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1

Weathering processes in the Indus River Basin: implications from riverine carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and strontium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the major ions and isotope systematics for C, O, S, and Sr in the Indus River Basin (IRB). Major ion chemistry of the Indus, and most of its headwater tributaries, follow the order Ca2+>Mg2+>(Na++K+) and HCO3?>(SO42?+Cl?)>Si. In the lowland tributaries and in some of the Punjab rivers, however, (Na++K+) and (SO42?+Cl?) predominate. Cyclic salts, important locally

Ajaz Karim; Jan Veizer

2000-01-01

2

Development of Flood Hazards Policy in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan, 1947–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since independence in 1947, floods in the Indus River Basin in Pakistan have claimed more than 7,000 lives and caused massive infrastructure and crop losses. To date, flood damage reduction has received limited attention relative to the irrigation and hydropower subsectors in the basin. Nonstructural approaches to flood hazard mitigation have lagged behind engineering approaches. This article retraces the development

Daanish Mustafa; James L. Wescoat Jr

1997-01-01

3

Water balance of the Indus River Basin and moisture source in the Karakoram and western Himalayas: Implications from hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope measurements of hydrogen and oxygen for surface waters from the Indus River Basin (IRB), together with historical records for river discharge, annual precipitation, and groundwater levels, are used to assess water balance for the basin. The Indus River presently drains 53 km3 yr-1 or roughly one-eighth of the 398-km3 water that annually falls on the basin in the

Ajaz Karim; Jan Veizer

2002-01-01

4

Flooding in the Indus River basin — A spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Station and gridded precipitation data from all over the Indus basin were analyzed for the periods 1951 to 2010 and 1986 to 2010. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test was applied to determine whether statistically significant changes in precipitation amounts occurred over time, in due consideration of autocorrelation in the data. In addition, linear regression trend lines were fitted to the precipitation series by the method of least squares. We also investigated whether the precipitation in 2010, the year of a devastating flood, was the highest, second highest or third highest recorded annual and monsoonal total in the periods under observation.The use of gridded precipitation data unveiled a spatial pattern of precipitation trends in the Indus River basin. For the shorter time period, we found stronger evidence of positive trends in monsoonal precipitation time series compared to annual precipitation. Significant positive precipitation trends were primarily detected in the mountains: in the northwest (Hindu Kush and Sulaiman Mountains) and in the east (Himalayas) of the Upper Reaches of the Indus River. Negative precipitation trends, most of which are not significant, were detected in the northeast of the Upper Reaches (Karakorum and Transhimalaya) and in the lowlands.Compared to previous years, annual and especially monsoonal precipitation totals in 2010 were extremely high in the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, the Sulaiman Mountains, and in the central lowlands. Strong monsoon precipitation in the arid high mountainous regions, not used to these amounts of precipitation, played a major role in the 2010 floods in Pakistan.

Hartmann, Heike; Andresky, Lisa

2013-08-01

5

Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes

A. H. Alizai; P. D. Clift; S. Vanlaningham; L. Giosan; A. Carter; S. Hillier; M. G. Macklin; G. A. Duller; J. Durcan

2009-01-01

6

Spatially distributed erosion and sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed erosion rates and sediment yields are predicted in the mountainous upper Indus River basin with coupled models of erosion and sediment delivery. Potential erosion rates are calculated with the Thornes model in combination with a surface runoff model. Sediment delivery ratios (SDRs) are hypothesized to be a function of travel time of surface runoff from catchment cells to the nearest downstream channel. Modeled monthly erosion rates for the upper Indus River basin indicate that 87% of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The erosion risk map suggests that the areas with the greatest erosion potential are concentrated in subbasins with high relief and a substantial proportion of glacierized area. Lower erosion rates can be explained by the arid climate and low relief on the Tibetan Plateau and by the dense vegetation and lower relief in the lower monsoon subregion. High erosion rates (>1.0 mm a-1) occur over 66.4% of the basin area. The model predicts an average annual erosion rate of 3.2 mm a-1 or 868 Mt a-1, which is approximately 4.5 times the long-term observed annual sediment yield of the basin. The predicted annual basin sediment yield is 244 Mt a-1, which compares reasonably well to the measured value of 195.1 Mt a-1. The overall sediment delivery ratio in the basin is calculated as 0.28. Model results indicate that higher delivery ratios (SDR > 0.6) are found in 18% of the basin area, mostly located in the high-relief subbasins. The sediment delivery ratio is lower than 0.2 in 70% of the basin area. The Indus subbasins generally show an increase of sediment delivery ratio with basin area. Model evaluation based on accuracy statistics suggest "very good" to "satisfactory" performance ratings for predicted sediment yields. The presented modeling framework requires relatively few data, all of which can be derived from global data sets. It therefore can be used to predict erosion and sediment yield in other ungaged or poorly gaged drainage basins.

Ali, Khawaja Faran; de Boer, Dirk H.

2010-08-01

7

Satellite Derived Snow and Runoff Dynamics in the Upper Indus River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various remote sensing products are used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin\\u000afrom 1999 to 2008. It is shown that remote sensing allows detection of spatial-temporal patterns of snow cover across\\u000alarge areas in inaccessible terrain, providing useful information on a critical component of the hydrological cycle. The\\u000aupper Indus basin is, for its

W. W. Immerzeel; P. Droogers; S. M. de Jong; M. F. P. Bierkens

2010-01-01

8

Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates

K. Ali; D. H. de Boer; L. W. Martz

2004-01-01

9

Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra was dominated by reworking from the Thar Desert, at least prior to around 4 ka. Future work will deconvolve the relative influence of dunes versus fluvial components of the river. High-resolution clay mineralogy from the core sites will be carried out to establish a climate variability proxy. We will reconstruct a quantitative record of Indus Valley geomorphic-climate variability over the Holocene and test the hypothesis that cessation of flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra drove the Harappan people from the Indus valley 4,000 years ago.

Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

2009-12-01

10

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

11

Water balance of the Indus River Basin and moisture source in the Karakoram and western Himalayas: Implications from hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in river water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope measurements of hydrogen and oxygen for surface waters from the Indus River Basin (IRB), together with historical records for river discharge, annual precipitation, and groundwater levels, are used to assess water balance for the basin. The Indus River presently drains 53 km3 yr-1 or roughly one-eighth of the 398-km3 water that annually falls on the basin in the form of rain and snow, with the remainder returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Monthly samples for the Indus River close to its mouth, for the water year March 1994 to February 1995, show a tight correlation in ?D and ?18O space. The slope of the linear regression is 7.5, which is not significantly different from the slopes of the Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL; 7.3 and 7.1). This observation argues against significant loss of water by direct evaporation from river surfaces or from soils in hydrologic continuum with surface waters. An upper limit for evaporation from poorly drained soils is calculated to be ˜10 km3 yr-1 or only 2.5% of the annual precipitation flux. Groundwater storage in the entire Canal Command Area received a maximum of 23 km3 yr-1 or 5.8% of the annual precipitation during the early stages of irrigation, but modern recharge is probably balanced by discharge to rivers and well exploitation. Transpiration by natural vegetation and crops annually returns 83% of the precipitation flux and constitutes the largest pathway for the loss of water from the basin. Deuterium excess (d-excess) in the IRB ranges between 4‰ and 28‰, with values for 95% of the sample population exceeding 10‰. The Indus main channel close to its mouth varies in d-excess between 12‰ and 20‰ during low and high water stands, respectively, with a discharge weighted average of 18‰. These values are distinctly higher than the long-term average for the Indian monsoon (˜8‰) and reflect contributions from water vapor originating in the Mediterranean (22‰) or other inland seas. Using these end-member compositions and the discharge weighted average d-excess, isotope balance calculations require that up to 72% of the Indus discharge close to its mouth must be derived from the Mediterranean end-member and implies that bulk of the Indus discharge is the result of delayed runoff from the Karakoram and the Himalayas.

