used to continue experimentation in the development of rapid, accurate, and inexpensive optical techniques of flood mapping by satellite begun in 1973 for the Mississippi River floods. The research work on the Indus River not resulted in the development of more effective procedures for optical processing of flood data and synoptically depicting flooding, but also provided potentially valuable ancillary information concerning the hydrology of much of the Indus River Basin.

  2. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  3. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  4. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

  5. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  6. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems. Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

  8. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  9. Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Douglas L. Kane

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes long-term (1935–99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations\\/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in

  10. River basin management in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amakali, Maria; Shixwameni, Loise

    The present trend in water resources management is to work on a basin level, the reasons being the need to devolve information sharing, co-ordinating and decision-making level down from a centralised system and the fact that water resources are shared within a basin. In Namibia, the water sector is being reformed, also, to introduce the concept of integrated water resources management on basin level. An important aspect is the establishment of Basin Management Committees to manage water along hydrological boundaries and to involve the local communities more actively in the planning, operation and management of their water supplies and resources. As such it compliments community based management program government is implementing. To this end, basins have been demarcated using several set criteria and piloting of the stressed basin, regarding availability of water and environmental degradation, started. This paper will look at the introduction of basin management concept in Namibia and how the communities in piloted basin are embracing it. So far the communities have shown willingness to manage their own water resources as compared to the past when everything was dictated to them from centrally located decision-makers. The question however is what are the challenges this task will present to them in managing this scarce and vulnerable resource, with regard to the capacity available.

  11. Conservation in the Delaware River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Featherstone, J. [Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

  12. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

  13. Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia 24 September 2013 the Lynnhaven River Basin. The watershed is located within the City of Virginia Beach in Southeastern Virginia is the City of Virginia Beach. The study area consists of the entire Lynnhaven River Basin, a 64-square- mile

  14. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  15. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

  16. Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

  17. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  18. Axios river basin water quality management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. G. Gils; D. Argiropoulos

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a consistent methodology to analyze the water quality management of a river basin. Mathematical modelling techniques are used to establish the water quality characteristics of the study area and to assess the effects of alternative management strategies in a quantitative way.

  19. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Blakeney DeJarnett; Frank H. Lim; Lee F. Krystinik; Mark L. Bacon

    1997-01-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these

  20. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    ;Submitted to the Committee on energy and Natural Resources United States Senate Committee on energy, and Washington. The Act authorized the Council to serve as a comprehensive planning agency for energy policy and fish and wildlife policy in the Columbia River Basin and to inform the public about energy and fish

  1. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    ;Submitted to the Committee on energy and Natural resources United states senate Committee on Energy, and Washington. The Act authorized the Council to serve as a comprehensive planning agency for energy policy and fish and wildlife policy in the Columbia River Basin and to inform the public about energy and fish

  2. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    1 The State of the Columbia River Basin Draft Fiscal Year 2009 ANNUAL REPORT To Congress to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives and Committee on Natural Resources United States House of Representatives

  3. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    The State of the Columbia River Basin Fiscal Year 2014 ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2013 ­ September 30, 2014 Document 2014-07 #12;Submitted to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives and Committee on Natural

  4. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    1 The State of the Columbia River Basin Fiscal Year 2013 ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2012 - September States Senate Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives and Committee on Natural Resources United States House of Representatives 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon

  5. Scenario analysis of nutrient management at the river basin scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kronvang; L. M. Svendsen; J. P. Jensen; J. Dørge

    1999-01-01

    A new river basin model (TRANS) for studying the transport, removal and accumulation of nutrients in rivers, lakes and riparian areas has been developed and tested on data from a 115 km2 river basin in Denmark (river Gjern). The model combines catchment information on soil type and land use with a physical hydrodynamic modelling system and several semi-dynamic empirical models

  6. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ?W = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  7. SOURCE AREAS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN: ILLS AND CURES IN THE YAZOO RIVER BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi River drains two thirds of the continental United States. This basin contains the largest amount of concentrated livestock and crop agriculture in the United States. Because of size and land use, the river transports enough nutrients produce plankton blooms. The dying plankton neg...

  8. Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

    2004-12-01

    The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage by four NWS NEXRAD Doppler radar systems. 9) Long history of national interest and investment including flood control projects, wetland restoration, and dredging by the US Army Corps of Engineers, an intensively instrumented national watershed observatory by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Goodwin Creek, and numerous other projects by over 20 federal and state agencies. 10) Availability of a 2300 square meter research facility within the watershed for housing research and administrative activities.

  9. Recent morphodynamics of the Indus delta shore and shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liviu Giosana; Stefan Constantinescub; Peter D. Cliftc; Ali R. Tabrezd; Muhammed Danishd; Asif Inamd

    In natural conditions, the Indus River had one of the largest sediment loads in the world, building an extensive delta on the high-energy coast of the Arabian Sea. However, water and sediment discharge have been drastically altered in the Indus since the early 1960s, when several barrages were built along the river to feed the world's largest irrigation system. A

  10. Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daqing; Ye, Baisheng; Kane, Douglas L.

    2004-08-01

    This study analyzes long-term (1935-99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in the late melt season. These changes in snowmelt runoff pattern suggest a delay in snowcover melt in the Yenisei basin perhaps associated with cooling trends during the snowmelt months over central Siberia. This study also demonstrates that the reservoir regulation has significantly altered the monthly discharge regimes in northeast and the upper portions of the Yenisei basin. Constructions of four large dams in the northeast Yensiei regions reduced the summer peak flows in the Angara valley by 15-30% and increased the winter low flows by 5-30%. Operations of two large reservoirs in the upper Yenisei regions enhanced the winter flows by 45-85% and reduced the summer flows by 10-50%. These alterations lead to a streamflow regime change toward less seasonal variation over the eastern and lower Yenisei basin. Because of reservoir regulations, discharge records collected at the Yenisei basin outlet do not always represent natural changes and variations, they tend to underestimate the natural streamflow trends in summer and overestimate the trends in winter and fall seasons. Cold season discharge increase over the Yenisei river is not natural-caused, but mainly the effect of reservoir regulations in the Yenisei basin.

  11. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    PubMed

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management. PMID:25461078

  12. Mississippi River, Yazoo Basin, Memphis, TN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This section of the lower Mississippi River (34.0N, 90.0W) known as the Yazoo Basin, is characterized by a wide expanse of rich river bottomland with many oxbow lakes, the remains of the many changes in the riverbed over the course of many thousands of years. This soil is very fertile and productive but the region is prone to flooding. In this view, some of the back areas around the Delta National Forest show the effects of heavy spring rains.

  13. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    PubMed

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

  14. Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design

    E-print Network

    #12;Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design Prepared for Environment Canada. 1993. Fraser River Basin Assessment Program: Conceptual Monitoring Design. Pqared for Conservation Canada has much of the responsibility for the Environmental Quality component of the Fraser River Action

  15. USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control

    E-print Network

    been underway since 1973 to reduce salinity problems in the Colorado River Basin. The experience gained the magnitude of the problem. Salinity problems are not;ust a concern for those in the Colorado River Basin been recognized as one of the ma.;or problems of the Colorado River, but in the early 1Q60's the amount

  16. American River Watershed, Common Features Project Natomas Basin, CA

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    American River Watershed, Common Features Project Natomas Basin, CA 27 September 2010 Abstract Basin in the City of Sacramento. Located in Sacramento and Sutter Counties, the Natomas Basin is home and stability issues could cause a catastrophic failure of the levee system around the Natomas Basin, resulting

  17. Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB)

    This site measures the environmental health of the Danube River Basin and provides information on actions taken to protect the ecosystem. Links to the geography of the basin, the Danube Convention and other publications are also included.

  18. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested system of observations, will intersect the important landforms, climate zones, ecology, and human activities of the basin. Characterizing how humans and climate impact the sustainability of water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin will require an evolutionary approach, involving coordination of historical information and a phased-design for the new observing system. Detecting change (past and present) requires that the atmosphere, vegetation, geochemistry, and hydrology of the Susquehanna, are all observed coherently from the headwaters to the Chesapeake, from the boundary layer to the water table. The River Basin Adaptive Monitoring and Modeling Plan (RAMP) represents the design strategy to coherently select and assess core monitoring sites as well as new sites targeted for both short-term and long term scientific campaigns. Rich in historical research and infrastructure, SRBHOS will serve as a fundamental resource for the hydrologic science community into the future, while providing a "characteristic" hydrologic node in the national network.

  19. AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

    2011-01-01

    A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

  20. Platte River Basin Flow Information Web-based Resources

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Platte River Basin Flow Information Web-based Resources Gary Stone, Extension Educator, University of water flowing in the North Platte River as it enters the state. - http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/index.php

  1. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

  2. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasmonte, G.; Chavez, R.; Segura, B.; Rosales, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature - 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April), when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence) were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l.), while the low (or null) probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.). Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke) in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l.), moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  3. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

  4. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

  5. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

  6. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

  7. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...true Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

  8. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  9. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  10. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  11. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  12. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  13. The Corps, the Environment, Upper Mississippi River Basin

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    The Corps, the Environment, and the Upper Mississippi River Basin Raymond H. Merritt #12;On The Cover A tow of barges Is pushed along the river through part of the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and urbanization In the late 1800s took their toll on both the falls and the Mississippi River. Minnesota

  14. The Piracicaba River basin: isotope hydrology of a tropical river basin under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Gat, Joel R; de Camargo, Plínio B; Lara, Lucienne L; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2004-03-01

    The stable isotope content of samples of precipitation and of the river water throughout the Piracicaba basin in Brazil was measured over a two-year period. The isotope values of precipitation follow a consistent pattern of relatively depleted values of both deuterium and oxygen 18 during the rainy summers and enriched ones during the dry winters, with all values aligned slightly above the Global Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of the river water throughout the basin shows a remarkable spatial coherence and much smaller scatter of data than those of the precipitation. The isotope composition of river water is close to that of the precipitation in the rainy season, however, with a consistent lower d-excess value by 1/1000-2/1000. This is attributed to evaporative water loss in the basin, in part an expression of the recycling of water due to the anthropogenic activity in the region. The more divergent values are recorded during high-water stages in the rivers. In many cases, the floods during the beginning of the rainy season are characterized by an enrichment of the heavy isotopes and lower d-excess values when compared to the precipitation, with the opposite situation later in the rainy season. This is interpreted as resulting from the watershed/riverflow interaction pattern, and it thus suggests that the isotope composition can monitor the hydrologic situation in the basin and its changes. PMID:15085983

  15. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  16. Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Gascó, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  17. Water Saving in the Yellow River Basin, China. 2. Assessing the Potential for Improving Basin Irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Fabião; J. M. Gonçalves; L. S. Pereira; A. A. Campos; Y. Liu; Y. N. Li; Z. Mao; B. Dong

    A study focusing the improvement of the basin irrigation is performed in the Huinong Irrigation District (HID), in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin, Ningxia Province, and in the Bojili Irrigation District (BID), in the lower reaches of the basin, Shandong Province. Studies include the field evaluation of current basin irrigation practices and the use of the simulation

  18. Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaçanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

  19. 25 February 2010 Draft 1 Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    #12;25 February 2010 Draft 1 Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Reporting-xx #12;25 February 2010 Draft 2 Executive Summary This Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Reporting Plan (MERR Plan) ensures the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) goals

  20. 159. HUDSON RIVER BASIN SHOWING DOCKING FACILITIES AND STORE HOUSES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. HUDSON RIVER BASIN SHOWING DOCKING FACILITIES AND STORE HOUSES. ON OTHER SIDE OF BASIN CAN BE SEEN THE DOCKS OF THE LEHIGH VALLEY. RAILROAD AND THE RIVER TERMINAL FOR THE CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY (HAER No. NJ-27). - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  1. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  2. Water Policy Analysis for the Mekong River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Ringler; Joachim von Braun; Mark W. Rosegrant

    2004-01-01

    Rapid agricultural and economic development in mainland Southeast Asia during the 1990s has fueled the demand for water resources in the Mekong River Basin. An aggregate, integrated economic-hydrologic model for the basin is developed that allows for the analysis of water allocation and use under alternative policy scenarios. The model describes the water supply situation along the river system and

  3. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

  4. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  5. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geslin

    1993-01-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough\\/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied

  6. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  7. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  8. Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

  9. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  10. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie A. Woodhouse; Stephen T. Gray; David M. Meko

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The

  11. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie A. Woodhouse; Stephen T. Gray; David M. Meko

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October–September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The

  12. Comparison of institutional arrangements for river basin management in eight basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Blomquist; Ariel Dinar; Karin Kemper

    2005-01-01

    This study represents an effort toward understanding conditions that affect successful or unsuccessful efforts to devolve water resource management to the river basin level and secure active stakeholder involvement. A theoretical framework is used to identify potentially important variables related to the likelihood of success. Using a comparative case-study approach, the study examined river basins where organizations have been developed

  13. Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Columbia River basin area extends across seven states, and winds its way along the current border between Washington and Oregon, before heading into the eastern part of Washington state proper. During the past several centuries, the area has been home to a number of ethnic groups, including African-Americans, Asians, and Hispanics, among others. In a collaborative effort, a number of local and regional institutions (including Washington State University and the Oregon Historical Society) came to share resources to create this digital archive that collects the records, images, remembrances, and artifacts of this particular region. The first part of the site introduces users to a map of the region, and provides information about the project's organization and its partners. The second section allows visitors to browse the database, where they will find various aspects of visual culture, including newspapers and photographs. The third section of the site provides tutorials and lesson plans.

  14. pecos river basin wpp implementation The Pecos River winds more than 900 miles through semi-

    E-print Network

    pecos river basin wpp implementation The Pecos River winds more than 900 miles through semi- arid with abundant water to irrigate crops and water livestock. Today, the river's flow has dwindled to a trickle in many instances, and dissolved oxy- gen (DO) levels in portions of the river do not meet Texas' water

  15. Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

    2009-04-01

    River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

  16. The distribution of organic carbon in the Brazos River basin

    E-print Network

    Brooks, James Mark

    1970-01-01

    of the water for irrigation and the wide use of pesticides and fertilizers throughout the basin. FIGURE I Some of the Major Features in the Brazos River Basin &rppE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN 84sle I UBBOCK DO Oe CE. IO 'v (V E X P L ANATIGN EI Gver 50, 000... in the limited areas where the POC concentration is influenced by domestic wastes. It is believed that the high DOC values in this area are definitely the result of domestic pollution. Creeks coming into the river in this sect. ion do not have the high DOC...

  17. Multiobjective River Basin Planning With Qualitative Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, Mark; Duckstein, Lucien; McAniff, Richard

    1982-04-01

    The impact of alternative river basin development strategies is examined from a multicriterion viewpoint using the ELECTRE I and II techniques. The main stem of the Santa Cruz River in the vicinity of Tucson, Arizona is taken as a case study. A systematic formulation of the problem is provided leading to an array of 25 alternative systems versus 13 criteria, only 5 of which are quantified. A procedure for ranking these alternatives is presented which uses ELECTRE I to obtain preference graphs as input into ELECTRE II, which is then used to obtain the ordering. Sensitivity analysis shows that changing the weights assigned to each criterion has a greater effect on the results than does changing the scales. However, neither effect is very significant. It is recommended that ELECTRE I be used for screening purposes to narrow the set of alternatives under consideration. ELECTRE II can then be applied to this reduced set to obtain a complete ordering. For the case study the preferred systems include reservoirs and channelization and the least preferred systems include new groundwater development.

  18. 77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. The basin conservation program is structured...of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River basin....

  19. AIRS impact on analysis and forecast of an extreme rainfall event (Indus River Valley, Pakistan, 2010) with a global data assimilation and forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments is performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches toward assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. The impact is first assessed globally on a sample of more than forty forecasts per experiment, through the standard 500 hPa anomaly correlation metrics. Next, the focus is on precipitation analysis and precipitation forecast skill relative to one particular event: an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that, in addition to improving the global forecast skill, the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 days is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

  20. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

  1. 75 FR 38833 - Walker River Basin Acquisition Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Walker River Basin Acquisition Program AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of cancellation...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is canceling...