Karim, Ajaz; Veizer, Jan

2002-09-01

12

Groundwater management for Lower Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to find out an optimum policy for pumping out the optimized volume of groundwater obtained from the authors' earlier Two Level Optimization Model [N.K. Garg, A. Ali, 1998. Two level optimization model for Lower Indus Basin. Agric. Water Manage. 36, 1–21] for the Dadu Canal Command of the Lower Indus Basin. It is shown that the

N. K. Garg; A. Ali

2000-01-01

13

Ganges and Indus river basin land use\\/land cover (LULC) and irrigated area mapping using continuous streams of MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to map irrigated areas in the Ganges and Indus river basins using near-continuous time-series (8-day), 500-m resolution, 7-band MODIS land data for 2001–2002. A multitemporal analysis was conducted, based on a mega file of 294 wavebands, made from 42 MODIS images each of 7 bands. Complementary field data were gathered from 196 locations.

Prasad S. Thenkabail; Mitchell Schull; Hugh Turral

2005-01-01

14

Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the flow in the River Indus from its upper mountain basin is derived from melting snow and glaciers. Climatic variability and change of both precipitation and energy inputs will, therefore, affect rural livelihoods at both a local and a regional scale through effects on summer runoff in the River Indus. Spatial variation in precipitation has been investigated by

D. R. Archer; H. J. Fowler

2004-01-01

15

Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Sutton, S.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1991-03-01

16

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.

Shuaib, S.M.

1982-07-01

17

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23° and 28°31'N, and from long. 66°E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery

V. U. N. Quadri; S. M. Shuaib

1986-01-01

18

Managing salinity in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging and salinity have plagued irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin for the past 30–40 years. Approximately 6 million ha (35–40% of total irrigated area) experience these twin problems. As a result, the production potential of the Indus Basin has been reduced by 25%. Over the last 40 years, the Government of Pakistan has adopted engineering, reclamation, and biological measures

Asad S. Quereshi; Asaf Sarwar

2009-01-01

19

A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged

Nathan Forsythe; Chris G. Kilsby; Hayley J. Fowler; David R. Archer

2010-01-01

20

Hydrology research in the upper Indus basin, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hydrological, meteoro­ logical and glaciological characteristics of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan as they influence water supply. In the past, apart from some long-term discharge records for the Indus and some of its major tributaries, hydrological measurements were very scarce. Meteorological measurements were almost wholly confined to valley bottom locations thus missing the hydrologically most active

G. J. YOUNG; K. HEWITT

1990-01-01

21

Surging glaciers and glacial floods in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of glacial hazards in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan, has identified 52 catastrophic floods that have occurred between 1826 and 2000 arising from ice dam failures and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Surging glaciers have formed large ice dams, where the rapid glacier advances have blocked the adjacent river, and have failed subsequently releasing up to 3 km^3

J. M. Reynolds

2003-01-01

22

Irrigation Planning with Environmental Considerations: A Case Study of Pakistan's Indus Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a case study for the Indus Basin irrigation system, which analyzes causes of waterlogging and salinity and suggests possible remedies. It begins with an overview of the Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR); examines the environmental implication...

M. Ahmad G. P. Kutcher

1992-01-01

23

Satellite surveillance of evaporative depletion across the Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irrigated Indus Basin in Pakistan has insufficient water resources to supply all its stakeholders. Information on evaporative depletion across the Basin is an important requirement if the water resources are to be managed efficiently. This paper presents the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) method used to compute actual evapotranspiration for large areas based on public domain National

Wim G. M. Bastiaanssen; Mobin-ud-Din Ahmad; Yann Chemin

2002-01-01

24

Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village\\/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged

Nathan Forsythe; Chris G. Kilsby; Hayley J. Fowler; David R. Archer

2010-01-01

25

Contrasting hydrological regimes in the upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since much of the flow abstracted from the River Indus for irrigation originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of hydrological regimes of mountain rivers is essential for water resources management in Pakistan. Broad characteristics of hydrological regimes are investigated using streamflow data from nineteen long-period stations in terms of annual and seasonal runoff. Regression between

David Archer

2003-01-01

26

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

27

Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature data for seven instrumental records in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analyzed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 1961-2000 and compared with neighboring mountain regions and the Indian subcontinent. Strong contrasts are found between the behavior of winter and summer temperatures and between maximum and minimum tempera- tures.

H. J. Fowler; D. R. Archer

2006-01-01

28

Managing salinity and waterlogging in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging and salinization are major impediment to the sustainability of irrigated lands and livelihoods of the farmers, especially the smallholders, in the affected areas of the Indus Basin. These problems are the result of a multitude of factors, including seepage from unlined earthen canals system, inadequate provision of surface and subsurface drainage, poor water management practices, insufficient water supplies and

A. S. Qureshi; P. G. McCornick; M. Qadir; Z. Aslam

2008-01-01

29

Water Management in the Indus Basin of Pakistan: A Half-century Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the past half-century of water management experiments and experience in the Indus River basin in Pakistan as a way to identify principles for long-term water planning. The survey focuses on three variables: (1) spatial scales of water management; (2) geographic regions of water management; and (3) substantive water problems. These variables help assess changes during the post-colonial

James L. Wescoat Jr; Sarah J. Halvorson; Daanish Mustafa

2000-01-01

30

Five centuries of Upper Indus River flow from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings reconstruct warm-season Upper Indus Basin (UIB) discharge since 1452. The UIB reconstruction is over 10 times longer than the observed discharge record. Novel maximum entropy bootstrap semi-parametric prediction intervals are provided. The reconstruction provides a context for assessing future UIB hydrologic change. The reconstruction can help better plan future development of UIB water resources.

Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zafar, Muhammad Usama; Wahab, Muhammad; Khan, Nasrullah

2013-04-01

31

Indus basin off Pakistan contains few wells  

SciTech Connect

The U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea reaffirmed sovereignty of nations over 22 km of territorial sea, a 370 km Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and rights over the continental shelf to at least 370 km and out to 648 km or beyond under specified conditions. With a coast line of about 990 km, the EEZ for Pakistan extends over an area almost 240,000 sq km, or 40% of the land sedimentary area, in which two distinct geological provinces, and the Indus Offshore and the Makran offshore, have been defined. The paper discusses the tectonics, structure, exploration history, and play types offshore Pakistan. Data show a potential for both oil and gas.

Quadri, V.N. [Quadri (Viqar un Nisa), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Quadri, S.M.G.J. [Quadri (S.M.G.J.), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-16

32

On the control of climate- and human-modulated fluvial sediment delivery on river delta development: The Indus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deltas are particularly vulnerable coasts, affected by changes in both continental and coastal ocean processes. The currently accelerated loss of deltaic lands across the world is primarily due to fluvial sediment starvation following the pandemic construction of river dams and water diversions. However, the influence on deltas of human- or even climate-modulated changes in fluvial sediment discharge has been studied less comprehensively than other controls e.g., the sea-level rise. We examined the Indus delta to understand how the sediment source (i.e., available fluvial sediment) has affected the development of the sediment sink (i.e., the subaerial and subaqueous delta evolution). With an elevated topography and generally arid climate in the watershed, the Indus has been, in natural conditions (i.e., before dams reduced its flow and sediment discharge by over 80%), one of the most important sediment-producing rivers in the world. Bathymetric data show that the Indus shelf morphology exhibits a compound clinoform morphology. Whereas the inner shoreface-connected clinoform has clearly developed as the subaqueous part of the modern Indus delta, the offshore clinoform is either a relict or a contemporaneous prodelta clinoform. Following the reduction in sediment discharge after the late 1950's, the deltaic shoreline in the central part of the delta coast started to recede providing sediment for the southeastern and northwestern coast sectors that remained largely progradational. This differential behavior of the delta shoreline indicates that even a drastic loss of fluvial sediment is initially buffered by an erosional smoothing of the delta coast. New data from onland drilling shows that unlike most Holocene deltas, the Indus delta prograded through the later part of the deglacial sea level rise, starting no later than 12,000 cal. years BP. Neodymium isotope data indicate that sediments comprising the entire Holocene delta originated predominantly in the monsoon-affected Himalayas. This early inception of the Indus delta was probably controlled by an augmented sediment delivery from the Indus basin occurring between 13000 and 9500 years BP during a period of abrupt increase in the intensity of the summer monsoon. Subsequently, a centuries-long phase of reduced precipitations in the Indus basin resulted in an abrupt decrease of the Indus discharge sometimes between 9000 and 8000 years. During this phase, almost the entire early Indus delta was flooded as marine waters penetrated deep inland, providing a grim analog for the future of currently sediment starved river deltas. Furthermore, it will be discussed that this complex evolution of the Indus delta points toward a fundamental change in paradigm for the dynamics deltas at centennial to millennial time scales and for interpreting the sedimentary architecture of transgressive and highstand deltaic deposits.

Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.; Tabrez, A.; Constantinescu, S.; Filip, F.

2006-12-01

33

The water balance as a confirmation of glacial melt in the upper Indus basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variation in observed and projected climate change is large and mountain ranges and their downstream areas are particularly vulnerable for several reasons. Firstly, the rate of warming in the lower troposphere increases with altitude, i.e. temperatures will increase more in high mountains than at low altitudes. Secondly, mountain areas exhibit a large spatial variation in climate zones due to large differences in altitude over small horizontal distances. These conditions make mountain areas more vulnerable to climate change. Finally, mountains play an important role in the water supply of downstream areas. More than one sixth of the global population depends on water supplied by mountains and changes in hydrology and water availability are expected to be large in mountain basins. Especially the diminishing role of snow and ice as a natural store for water supply will have a tremendous impact. For all of these reasons knowledge on snow cover and ice dynamics and how it influences water availability is of great importance and surprisingly regional studies on this topic are largely lacking. The focus of this study is on the upper Indus basin, where snow and ice melt from the Himalayan and Karakoram ranges constitute the most dominant part of river discharge in comparison with other large Asian rivers. Similar to other glaciated areas global warming also has its effect here. However the effects of climate change on the cryosphere and subsequently on the basin hydrology remain largely unknown. In this study various remote sensing products are used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin from 1999 to 2008. It is shown that remote sensing allows detection of spatial-temporal patterns of snow cover across large areas in inaccessible terrain, providing useful information on a critical component of the hydrological cycle. The upper Indus basin is, for its water resources, most dependent on snow and ice melt and large parts are snow covered for prolonged periods of the year. A significant negative winter snow cover trend was identified for the upper Indus basin. A hydrological model is used and forced with remotely sensed derived precipitation and snow cover. The model is calibrated using daily discharges from 2000 to 2005 and stream flow in the upper Indus basin can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. From the analysis it is concluded that there are clear indications that climate change is significantly affecting the hydrology of the upper Indus basin due to accelerated glacial melting. This conclusion is primarily based on the observation that the average annual precipitation over a five year period is less than the observed stream flow and the unexplained source of water is proxy for the cryospheric changes in the basin. We conservatively estimate the annual loss of ice to be 1% of the total ice reserve. Using the calibrated model and results of the PRECIS climate model several climate change scenarios are then simulated to assess the effects of the hydrograph. All scenarios show a shift in discharge from summer to spring due to accelerated melt and a shift from snow to rain precipitation.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Droogers, P.; de Jong, S. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2009-04-01

34

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

2002-05-01

35

Trends in timing and magnitude of flow in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River flow is a reflection of the input of moisture and its transformation in storage and transmission over the catchment. In the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), since high-altitude climate measurement and observations of glacier mass balance are weak or absent, analysis of trends in magnitude and timing in river flow provides a window on trends and fluctuations in climate and glacier outflow. Trend analysis is carried out using a Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test on records extending from 1960 to 1998. High-level glacial catchments show a falling trend in runoff magnitude and a declining proportion of glacial contribution to the main stem of the Indus. Elsewhere annual flow has predominantly increased with several stations exhibiting statistically significant positive trends. Analysis of timing using spring onset date (SOT) and centre of volume date (CoV) indicated no clear trends - in direct contrast to what has been observed in western North America. There is, however, a consistent relationship between CoV and annual runoff volume. A consistently positive correlation was also found between SOT and CoV for all the stations, implying that initial snowpack conditions before the onset of runoff influence timing throughout the season. The results of the analysis presented here indicate that the magnitude and timing of streamflow hydrograph is influenced both by the initial snowpack and by seasonally varied trends in temperature. The study contributes to the understanding of the links between climate trends and variability and river runoff and glacier mass balance and runoff. The Upper Indus Basin is predominantly influenced by winter precipitation; similar trend analysis applied to summer-monsoon-dominated catchments of the central Himalaya is recommended.

Sharif, M.; Archer, D. R.; Fowler, H. J.; Forsythe, N.

2013-04-01

36

Trends in timing and magnitude of flow in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River flow is a reflection of the input of moisture and its transformation in storage and transmission over the catchment. In the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), since high altitude climate measurement and observations of glacier mass balance are weak or absent, analysis of trends in magnitude and timing in river flow provides a window on trends and fluctuations in climate and glacier outflow. Trend analysis is carried out using a Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test on records extending from 1960 to 1998. High level glacial catchments show a falling trend in runoff magnitude and a declining proportion of glacial contribution to the main stem of the Indus. Elsewhere annual flow has predominantly increased with several stations exhibiting statistically significant positive trends. Analysis of timing using spring onset date (SOT) and centre of volume date (CoV) indicated no clear trends - in direct contrast to what has been observed in Western North America. There is, however, a consistent relationship between CoV and annual runoff volume. A consistently positive correlation was also found between SOT and CoV for all the stations implying that initial snowpack conditions before the onset of runoff influence timing throughout the season. The results of the analysis presented here indicate that the magnitude and timing of streamflow hydrograph is influenced both by the initial snowpack and by seasonally varied trends in temperature. The study contributes to the understanding of the links between climate trends and variability and river runoff and glacier mass balance and runoff. The Upper Indus Basin is predominantly influenced by winter precipitation; similar trend analysis applied to summer monsoon dominated catchments of the Central Himalaya is recommended.

Sharif, M.; Archer, D. R.; Fowler, H. J.; Forsythe, N.