  2. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

  3. 16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  4. 19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  5. 17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS, VIEW FROM MODEL BED. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  6. 18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. 15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. Values of inland fisheries in the Mekong river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Baran; Teemu Jantunen; Chiew Kieok Chong

    This report provides an overview of the biological, economical, social and cultural values of river fisheries in the Lower Mekong Basin (Yunan, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam). The report also identifies the main impacts of environmental changes on these values.

  9. Negotiating nature : expertise and environment in the Klamath River Basin

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Nicholas Seong Chul

    2010-01-01

    "Negotiating Nature" explores resource management in action and the intertwined roles of law and science in environmental conflicts in the Upper Klamath River Basin in southern Oregon. I follow disputes over the management ...

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

  11. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  12. Coupled Teleconnections and River Dynamics for Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting in the Upper Colorado River Basin USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Matter; L. A. Garcia; D. G. Fontane

    2005-01-01

    Accuracy of water supply forecasts has improved for some river basins in the western U.S.A. by integrating knowledge of climate teleconnections, such as El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), into forecasting routines, but in other basins, such as the Colorado River Basin (CRB), forecast accuracy has declined (Pagano et al. 2004). Longer lead time and more accurate seasonal forecasts, particularly during floods

  13. Procedures for Ensuring Community Involvement in Multijurisdictional River Basins: A Comparison of the Murray-Darling and Mekong River Basins 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN L. CHENOWETH; SARAH A. EWING; JULIET F. BIRD

    2002-01-01

    Community involvement is fundamental to the management of multijurisdictional river basins but, in practice, is very difficult\\u000a to achieve. The Murray-Darling basin, in Australia, and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia are both cooperatively managed\\u000a multijurisdictional river basins where the management authorities have expressed an aim of community involvement. In the Murray-Darling\\u000a basin vigorous efforts have promoted a culture

  14. Performance of dynamical downscaling for Colorado River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Gao; C. Zhu; D. P. Lettenmaier

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing 2000s western U.S. drought has focused attention on drought susceptibility of the Colorado River basin. There is a concern that many climate models predict permanently drier conditions for the next century over the Colorado basin, however interpretation of these projections is complicated by their coarse spatial resolution which does not resolve the role of the relatively small mountain

  15. A Catalog of Upper Colorado River Basin Droughts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Woodhouse; M. F. Glueck

    2010-01-01

    The upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) has experienced drought conditions since 2000, resulting in below average flows at Lees Ferry in eight of the past eleven years. Droughts have occurred periodically over the interval of the gage record, 1906-2009. An examination of the history of droughts in the basin can provide context for evaluating both the current drought, and an

  16. Powder River basin, Wyoming: structural development, hydrocarbon migration, and accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann-Christian Pratsch

    1985-01-01

    The geographical location of oil accumulations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, is closely related to present basement structure. About 70% of the basin's cumulative oil production has been obtained from only 12 fields or 23% of the total fields. Each major oil field lies in an area of a pronounced positive Bouguer gravity anomaly and in the path of

  17. Climate Change and Resource Management in the Columbia River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart J. Cohen; Kathleen A. Miller; Alan F. Hamlet; Wendy Avis

    2000-01-01

    Scenarios of global climate change were examined to see what impacts they might have on transboundary water management in the Columbia River basin. Scenario changes in natural streamflow were estimated using a basin hydrology model. These scenarios tended to show earlier seasonal peaks, with possible reductions in total annual flow and lower minimum flows. Impacts and adaptation responses to the

  18. Toward Sustainability in Lower Mekong River Basin Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Jacobs

    1994-01-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin of Southeast Asia is at an important juncture in its path of development. The natural resource base upon which future development will depend is being undermined by deforestation. Poverty in many places in the basin provides few options other than continued use of the forests for fuelwood, slash-and burn agriculture, as well as commercial uses.

  19. Multifractal analysis of streamflow records of the East River basin (Pearl River), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Yu, Zuguo; Liu, Chun-Ling; Chen, Yongqin David

    2009-03-01

    Scaling behaviors of the long daily streamflow series of four hydrological stations (Longchuan (1952-2002), Heyuan (1951-2002), Lingxia (1953-2002) and Boluo (1953-2002)) in the mainstream East River, one of the tributaries of the Pearl River (Zhujiang River) basin, were analyzed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The research results indicated that streamflow series of the East River basin are characterized by anti-persistence. MF-DFA technique showed similar scaling properties in the streamflow series of the East River basin on shorter time scales, indicating universal scaling properties over the East River basin. Different intercept values of the fitted lines of log-log curve of Fq(s) versus s implied hydrological regulation of water reservoirs. Based on the numerical results, we suggested that regulation activities by water reservoirs could not impact the scaling properties of the streamflow series. The regulation activities by water reservoir only influenced the fluctuation magnitude. Therefore, we concluded that the streamflow variations were mainly the results of climate changes, and precipitation variations in particular. Strong dependence of generalized Hurst exponent h(q) on q demonstrated multifractal behavior of streamflow series of the East River basin, showing ‘universal’ multifractal behavior of river runoffs. The results of this study may provide valuable information for prediction and assessment of water resources under impacts of climatic changes and human activities in the East River basin.

  20. Paleogene Larger Benthic Foraminiferal Stratigraphy and Facies distribution: implications for tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Kohat Basin, Potwar Basin and the Trans Indus Ranges (TIR) northwest Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2011-11-24

    Thick Paleogene sequences occur in the southern deformed fold and thrust belt of the Himalayas. In this thesis I describe detailed litho- and biostratigraphy from ten key stratigraphic sections in the Kohat Basin, the ...

  1. Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 ± 1 Bq l–1, which is consistent with the data of 1998–99. However, it has been found that there are surface

  2. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  3. Cooperation and conflict in the Mekong river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Weatherbee

    1997-01-01

    In the peace following the Indochina Wars, multiple project concepts have been advanced for the economic development of the Mekong River Basin. There are currently six overlapping and uncoordinated frameworks in which project planning is being carried out. The different agendas reflect the different political and economic interests of the riparian states. Three frameworks are particularly important. The Mekong River

  4. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Meade; José M. Rayol; Sylvio C. Da Conceicão; José R. G. Natividade

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater

  5. Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Goolsby; William A. Battaglin; Brent T. Aulenbach; Richard P. Hooper

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin is believed to be at least partly responsible for the large zone of oxygen-depleted water that develops in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. Historical data show that concentrations of nitrate in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries have increased by factors of 2 to more than 5 since the early 1900s.

  6. Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin

    E-print Network

    que dans le foie de visons (Mustela vison) et de loutres de rivière (Lontra canadensis) du bassin du (Pandion haliaetus) as well as the livers of American Mink (Mustela vison) and River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in the Fraser River Basin between 1977 and 1993. The most common chlorinated hydrocarbons

  7. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  8. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation regimes across Yangtze River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Xu, Chong-Yu; Singh, Vijay P.

    2014-02-01

    Daily precipitation data during the period of 1960 to 2005 from 147 rain gauging stations over the Yangtze River Basin are analyzed to investigate precipitation variations based on precipitation indices and also consecutive rainfall regimes in both space and time. Results indicate decreasing annual/monthly mean precipitation. Distinct decreases in rainfall days are observed over most parts of the Yangtze River Basin, but precipitation intensity is increasing over most parts of the Yangtze River Basin, particularly the lower Yangtze River Basin. Besides, durations of precipitation regimes are shortening; however, the fractional contribution of short-lasting precipitation regimes to the total precipitation amount is increasing. In this sense, the precipitation processes in the Yangtze River Basin are dominated by precipitation regimes of shorter durations. These results indicate intensified hydrological cycle reflected by shortening precipitation regimes. This finding is different from that in Europe where the intensifying precipitation changes are reflected mainly by lengthening precipitation regimes, implying different regional responses of hydrological cycle to climate changes. The results of this study will be of considerable relevance in basin-scale water resources management, human mitigation of natural hazards, and in understanding regional hydrological responses to changing climate at regional scales.

  9. Application of a stochastic weather generator to assess climate change impacts in a semi-arid climate: The Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Harpham, C.; Hashmi, M. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Assessing local climate change impacts requires downscaling from Global Climate Model simulations. Here, a stochastic rainfall model (RainSim) combined with a rainfall conditioned weather generator (CRU WG) have been successfully applied in a semi-arid mountain climate, for part of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), for point stations at a daily time-step to explore climate change impacts. Validation of the simulated time-series against observations (1961-1990) demonstrated the models' skill in reproducing climatological means of core variables with monthly RMSE of <2.0 mm for precipitation and ?0.4 °C for mean temperature and daily temperature range. This level of performance is impressive given complexity of climate processes operating in this mountainous context at the boundary between monsoonal and mid-latitude (westerly) weather systems. Of equal importance the model captures well the observed interannual variability as quantified by the first and last decile of 30-year climatic periods. Differences between a control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) regional climate model (RCM) time-slice experiment were then used to provide change factors which could be applied within the rainfall and weather models to produce perturbed ‘future' weather time-series. These project year-round increases in precipitation (maximum seasonal mean change:+27%, annual mean change: +18%) with increased intensity in the wettest months (February, March, April) and year-round increases in mean temperature (annual mean +4.8 °C). Climatic constraints on the productivity of natural resource-dependent systems were also assessed using relevant indices from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) and indicate potential future risk to water resources and local agriculture. However, the uniformity of projected temperature increases is in stark contrast to recent seasonally asymmetrical trends in observations, so an alternative scenario of extrapolated trends was also explored. We conclude that interannual variability in climate will continue to have the dominant impact on water resources management whichever trajectory is followed. This demonstrates the need for sophisticated downscaling methods which can evaluate changes in variability and sequencing of events to explore climate change impacts in this region.

  10. Comparison of river basin hydrometeorology in ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalyses with observations

    E-print Network

    . For the Mississippi and Mackenzie river basins, the spin-up of precipitation in 24-h forecasts has been greatly in both seasons. For the Mackenzie river basin, similar reflective cloud changes in ERA-Interim improve] of three American river basins, the Amazon, Mississippi and Mackenzie Rivers, was compared against

  11. The flood of the Nenjiang river and the Songhua river in 1998 and the comprehensive management of the river basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianguo Lu; Weizhong Zhang

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1998, an exceptionally serious flood, with the characteristics of high water level, large volume of flow,\\u000a long duration and serious losses caused by the disaster, occurred in the Nenjiang River basin and the Songhua River basin.\\u000a Greater flood peak occurred three times in the trunk stream of the Nenjiang River for the floods occurred in its

  12. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  13. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  14. Altimetry Applications to Transboundary River Basin Management Elizabeth A. Clark(1)

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Basin 6. Conclusions Keywords: transboundary river, river management, altimetry, flood forecasting from Space HEC-RAS Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System IAHS International Association basic human needs for freshwater, accurate estimates of temporal and spatial variations in river

  15. Upper Missouri River Basin Aquatic GAP Fish Distribution Model Accuracy Assessment

    E-print Network

    , Catostomus commersonii, Population Characteristics in the Upper Missouri River Basin BY Ryan M. Sylvester Basin Aquatic GAP Fish Distribution Model Accuracy Assessment and White Sucker, Catostomus commersonii

  16. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2014-07-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  17. Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

  18. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2015-03-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0-7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators and the performance is compared to persistence and climatology benchmarks. The forecasting system delivers useful forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  19. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  20. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  2. Water problems and hydrological research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River basins of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changming Liu; Jun Xia

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with hydrological research in regard to the water resources crisis in the vulnerable areas found in the northern part of China. This area includes three main river basins, namely the basins of the Yellow (Huang) River, the Hai River and the Huai River. Several water problems are becoming very severe. Among them, two are the most critical:

  3. Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

  4. Report of the annual yield of the Arkansas River basin for the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas--Oklahoma 1977 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ducret, G. Louis

    1978-01-01

    The computed annual yields for subbasins in the Arkansas River basin as defined in the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, 1972, are presented. The term ' Arkansas River Basin ' means all of the drainage basin of the Arkansas River and its tributaries from a point immediately below the confluence of the Grand-Neosho River with the Arkansas River near Muskogee, Okla., to a point immediately below the confluence of Lee Creek with the Arkansas River near Van Buren, Ark., together with the drainage basin of Spavinaw Creek in Arkansas, but excluding that part of the drainage basin of the Canadian River above Lake Eufaula Dam. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area also are given. Monthly, maximum, minimum, and mean discharges are included for the 14 streamflow stations used in computing annual yield. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Digital Earth system based river basin data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Wanqing; Lin, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Digital Earth is an integrated approach to build scientific infrastructure. The Digital Earth systems provide a three-dimensional visualization and integration platform for river basin data which include the management data, in situ observation data, remote sensing observation data and model output data. This paper studies the Digital Earth system based river basin data integration technology. Firstly, the construction of the Digital Earth based three-dimensional river basin data integration environment is discussed. Then the river basin management data integration technology is presented which is realized by general database access interface, web service and ActiveX control. Thirdly, the in situ data stored in database tables as records integration is realized with three-dimensional model of the corresponding observation apparatus display in the Digital Earth system by a same ID code. In the next two parts, the remote sensing data and the model output data integration technologies are discussed in detail. The application in the Digital Zhang River basin System of China shows that the method can effectively improve the using efficiency and visualization effect of the data.

  6. Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

  7. Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  8. Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for Fiscal....................................................................................................................... 3 Smolt Monitoring Proposals ..................................................................................................... 26 COWLITZ RIVER SUBBASIN

  9. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

  10. Hydrologic investigation of the North Canadian River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    This study gives a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatological data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

  11. Hydrologic investigation of the north Canadian river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    This study gies a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatogical data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

  12. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Robert H.; Rayol, José M.; da Conceicão, Sylvio C.; Natividade, José R. G.

    1991-09-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Purús rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2 3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300 400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River.

  13. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Assessing agriculture–water links at the basin scale: hydrologic and economic models of the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Maneta; Marcelo Torres; Stephen A. Vosti; Wesley W. Wallender; Summer Allen; Luís H. Bassoi; Lisa Bennett; Richard Howitt; Lineu Rodrigues; Julie Young

    2009-01-01

    This article uses a basin-wide hydrologic model to assess the hydrologic and economic effects of expanding agriculture in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. It then uses a basin-wide economic model of agriculture to examine the effects of implementing water use regulations. Preliminary results suggest that substantially expanding agriculture would put pressure on some of the river's environmental flows. Agricultural

  15. The role of blowing snow in the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin

    E-print Network

    Dery, Stephen

    The role of blowing snow in the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin by Stephen J. D in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) of Canada, the role of snow in its energy and water budgets are still open

  16. Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin, British Columbia,

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin This study characterizes the meteorological parameters influencing glacier runoff and quantifies recent glacier contributions to streamflow in the Illecillewaet River basin, British Columbia. The Illecillewaet

  17. Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

    The Brazos River Basin is representative of several major river basins in the Southwestern United States in regard to natural salt pollution. Geologic formations underlying portions of the upper watersheds of the Brazos, Colorado, Pecos, Canadian...

  18. 75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. In consultation with the State, the Yakama...of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River basin....

  19. Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Despite twelve years of an action plan calling for reducing the zone to a five

  20. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation...the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife...

  1. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation...the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife...

  2. 76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation...the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation...Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife...

  3. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  4. Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Balling Jr; Gregory B. Goodrich

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations\\u000a showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought\\u000a in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of\\u000a various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter

  5. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Modeling of the river discharge from the Lena River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, Viktor I.; Lapteva, Natalya A.