2012-09-01

37

Hydro-climatological variability in the Upper Indus Basin and implications for water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountainous region of the Upper Indus Basin is a critical source of water for Pakistan. Most flow in the upper Indus is derived from melting snow and glaciers and summer runoff is strongly correlated to winter precipi- tation and summer temperature, though links may operate in opposing directions in glacier-fed and snow-fed hydrological regimes. From 1961 to 1999 there

HAYLEY J. FOWLER; DAVID R. ARCHER

2005-01-01

38

Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the flow in the River Indus from its upper mountain basin is derived from melting snow and glaciers. Climatic variability and change of both precipitation and energy inputs will, therefore, affect rural livelihoods at both a local and a regional scale through effects on summer runoff in the River Indus. Spatial variation in precipitation has been investigated by correlation and regression analysis of long-period records. There is a strong positive correlation between winter precipitation at stations over the entire region, so that, for practical forecasting of summer runoff in some basins, a single valley-floor precipitation station can be used In contrast, spatial relationships in seasonal precipitation are weaker in summer and sometimes significantly negative between stations north and south of the Himalayan divide. Although analysis of long datasets of precipitation from 1895 shows no significant trend, from 1961-1999 there are statistically significant increases in winter, in summer and in the annual precipitation at several stations. Preliminary analysis has identified a significant positive correlation between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter precipitation in the Karakoram and a negative correlation between NAO and summer rainfall at some stations.

Archer, D. R.; Fowler, H. J.

39

Nature of particulate organic matter in the River Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediments from the Indus River collected during 1981 through 1983 were analyzed for POC and its constituent fractions including amino acids, amino sugars and sugars. Percentage of POC decreased with increasing suspended matter concentrations, which suggested dilution of organic matter by mineral matter. The concentrations of amino acids, amino sugars and sugars varied, respectively, between 180 and 2000 g/l, 5 and 125 g/l, and 60 and 1100 g/l. Their contributions to POC varied between 2 and 60% for amino acids and amino sugars, and between 2 and 15% for sugars. They were high during low sediment discharge (February to June), and low during high sediment discharge (August and September). Suspended sediments associated with high sediment discharge periods were characterized by low ratios of: 1. (i) aspartic acid: -alanine 2. (ii) glutamic acid: -aminobutyric acid 3. (iii) amino acids:amino sugars 4. (iv) hexoses:pentoses. These and the relative distribution pattern of the monosaccharides such as galactose, arabinose, mannose and xylose indicated that, not only dilution, but also differences in the sources and processes affect the POC transport in the Indus River. These result in transport of biodegraded organic matter during high sediment discharge periods: this appears to be common to other major rivers of the region, with depositional centers in deep sea areas. These rivers, with their high sediment loads, could contribute up to 8 to 11% of the global annual organic carbon burial in marine sediments.

Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Arain, Rafee

1986-08-01

40

Spatial Quantification of Groundwater Abstraction in the Irrigated Indus Basin.  

PubMed

Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to derive total annual irrigation applied in the irrigated areas of the basin during the year 2007. The SWAT model was parameterized by station corrected precipitation data (R) from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission, land use, soil type, and outlet locations. The model was calibrated using a new approach based on spatially distributed ET fields derived from different satellite sensors. The calibration results were satisfactory?and strong improvements were obtained in the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (0.52 to 0.93), bias (-17.3% to -0.4%), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.78 to 0.93). Satellite information on R and ET was then combined with model results of surface runoff, drainage, and percolation to derive groundwater abstraction and depletion at a nominal resolution of 1?km. It was estimated that in 2007, 68?km(3) (262?mm) of groundwater was abstracted in the Indus Basin while 31?km(3) (121?mm) was depleted. The mean error was 41?mm/year and 62?mm/year at 50% and 70% probability of exceedance, respectively. Pakistani and Indian Punjab and Haryana were the most vulnerable areas to groundwater depletion and strong measures are required to maintain aquifer sustainability. PMID:23441997

Cheema, M J M; Immerzeel, W W; Bastiaanssen, W G M

2013-02-26

41

Sediment Buffering and Transport in the Holocene Indus River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine fans are the largest sediment bodies on Earth and potentially hold records of erosion that could be used to assess the response of continents to changing climate in terms of both physical erosion and chemical weathering. However, buffering between the mountain sources and the abyssal plain may make detailed correlation of climate and erosion records difficult. We investigated the nature of sediment transport in the Indus drainage in SW Asia. Through trenching in the flood plain, drilling in the delta and new seismic and coring data from the shelf and canyon we can now constrain sediment transport from source to sink since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Indus was affected by intensification of the summer monsoon during the Early Holocene and subsequent weakening since ca. 8 ka. Sediment delivery to the delta was very rapid at 12-8 ka, but slowed along with the weakening monsoon. At the LGM erosion in the Karakoram dominated the supply of sandy material, while the proportion of Lesser Himalayan flux increased with strengthening summer rainfall after 12 ka. Total load also increased at that time. Since 5 ka incision of rivers into the upper parts of the flood plain has reworked Lower Holocene sediments, although the total flux slowed. Coring in the Indus canyon shows that sediment has not reached the lower canyon since ca. 7 ka, but that sedimentation has recently been very rapid in the head of the canyon. We conclude that variations in sealevel and terrestrial climate have introduced a lag of at least 7 k.y. into the deep sea fan record and that monsoon strength is a primary control on whether sediment is stored or released in the flood plain.

Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Henstock, T.; Tabrez, A. R.; Vanlaningham, S.; Alizai, A. H.; Limmer, D. R.; Danish, M.

2009-12-01

42

Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

2013-04-01

43

Quantification of glacier elevation changes using ICESat and SRTM elevation data in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas suggest an expansion of glaciers. Many studies conducted in the Himalayan region have focused on monitoring changes in the aerial extent of individual glaciers from remotely sensed data or through field surveys. Limited work, however, has been done in this region to estimate glacier volume changes using measurements of elevation change over time, particularly at a large scale. Here we used Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate glacier elevation changes within the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The elevation changes were estimated within snow-covered and clean-ice zones which were delineated using historic Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (Landsat) images. ICESat/GLA06 elevations data from spring campaigns, release 28 were used to estimate ice elevation changes for the period of 2004-2008 relative to 2000. The accuracy of elevation change was assessed by analyzing non-glacier elevation difference points within different categories of a Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI). This comparison showed that elevations precision decreased with increasing TRI, so using TRI to categorize glacier areas helps to identify data points with higher accuracy. Our analysis of elevation changes estimated from the ICESat altimeter identified two clear patterns in elevation changes. Firstly, glaciers in the northern half of the Upper Indus valley have thickened in the last decade, while those in the southern sub-watersheds are thinning. Secondly, glacier thickening occurred on the higher elevation snow-covered ice zone, while more thinning rates were observed within the clean ice zone for all sub-watersheds of the UIB, except in the Hunza river basin. Such results showed the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions.

Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

2010-12-01

44

Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reassesses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and provenance of the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. Using field observations, biostratigraphy, and petrographic and isotopic analyses we create a paleodepositional reconstruction within the paleotectonic setting of the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. We then re-examine existing constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision previously interpreted from the earliest occurrence of mixed Indian- and Eurasian-derived detritus in the succession. From mid-Cretaceous to early Paleocene times the Jurutze and Sumda Formations were deposited within an arc-bounded marine basin between the Dras and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arcs. The <51 Ma aged deltaic Chogdo Formation then filled the basin until deposition of the 50.8-49.4 Ma aged Nummulitic Limestone during a marine incursion, before continental facies developed in an evolving intermountain basin with the deposition of the Paleogene Indus Group. Within these systems, sediment was sourced from the Eurasian margin to the north and was transported southward into the suture zone. In this section, we see no unequivocal evidence of Indian Plate input to the sedimentary succession (and thus no evidence of mixed Indian-Eurasian-derived detritus indicative of India-Asia collision) until the upper stratigraphic horizons of the Indus Group, when facies are representative of an axial, northwesterly flowing river system. We suggest that the paleo-Indus River was initiated within the ITSZ during late Oligocene-early Miocene times. Sedimentation of the Indus Group continued until the late Miocene.

Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Barford, Dan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio

2010-12-01

45

Effect of climate change on water resources of the Upper Indus River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, accelerated glacier recession trends have been reported for the Himalayan region, based largely on the studies in the Eastern Himalayas. However, recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas, suggest an expansion of glaciers and a reduction in summer streamflow due to a significant decrease in summer temperatures. Snow and ice melt from these glaciers is the primary input to the Upper Indus River, upstream of Tarbela Reservoir, a water resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power in Pakistan. Given the complexity of variations in the Himalayan glaciers and their socio-economic significance, it is important to understand the mechanisms that governed these changes in the historical period. More importantly, it is critical to accurately project expected future changes in the extent of Himalayan glaciers due to anthropogenic variations in temperature and precipitation patterns and impacts of such changes on water supply and agriculture. Projecting future changes to perennial water supply or flood risk in the Upper Indus River requires a modeling tool that can represent the effect of glacier and snow cover fluctuations. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model is modified to better represent ice accumulation, ablation and transport in alpine glacier systems. Ice transport from the higher elevations to the lower elevations within a new glacial ice layer is represented via both ice deformation and basal sliding based on the Glen’s flow law. The transformation of snow to ice during the snow metamorphism process is implemented based on snow density changes within snowpack. The revised VIC model forced with daily precipitation and temperature data from the high resolution FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model for reference time period of 1961-1990, is evaluated at watershed scale using observed historical river discharge, glacier velocities and point observations of snow accumulation. Changes in streamflow seasonality in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are determined for the future climate period 2071-2100 relative to the reference period using daily precipitation and temperature data from RegCM3 climate model. The results from this analysis provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of glacier and snow cover variations on the magnitude and timing of total annual discharge of major rivers in the UIB.

Bowling, L. C.; Naz, B. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

2010-12-01

46

Influence of mid-latitude circulation on upper Indus basin precipitation: the explicit role of irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since much of the flow of the Indus River originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of weather characteristics leading to precipitation over the region is essential for water resources management. This study examines the influence of upper level mid-latitude circulation on the summer precipitation over upper Indus basin (UIB). Using reanalysis data, a geopotential height index (GH) is defined at 200 hPa over central Asia, which has a significant correlation with the precipitation over UIB. GH has also shown significant correlation with the heat low (over Iran and Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan), easterly shear of zonal winds (associated with central Asian high) and evapotranspiration (over UIB). It is argued that the geopotential height index has the potential to serve as a precursor for the precipitation over UIB. In order to assess the influence of irrigation on precipitation over UIB, a simplified irrigation scheme has been developed and applied to the regional climate model REMO. It has been shown that both versions of REMO (with and without irrigation) show significant correlations of GH with easterly wind shear and heat low. However contrary to reanalysis and the REMO version with irrigation, the REMO version without irrigation does not show any correlation between GH index and evapotranspiration as well as between geopotential height and precipitation over UIB, which is further confirmed by the quantitative analysis of extreme precipitation events over UIB. It is concluded that although atmospheric moisture over coastal Arabian sea region, triggered by wind shear and advected northward due to heat low, also contribute to the UIB precipitation. However for the availability of necessary moisture for precipitation over UIB, the major role is played by the evapotranspiration of water from irrigation. From the results it may also be inferred that the representation of irrigated water in climate models is unavoidable for studying the impact of global warming over the region.

Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Saeed, Sajjad; Jacob, Daniela

2013-01-01

47

Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

2012-11-01

48

Source of Groundwater Salinization in the Indus Basin: An Isotopic Evidence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isotopic and chemical studies were carried out in three regions of the Indus Basin to ascertain the source of salinity. Samples collected from the Faisalabad area in Rechna Doab, Chaj Doab and Mardan Valley, were analyzed on mass spectrometer for D/H,...

M. I. Sajjad S. D. Hussain M. A. Tasneem M. Ahmad I. H. Khan

1991-01-01

49

Optimizing operational strategies of scavenger wells in lower Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lower Indus Basin of Pakistan, where rainfall is low and water use is high, more than 350 scavenger wells were installed under the left bank outfall drain stage-1 (LBOD-1) with a capital cost of US$ 12.75 million to provide drainage and to recover fresh groundwater mainly for irrigation purposes. This paper highlights the environmental issues in the pumping

Ghulam Ali; Muhammad Nadeem Asghar; Muhammad Latif; Zakir Hussain

2004-01-01

50

Modeling efficient water allocation in a conjunctive use regime: The Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient resource use where ground- and surface waters are used conjunctively may require special policies to rationalize the interaction between water use by farmers and the response of the stream aquifer system. In this paper, we examine alternative policies for achieving more efficient conjunctive use in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Using a simulation model which links the hydrology of

Gerald T. O'Mara; John H. Duloy

1984-01-01

51

Diagnostic Analysis of Farmers' Skimming Well Technologies in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers are using skimming wells tosupplement their canal deliveries. Toensure sustainable groundwater extraction,proper design and operational guidelinesfor these skimming wells are required. Thestarting point of such guidelines is tolook at farmers' existing groundwaterextraction practices, their extent andassociated problems. For this purpose, afield survey was conducted in the IndusBasin of Pakistan. Participatory ruralappraisal identified several design andoperational problems with farmers' skimmingwells.

M. M. Saeed; M. Ashraf; M. Bruen

2002-01-01

52

Feasible design and operational guidelines for skimming wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports work done to assess the status of groundwater extraction technologies and practices in the Indus basin of Pakistan and hence to improve these technologies for sustainable groundwater extraction. A socio-technical approach was used which involved a field survey using participatory rural appraisal (PRA), monitoring of existing farmers’ wells for hydraulic and hydrosalinity behavior of these wells, and

M. M. Saeed; M. Ashraf

2005-01-01

53

A new crop yield forecasting model based on satellite measurements applied across the Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three existing models are coupled to assess crop development and forecast yield in the largest contiguous irrigation network in the world: the Indus Basin in Pakistan. Monteith’s model is used for the calculation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), the Carnegie Institution Stanford model is used for determining the light use efficiency, and the surface energy balance algorithm for land

Wim G. M. Bastiaanssen; Samia Ali

2003-01-01

54

Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting

Mohsin Hafeez; Kaleem Ullah; Munir Ahmad Hanjra; Habib Ullah Bodla; Rai Niaz Ahmad

2010-01-01

55

Organic facies in Cretaceous and Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks, Southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed organic petrographic study of the geologic section penetrated by the Sann #1 well in the Southern Indus basin (Kirthar Trough) of Pakistan permits definition of organic facies and oil-generation potential of Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks. The well encountered Eocene through Jurassic rocks; however, only closely spaced samples of fine-grained rocks from the Cretaceous Goru, Sembar, and the

C. R Robison; M. A Smith; R. A Royle

1999-01-01

56

Glacier Change, Concentration, and Elevation Effects in the Karakoram Himalaya, Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades the consequences of climate change for Himalayan glaciers has become of great concern. Glaciers in much of High Asia appear to be declining, some at globally extreme rates (Ageta 2001;Oerlemanns 2001). It had been widely reported that the Indus basin is threatened with severe losses. However, emerging evidence suggests that such reports were, at best, exaggerated (Raina

Kenneth Hewitt

2011-01-01

57

Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U–Pb dating of detrital zircon grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new major and trace element data, together with U–Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are

Anwar Alizai; Andrew Carter; Peter D. Clift; Sam VanLaningham; Jeremy C. Williams; Ravindra Kumar

2011-01-01

58

Use of RS & GIS in Flood Forecasting and Early Warning System for Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inundation mapping for Indus River and its tributaries is a large as well as complex task to undertake. GIS and remote sensing technologies enable us to handle the complexity involved in the development and maintenance of such large systems. The main feature of such systems is the easy incorporation of changes to system. The influence of a revision in methodology

Hammad Sharif; Mansoor A. Hashmi

2006-01-01

59

The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options.

Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

2011-03-01

60

Surging glaciers and glacial floods in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of glacial hazards in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan, has identified 52 catastrophic floods that have occurred between 1826 and 2000 arising from ice dam failures and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Surging glaciers have formed large ice dams, where the rapid glacier advances have blocked the adjacent river, and have failed subsequently releasing up to 3 km^3 of water in less than 48 hrs with peak discharges in excess of 40,000 m^3/s. Such catastrophic floods have had run-out distances in excess of 1,200 km and have caused major damage downstream and resulted in many hundreds of fatalities. Since 1980, 75% of recorded glacier-derived floods have originated from GLOFs with only few ice dam failures associated with surging glaciers. Glacier surges have occurred in clusters with individual glaciers going through phases of active surging and then quiescent periods in from 30 to over 100 years. Previous reviews of surging glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin have identified 20 glaciers that have demonstrated surge-type behaviour with the bulk of glacier surges apparently occurring prior to 1933. However, recent satellite imagery (Landsat-5 from 1998/99) has shown that there are a further 16 glaciers that have surged within this region, with several surging simultaneously and in recent years. At least one glacier has been identified on satellite imagery as going through a surge from 1998 to June 2001 when the resultant ice dam failed producing a locally devastating flood. The study has also demonstrated that there is no obvious link between what triggers an individual glacier to surge and climate change. Furthermore, within this seismically very active area, there is no evidence that earthquakes have triggered either surges, collapses of ice dams, or failures of other glacial lake dams, over the period 1927--2001 for which records are available. Surge behaviour within composite glaciers results in highly complex structural effects especially where tributary glaciers surge into main glaciers downstream. This paper provides examples of different styles of advancing glaciers and of surge-type glaciers and examines their associated glacial hazards.

Reynolds, J. M.

2003-04-01

61

ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

62

Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities\\u000a has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional\\u000a finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.\\u000a The approach of using GIS techniques

Zulfiqar Ahmad; Arshad Ashraf; Alan Fryar; Gulraiz Akhter

2011-01-01

63

The indus basin model: A special application of two-level linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic and verbal description of the Indus Basin Model is presented. The model is an example of a strategic planning exercise\\u000a designed to aid in the specification of surface and ground water related policies in Pakistan. It is also a special application\\u000a of the two-level linear programming problem. The concept of multi-level programming is introduced, and the general two-level

Johannes Bisschop; Wilfred Candler; John H. Duloy; Gerald T. O’Mara

64

Basin scale natural gas source, migration and trapping traced by noble gases and major elements: the Pakistan Indus basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

He, Ne and Ar concentrations, He and Ar isotopic ratios, carbon isotopic ratios and chemical compositions of hydrocarbon gases were measured in natural gas samples from gas-producing wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan, where no oil has ever been found. 3He\\/4He ratios are in the range 0.01–0.06 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric value of 1.38×10?6) indicating the absence of mantle-derived

Anne Battani; Philippe Sarda; Alain Prinzhofer

2000-01-01

65

Detection of dual effects of degradation of perennial snow and ice covers on the hydrologic regime of a Himalayan river basin by stream water availability modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monthly river flow model of Upper Indus Basin with MODIS derived snow covered areas. Perennial snow/ice covers within the Upper Indus Basin has decreased in recent years. Decrease in perennial snow/ice covers has dual effects on river flow characteristics. Decrease in discharge rates during the peak melting season (June-August). Shift of peak discharge period from July/August to late spring/early summer (May/June).

Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

2012-01-01

66

The hydrologic sensitivity of the upper Indus River to glacier changes in the western Karakoram Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent controversy regarding the rates of disappearance of glaciers in the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain, has primarily been focused on the eastern Himalayas. Studies carried out in the Central Karakoram Himalayan region suggest an expansion of glaciers. Little information exists about long-term glacier changes and their impact on streamflow in the Karakoram Himalayas where field surveys are difficult due to complex terrain and long term measurements have not been collected. The availability of global remotely sensed and climate datasets in the public domain provides an opportunity for studying large data sparse drainage basins. Following this approach, here I use remotely sensed datasets in combination with observational-based and simulated climate data to estimate glacier changes and their impact on streamflow variability in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) located in the Karakoram Himalayas. Using Landsat images acquired between 1977 and 2006 and climate data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), change detection analysis shows that the extent of perennial snow cover at higher elevations in the Central Karakoram has increased coinciding with a significant increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer temperature. Similarly, analysis of glacier thickness change estimated from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter data available between 2003 and 2008 with respect to the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data acquired in year 2000 identifies two clear patterns of change in the UIB. Strong thickening rates are observed within highly glacierized northern sub-watersheds (i.e. the Hunza and Shyok River basins), while thinning glaciers are identified in southern sub-watersheds. Statistically significant decreasing streamflow trends identified in all seasons for the Hunza River basin and increasing trends identified in other sub-basins of UIB for the period of 1974 -- 2000 illustrate that observed streamflow response among sub-watersheds is closely related to the existence of distinct patterns in observed glacier changes. Trend analysis of water equivalence, snowmelt and glacier melt simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to represent glacier storage and melt, clarifies that increasing trends in ice and snow water equivalence and positive glacier thickening rates in the Hunza River basin decrease the melt contribution from higher altitude areas. Conversely, in other sub-basins increasing trends in streamflow are associated with increases in snow and ice melt contributions to the total streamflow. As a result of this study, an improved understanding of the governing factors of annual variability and timing of flows allow us to better assess the impacts of glaciers on streamflow in a changing climate. Additionally, the presented methodology for estimating glacier changes and their impact on streamflow requires relatively few data, mostly derived from global datasets. It therefore can be utilized for other data sparse drainage basins of the world.

Naz, Bibi S.

67

Improving Wheat Productivity in Pakistan: Econometric Analysis Using Panel Data from Chaj in the Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing water scarcity, degradation of land and water resources, continuing low agricultural productivity, and increasing populations are posing the largest ever challenges for development of agricultural economies in many developing countries including Pakistan. Using panel data from irrigated settings in Chaj sub-basin of the Indus basin in Pakistani Punjab, we attempt to: (a) analyze the causes of low productivity; (b)

Intizar Hussain; Muhammad Mudasser; Munir A. Hanjra; Upali Amrasinghe; David Molden

2004-01-01

68

A Comparison of Proximate Composition And Fatty Acid Profile of Indus River Fish Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight species of freshwater fish from the Indus River were analyzed for their proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profile. Differences were observed (P < 0.05) for moisture (59.95–79.45%), ash (0.05–4.95%), crude protein (17–20.09%) and lipid (0.85–18.32%) contents. The changes in FA profiles of fish species were significant (P < 0.05). The monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid content (24.55–48.35 g\\/100 g)