    2014-11-01

    Climatic model of the river runoff with 1/3 degree resolution is presented in the paper. The model is the linear reservoir model i.e., each cell in the model is the reservoir or the cascade of the reservoirs. Data of the ERA40 and MERRA reanalysis for the numerical modeling of the river runoff for the Lena River was used as well as the comparison with the observational data. The control data concerning the river discharge was taken from the results of the measurements on the hydrological station Lena - Kusur. The river discharge model vas also adapted to the delta zone with the 1.8 km resolution.

  7. N Budgets of the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoso, S.; Williams, M.; Martinelli, L.

    2001-05-01

    Nitrogen budgets and the importance of the principal types of land use and other human activities as sources and sinks of N were determined for a meso-scale river basin (12 400 km2) in one of the most developed and economically important regions of South America. The Piracicaba River basin is located in southeastern Brazil and drains into a tributary of the Parana River. The basin supports about 2% of the population of Brazil with intensive agricultural and industrial activities. During two years from 1995 to 1997, biweekly samples were collected at 10 points along the Piracicaba River and its tributaries for analyses of dissolved and particulate N. The annual flux of N increased by a factor of about 20 times from the headwaters to the lower reaches of the main channel. Mass balances calculated for six linked sectors of the river system and for the entire basin had inputs that were generally slightly lower than outputs. These results are different from those observed in temperate regions, where low outputs in relation to inputs are common.

  8. Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments-river basin view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Förstner

    2003-01-01

    The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments.\\u000a So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that\\u000a not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade.\\u000a \\u000a In the following overview, special emphasis

  9. Impact of Drought on the San Antonio River Basin

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Impact of Drought on the San Antonio River Basin Steve Raabe #12;Driest Year in Central Texas 2 is 35.66 inches #12;3 16.89 18.14 16.66 #12;San Antonio River Near Falls City 4 #12;SAWS Effluent 12% (142,867 af/yr) San Antonio and San Pedro Springflow 7% (89,753 af/yr) Gaged Runoff (Elmendorf) 81

  10. Geochemical variations during flash flooding, Meramec River basin, May 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Winston; R. E. Criss

    2002-01-01

    Severe flooding in the Meramec River basin followed an extraordinary rainfall event on May 7, 2000. Precipitation measurements for the 13-h event ranged from 12.7 to 39.9cm over a 4100km2 region centered near Union, Missouri. Sample collections for isotopic and chemical analyses and field measurements of water temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, and pH were made from three rivers during the

  11. SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON SURVIVAL AND STREAMFLOW

    E-print Network

    SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON entitled: Seasonal Stochastic Streamflow Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications for Salmon Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications to Salmon Survival and Streamflow Management Thesis

  12. FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OF HYDROLOGICAL DROUGHT IN THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN1

    E-print Network

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OF HYDROLOGICAL DROUGHT IN THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN1 Janak Timilsena of the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) considering multiple drought variables for the past 500 years hydrological drought index; Palmer Z index; Upper Colorado River Basin.) Timilsena, Janak, Thomas C. Piechota

  13. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw; R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures.

  14. The 2002 Water Law: its impacts on river basin management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dajun Shen

    Modern river basin management techniques are gaining popularity in China to effectively manage increasingly vulnerable water resources. China has several large river basins, with a variety of resource conditions and development challenges. River basins in China are facing aggravated water pollution, and development and management issues. In dealing with these issues, and in line with the evolution of modern concepts

  15. Chaotic dynamics of the flood series in the Huaihe River Basin for the last 500 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinkang Zhou; Zhiyuan Ma; Lachun Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Huaihe River Basin is one of the most flood-prone basins in China because it is frequently affected by collapses of the south levee of the Huanghe (Yellow River) over a long period in addition to its transitional climate and poor drainage topography. The flood series in the Huaihe River Basin for the last 500-year period is reconstructed using the

  16. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 Genetic Assessment of Columbia River Stocks

    E-print Network

    Columbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 Narrative Genetic Assessment of Columbia-Tribal Fish Commission Short Description Genetic Assessment of Columbia River Stocks Province(s) Basinwide Subbasin(s) Basinwide Contact Name Shawn Narum Contact email nars@critfc.org Information transfer: A

  17. Nitrogen Removal by Streams and Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study, based on chemistry and channel dimensions data collected at 893 randomly-selected stream and river sites in the Mississippi River basin, demonstrated the interaction of stream chemistry, stream size, and NO3-N uptake metrics across a range of stream sizes and across re...

  18. An Operational Flood Forecast System for the Indus Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K.; Webster, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Indus River is central to agriculture, hydroelectric power, and the potable water supply in Pakistan. The ever-present risk of drought - leading to poor soil conditions, conservative dam practices, and higher flood risk - amplifies the consequences of abnormally large precipitation events during the monsoon season. Preparation for the 2010 and 2011 floods could have been improved by coupling quantitative precipitation forecasts to a distributed hydrological model. The nature of slow-rise discharge on the Indus and overtopping of riverbanks in this basin indicate that medium-range (1-10 day) probabilistic weather forecasts can be used to assess flood risk at critical points in the basin. We describe a process for transforming these probabilities into an alert system for supporting flood mitigation and response decisions on a daily basis. We present a fully automated two-dimensional flood forecast methodology based on meteorological variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Variable Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS). Energy and water fluxes are calculated in 25km grid cells using macroscale hydrologic parameterizations from the UW Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. A linear routing model transports grid cell surface runoff and baseflow within each grid cell to the outlet and into the stream network. The overflow points are estimated using flow directions, flow velocities, and maximum discharge thresholds from each grid cell. Flood waves are then deconvolved from the in-channel discharge time series and propagated into adjacent cells until a storage criterion based on average grid cell elevation is met. Floodwaters are drained back into channels as a continuous process, thus simulating spatial extent, depth, and persistence on the plains as the ensemble forecast evolves with time.

  19. Repairing the long-term salinity projection model for the Colorado River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Prairie

    The waters of the Colorado River basin are relied on heavily by users inside and outside its geographic boundary. Approximately 3.5 million acres of agricultural lands are irrigated within the basin and hundreds of thousands outside the basin via exported waters. The Colorado River also provides waters to populations numbering 7.8 million within the basin and an additional 23 million

  20. Factors impacting yields in rain-fed paddies of the lower Mekong River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Shimizu; Takao Masumoto; Thanh Hai Pham

    2006-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin (MRB) is the biggest basin in Monsoon Asia. About 80% of the agricultural lands, which occupy about 40% of the basin are rain-fed paddy rice area. Therefore, it is assumed that changes in rain-fed paddy rice production affect the total agricultural production to a great degree in the Mekong River Basin. While there are many factors

  1. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual framework for assessing possible geomorphic and ecological changes in response to river-flow modifications. Suggestions for future biomonitoring and investigations are also provided. This study was one in a series of similar tributary streamflow and geomorphic studies conducted for the Willamette Sustainable Rivers Project. The Sustainable Rivers Project is a national effort by the USACE and The Nature Conservancy to develop environmental flow requirements in regulated river systems.

  2. Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

    2011-12-01

    Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and mature topography with high homogenous erosion. Hydrological system of the study region is complex. Analysis of the Morphometric parameter provides adequate information of both terrain characteristics and hydrological behavior of the catchment and also it is observed that the drainage density of the river is very low which indicates the basin is highly permeable subsoil with dense vegetation cover. Analysis based on circularity ratio, form factor and elongation ratio showed that basin shape of the river is close to circular. The study have significant role to understand landform processes and erosional characteristics of a high altitudinal landform. Present study infers that the integration of morphometrical analysis along with the conventional watershed assessment methods would have a beneficial effect on judicious watershed management of the river Basin. It also included the decrease land resources, soil erosion, and shift runoff of the river basin. Attempt had been made to understand the impact of the river ecosystem of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve especially the upper region of river.

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  5. Effects of livestock wastes on small illinois streams: Lower Kaskaskia river basin and upper little wabash river basins, summer 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.L.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.; Brockamp, D.W.

    1992-07-01

    In early 1991, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) initiated an investigation to evaluate livestock waste runoff in southern Illinois. The primary objectives of this survey were to document stream quality impairments caused by livestock waste runoff, and ultimately, the need for better waste management practices, waste management systems, and funding for such systems. Information provided by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and IEPA Agricultural staff identified an area in Clinton and Bond Counties in the Kaskaskia River basin and several upper Little Wabash River basin tributaries in Effingham and Cumberland Counties as candidate project areas.

  6. Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.

    2013-05-01

    Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300-2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity.

  7. Fluvial dynamics of an anabranching river system in Himalayan foreland basin, Baghmati river, north Bihar plains, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikrant Jain; R. Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Anabranching river systems are now regarded as a separate class in river classifications owing to their distinctive morphological\\/hydrological characteristics and fluvial processes. A better understanding of anabranching rivers still needs detailed data from different environmental and geographical settings. This paper presents a detailed account of an anabranching river system from the Himalayan foreland basin. The Baghmati river system from north

  8. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  9. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  10. The sublimation of falling snow over the Mackenzie River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason E. Burford; Ronald E. Stewart

    1998-01-01

    The sublimation of falling snow may be an important component of the atmospheric water budget of the Mackenzie River Basin and many parts of the Arctic. To investigate this issue, a simple sublimation model is used along with surface precipitation observations and sonde data obtained during the autumn 1994 Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (BASE). Model results are then compared

  11. Reconstruction of Snow Water Equivalent in the Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Timilsena; T. C. Piechota

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on tree ring reconstruction of April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) and evaluates the drought scenarios for the last 500 years in terms of magnitude, severity and frequency. SWE data were obtained from the National Water and Climate Center at the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Tree ring chronologies were used from

  12. Coherence between atmospheric teleconnections and Mackenzie River Basin lake levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Sarmiento; Akilan Palanisami

    Lake Athabasca (LA), Great Slave Lake (GSL) and Great Bear Lake (GBL) lie within the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB), with GBL and GSL being the ninth and tenth largest lakes in the world by volume. How these lake levels fluctuate in time is important in management of the Peace-Athabasca delta, the ecology of these lakes, and for estimating sediment flux.

  13. Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Eduardo Sarmiento

    2010-01-01

    The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP),

  14. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  15. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: LAND USE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It represents the final technical report summarizing land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses conducted for the study. The ORBES region consists of...

  16. Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    E-print Network

    Nyman, John

    .D. Delaune b , A.E. Scaroni c , J.A. Nyman c a Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, LouisianaDenitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana C.W. Lindau a,*, R State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA b Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute, Louisiana State

  17. COAL MINE SITING FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentu...

  18. The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

  19. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

  20. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  1. OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

  2. EVALUATION OF WATERSHED QUALITY IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose for this research was Lo evaluate the baseline (existing) watershed conditions in the Minnesota River basin. he field work was conducted during 1989-1992). hree kinds of procedures were employed: physical (habitat related), chemical (surface and sediment quality) and biol...

  3. Integrated hydrologic-agronomiceconomic model for river basin management

    E-print Network

    Ximing Cai; M. Asce Daene; C. Mckinney; A. M. Asce; Leon S. Lasdon

    2003-01-01

    economic and environmental consequences of various policy choices. All model components are incorporated into a single consistent model, which is solved in its entirety by a simple but effective decomposition approach. The model is applied to a case study of water management in the Syr Darya River basin in

  4. Predicting historic riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Imaki; T. J. Beechie

    2009-01-01

    We developed a GIS data set that depicts pre-settlement riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin to guide stream restoration for endangered salmon. To do this, we first created a data layer of historic riparian vegetation information from survey notes that were taken mid 19th to early 20th century during the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) conducted by General Land

  5. OPTIMAL WATER ALLOCATION IN THE MEKONG RIVER BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Ringler

    2001-01-01

    The Mekong River is the dominant geo-hydrological structure in mainland Southeast Asia, originating in China and flowing through or bordering Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Whereas water resources in the wet season are more than adequate to fulfill basin needs, there are regional water shortages during the dry season, when only 1-2% of the annual flow reaches the Delta.

  6. WATERSHED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS BALANCE: THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen and phosphorus mass balances were estimated for the portion of the Potomac River basin watershed located above Washington, D.C. he total nitrogen (N) balance included seven input source terms, six sinks, and one "change-in-storage" term, but was simplified to five input ...

  7. Assessing Water and Energy Budgets for the Saskatchewan River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kit K. SZETO

    2007-01-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Canada is one of the most important agricultural regions for the country. Despite the critical dependency of the region’s agricultural and societal activities to climate variability and change, no comprehensive water and energy budget assessment has yet been developed for this drought-prone region. This study represents the first attempt at developing a comprehensive climatology

  8. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  9. History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin

    E-print Network

    History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Center Colorado at least rest for a few months) · The 2013 flood was a BIG DEAL! (in case you hadn't figured that out) #12. and the CSU Colorado Climate Center. Radar data supplied by Weather Decision Technologies, Inc. #12;Floods

  10. Hydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3

    E-print Network

    Wells, Scott A.

    of the Lower Snake River in the Northwestern USA; the Bull Run River basin composed of 3 water supplyHydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3 Scott A. Wells for deep, long, and narrow waterbodies. The current model, Version 2, has been used in over 200 river

  11. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons. PMID:25299076

  12. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  13. Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

  14. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  17. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

  18. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  19. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  20. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  1. Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R

    2007-12-01

    Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management. PMID:17912585

  2. Forecasting Severe Floods for the Meghna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, V. E.; Jian, J.; Hopson, T. M.; Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of extreme floods in Bangladesh is vital for the agricultural practices and planning in the region, and to provide warnings for evacuation in case of flooding. Hopson and Webster (2010) developed and implemented a short-term flood forecasting scheme in Bangladesh for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins that performs significantly better than the climatological and persistence forecasts at all lead times. Probabilistic forecast of river discharge at two entry points into Bangladesh of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers was developed using a hydrologic multimodel initialized by NASA and NOAA rainfall products, whose fluxes were forecasted forward using calibrated ECMWF ensemble prediction system products. We investigate whether extreme floods in the Bangladesh for the Meghna river basin are equally predictable on a 1-15 day time scale. The Hopson and Webster meteorological-hydrological forecast model developed for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins is calibrated and adapted for the Meghna basin at Bhairab Bazar. It is found that, on 1-15 day time scales, the floods for the summers of 2007-2010 are well predicted.

  3. Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

  4. Some hydrologic aspects of snowmelt runoff under summer conditions, in the Barpu glacier basin, Central Karakoram, Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ghazanfar

    1989-01-01

    Snow and ice in high mountains represent and important water resource in many parts of the world, especially the dry continental interior of Central Asia. In the Northern Areas of Pakistan, mountain ranges are the primary sources of annually renewed water supplies. They give rise to rivers which are the only significant, sustainable source of fresh water. The Indus basin

  5. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

  6. Paleofloods in the Red River Basin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

  7. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

  8. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

  9. Water Quality of the upper Litani River Basin, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydar, Chaden Moussa; Nehme, Nada; Awad, Sadek; Koubaissy, Bachar; Fakih, Mohamad; Yaacoub, Ali; Toufaily, Joumana; Villeras, Frederic; Hamieh, Tayssir

    Water pollution is a major problem in Lebanon, which is has been exacerbated lately. However, surface water sources are most exploited, and more certainly the water from rivers. The Litani River has been lately subjected to several aspects of deterioration in its quality. This includes the major physiochemical characteristics. The aims of this study are to assess the seasonal variations in water quality in the Upper Litani River Basin, including the Qaraaoun Lake. The collected samples were from representative sites along the river, and this was carried out at several dates during 2010 and 2011. The carried analysis implies the physical (pH, T°, TDS, EC), chemicals (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO2-4, NH3+, NO-3, PO2-4, K+, Heavy metals. This resulted numeric data are being compared with WHO guidelines. In addition, PCA was applied to evaluate the data accuracy. It can be conclude that the measured variables used are creditable for the assessment.

  10. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Gray, Stephen T.; Meko, David M.

    2006-05-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past.

  11. Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

  12. Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

    2009-05-01

    Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

  13. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

    2006-02-01

    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  14. The Columbia River Estuary the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    a review of the impacts of estuarine conditions on the Council's mission to "protect, mitigate and enhance of the Federal Navigation Channel, and regulation of upper Columbia River flows for hydrosystem needs and flood, our ability to assess impacts of estuarine #12;ISAB 2000-5 Estuary Report ii conditions on the Fish

  15. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromrivers impacted by industrial discharges. Among the rivers directly flowing into the sea, Brenta, Po and Arno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  16. Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

    2006-01-01

    The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

  17. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    Library Monday, June 9 Kalispell, MT 430-6 pm Red Lion Hotel Tuesday, June 10 Missoula, MT 430-6 pm Double Tree Edgewater Monday, June 16 Spokane, WA 5-6 pm Red Lion River Inn Tuesday, June 17 Yakima, WA 5-6 pm Hilton Garden Inn Wednesday, June 18 Pendleton, OR 430-6 pm Red Lion Pendleton Wednesday, June 25 Boise

  18. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; S. Gangopadhyay; T. Pruitt

    2010-01-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While

  19. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 Table 1. Proposal

    E-print Network

    Columbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 Narrative Table 1. Proposal Project Number Development of a sockeye salmon population in Deschutes Basin Province(s) Columbia Plateau Subbasin population in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin in Northeast Oregon and the Suttle Lake population

  20. Characterization of Stream Morphology and Sediment Yield for the Big Black and Tombigbee River Basins, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three segments within the Big Black River Basin, and nine within the Tombigbee River Basin are on the Mississippi 303d list of water bodies as having impaired conditions for aquatic life due to sediment. An additional 56 reaches of channel are listed for biologic impairment between the two basins. ...

  1. Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

    1995-01-01

    Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

  2. Evaluation of groundwater resources in wide inundation areas of the Mekong River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Kazama; Terumichi Hagiwara; Priyantha Ranjan; Masaki Sawamoto

    2007-01-01

    Severe floods can have disastrous impacts and cause wide ranging destruction in the Mekong River basin. At the same time groundwater resources are significantly influenced and extensively recharged by flood water in inundation areas of the basin. This study determines the variation of groundwater resources caused by flooding over inundated areas located in lower part of the Mekong River basin

  3. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    An appraisal-level engineering economic cost analysis was performed for two primary types of irrigation systems in a portion of the Columbia Basin Project- a surface-water irrigation system in which water is supplied via canals and laterals, and a system in which surface water is brought to recharging wells and eventually to farms using the transmissive properties of the aquifer and pumping. At 1979 electric power rates, the artificial-recharge irrigation scheme is a viable alternative to surface-distributed irrigation systems, but as electric rates increase, its viability decreases. At three times the 1979 rate, the recharge scheme is uneconomical. (USGS)

  4. THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNOLOGIES FOR EVALUATION OF TURKISH RIVER BASINS: A CASE STUDY OF MARMARA RIVER BASIN AND ISTANBUL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Necla Ulugtekin; Filiz Bektas; Ahmet Ozgur Dogru; Cigdem Goksel; Idil Aslan Alaton; Derin Orhon

    In this study, it was aimed at combining remote sensing (RS) technology and geographic information system (GIS) in order to determine sensitive river basins and specific areas, which need urgent planning activities, after providing a rather rapid, sensitive and comprehensive overview of the current situation of Turkish river basins in terms of existing spatial data. For the aim of the

  5. The use of remote sensing and geographic information systems for the evaluation of river basins: A case study for Turkey, Marmara River Basin and Istanbul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Necla Ulugtekin; Filiz Bektas Balcik; Ahmet O. Dogru; Cigdem Goksel; Idil Arslan Alaton; Derin Orhon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sensitive river basins and specific areas that urgently need planning activities for sustainable resource and environmental management. In this context, a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were employed. For that purpose, a comprehensive overview of the current situation of Turkish river basins in terms of existing spatial

  6. Flow regime alterations under changing climate in two river basins: implications for freshwater ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Gibson; J. L. Meyer; N. L. Poff; L. E. HAYc; A. Georgakakos

    2005-01-01

    We examined impacts of future climate scenarios on flow regimes and how predicted changes might affect river ecosystems. We examined two case studies: Cle Elum River, Washington, and Chattahoochee-Apalachicola River Basin, Georgia and Florida. These rivers had available downscaled global circulation model (GCM) data and allowed us to analyse the effects of future climate scenarios on rivers with (1) different

  7. Basin-Scale Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: An Example Based on the Axios River Basin in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios G. Karpouzas; Ettore Capri; Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkidou

    2006-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in large river basins in Europe, where high loads of applied herbicides have resulted in the contam- ination of related surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) systems. Therefore, risk assessment of pesticides used on rice should be per- formed at the basin scale. This study reports the development and validation of a basin-scale scenario,

  8. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration. PMID:25142344

  9. Multi-Decadal Variability of Colorado River Basin Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hoerling, M.; Zagona, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional water resource planning and management are based upon the assumption that past run-off records are indicative of future hydrologic conditions. The severe and sustained nature of the recent drought in the Southwestern United States has underscored the limitation of this planning approach. Furthermore, a growing collection of scientific literature indicates that anthropogenic climate change may further dry the region and strain its water resources. Thus, developing tools and strategies to address streamflow variability, is critical for effective water management in regions such as the Colorado River Basin. A crucial first step toward this end is the understanding of streamflow variability at multi-decadal time scales, driven by large scale climate features such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), etc. Here, a systematic analysis of basin-wide natural streamflow and paleo-reconstructed flows in the Colorado River Basin is presented, using time domain principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral methods based on wavelets and a multi-taper method. The dominant patterns of variability are related to global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to identify potential large scale climate features that drive the variability. Results indicate that the first two PCs explain approximately 60% of the total streamflow variance in the Basin. The first PC, which is a predominantly Upper Basin signal, correlates strongly with Atlantic Ocean SSTs and shows an AMO pattern, while the second PC has distinct ties to the Pacific Ocean, reminiscent of PDO and ENSO patterns. The spectral analyses of the leading PCs indicate strong coherence with the corresponding indices of the aforementioned climate forcings. The spectrum of the first PC displays a strong signal at 10-15 year and 60-70 year periodicities. Spectral analysis of paleo-reconstructed Upper Basin streamflow indicates that these periodicities are modulated, especially the decadal signal being modulated at a 75-year time scale. These results provide insight into the multi-decadal variability of Colorado River streamflow. Furthermore, they will have considerable utility in realistic simulation of near-term streamflows and consequently, efficient planning and management of water resources in the Colorado River Basin.

  10. Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    931 Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia quality. A Spatial Analysis of Phosphorus in the Mississippi River Basin Linda M. Jacobson, Mark B. David,* and Laurie E. Drinkwater Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) have been

  11. Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Protection Agency

    This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

  12. Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Durcik; P. A. Troch; H. V. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand

  13. Medieval Drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Meko; C. A. Woodhouse

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records have consistently identified the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), approximately A.D. 900- 1300, as unusual for the incidence of multi-decadal drought in the western United States. Four newly developed tree-ring chronologies derived from living trees, standing dead trees and logs are examined for evidence of a MCA drought signature in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The four chronologies

  14. Point-nonpoint nutrient trading in the Susquehanna River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Richard D.; Shortle, James S.; Abler, David G.

    2002-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of pollution trading between point and nonpoint sources to improve the cost-effectiveness of water pollution control but little literature to guide the design of trading systems involving nonpoint sources. Expanding on prior theoretical work, this paper provides empirical evidence about design and performance issues for two types of trading systems that would allow nutrient trading among and between point and nonpoint sources in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania.

  15. Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

  16. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/gdryweight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. PMID:25777957

  17. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0?28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  18. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  19. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation guidelines, and climate change scenario assumptions. This potential risk mitigation could be at least partly realized through enhancements to current management practices, possibly in the Gila River, that could improve the water supply reliability for all stakeholders in the Colorado River Basin.

  20. Water Quality Trends in the Fraser River Basin, 1985-1995

    E-print Network

    -basin monitoring site, the Salmon River at Salmon Arm, identified trends in turbidity and dissolved ions mayWater Quality Trends in the Fraser River Basin, 1985-1995 Robin Regnier Central Limit Statistical FRAP 1998 - 39 #12;#12;Abstract: Water quality data have been collected at nine river sites

  1. Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin David M. Meko,1

    E-print Network

    Woodhouse, Connie

    Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin David M. Meko,1 Connie A. Woodhouse,2 annual flows of the Colorado River at Lee Ferry into the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when epic droughts in the upper Colorado River Basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L10705, doi:10.1029/2007GL029988. 1. Introduction

  2. The Design and Implement of Meteorological Service Benefit Assessment for Huaihe River Basin with GIS Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuoben Bi; Qifu Wang; Xueshi Dong

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide assistant to the meteorological service, the paper applies the GIS technology and the corresponding evaluation models to the Huaihe River Basin meteorological service benefit evaluation. The system takes the meteorological disasters of Huaihe River Basin and corresponding models as the key object, intuitively show the status of the rivers, facilities, humanities and so on, with a

  3. Exposure of migrating salmon populations in the Columbia/Snake River basins to environmental factors

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Exposure of migrating salmon populations in the Columbia/Snake River basins to environmental in the Columbia and Snake River basins are exposed to a variety of environmental conditions that vary with year the calculation for the exposure of Snake River subyearling chinook to temperature at Lower Granite Dam

  4. Appendix A -1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    is a Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlifeAppendix A - 1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program The 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program is the fifth revision of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program since the NPCC

  5. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    E-print Network

    Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005 Open.S. Geological Survey scientists measuring discharge at the mouth of the Forty-mile River in Yukon Territories, Canada, August 2004 #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year

  6. Red Cedar River Basin, Wisconsin; low-flow characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Low-flow characteristics in the Red Cedar River basin, Wis., where surplus water may be diverted, and methods to determine low-flow characteristics at additional sites are presented. The low-flow characteristics were determined by various methods at 71 sites. For the three gaging stations in the basin, frequency analysis was used to determine the low-flow characteristics. At 17 partial-record sites correlation analyses were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics. Where only a single base-flow measurement was available (41 sites), equations were developed to estimate low-flow characteristics. The relationships were determined from multiple-regression analyses that related low-flow characteristics at gaging stations, low-flow partial-record stations, and sewage-treatment-plant sites to the drainage area and base-flow index values. The standard errors of estimate were determined to be 25 percent for the Q7,2 equation and 34 percent for the Q7,10 equation. For the main stem of the Red Cedar River where only one discharge measurement was available the low-flow characteristics were determined from a drainage area-discharge relationship. Low-flow characteristics were determined at an additional 30 sites in the Red Cedar River basin by various methods. The method used for these sites depended upon the type and amount of data available at each site. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

    2011-07-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

  8. Appropriate river basin modelling to assess the impact of climate change on river flooding

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    models and observed rainfall input are used to simulate discharge series and derive extreme value. Next, a stochastic rainfall model generates rainfall input for the current and changed #12;climate. These rainfall inputs are used in the three river basin models to simulate discharge series and derive EVDs

  9. Participatory river basin management in the São João River, Brazil: A basis for climate change adaptation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIZ FIRMINO MARTINS PEREIRA; SAMUEL BARRETO; JAMIE PITTOCK

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical case study of enhanced water management in the São João River basin on the southeast coast of Brazil between 1999 and 2008. The autonomous adaptation measures applied are assessed to derive lessons for more effective climate change adaptation. In response to severe eutrophication of their coastal lakes, effective, local multi-stakeholder institutions were established under the

  10. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  11. Exposure modeling on a river basin scale in support of risk assessment for chemicals in European river basins.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Jos; van Hattum, Bert; Westrich, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Following the 2000 European Water Framework Directive and recent insights into sediment management on a river basin scale, we discuss in this paper an exposure model aiming to support a risk assessment for chemicals on a basin-wide scale. It establishes spatial relations between causes (pollution sources) and effects (ecological risk), taking into account the geometry, hydrology, and fine sediment dynamics of European river basins. The model, called EXPOBASIN, explicitly takes into account the interaction of chemicals with fine sediment particles, which is important for many policy-relevant chemicals, such as trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and it addresses the potential release of historically polluted sediments as a result of extreme floods, which is a major concern in different European river basins. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation are included in the assessment. As a result, the exposure can be quantified not only in terms of water concentrations, but also in terms of sediment concentrations and concentrations in biota. The primary question to be answered by EXPOBASIN is how chemicals, pollution sources, or both rank quantitatively and objectively on a basin-wide scale. Near the end of 2009, the tool will become available to all European water managers and their technical advisors, as a result of the European Union 6th Framework Programme project MODELKEY. The calibration and validation of EXPOBASIN has only just started and will be completed in 2008/2009. Applications to 3 case study areas are planned in this respect. This paper presents the key building blocks of EXPOBASIN and shows some sample results illustrating the raking of pollution sources and chemicals. At the end of the paper, some perspectives for future developments are outlined. PMID:19431293

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  13. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, W.; Martinez, J.-M.; Espinoza-Villar, R.; Cochonneau, G.; Vauchel, P.; Moquet, J.-S.; Baby, P.; Espinoza, J.-C.; Lavado, W.; Carranza, J.; Guyot, J.-L.

    2015-03-01

    Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  14. The use of turbulent jets to destratify the Charles River Basin

    E-print Network

    Church, Jeffrey H. (Jeffrey Harrison)

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using turbulent jets to destratify the Lower Charles River Basin between the Longfellow and Craigie Bridges between Boston and Cambridge. The basin is currently filled with salt water ...

  15. Screening model optimization for Panay River Basin planning in the Philippines

    E-print Network

    Millspaugh, John Henry

    2010-01-01

    The state of the water resources of the Panay River Basin have motivated studies and initial basin planning to mitigate flood damages, to produce hydroelectricity, and to increase irrigated rice areas. The goal of this ...

  16. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  17. Salinity Trends in Surface Waters of the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Bauch; Norman E. Spahr

    1998-01-01

    Dissolved-solids data collected in the Upper Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, Colorado, and in the Gunnison River Basin were analyzed for trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentra- tions and loads for water years 1970 to 1993, 1980 to 1993, and 1986 to 1993. Trend results for flow-adjusted periodic dissolved-solids con- centrations for the Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, CO,

  18. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

    2010-08-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force a hydrologic model utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the CBRFC hydrologic model is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the CBRFC's hydrologic model resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

  19. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  20. Hypsometric analysis of Kali River Basin, Karnataka, India, using geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vipin Joseph Markose; K. S. Jayappa

    2011-01-01

    Hypsometric analysis is useful for understanding the geomorphic stages of a river basin. Hypsometric parameters have been evaluated and curves are prepared forall the 20 sub-basins of Kali River. Thirteen sub-basins are found to be under younger geomorphic stages with high hypsometric integral (Ea) values and subjected to recent tectonic activities. The remaining seven sub-basins are approaching mature stage and

  1. URANINITE OCCURRENCE IN HEAVY MINERAL SANDS OF THE INDUS VALLEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zeschke; N. Jahrb

    1959-01-01

    In the gold-rich sands of the Indus River, especially in the northern ; part of West Pakistan, uraninite, monazite, scheelite, zircon, ilmenite, and ; previously unknown minerals were discovered. Uraninite exhibits an abnormally ; high radioactivity which could be traced back to the decay products of the radium ; series. The type of radiation was investigatod and discussed. Chemical and

  2. Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.

    2011-12-01

    In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations alone. Verification of these results by local, in-situ measurements can increase our confidence in these methods. However, this work demonstrates the ability to establish a starting point for water resources planners in southern Africa and other regions with intermittent or sparse streamflow observations.

  3. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin. PMID:24256030

  4. Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    .................................................................................9 A. Vision for the Columbia River Basin......................................................................... 9 1. The Overall Vision for the Fish and Wildlife Program............................................................................. 30 3. Artificial Production Strategies

  5. Inventing the Charles River Basin : urban images and civic discourse in Boston, 1844-1994

    E-print Network

    Haglund, Karl T

    1997-01-01

    The Charles River Basin, extending from the foot of Beacon Hill upstream past Harvard's Soldiers Field, has been called Boston's "Central Park." The river looks to all appearances tranquil and unchanging, one of the most ...

  6. The sublimation of falling snow over the Mackenzie River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burford, Jason E.; Stewart, Ronald E.

    The sublimation of falling snow may be an important component of the atmospheric water budget of the Mackenzie River Basin and many parts of the Arctic. To investigate this issue, a simple sublimation model is used along with surface precipitation observations and sonde data obtained during the autumn 1994 Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (BASE). Model results are then compared with actual precipitation measurements at Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, sites in Northern Canada, to approximate mass loss due to sublimation. The sublimation results are found to vary in concert with cloud base height, precipitation intensity aloft and the nature of the precipitation. Atmospheric conditions are furthermore examined over a wide range of the Arctic, especially the Mackenzie River Basin, to assess to what degree the results can be generalized. The presence of a relatively dry near-surface layer, a favourable environment for sublimation, is a key feature of most sites during the early autumn storm period. Estimates of sublimational mass losses are found over Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk using sonde derived cloud base heights and temperature and humidity profiles. Sublimation losses for such sites are found to be of the order of 40-60%, which shows that sublimation is indeed a significant process over the Mackenzie Basin and needs to be well handled in climate models. However, increasing the vertical resolution of the sublimation model to that of climate scales can dramatically affect predicted sublimation amounts; how to properly account for sublimation then remains a difficult task.

  7. Successful Transboundary River Basin and Estuary Cooperation: Benchmarks for the Ural River Basin?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome Simpson; Stephen Stec; Wim Cofino; Helle Peeters; Bert Hove; Annemiek Verhallen

    Russia’s new Water Code means its water resources remain under federal jurisdiction. However, this shouldn’t rule out transboundary\\u000a water cooperation. After acknowledging the current situation regarding water resources management in Russia, this paper presents\\u000a three instances of transboundary cooperation, two case studies concerning nations within the Danube basin: the Sava and Tisza\\u000a sub-basins, and a third concerning the Scheldt Estuary

  8. Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

  9. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  10. On the occurrence of Anaecypris hispanica, an extremely endangered Iberian endemism, in the Guadalquivir River basin.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, R; Pino, E; Ramiro, A; Aranda, F; Peña, J P; Doadrio, I; Fernández-Delgado, C

    2010-04-01

    The jarabugo Anaecypris hispanica, considered endemic to the Guadiana River basin, has been found in the Guadalquivir River. First genetic data showed a high degree of similarity to those of the Guadiana River populations. The genetic study recovered five different groups of haplotypes, the Guadalquivir River specimens belong to the largest and most widely extended group. PMID:20537024

  11. Where rivers near the coastline, the re-ceiving basin begins to influence flow, and

    E-print Network

    400 ABSTRACT Where rivers near the coastline, the re- ceiving basin begins to influence flow, and gradually varied, nonuniform flow condi- tions arise. The section of the river affected by nonuniform flow is typically referred to as the backwater segment, and for large lowland rivers, this portion of the river can

  12. Application of GIS network analysis in water pollution control of Huaihe River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Huaihe River Basin is a unique region in China with high densities in both population and water projects (dams and floodgates) and is also subject to the most serious water pollution. It is a complicated water system, with a large number of tributaries, many inter-provincial rivers, and highly artificial river water control. Management of water projects regulating of river network

  13. Fish diversity in the upper Paraná River basin: habitats, fisheries, management and conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Agostinho; F. M. Pelicice; A. C. Petry; L. C. Gomes; H. F. Júlio Jr

    2007-01-01

    The Paraná River is the second longest river in South America and the tenth largest river in the world in water discharge. The upper stretches are characterized by high human occupation and intense anthropogenic activities, and few areas are still in pristine conditions. Despite this, fish diversity is remarkably high in the upper Paraná River basin, and the existence of

  14. Performance of dynamical downscaling for Colorado River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The ongoing 2000s western U.S. drought has focused attention on drought susceptibility of the Colorado River basin. There is a concern that many climate models predict permanently drier conditions for the next century over the Colorado basin, however interpretation of these projections is complicated by their coarse spatial resolution which does not resolve the role of the relatively small mountain headwaters area that is the source of much of the basin’s runoff. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to resolve these spatial scales, and for this reason arguably should be a preferred source of information about the future hydrology of the Colorado basin. We use the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF/ARW) regional climate model to explore the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the basin. Initially, we selected three years -- 1993 (wet), 2002 (dry), and 1980 (normal) as test cases, with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis. For these years, we evaluated the impact of domain size through comparison with WRF runs performed for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) Phase I, with particular attention to the Colorado River basin. We also tested spatial resolutions of 16 km and 25 km in addition to the NARCCAP 50 km spatial resolution. We then performed an 11-year current climate run for the period 1980-1990 with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis at 50 km spatial resolution and compared spatial patterns of simulated winter precipitation and snow water equivalent (SWE) with the 1/8-degree historical North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data set. Subsequently, we evaluated the impacts of projected future climate change on changes in the spatial distribution of winter precipitation and SWE using 10-year runs with boundary conditions taken from the CCSM General Circulation Model for current and mid-21st century boundary conditions. We also compared the RCM results for current and future climate with inferred changes taken directly from the GCM via statistical downscaling.

  15. [Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme. PMID:24483070

  16. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

  17. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

    1981-01-01

    Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

  19. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  20. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  1. Development of Streamflow Projections under Changing Climate Conditions over Colorado River Basin Headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

    2010-12-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are impacted by forecasts developed by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. Here, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. The NWS RFS is modified to evaluate the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

  2. PHAHs in 14 principal river sediments from Hai River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Li, Kun; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang

    2012-06-15

    This study was undertaken to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from 14 principal rivers of the Hai River basin. The concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediments were measured using GC-MS/MS technique. The highest PBB levels were detected in sediments from River Daqing: PBB3, 10, 4, 15, 26, 31, and 49 were observed in the sediments. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were in River Tuhe (G.M.=2.10 ng g(-1) dw), and PBDE15 was the most predominant congener in the sediments from all of the rivers of this study, except for River Tuhe, which accounted for >13.5% of the total PBDEs in sediments. PBDE209 was detected in sediments from the Beijingpaiwu, Nanyun, Majia and Tuhe rivers, with observed values ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 ng g(-1) dw. PCBs had the highest concentrations in sediment samples collected from River Luan and River Daqing, with levels of 18.13 and 25.62 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The most predominant PCB congener in these samples was PCB138, which accounted for about 24% of the sum of the seven indicator PCB congeners (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) measured in the two rivers. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with recent results, reported in the literature, and the respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwaters from other regions. This suggests that, in these rivers, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota-due to PHAH contamination of sediments-can be expected to be negligible. Thus, in terms of PHAHs, the sediments can be regarded as relatively uncontaminated. PMID:22560245

  3. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  5. Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Saá-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both sub-periods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  6. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

  7. An entropy-based morphological analysis of river basin networks

    E-print Network

    Fiorentino, Mauro; Claps, Pierluigi; Singh, Vijay P.

    WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 29, NO. 4, PAGES 1215-1224, APRIL 1993 An Entropy-Based Morphological Analysis of River Basin Networks MAURO FIORENTINO AND PIERLUIGI CLAPS Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente, Universitd della... principles were applied. The first principle is that the most probable state of a system is the one of maximum entropy. The second Copyright 1993 by the American Geophysical Union. Paper number 92WR02332. 0043.1397/93/92WR-02332505.00 is the principle...

  8. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  9. Ohio River Basin energy study: Land use and terrestrial ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, J. C.; Jones, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES) region consisting of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania is presented. This 122 million acre region has a variety of land uses, which are summarized. Also discussed is the terrestrial ecology of the region (climate, physiography, soils, flora, fauna, and ecosystem dynamics). For the various ORBES energy development scenarios, land use conversion due to energy-related use was calculated, and impacts on terrestrial ecology were determined by application of the terrestrial ecosystem assessment methodology developed for ORBES.

  10. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  11. Water Source Dynamics of High Arctic River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Milner, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Meltwater from snow and glaciers exerts a strong influence on aquatic habitat conditions in many headwater catchments, yet there is currently limited understanding of spatiotemporal variability in water source dynamics of Arctic river systems that in turn determine stream physicochemical properties. Furthermore, identification of space-time dynamics in water source contributions to stream flow provides important insights into catchment hydrological functioning. This research gap was addressed by characterising the seasonal evolution of water source contributions (snow/glacial melt and soil/groundwater) to river flow at seven sites spanning a range of catchment glaciation (0-61 %) across north-west Svalbard during the 2010 and 2011 meltwater seasons. Hydrochemically-informed end-member mixing analysis demonstrated that 'quickflow' (i.e. snow and glacier runoff) meltwaters dominated river flow in 2010 in glacierized river basins (typically >85%), while discharge in a non-glacial system (i.e. no catchment glaciation) was maintained initially by snowmelt but become increasingly dependent on subsurface soil water inputs which comprised more than 75% of flow volume in late summer. In 2011, river discharge increased under warmer and wetter climatological conditions. Flow contributions from soil water were higher than in 2010, comprising up to 100% of total flow at some sites following the loss of seasonal snowpacks. In the context of future warming scenarios, these results provide the basis for analogue modelling of the impact of climate-induced hydrological changes on water availability and flow regimes in polar regions during the 21st century. A decline in glacial meltwater inputs and progressive shift towards the dominance of non-glacial water sources may affect ecosystem functioning and have important implications for local and regional biodiversity. Further work is currently ongoing as part of a broader linked investigation that will provide insight into the hydroecological response of Arctic rivers to climate change.

  12. ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    2003-03-31

    Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity inversion surface (i.e., pressure surface boundary); (b) detection and delineation of gas-charged domains beneath the velocity inversion surface (i.e., volumes characterized by anomalously slow velocities); and (c) variations within the internal fabric of the velocity anomaly (i.e., variations in gas charge). Using these procedures, it is possible to construct an anomalous velocity profile for an area, or in the case of the Wind River Basin, an anomalous velocity volume for the whole basin. Such an anomalous velocity volume has been constructed for the Wind River Basin based on 1600 mi of 2-D seismic data and 175 sonic logs, for a total of 132,000 velocity/depth profiles. The technology was tested by constructing six cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume coincident with known gas fields. In each of the cross sections, a strong and intense anomalously slow velocity domain coincided with the gas productive rock/fluid interval; there were no exceptions. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, six target areas were chosen from a series of cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume. The criteria for selection of these undrilled target areas were (1) they were characterized by anomalous velocity domains comparable to known gas fields; (2) they had structural, stratigraphic, and temporal elements analogous to one of the known fields; and (3) they were located at least six sonic miles from the nearest known gas field. The next step in the exploration evolution would be to determine if the detected gas-charged domains are intersected by reservoir intervals characterized by enhanced porosity and permeability. If, in any of these targeted areas, the gas-charged domains are penetrated by reservoir intervals with enhanced storage and deliverability, the gas-charged domains could be elevated to drillable prospects. Hopefully, the work described in this report (the detection and delineation of gas-charged domains) will enable operators in the Wind River Basin and elsewhere to reduce risk significantly and increase the rate and magnitude of conve

  13. Hack's relation and optimal channel networks: The elongation of river basins as a consequence of energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    1993-08-01

    As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.

  14. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    E-print Network

    Crosby, Benjamin T.

    Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho Chunling in the Salmon River Basin (SRB) of Idaho and are anticipated to contin- ue increasing in the future, leading and ecological processes. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Climate changes have occurred in the Salmon

  15. Freshwater fishes of the Amazon River basin: their biodiversity, fisheries, and habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang J. Junk; Maria Gercilia Mota Soares; Peter B. Bayley

    2007-01-01

    Stretching more than seven million square kilometers, the Amazon River basin is the largest river basin in the world and discharges about one-sixth of all freshwater from the continents to the oceans of the world. The age of this ecosystem, its position near the equator and the enormous diversity of its aquatic habitats, have produced the most diverse fish fauna

  16. The Water Budget of the Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska* STEPHEN J. DRY

    E-print Network

    Dery, Stephen

    moisture for the Kuparuk River basin on the North Slope of Alaska is presented. Numerical simulations. In turn, this would lead to a drying out of soils on the North Slope of Alaska. Barber et al. (2000The Water Budget of the Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska* STEPHEN J. DÃ?RY Lamont-Doherty Earth

  17. Analysis of Hydrologic Variability Over the Colorado River Basin Under Changing Climate Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota

    2008-01-01

    Provisional assumptions of natural flow over the Colorado River Basin indicate average flow between calendar years 2000 and 2008 to be the lowest 9-year average on the observed record. In response to continued severe drought conditions and water consumption, the United States Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) implemented the Colorado River Interim Guidelines for Lower Basin Shortages and the Coordinated Operations

  18. Boundaries of Consent: Stakeholder Representation in River Basin Management in Mexico and South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J Merrey; Marna de Lange

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of water users to influence decision-making is crucial in river basin management reforms. This article assesses emerging forums for river basin management in Mexico and South Africa and concludes that the pace of democratization of water management in both is slow. Mexico is characterized by continued government dominance and attempts to include already organized stakeholders in decision-making,

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abernethy, C.L. 2001. Financing River Basin Organizations. In Abernethy, C.L. (Ed.)

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    317 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abernethy, C.L. 2001. Financing River Basin Organizations. In Abernethy, C.L. (Ed.) Intersectoral Management of River Basins. Colombo: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Africa. 1984 Model: Assessing Environmental Threats to Food and Water Security in Russia. Environmental Change

  20. Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

    2008-01-01

    Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

  1. Assessment on Water Ecosystem Services in the Songhua River Basin by AHP Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tang Zi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish an evaluation system to estimate the water ecosystem services in the Songhua River Basin. According to the MA's classification, this paper groups water ecosystem services into four categories comprised of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting. On the basis, the paper assesses the sixteen important significant indexes for the Songhua River Basin by

  2. Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Çoruh river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adem Akp?nar; Murat ?hsan Kömürcü; Murat Kankal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Çoruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Çoruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities

  3. Regional estimation of base flow and groundwater recharge in the Upper Mississippi river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Arnold; R. S. Muttiah; R. Srinivasan; P. M. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and discharge (base flow) estimates from two methods were compared in the Upper Mississippi River basin (USGS hydrologic cataloging unit 07). The Upper Mississippi basin drains 491,700km2 in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and outlets in the Mississippi River north of Cairo, Illinois. The first method uses the water balance components from the soil and water assessment

  4. IMPORTANCE OF RAINFALL MEASUREMENTS FOR THE FLOOD FORECASTING OF THE MEKONG RIVER BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAPU ARACHCHIGE; PRASANTHA HAPUARACHCHI; KUNIYOSHI TAKEUCHI; KAZUHIKO FUKAMI; HIRONORI INOMATA; MAICHUN ZHOU

    This paper presents the results of an application of a grid based distributed hydrological model, BTOPMC (Block-wise use of TOPMODEL with Muskingum-Cunge method) to the Mekong River basin. The BTOPMC model was particularly developed for modelling large river basins based on the extended TOPMODEL concepts. The model has been tested in various regions of the world and proven to be

  5. Adaptation to climate change in international river basins in Africa: a review*

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    , international river basins, conflict, cooperation INTRODUCTION Africa's fresh water resources are vital1 Adaptation to climate change in international river basins in Africa: a review* MARISA GOULDEN1 of the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in Africa and the possible limits, barriers

  6. Water Saving in the Yellow River Basin, China. 1. Irrigation Demand Scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Campos; L S. Pereira; J. M. Gonçalves; M. S. Fabião; Y. Liu; Y. N. Li; Z. Mao; B. Dong

    Water saving in irrigation is a main issue in the Yellow River basin. Field studies were conducted in two areas: The Huinong Irrigation District (HID), Ningxia Province, in the upper reaches, where excess irrigation water is applied giving rise to water-logging and salinity problems, and the Bojili Irrigation District (BID), Shandong Province, in the lower reaches of the river basin,

  7. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

  8. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  9. Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program By Ed Chaney, Director, Northwest Columbia/Snake Rivers elements of the Council's 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

  10. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  11. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: The Sacramento River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to identify the major natural and human factors that affect the quality of those resources. In addressing these goals, the program will provide a wealth of water- quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major asset of the NAWQA program is that it will allow for the integration of water-quality information collected at several scales. A major component of the program is the study-unit investigation-the foundation of national- level assessment. The 60 study units of the NAWQA program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems of the conterminous United States. These study units cover areas of 1,000 to more than 60,000 square miles and represent 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supplies. Investigations of the first 20 study units began in 1991. In 1994, the Sacramento River Basin was among the second set of 20 NAWQA study units selected for investigation.

  12. Water-quality investigation, Upper Santa Clara River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, James C.; Irwin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data are summarized for the upper Santa Clara River basin, California from studies beginning August 1974 through June 1976 and during past monitoring programs. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace elements, detergents, and pesticide compounds. Because of the limited number of samples, the data are only an estimate of conditions that existed in the basin. Sampling was designed so that samples from each site would represent seasonal variations in discharge. Most constituents were fairly low in concentration near the headwaters at Ravenna and higher below the urban and agricultural area near Saugus. Mean specific conductance in the river ranged from 745 micromhos per centimeter at 25 deg C below the headwaters near Lang to 2,640 micromhos at the Los Angeles-Ventura County line. Results also indicate that discharge was not the single factor controlling the concentration variance for most constituents. Regression analyses indicated a high correlation between specific conductance and most major inorganic chemical constituents, and between specific conductance and discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS THROUGH FOOD CHAIN IN RIVER BASIN UNDER CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Atsunori; Kojiri, Toshiharu

    Since the traditional river basin assessment has not been employed from the ecological viewpoint, the sound river basin management was not completed. In this paper, introducing the concepts of food chain, benthic organisms, and fishes for ecological system, the river basin simulation model based on physical dynamics of discharge and toxic-chemical is proposed. The sustainability of aquatic organisms and the accumulation impacts of toxic-chemicals in fish bodies are considered through CASM and PBPK. Finally, the Kamo River in Kyoto, Japan, is applied for verification.

  14. Hydrometeorology Testbed in the American River Basin of Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsmill, D.; Lundquist, J.; Jorgensen, D.; McGinley, J.; Werner, K.

    2006-12-01

    In California, most precipitation occurs in the winter, as a mixture of rain at lower elevations and snow in the higher mountains. Storms from the Pacific carry large amounts of moisture, and put people and property at risk from flooding because of the vast urban development and infrastructure in low-lying areas of the central valley of California. Improved flood prediction at finer spatial and temporal resolutions can help minimize these risks. The first step is to accurately measure and predict spatially-distributed precipitation. This is particularly true for river basins with complex orography where the processes that lead to the development of precipitation and determine its distribution and fate on the ground are not well understood. To make progress in this important area, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is leading a Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) effort designed to accelerate the testing and infusion of new technologies, models, and scientific results from the research community into daily forecasting operations. HMT is a national effort (http://hmt.noaa.gov) that will be implemented in different regions of the U.S. over the next decade. In each region, the focus will be on individual experimental test basins. The first full-scale implementation of HMT, called HMT-West, targets northern California's flood-vulnerable American River Basin (4740 km2) on the west slopes of the Sierra Nevada between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. The deployment strategy is focused on the North Fork of the basin (875 km2), which is the least- controlled portion of the entire catchment. This basin was selected as a test basin because it has reliable streamflow records dating back to 1941 and has been well characterized by prior field studies (e.g. the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project) and modeling efforts, focusing on both short-term operations and long-term climate scenarios. Intensive field activities in the North Fork of the American River started in 2005 and will occur over the next 2-3 winter seasons, with less intensive long-term monitoring continuing thereafter. This paper focuses on activities that occurred during the 2005-2006 winter season (http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2006/hmt/). Several research observing systems from NOAA were deployed to the region to focus on spatially-distributed precipitation. Transportable and mobile scanning precipitation radars (polarimetric and Doppler) were deployed to complement and fill gaps in the operational radar network. Additional remote sensors that were deployed include wind-profiling radars, precipitation-profiling radars, and GPS sensors for measuring precipitable water vapor. Also, radiosondes were released serially upwind of the area during storm episodes. Precipitation gauges, raindrop disdrometers, surface meteorological stations, soil moisture/temperature probes and stream level loggers were operating within the coverage areas of the scanning radars. These will help determine the fate of the precipitation on the ground and through the river network.

  15. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  16. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  17. [Variation characteristics of runoff coefficient of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun-Li; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2011-06-01

    Based on the daily precipitation and runoff data of six main embranchments (Haicheng River, Nansha River, Beisha River, Lanhe River, Xihe River, and Taizi River south embranchment) of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006, this paper analyzed the variation trend of runoff coefficient of the embranchments as well as the relationship between this variation trend and precipitation. In 1967-2006, the Taizi River south embranchment located in alpine hilly area had the largest mean annual runoff coefficient, while the Haicheng River located in plain area had the relatively small one. The annual runoff coefficient of the embranchments except Nansha River showed a decreasing trend, being more apparent for Taizi River south embranchment and Lanhe River. All the embranchments except Xihe River had an obvious abrupt change in the annual runoff coefficient, and the beginning year of the abrupt change differed with embranchment. Annual precipitation had significant effects on the annual runoff coefficient. PMID:21941759

  18. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  19. Seasonal to Inter-Annual Streamflow Simulation and Forecasting on the Upper Colorado River Basin and Implications

    E-print Network

    The past decade has been one of unprecedented drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), having wideSeasonal to Inter-Annual Streamflow Simulation and Forecasting on the Upper Colorado River Basin and Forecasting on the Upper Colorado River Basin and Implications for Water Resources Management written

  20. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

  1. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

  2. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

  3. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

  4. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

  5. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

  6. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

  7. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

  8. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

  9. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

  10. Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI, AND KEVIN E. TRENBERTH

    E-print Network

    Dai, Aiguo

    Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI components in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004 are investigated using a combination that evapotranspiration has in- creased in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004. Sensitivity experiments show

  11. Dividing the waters: The case for hydrologic separation of the North American Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins

    E-print Network

    and Mississippi River Basins Jerry L. Rasmussen a,1 , Henry A. Regier b,2 , Richard E. Sparks c, , William W American Great Lakes Mississippi River Basin Biodiversity threats Risk assessment Legislation Legislation nuisance species between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins. Hydrologic separation is the only

  12. Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcik, M.; Troch, P. A.; Gupta, H. V.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand intra and inter annual variability of TWS and vegetation response to waters storage changes we implemented three alternative methods to estimate TWS changes: (1) the Basin-Scale Water Balance (BSWB) using North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset; (2) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) forced with gridded meteorological data; and (3) new remotely sensed gravity field data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from MODIS and AVHRR estimates. Preliminary results show strong correlations between TWS data and its components (precipitation, modeled shallow, deep soil moisture, etc.) and vegetation greenness and different vegetation response times to available water in upper and lower basins. TWS data are generated in near-real time, stored in the SAHRA Geodatabase and available at http://voda.hwr.arizona.edu/twsc/sahra/.

  13. Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

    The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

  14. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of average discharge for water years 1879-2012) or greater were observed at TDA during the following periods: 29 March to 12 April, 5 May to 11 May, and 19 June to 29 June. Precipitation and temperature forecasts during these periods are shown along with changes in the model simulated snowpack. We evaluate the performance of the ensemble mean 10 days in advance of each of these three events, and comment on how the distribution of ensemble members affected forecast confidence in each situation.

  15. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  16. Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

  17. Assesment of Ecological Flow for Mountain Rivers of the Kura Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rovshan Abbasov

    \\u000a Development of an irrigation farming and intensive water use in water catchments areas of Kura basin river of Azerbaijan has\\u000a increased consumption to fresh water, which is supplied only by small mountain rivers. Most of water resources of small mountain\\u000a rivers of Kura basin are completely consumed by the enterprises of industry and agriculture. Waste of the water resources\\u000a of

  18. Fluvial sediment in the little Arkansas River basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, C.D.; Stramel, G.J.

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics and transport of sediment in the Little Arkansas River basin in south-central Kansas were studied to determine if the water from the river could be used as a supplemental source for municipal supply or would provide adequate recharge to aquifers that are sources of municipal and agricultural water supplies. During periods when overland 1low contributed a significant amount to streamflow, the suspended sediment in the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center averaged about 85 percent of clay, about 13 percent of silt, and about 2 percent of sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharge for the water years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 was about 306,000 tons, and about 80 percent of the load was transported during 133 days of the 1,461-day period. The average daily water discharge of 352 cubic feet per second for the period 1958-61 was more than the long-term (i}9-year) average of 245 cfs; therefore, the average annual sediment load for 1958-61 was probably greater than the average annual load for the same long-term period. Studies of seepage in a part of the channel of Kisiwa Creek indicated that an upstream gravel-pit operation yielded clays which, when deposited in the channel, reduced seepage. A change in plant operation and subsequent runoff that removed the deposited clays restored natural seepage conditions. Experiments by the Wichita Water Department showed that artificial recharge probably cannot be accomplished by using raw turbid water that is injected into wells or by using pits. Recharge by raw turbid water on large permeable areas or by seepage canals may be feasible. Studies of chemical quality of surface water at several sites in the Little Arkansas River basin indicate that Turkey. Creek is a major contributor of chloride and other dissolved solids to the Little Arkansas River and that the dissolved-solids content is probably highest during low-flow periods when suspended-sediment concentration is low. Data collected by the Wichita Water Department indicate that chloride concentrations are diminishing with time at sampled locations. and they receive recharge from rainwater and snowmelt moving through overlying alluvium and from storage in the De Chelly sandstone which encloses the east half of the diatreme. The quality of water from all areas is suitable for domestic use. However, special treatment may be necessary to make the water suitable for pulp processing.

  19. Regional Climate Simulations Over the Mackenzie River Basin in MAGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, M.; Bartlett, P.; Chan, E.; Verseghy, D.

    2004-05-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) coupled with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) was used to perform a multiyear simulation over Western North America in order to estimate the Mackenzie River basin average surface climate and water balance over a 5 year period under current climate conditions. A 6.5 year simulation was completed, yielding 5 water years after assuming a spinup period of 1.5 years. The simulation period is April 1, 1997 - September 30 2003 which overlaps with both the CAGES (Canadian GEWEX Enhanced Study) and CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period) periods, and provides a 5 year climatology for WEBS (Water and Energy Balance Study). Surface climate for this simulation is evaluated against a monthly gridded climatology produced by the Meteorological Service of Canada known as CANGRID. An overall precipitation bias of about 5% was found. Mean monthly observed screen level temperatures compared favorably with corresponding first layer (0-10 cm) soil and snow (when present) temperatures indicating an overall bias of less than 0.4 K . Snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover fraction have also been compared with satellite estimates over our evaluation region, indicating excellent agreement between simulated and observed wintertime accumulation. The mean annual Mackenzie Basin water balance (1998/99 - 2002/03) is summarized. Mean annual P-E is 247 mm, the maximum occurring in the mountainous western portion of the basin. Overland (208 mm) and total (240 mm) runoff are, not surprisingly, also largest in this region. Mean annual soil moisture change can be large locally (up to 43 mm) but the basin average is relatively modest at 6 mm. This work represents an important step towards the completion of a fully coupled atmosphere/land-surface/hydrologic model, establishing that the coupled atmosphere/land-surface component can generate a realistic climate over our region of interest under current conditions.

  20. Glacier change and glacier runoff variation in the Tuotuo River basin, the source region of Yangtze River in western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Junli Xu; Donghui Shangguan

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and\\u000a high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period\\u000a from 1968\\/1971 to 2001\\/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence

  1. Development of river ecosystem models for Flemish watercourses: case studies in the Zwalm river basin.

    PubMed

    Goethals, P; Dedecker, A; Raes, N; Adriaenssens, V; Gabriels, W; De Pauw, N

    2001-01-01

    Only recently, modelling has been accepted as an interesting and powerful tool to support river quality assessment and management. The 'River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System' (RIVPACS), based on statistical modelling, was one of the first and best known systems in this context. RIVPACS was developed to classify macroinvertebrate community types and to predict the fauna expected to occur in different types of watercourses, based on a small number of environmental variables. The prediction is essentially a static 'target' of the fauna to be expected at a site with stated environmental features, in the absence of environmental stress. Therefore this system is rather limited to apply in river assessment and management. Models that offer a prediction of faunal responses to changes in environmental features (e.g. changes in discharge regime, dissolved oxygen level, ...) would be of considerable value for river management. In this context, models based on classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic were developed and applied to predict macro-invertebrate communities in the Zwalm river basin located in Flanders, Belgium. Structural characteristics (meandering, substrate type, flow velocity, ...) and physical-chemical variables (dissolved oxygen, pH, ...) were used as inputs to predict the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa in the headwaters and brooks of the Zwalm river basin. In total, data from 60 measurement sites were available. Reliability and particular strengths and weaknesses of these techniques were compared and evaluated. Classification trees performed in general well to predict the absence or presence of the different macroinvertebrate taxa and allowed also to deduct general relations from the dataset. Models based on artificial neural networks (ANNS) were also good in predicting the macroinvertebrate communities at the different sites. Sensitivity analyses related to ANNs allowed to study the impact of the input variables on the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa and to determine the major variables that affect the ecosystem quality and should be taken under direct consideration in the management of river basins. Performance of the fuzzy logic models was significantly related to the methods that were used to set up the membership functions and the reliability of the information that was available. Fuzzy logic did not perform as well as the other two techniques with regard to short term predictions. Fuzzy logic appeared to be better and more robust for long term predictions, because of the easy and pragmatic integration of general expert knowledge and data derived rules in the transparent inference engine. The overall conclusion of our study is that all three techniques, classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic appeared to be reliable to predict macroinvertebrate communities in polluted streams. PMID:15952431

  2. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in the San Joaquin River basin, California, January and February 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Zamora, Celia; Knifong, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2000 in the San Joaquin River Basin was less than 21 percent of application in 1993 and 1994. A total of 13 sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during two storm periods. The sites included five major river and eight minor tributary sites. The highest concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos occurred during the storm periods. Four samples from major river sites (Tuolumne River and two San Joaquin River sites) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 microgram per liter, the concentration being considered by the state of California as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitat. One sample from a major river site (San Joaquin River) exceeded the equivalent State guideline of 0.02 microgram per liter for chlorpyrifos. At the eight minor tributary sites, 24 samples exceeded the diazinon guideline and four samples exceeded the chlorpyrifos guideline. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 19.6 pounds active ingredient; of this, 8.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. In 1994, 27.4 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 5.68 pounds active ingredient; of this, 2.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during the two storms. During the frequently sampled February 2000 storm, the main sources of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (25 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (14 percent), and the Stanislaus River Basin (10 percent). The main sources of chlorpyrifos in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (17 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (13 percent), and the Merced River Basin (11 percent). The total January and February diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis was 0.17 percent of dormant application; total January and February chlorpyrifos load was 0.16 percent of dormant application.

  3. 78 FR 72860 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White River National Forest; Summit County...A-Basin) has submitted a proposal to the White River National Forest (WRNF) to pursue...Forest Supervisor, c/Joe Foreman, White River National Forest, PO Box 620,...

  4. Recent Studies on the Climatology and Modeling of Blowing Snow in the Mackenzie River Basin

    E-print Network

    Dery, Stephen

    Chapter 14 Recent Studies on the Climatology and Modeling of Blowing Snow in the Mackenzie River of the contribution of blow- ing snow to the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB). A cli- matology not fully understood. One region in Canada subject to much ongoing in- vestigation is the Mackenzie River

  5. Ecological rehabilitation of the lowland basin of the river Rhine (NW Europe)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Nienhuis; A. D. Buijse; R. S. E. W. Leuven; A. J. M. Smits; R. J. W. de Nooij; E. M. Samborska

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the status of ecological rehabilitation of the Dutch lowland basin of the river Rhine has been reviewed. The historical perspective, mainly with regard to river regulation measures in the past, is given. The lower river Rhine comprises a man-dominated, strongly regulated catchment, polluted water and sediments, and annihilated and deteriorated ecosystems. During the past 25 years, the

  6. An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin

    E-print Network

    Allan, David

    An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin David Allan and Leon Hinz With: Edward for analytic advice. #12;1 Executive Summary River flows, typically measured in cubic meters or cubic feet per) depicts these changes visually. Variation in river flow can be quantified using a variety of statistical

  7. CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3: Hydrodynamic and Water Quality River Basin Modeling

    E-print Network

    Wells, Scott A.

    segments. Test cases for this new code include a 244 km section of the Lower Snake River in IdahoCE-QUAL-W2 Version 3: Hydrodynamic and Water Quality River Basin Modeling S. A. Wells Department for deep, long, and narrow waterbodies. The current model, Version 2, has been used in over 200 river

  8. A macro-scale hydrological analysis of the Lena River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xieyao Ma; Yoshihiro Fukushima; Tetsuya Hiyama; Tetsu Hashimoto; Tetsuo Ohata

    2000-01-01

    A macro-scale hydrological analysis of the Lena River basin, located in eastern Siberia, Russia was carried out to understand both physical and biological roles in a cold region. A combined model which is composed of a SVAT model, runoff model and river routing model was proposed to explain snowmelt, evapotranspiration, thawing and freezing of permafrost, runoff formation and river flow.

  9. Land2Sea database of river drainage basin sizes, annual water discharges, and suspended sediment fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink

    2009-01-01

    The Land2Sea database contains data on the sizes of 1519 exorheic river drainage basins (79% of the exorheic land area), annual suspended sediment fluxes (593 rivers, 63% of the exorheic land area), and water discharges (1272 rivers, 76% of the exorheic land area) that have been compiled from a variety of sources. The database extends earlier compilations, such as GEMS\\/GLORI.

  10. Modelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China

    E-print Network

    Yu, Qian

    flows and bidirec- tional flood flows. An analysis of combined boundary conditions shows that flood waveModelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China Hongming He a January 2008 KEYWORDS Flood routing; Backwater flow; The middle Yellow River; River morphology Summary

  11. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  12. Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis of WF changes from the perspective of the river basin is more scientific. To address this perspective, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model and the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) model for WF could be implemented in a river basin by computing IO data for the river basin with the Generating Regional IO Tables (GRIT) method. This framework is illustrated in the Haihe River Basin (HRB), which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1% to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF; however, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy making in other water-limited river basins.

  13. Floods of September 1952 in the Colorado and Guadelupe river basins, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeding, Seth D.; Montgomery, J.H.

    1954-01-01

    Following a severe drought floods of exceptional size occurred in the central Texas 'hill country' as a result of heavy rains during the period September 9-11, 1952. As much as 26 inches of rain fell in the Guadalupe River basin and in the central and lower Colorado River basin and broke the extended drought. The belt of the heavy rainfall was about 60 miles wide and extended northwest from New Braunfels for a distance of about 200 miles. The greatest concentration occurred along the divide between the Colorado and Guadalupe River basins. Record floods occurred on many large and small streams. Inflow into Lake Travis on the Colorado River reached 803,000 cfs from a 6, 650 square mile contributing area. Five persons were killed and 454 homes damaged. The total flood damage in the Colorado and Guadalupe River basins was nearly 12 million dollars.

  14. A Synoptic Survey of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Tributary Streams and Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combined stream chemistry and hydrology data from surveys of 467 tributary stream sites and 447 great river sites in the Upper Mississippi River basin to provide a regional snapshot of baseflow total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and to investigate th...

  15. Hydrogeologic data from the northern Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, Steven E.; Stimson, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data have been collected as part of energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Powder River basin of southeastern Montana. Records of 1924 stock, domestic, irrigation, public supply and test wells are tabulated in the report. The data include well location, depth of well, casing diameter, type of lift, type of power, use of water, principal aquifer, altitude of land surface , water level, discharge, field specific conductance, and water temperature. Locations of the inventoried wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:500,000. Lighologic logs of 373 wells and test holes are also included. The geologic units considered range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Operational water quantity management in a river basin.

    PubMed

    Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

    2003-01-01

    The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management. PMID:15137160

  17. Estimates of sublimation in the Upper Colorado River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Morgan

    Snowpack stored in mountain environments is the primary source of water for the population of much of the western United States, and the loss of water through direct evaporation (sublimation) is a significant factor in the amount of runoff realized from snow melt. A land surface modeling study was carried out in order to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of sublimation over the Upper Colorado River basin through the use of a spatially distributed snow-evolution model known as SnowModel. Simulations relied on forcing from high resolution atmospheric analysis data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). These data were used to simulate snow sublimation for several years over a 400 by 400 km domain in the Upper Colorado River Basin at a horizontal resolution of 250 m and hourly time-steps. Results show that total volume of sublimated water from snow varies 68% or between 0.95 x 107 acre feet in WY 2002 to the maximum of 1.37 x 107 acre feet in WY 2005 within the ten years of the study period. On daily timescales sublimation was found to be episodic in nature, with short periods of enhanced sublimation followed by several days of relatively low snowpack water loss. The greatest sublimation rates of approximately 3 mm/day were found to occur in high elevation regions generally above tree line in conjunction with frequent windblown snow, while considerable contributions from canopy sublimation occurred at mid-elevations. Additional sensitivity runs accounting for reduced canopy leaf area index as a result of western pine beetle induced tree mortality were also carried out to test the models sensitivity to land surface characteristics. Results from this comparison show a near linear decrease in domain total sublimation with reduced LAI. Model performance was somewhat satisfactory, with simulations underestimating precipitation and accumulated SWE, most likely due to biases in the precipitation forcing and errors in determining precipitation phase.

  18. Shortcomings of linear programming in optimizing river basin allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilich, Nesa

    2008-02-01

    Numerous computer models for river basin planning and management have been developed and used extensively since the mid-1970s. Early developments have relied on the use of network flow algorithms (NFA), due mainly to higher execution speed than the standard Simplex solvers. However, subsequent efforts to include proper modeling of hydraulic and hydrologic constraints introduced iterative schemes into the NFA-based models, which diminished the initial advantages in execution speed and which also caused concerns over the accuracy of the convergence schemes. Hence full-blown commercial linear programming (LP) solvers were introduced as a replacement to the iterative solution strategy of the NFA approach. This paper demonstrates one possible failure to solve a simple allocation problem using the NFA-based model and shows how this problem can be solved using the standard LP approach. It then identifies cases when even a full-blown LP approach cannot properly model two critical aspects of river basin management, one related to reservoirs with multiple outflows and the other one related to modeling of hydrologic channel routing. For NFA-based models the failures are the result of the inability to include relationships between flows on different model components directly into the search process. For the models based on LP solvers, the failures are caused by the fact that integrated reservoir outflow capacity between the starting and the ending storage levels is assumed over the entire length of the assumed time step, while the actual outflow can only take place during the portion of the time step when the storage level is above the invert of the outlet structure.

  19. Seasonal cycle of Precipitation over Major River Basins in South and Southeast Asia: A Review of the CMIP5 climate models data for present climate and future climate projections

    E-print Network

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Böhner, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We review the skill of thirty coupled climate models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 in terms of reproducing properties of the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the major river basins of South and Southeast Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for historical period (1961-2000). We also present projected changes by these models by end of century (2061-2100) under extreme scenario RCP8.5. First, we assess their ability to reproduce observed timings of the monsoon onset and the rate of rapid fractional accumulation (RFA slope) - a measure of seasonality within active monsoon period. Secondly, we apply a threshold-independent seasonality index (SI) - a multiplicative measure of precipitation and extent of its concentration relative to the uniform distribution (relative entropy - RE). We apply SI distinctly for monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR), westerly precipitation regime (WPR) and annual precipitation regime. For present climate, neither any single model nor the multi-mod...

  20. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  1. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  2. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2015-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  3. Data for Ashley River to test channel network and river basin heterogeneity concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerchar, A. I.; Ibbitt, R. P.; Brown, S. L. R.; Duncan, M. J.

    To provide data to investigate hypotheses about the evolution of channel networks, specifically the optimal channel network concept, discharge and channel properties were measured at 336 sites in a 121km2 basin over a 5-day period of reasonably steady flows. The data are also suitable for investigating how discharge increases down river channels. The data collection was a major logistical exercise which involved 80 person-days in remote field locations. In the expectation that the data will be of use to other researchers, this paper describes how the data were measured, checked and archived. The archive is available at http://www.niwa.cri.nz/hydrology/ashpage.htm and includes the associated time series of streamflow at the basin outlet and the channel network as plotted on 1:50,000 scale maps.

  4. Response of River Runoff in the Cryolithic Zone of Eastern Siberia (Lena River Basin) to Future Climate Warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Georgiadi; I. P. Milyukova; E. A. Kashutina

    \\u000a During the last several decades significant climate warming has been observed in the permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia.\\u000a Observed environmental changes include increasing air temperature and to a lesser degree precipitation. Changes in regional\\u000a climate are accompanied by changes in river runoff. Seasonal and long-term changes of river runoff in different parts of the\\u000a Lena river basin are characterized by

  5. A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Spencer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

  6. Exposure of the Main Italian River Basin to Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Federico; Gallipoli, Agata; Balderacchi, Matteo; Ulaszewska, Maria M.; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study give a preliminary survey of pharmaceutical contamination and accumulation in surface waters and sediments along the river Po basin (74,000?km2, the largest in Italy), a strategic region for the Italian economy: it collects sewage from a vast industrialized area of Italy (Autorità di Baciono del fiume Po, 2006, 2009). 10 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, propanolol, metoprolol, nimesulide, furosemide, carbamazepine, ranitidine, metronidazole, paracetamol, and atorvastatin) from several therapeutic classes were searched in 54 sampling points along the river Po from the source to the delta, and at the mouth of its major effluents. In water samples were found pharmaceuticals in the range of 0.38–0.001??g/L, except for furosemide (max conc. 0.605??g/L), paracetamol (max conc. 3.59??g/L), metoprolol (never detected) and for atenolol (not analysed). In sediment samples, only paracetamol was not detected, while the others were generally found in the range of 0.4–0.02??g/kg ww with high concentrations for atenolol (max conc. 284 ?g/kg ww) and furosemide (max conc. 98.4 ?g/kg ww). The findings confirm also STPs as point sources of contamination. Despite of the much evidence for the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, the observed low levels cannot be considered to pose a serious risk to human health; further studies are necessary for a comprehensive risk assessment. PMID:21941542

  7. Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Arsenic Mobility in Sediments from Paracatu River Basin, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Costa, Letícia Malta; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2015-04-01

    Paracatu River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, houses long areas of irrigated agriculture and gold-, lead-, and zinc-mining activities. This region has a prevalence of sulfide minerals and a natural occurrence of high levels of arsenopyrite. In this work, surface water, groundwater, sediments and local vegetable samples were collected in October 2010 and November 2011 and were analyzed to evaluate arsenic (As) distribution, mobility, and transport in these environmental compartments. All sediment samples (738-2,750 mg kg(-1)) and 37 % of the water samples [less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 110 µg L(-1)] from the rivers and streams of Paracatu had As concentrations greater than the quality standards established by national and international environmental organizations (5.9 mg kg(-1) for sediments and 10 µg L(-1) for water). Most vegetable samples had As concentrations within the normal range for plants (lower than the LOD to 120 mg kg(-1)). A correlation among As concentrations in water, sediment, and vegetable samples was verified. PMID:25672271

  9. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  10. Watershed nitrogen and phosphorus balance: The upper Potomac River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, N.A.; Groffman, P.M.; Keller, A.A.; Prager, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus mass balances were estimated for the portion of the Potomac River basin watershed located above Washington, D.C. The total nitrogen (N) balance included seven input source terms, six sinks, and one 'change-in-storage' term, but was simplified to five input terms and three output terms. The phosphorus (P) baance had four input and three output terms. The estimated balances are based on watershed data from seven information sources. Major sources of nitrogen are animal waste and atmospheric deposition. The major sources of phosphorus are animal waste and fertilizer. The major sink for nitrogen is combined denitrification, volatilization, and change-in-storage. The major sink for phosphorus is change-in-storage. River exports of N and P were 17% and 8%, respectively, of the total N and P inputs. Over 60% of the N and P were volatilized or stored. The major input and output terms on the budget are estimated from direct measurements, but the change-in-storage term is calculated by difference. The factors regulating retention and storage processes are discussed and research needs are identified.

  11. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  12. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  13. Floodplain River Foodwebs in the Lower Mekong Basin

    E-print Network

    Ou, Chouly

    2013-11-15

    The Mekong River is one of the world’s most important rivers in terms of its size, economic importance, cultural significance, productivity, and biodiversity. The Mekong River’s fisheries and biodiversity are threatened by major hydropower...

  14. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to the CRBG and basin-fill units and that the source of surface and groundwater is derived from atmospheric precipitation. The concentrations of dissolved methane were larger than could be attributable to atmospheric sources in more than 80 percent of wells with measured methane concentrations. The concentrations of the stable isotope of carbon-13 of methane were indicative of a thermogenic source of methane. Most of the occurrences of methane were at locations several miles distant from mapped structural fault features, suggesting the upward vertical movement of thermogenic methane from the underlying bedrock may be more widespread than previously assumed or there may be a more general occurrence of unmapped (buried) fault structures. Carbon and tritium isotope data and the concentrations of dissolved constituents indicate a complex groundwater flow system with multiple contributing zones to groundwater wells and relative groundwater residence time on the order of a few tens to many thousands of years. Potential mean annual recharge for water years 1950-2003 was estimated to be about 15.6 in. or 7,149 ft3/s (5.2 million acre-ft) and includes affects of human activities such as irrigation of croplands. If there had been no human activities (predevelopment conditions) during that time period, estimated recharge would have been about 11.9 in. or 5,450 ft3/s (3.9 million acre-ft). Estimated mean annual recharge ranges from virtually zero in the dry parts of the lower basin to more than 100 in. in the humid uplands, where annual precipitation is more than 120 in. Groundwater in the different hydrogeologic units occurs under perched, unconfined, semiconfined, and confined conditions. Groundwater moves from topographic highs in the uplands to topographic low areas along the streams. The flow system in the basin-fill units is compartmentalized due to topography and geologic structure. The flow system also is compartmentalized for the CRBG units but not to as large

  15. Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi River: A Comparison of Approaches

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi understanding of the relationship between terres- Nitrate N flux from the Mississippi River basin (MRB)trial N Committee on Envi-flux in the lower Mississippi River, from 1960 to 1998, but tended to ronment and Natural

  16. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in the Kansas-Lower Republican River Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital soils and topographic data were used to estimate and compare potential runoff-contributing areas for 19 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability within the Kansas-Lower Republican (KLR) River Basin. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated separately and collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented high, moderate, and low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall intensities and soil permeabilities were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the central part of the KLR River Basin. These subbasins are Black Vermillion River, Clarks Creek, Delaware River upstream from Muscotah, Grasshopper Creek, Mill Creek (Wabaunsee County), Soldier Creek, Vermillion Creek (Pottawatomie County), and Wildcat Creek. The subbasins with relatively low potential runoff are located in the western one-third of the KLR River Basin, with one exception, and are Buffalo Creek, Little Blue River upstream from Barnes, Mill Creek (Washington County), Republican River between Concordia and Clay Center, Republican River upstream from Concordia, Wakarusa River downstream from Clinton Lake (exception), and White Rock Creek. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the KLR River Basin.

  17. Predicting Future Regime Shifts in Flow of the Gunnison River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; DeRosa, G.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research and paleo-reconstructions of past streamflow note persistent dry and wet regimes over the Colorado River Basin. These persistent dry and wet periods may impact water supply and management conditions for Colorado River stakeholders and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Streamflow projections by Reclamation and other water management agencies have traditionally been based upon historical streamflow records and have assumed that past observations of streamflow are characteristic of future conditions. Under changing climate conditions, the assumption that past hydrology is representative of future conditions may no longer be valid. The Gunnsion River Basin contributes approximately 16% of the annual natural streamflow to the Upper Colorado River Basin. Current studies indicate that under projections of future climate, streamflow over the Gunnison River Basin may decrease on the order of 10% through 2099. In this study, past regime change characteristics over the Gunnison River Basin are compared to projections of future regime change in an attempt to understand how the frequency and duration of persistent dry and wet periods may change as the impacts of climate change are realized over the Gunnison River Basin.

  18. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M., III

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  19. Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prizomwala, S. P.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Basavaiah, N.

    2014-02-01

    The present study is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea. Investigations based on heavy minerals, clay minerals, mineral magnetic properties and sediment geochemistry indicated that there are three major sources of sediments contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh basin: (1) Indus River, (2) Kachchh mainland coastal rivers and (3) the Saurashtra peninsular coastal rivers. The flanks of northern and southern coast of western Gulf of Kachchh show dominant signatures of Kachchh mainland/Saurashtra peninsular provenance. In contrast, the eastern Gulf of Kachchh coast bearing fine grained sediments shows dominant Indus River Provenance. Although ephemeral in nature, the small coastal rivers of Saurashtra and Kachchh contribute significant amount of sediments to the Gulf of Kachchh coastline because of their `dryland' nature and thus they control the coarse grained sedimentation processes.

  20. Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological variation between the two basins. The weathering process is largely controlled by the higher run-off accompanied by warm temperature in the Swarna river basin. The intense silicate weathering is also supported by the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) ranging between 0.7195 and 0.7304 in the Swarna river water. The average 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7249 in the river water is found to be higher than the global river average. Keywords: Major ion, Radiogenic strontium isotope, Silicate weathering rate, Carbon-dioxide consumption rate, Tropical river, Southwestern India. Reference: Gurumurthy GP, Balakrishna K, Riotte J, Braun J-J, Audry S, Udayashankar HN, Manjunatha BR (2012), Controls on intense silicate weathering in a tropical river, southwestern India. Chemical Geology, 300-301, 61-69.

  1. Basin-Wide Distribution of Land Use and Human Population: Stream Order Modeling and River Basin Classification in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Miyamoto; Tsubasa Hashimoto; Kohji Michioku

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton–Strahler’s stream order to describe basin-wide distributions\\u000a of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features.\\u000a We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type—paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.—and\\u000a the human population form a geometric sequence, which

  2. Seed banks and their implications of rivers with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Naxin; Wu, Juan; Zhong, Fei; Yang, Lihua; Xiang, Dongfang; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhou, Qi

    2015-02-01

    The seed banks of three rivers, with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China, were investigated to explore the dynamics of seed bank under the pressure of eutrophication. A total of 60 species from 25 family 43 genera were identified from the seed banks of the three rivers. In the eutrophic Paihe River, the species richness and mean seed density were the highest, followed by the oligotrophic Hangbuhe River and the hypereutrophic Nanfeihe River. Various compositions of three functional group assemblage of hydro-ecotypes were found in different rivers. The dominant and endemic species were aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species in Hangbuhe River, Paihe River, and Nanfeihe River, respectively. The shift trend of seed bank in three rivers probably presented past vegetation dynamics under the trophic process in the rivers of Chaohu Lake Basin. Seed bank in the river bed might be quickly assessed by its trophic level. Additionally, it might imply that the seed bank with more aquatic species in the oligotrophic river would be a potential seed resource for vegetation restoration of severely degraded river ecosystems. PMID:25178861

  3. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of the Walla Walla River basin Washington-Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, R.C.

    1965-01-01

    The Walla Walla River, whose drainage basin of about 1,330 square miles lies astride the Washington-Oregon boundary, drains westward to empty into the Columbia River. The basin slopes from the 5,000-foot crest of the Blue Mountains through a structural and topographic basin to the terraced lands adjoining the Columbia River at an altitude of about 340 feet. The main unit of the topographic basin is the valley plain, commonly called the Walla Walla Valley, which descends from about 1,500 feet at the foot of the mountain slopes to about 500 feet in altitude where the river cuts through the bedrock ridge near Divide. In the Blue Mountains the streams flow in rockbound canyons. Beyond the canyons, near Milton-Freewater and Walla Walla, they pass onto the broad alluvial fans and the terrace lands of the valley.

  5. Effects of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena on precipitation and flooding in the Manafwa River Basin

    E-print Network

    Finney, William W., III (William Warner)

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the relationship between certain oceanic and atmospheric phenomena and the precipitation patterns in the Manafwa River Basin of eastern Uganda. Such phenomena are the El Niño ...

  6. DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

  7. Involving Citizens in Water Resources Planning: The Communication-Participation Experiment in the Susquehanna River Basin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Thomas E.; Warner, Katharine P.

    1971-01-01

    Description of the Susquehanna River Basin Comprehensive Planning Study, which focused on means of achieving more effective two-way communication between governmental agency planners and the public. Emphasizes importance of the role of public environmental education. (LK)

  8. Planning Investments in Water Resources by Mixed-Integer Programming: The Vardar-Axios River Basin

    E-print Network

    Elliot, Dorothy P.

    A mixed integer programming model for planning water resources investments is presented. The model is a sequencing model applied to the Vardar-Axios river basin in Yugoslavia and Greece. The structure of the model is ...

  9. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  10. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California

    E-print Network

    . 2010), while intense groundwater mining is projected to endanger the Central Valley and Ogallala aquifers (Scanlon et al. 2012). In the Colorado River Basin, the construction of large storage structures

  11. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...Enhancement Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the...uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Storage...

  12. A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

  13. Water quality modelling for recreational use in the Kallang River Basin, Singapore

    E-print Network

    Angeles, Justin Victor V. (Justin Victor Velayo)

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Active, Beautiful, and Clean Waters Programme (ABC) aims to provide functional use of its water bodies to the public. The Kallang River Basin, being part of the ABC Programme, will be used for recreational ...

  14. Linking Water Conservation and Natural Resource Stewardship in the Trinity River Basin

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Feldpausch, A.M.; Parker, I.D.; Frentress, C.; Whiteside, J.; Mason, C.; Wagner, M.

    2007-09-04

    Water conservation is a critical issue in Texas today. This publication explores the relationship between ecosystem health and land stewardship in the Trinity River Basin. It also describes how responsible land stewardship can be applied in urban...

  15. Stochastic Models Applied to Operation of Reservoirs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Texas

    E-print Network

    Clark, R. A.; O'Connor, G. E.; Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.

    river basin. The model is entitled "Monthly Operational Hydrometeorological Simulator (MOHS)." Use of the 30-day meteorological forecast categories of light, moderate, or heavy precipitation and below normal, near normal, or above normal temperature...

  16. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY SECTOR IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The potential effects of these different pricing mechanisms on capacity requirements, load factors, and ...

  17. Precipitation analysis for a flood early warning system in the Manafwa River Basin, Uganda

    E-print Network

    Cecinati, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The communities living in the Manafwa River Basin experience frequent floods threatening their lives and property. Climate change and anthropogenic perturbations to the natural environment increase flooding frequency. This ...

  18. HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

  19. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

  1. A BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF COAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed information is provided on coal production and employment by county, the consumption and distribution o...

  2. Decadal Climate Variability: Economic Implications in Agriculture and Water in the Missouri River Basin

    E-print Network

    Fernandez Cadena, Mario

    2013-07-23

    , are associated with variations in crop and water yields. This dissertation examines the value of DCV information to agriculture and water users in the Missouri river basin using a price endogenous agricultural and non-agricultural model that depicts cropping...

  3. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  4. Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin R.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. GoodrichR.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. Goodrich

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin CityDecision Center for a Desert City IntroductionIntroduction Ongoing drought in the Colorado River in drought in this region. We use principal components analysis to independently assess the influence

  5. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  6. Spatial and Temporal Structure of Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport in the Mackenzie River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir V. Smirnov; G. W. K. Moore

    1999-01-01

    The transport of water vapor through the Mackenzie River basin, a typical high-latitude river basin, is examined for the period from August to October 1994. The spatial and temporal variability in the transport is considered with both objectively analyzed fields and radiosonde data.Previous studies of the high-latitude water vapor have made use of radiosonde data and have been able to

  7. Soil Moisture and Drought Variability in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tang; T. Piechota

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the interannual variability of soil moisture as related to large-scale climate variability. In addition, a study of the spatial and temporal soil moisture in the Upper Colorado River Basin is presented. A three layer hydrological model VIC-3L (Variable Infiltration Capacity Model C 3 layers) was used in the Upper Colorado River Basin over a 50-year period. Model

  8. Integrated river basin management in rapidly urbanizing areas: a case of Shenzhen, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Liu; Xiaoming Ma

    2011-01-01

    The rapid urbanization of China is causing a burden on their water resources and hindering their sustainable development.\\u000a This paper analyzes effective methods to integrated river basin management (IRBM) using Longgang River basin of Shenzhen as\\u000a an example, which is the city with the fastest rate of urbanization in China and even the whole world. Over the past 20 years,

  9. Fish-performance ecoassay of urbanizing streams in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas

    E-print Network

    Fontaine, Lance Pierre

    2002-01-01

    FISH-PERFORMANCE ECOASSAY OF URBANIZING STREAMS IN THE SAN ANTONIO RIVER BASIN, TEXAS A Thesis by LANCE PIERRE FONTAINE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Aft M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2002 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences FISH-PERFORINANCE ECOASSAY OF URBANIZING STREAMS IN THE SAN ANTONIO RIVER BASIN, TEXAS A Thesis by LANCE PIERRE FONTAINE Submitted to Texas A&M University...

  10. Effect-Directed Analysis of Key Toxicants in European River Basins. A Review (9 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damià Barceló; Hans J. C. Klamer; Maria López de Alda

    2007-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Extensive monitoring programs on chemical contamination are run in many European river basins. With respect to the implementation\\u000a of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD), these programs are increasingly accompanied by monitoring the\\u000a ecological status of the river basins. Assuming an impact of chemical contamination on the ecological status, the assignment\\u000a of effects in

  11. Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    E-print Network

    Larberg, Gregory Martin

    1976-01-01

    HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

  12. Surface Energy and Water Balance for the Arkansas-Red River Basin from the ECMWF Reanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan K. Betts; Pedro Viterbo; Eric Wood

    1998-01-01

    Average surface energy and water budgets, subsurface variables, and atmospheric profiles were computed online with an hourly timescale from the ECMWF reanalysis for five subbasins of the Mississippi River from 1985-93. The results for the Arkansas-Red River basin are discussed on diurnal, 5-day, monthly, seasonal, and interannual timescales, and compared with the observed basin-scale precipitation and streamflow. The model shows

  13. DDT and its metabolites in breast milk from the Madeira River basin in the Amazon, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Azeredo; João P. M. Torres; Márlon de Freitas Fonseca; José Lailson Britto; Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos; Cláudio E. Azevedo e Silva; Giselle Cavalcanti; Rodrigo Ornellas Meire; Paula N. Sarcinelli; Luz Claudio; Steven Markowitz; Olaf Malm

    2008-01-01

    Until the 1990s the 1,1,1-trichloro-bis-2,2?-(4chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was sprayed in the walls of the house along the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon, a region well known for its large number of malaria cases. In 1910, Oswaldo Cruz described the presence of malaria in 100% of the population living in some localities from the Madeira River basin. Data available in the

  14. The ‘WaterWare’ decision-support system for river-basin planning. 1. Conceptual design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Jamieson; K. Fedra

    1996-01-01

    ‘WaterWare’ is the outcome of Eureka EU 487, a collaborative research programme which had the objective of developing a comprehensive, easy-to-use decision-support system for river-basin planning. Its purpose is to assist government agencies, river-basin commissions, etc., in decision-making for the efficient management of water resources in terms of both quantity and quality. By combining the capabilities of geographical information systems,

  15. Upper versus lower Colorado River sub-basin streamflow: characteristics, runoff estimation and model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.

    2006-06-01

    Streamflow in the upper Colorado River in the western USA is always snowmelt dominated, whereas the lower river's perennial streamflows are snowmelt dominated only 50% of the time. The magnitude and timing of peak flows is important for water resources management. In the upper basin the annual maximum daily discharge usually occurs in May or June, and in the lower basin this peak is observed to occur in any month except May or June. The timing of one-half of the specific runoff is used as a second measure of the variability in timing and magnitude of streamflows. For the upper basin, nine watersheds are used to illustrate streamflow trends, with the Yampa River used as a sample sub-basin. For the lower basin, five watersheds are used, of which Salt River is used as sample sub-basin. The differences in monthly flow variation over 20-year time periods (1920-1939, 1940-1959, 1960-1979, and 1980-1999) are substantial for the Salt River but not for the Yampa River.Three model types were used to estimate streamflow characteristics. An autocorrelation model was used to generate winter specific runoffs, which were more reasonable for the Yampa River than the Salt River. A regression between snow water equivalent (SWE) and winter specific runoff showed a good correlation for the two sub-basins. A weaker relationship exists between SWE and non-winter flows for the sample lower basin watershed. Streamflow was simulated relatively well using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System hydrological model.

  16. Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin Amherst, ***University of Massachusetts Amherst Abstract - The Niger River Basin of West Africa comprises in the basin. Research Objectives · Study the historical climate and stream flow relationship in the Niger

  17. Study of water stress and droughts with indicators using daily data on the Bani River (Niger basin,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of water stress and droughts with indicators using daily data on the Bani River (Niger basin, the Bani basin (Niger River, Mali) is threatened by climate changes. This study focuses on droughts hazard-2000), in order to examine the Bani basin vulnerability to water stress. In this study, water deficit (drought

  18. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  19. HAZARD MITIGATION RELATED TO WATER AND SEDIMENT FLUXES IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN, CHINA, BASED ON COMPARABLE BASINS OF THE UNITED STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Osterkamp; J. R. Gray

    2003-01-01

    The Yellow River, north-central China, and comparative rivers of the western United States, the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, derive much of their flows from melting snow at high elevations, but derive most of their sediment loads from semiarid central parts of the basins. The three rivers are regulated by large reservoirs that store water and sediment, causing downstream

  20. Causes of Variations in Water Quality and Aquatic Ecology in Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and aquatic biological conditions differ among the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (the St. Croix and Minnesota Rivers) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The quality of surface water and the ecological condition of rivers affect the ways in which we use them. The St. Croix River is used for recreation; the Mississippi River is used for recreation and is a corridor for commerce; and the Minnesota River primarily drains agricultural lands. Analysis of the environmental framework of the basins and water-quality and ecological information by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program shows that the conditions of the rivers are a product of a combination of factors including climate, hydrology, geology, soils, land use, land cover, water management, and water use.