Nusrat N. Memon; Farah N. Talpur; M. I. Bhanger

2010-01-01

69

Sediment Source-to-Sink Processes in the Indus River since the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River drains the western Himalaya and Karakoram and feeds sediment to the second largest submarine sediment body on Earth. Erosion in the catchment is controlled by rock uplift rates but also by climatic variability that has caused erosional patterns to migrate as the SW monsoon first strengthened then weakened during the Holocene. The tributaries of the Indus have incised the flood plain extending >500 km from the mountain front since 10 ka recycling older deposits. This erosion accounts for about 20% of the total flux to the ocean. Much greater volumes were released from river terraces in the mountains, especially along the major river valleys and from the region within 100 km of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis. Very little new bedrock erosion is required to account for the sediment flux. About half the sediment load has been deposited onshore either in the delta or under the southern flood plains where the river sits on a major accretionary ridge. The remainder of the sediment is in the upper canyon and shelf clinoforms because no sediment has reached the deep sea since at least 7 ka. Comparison of different provenance proxies shows that zircon grains travel slowly through the river, taking 5-10 k.y. longer to travel to the river mouth than clays or micas, whose transport times are within the uncertainties for the dating methods. This slower bed load transport introduces a lag time between a change in erosion patterns and the appearance of the sediment at the river mouth. A further lag of at least 7 ka is assumed for sediments in the Indus Canyon and >11 ka for the upper fan.

Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.

2012-04-01

70

Simulation of Unsteady Flow in the Left Bank Outfall Drain Unconfined Aquifer in the Lower Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Indus basin in the Province of Sindh, Pakistan, suffers from waterlogging and salinity and is currently being drained by wells and surface drains. Simulation modelling approach was used in order to optimize pumping. A rectangular region (600 km2) in the centre of the Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) aquifer was selected for modelling. Visual MODFLOW, a three dimensional

Altaf A. Memon; Mohammad Afzal Memon

71

Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin, Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The thematic layers of soils, landuse, hydrology, infrastructure and climate were developed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient and estimation of the groundwater

A. Ashraf; Z. Ahmad

2008-01-01

72

Constraints to the timing of India–Eurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposited within the Indus–Tsangpo suture zone, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing of India–Eurasia collision, a conclusion challenged by data presented here. The Eurasian derived 50.8–51Ma Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks in sedimentary contact, thus constraining the timing of collision as having

Alexandra L. Henderson; Yani Najman; Randall Parrish; Darren F. Mark; Gavin L. Foster

2011-01-01

73

Validation of surface soil moisture from AMSR-E using auxiliary spatial data in the transboundary Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on soil moisture is vital to describe various hydrological processes. Soil moisture parameters are normally measured using buried sensors in the soil. Alternatively, spatial and temporal characteristics of surface soil moisture are estimated through satellites. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is one of such satellites that estimate surface soil moisture in an operational context. These estimates need validation prior to use in various hydrological and water management applications. Such validations are normally carried out using field measurements of soil moisture. This is not technically feasible in vast river basins such as the Indus Basin and for pixel sizes of 25 km × 25 km with non-homogeneous soils and land use. Therefore, AMSR-E data interpreted with Njoku model and posted by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for the Indus Basin is evaluated by comparing it against auxiliary spatial data. The auxiliary data exists of (i) land use, (ii) rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, (iii) seasonality of vegetation from SPOT-Vegetation and (iv) saturated water content (?sat) inferred from soil maps. A strong relationship was observed between rainfall and surface soil moisture in the land use class "rainfed". Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) between the soil moisture and rainfall ranged from 0.14 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.36. For irrigated land uses, rs ranged from -0.04 to 0.52 with a mean of 0.29 due to control of soil moisture by irrigation water supply. The temporal analysis of soil moisture data with vegetation time series showed resemblance with growth phenology. Higher Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between the soil moisture and vegetation development was found for time lags of a few weeks. The daily maximum values estimated by AMSR-E ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 cm3 cm-3. The maximum values were near, but below ?sat limits for different soil types. AMSR-E captured the flooding processes during July and August 2010 by showing the soil moisture values to approximate the saturated soil moisture content for areas that are reported to be flooded. This suggests that the absolute AMSR-E soil moisture data from NSIDC are accurate in the upper range of land wetness.It is concluded that AMSR-E surface soil moisture data exhibits spatio-temporal behavior, and the trends agree with auxiliary spatial data sets.

Cheema, M. J. M.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Rutten, M. M.

2011-07-01

74

Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Pascale, Salvatore

2013-04-01

75

Hydrological cycle over south and southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

2013-01-01

76

The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use planning and soil conservation as well as flood management, with a focus on the reduction of erosion and resulting sedimentation as well as the restoration of ecosystem services like wetlands and natural floodplains. Water demand management options include: (1) the management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; as well as (2) the rehabilitation and modernization of existing infrastructure. Other demand management options are: (3) the increase of water productivity for agriculture; (4) crop planning and diversification including the critical assessment of agricultural export, especially (basmati) rice; (5) economic instruments and (6) changing food demand patterns and limiting post-harvest losses.

Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

2012-04-01

77

Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in fact typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

2011-07-01

78

Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in facts typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

2011-04-01

79

UNCOMPAHGRE RIVER BASIN SELENIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Uncompahgre River Basin Selenium Phytoremediation Project will evaluate the ability of selected agricultural crops and trees to accumulate and volatilize selenium from contaminated soils in the basin. Three different species of plants (two types will be campanion planted) an...

80

Simulating Reservoir Management under the Threat of Sedimentation: The Case of Tarbela Dam on the River Indus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The useful life of Tarbela reservoir, on the River Indus, is threatened by a sediment delta which is approaching the dam'sintake tunnels; these lead to a hydroelectric power station and are used for irrigation releases. This article describes thesimulated system, involving Tarbela Dam, with Ghazi Barotha hydropower scheme downstream, and the planned construction of Basha Dam upstream. This study formed

Emma L. Tate; Frank A. K. Farquharson

2000-01-01

81

Greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems and their contribution to environmental change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global\\u000a warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance\\u000a of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and\\u000a agricultural activities are vulnerable

M. Mohsin Iqbal; M. Arif Goheer

2008-01-01

82

Computer aided graphics simulation modelling using seismogeologic approach in sequence stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous Punjab platform, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling stratigraphic sequence by using seismo-geologic approach, integrated with cyclic transgressive-regressive deposits, helps to identify a number of non-structural subtle traps. Most of the hydrocarbons found in Early Cretaceous of Central Indus Basin pertain to structural entrapments of upper transgressive sands. A few wells are producing from middle and basal regressive sands, but the massive regressive sands have not been

T. M. Qureshi; K. A. Khan

1996-01-01

83

Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reassesses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and provenance of the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. Using field observations, biostratigraphy, and petrographic and isotopic analyses we create a paleodepositional reconstruction within the paleotectonic setting of the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. We then re-examine existing constraints to

Alexandra L. Henderson; Yani Najman; Randall Parrish; Marcelle BouDagher-Fadel; Dan Barford; Eduardo Garzanti; Sergio Andò

2010-01-01

84

Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

2010-03-07

85

Land use and land cover classification in the irrigated Indus Basin using growth phenology information from satellite data to support water management analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources planning and management is fundamental for food security, environmental conservation, economic development and livelihoods. In complex basins like the Indus Basin, water is utilized by different land cover and land uses. Up to date information about these Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) classes provide essential information on the water flow path. Traditionally, landscapes are described by cover

M. J. M. Cheema; W. G. M. Bastiaanssen

2010-01-01

86

Hydrological cycle over South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the climate models contributing to the PCMDI/CMIP3 dataset describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the 20th, 21st (13 models) and 22nd (10 models) centuries. For the 20th century, some models do not seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. The simulated precipitation minus evaporation (P - E), total runoff (R) and precipitation (P) quantities are neither consistent with the observations nor among the models themselves. Most of the models underestimate P - E for all four river basins, which is mainly associated with the underestimation of precipitation. This is in agreement with the recent results on the biases of the representation of monsoonal dynamics by GCMs. Overall, a modest inter-model agreement is found only for the evaporation and inter-annual variability of P - E. For the 21st and 22nd centuries, models agree on the negative (positive) changes of P - E for the Indus basin (Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins). Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of P - E for the Ganges and Mekong basins, thus suggesting an increase in large low-frequency dry/wet events. Instead, no considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of P - E is found for the Indus and Brahmaputra basins.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

2013-07-01

87

Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the principles of low-risk adaptation, participative decision making and local capacity building.

Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

2010-05-01

88

Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely Early-Mid Holocene, erosional state, in which the Lesser Himalaya were more important as sediment suppliers. Early-Mid Holocene sands show much less erosion from the Karakoram-Transhimalaya compared to those deposited at the Last Glacial Maximum, or calculated from the modern discharge. We favour variations in summer monsoon intensity as the primary cause of these temporal changes.

Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

2011-03-01

89

Climatic Atlas of the Delaware River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Delaware River basin is a diverse physiographic, hydrologic, and climatic region. The Delaware River serves as a major source of water for nearly 20 million people both in and outside the basin. Questions associated outside the variability of climate,...

C. B. Jenner H. F. Lins

1991-01-01

90

Muskingum River Basin Comprehensive Coordinated Joint Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan includes recommended studies, projects, and non-structural programs which the Ohio River Basin Commission has agreed are required to meet the economic, environmental and social needs of the sub-basin, the Muskingum River.

1976-01-01

91

Assessment of petroleum biodegradation using stable hydrogen isotopes of individual saturated hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in oils from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) in eight crude oils of similar source and thermal maturity from the Upper Indus Basin (Pakistan) were measured. The oils are derived from a source rock deposited in a shallow marine environment. The low level of biodegradation under natural reservoir conditions was established on the basis of

Muhammad Asif; Kliti Grice; Tahira Fazeelat

2009-01-01

92

Applications of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Assess the Source and Thermal Maturity of the Crude Oils from the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of six crude oils from Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, were analyzed for geochemical characterization of source organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes, alkyldibenzothiophenes, and aromatic biomarkers were reported from aromatic fractions of the crude oils. The aromatic hydrocarbons parameters revealed a higher thermal maturity of OM of source rock-generated Lower

M. Asif; A. Nazir; T. Fazeelat; K. Grice; S. Nasir; A. Saleem

2011-01-01

93

Computer aided graphics simulation modelling using seismogeologic approach in sequence stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous Punjab platform, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Modelling stratigraphic sequence by using seismo-geologic approach, integrated with cyclic transgressive-regressive deposits, helps to identify a number of non-structural subtle traps. Most of the hydrocarbons found in Early Cretaceous of Central Indus Basin pertain to structural entrapments of upper transgressive sands. A few wells are producing from middle and basal regressive sands, but the massive regressive sands have not been tested so far. The possibility of stratigraphic traps like wedging or pinch-out, a lateral gradation, an uplift, truncation and overlapping of reservoir rocks is quite promising. The natural basin physiography at times has been modified by extensional episodic events into tectono-morphic terrain. Thus, seismo scanning of tectonically controlled sedimentation might delineate some subtle stratigraphic traps. Amplitude maps representing stratigraphic sequences are generated to identify the traps. Seismic expressions indicate the reservoir quality in terms of amplitude increase or decrease. The data is modelled on computer using graphics simulation techniques.

Qureshi, T.M.; Khan, K.A. [Oil and Gas Development Corporation, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1996-08-01

94

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita

D. R. Archer; N. Forsythe; H. J. Fowler; S. M. Shah

2010-01-01

95

Constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposited within the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing of India-Eurasia collision, a conclusion challenged by data presented here. The Eurasian derived 50.8-51 Ma Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks in sedimentary contact, thus constraining the timing of collision as having occurred by this time. Using isotopic analysis (U-Pb dating on detrital zircons, Ar-Ar dating on detrital white mica, Sm-Nd analyses on detrital apatite), sandstone and conglomerate petrography, mudstone geochemistry, facies analysis and geological mapping to characterize and correlate the formations of the Indus Basin Sedimentary rocks, we review the nature of these contacts and the identification and correlation of the formations. Our results reveal that previously interpreted stratigraphic contacts identifying Chogdo Formation unconformably overlying Indian plate sedimentary rocks are incorrect. Rather, we suggest that the inaccuracy of previous interpretations is most likely a result of Formation misidentification and thus cannot be used to constrain the timing of India-Asia collision.

Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Mark, Darren F.; Foster, Gavin L.

2011-06-01

96

A Stream Water Availability Model of Upper Indus Basin Based on a Topologic Model and Global Climatic Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated water resources management at river basin scales and evaluation of effects of climate change on regional water\\u000a resources require quantitative estimates of space-time variability of monthly discharges within a river network. This study\\u000a demonstrates that such estimates, which can be called stream water availability, for regional river basins with meager or\\u000a nonexistent gauge data, can be obtained by combining

Biswajit Mukhopadhyay; Aniruddha Dutta

2010-01-01

97

Runoff and sediment transport from giacierized basins at the Himalayan scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge and sediment content of meltwater from Batura glacier, upper Indus basin, Karakoram mountains, were obtained hourly, providing a detailed pattern of variations during an ablation season, against which measurements over shorter periods of less-frequent sampling at other glaciers in Himalayan basins of the Indus and Ganga rivers are compared. Total annual sediment flux from Batura glacier was 3.950 Mt,

DAVID N. COLLINS

98

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-08-01

99

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-03-01

100

Ecological River Basin Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

Smith, Anthony Wayne

101

Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 yr and climate data (precipitation and temperature) for 10 yr from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover) data during the last decade (2000-2009) suggest a rather slight expansion of cryosphere in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

Tahir, A. A.; Chevallier, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Ahmad, B.

2011-07-01

102

Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 years and climate data (precipitation and temperature) for 10 years from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover) data showed a slight expansion of snow cover in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

Tahir, A. A.; Chevallier, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Ahmad, B.

2011-03-01

103

Study on the geochemical correlation of crude oils of Palaeocene and Jurassic ages from the Potowar Indus Basin in northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with a detailed geochemical characterization of three crude oils from the Upper Indus Basin, Punjab, Pakistan.\\u000a The samples were obtained from three productive oil fields of the Datta Formation (Jurassic), Lochhart (Palaeocene) and the\\u000a Dhak Pass zone (Palaeocene). The GC parameters for and the bulk properties of Datta Formation oils are essentially coincident\\u000a with those of the

Muhammad Irfan Jalees; Fazeelat Tahira; Hina Saleem

2010-01-01

104

Seasonality of the hydrological cycle in major South and Southeast Asian River Basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate how PCMDI/CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs) represent the seasonal properties of the hydrological cycle in four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra and Mekong). First, we examine the skill of GCMs by analysing their simulations for the XX century climate (1961-2000) under present-day forcing, and then we analyse the projected changes for the corresponding XXI and XXII century climates under SRESA1B scenario. CMIP3 GCMs show a varying degree of skill in simulating the basic characteristics of the monsoonal precipitation regimes of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins, while the representation of the hydrological cycle over the Indus basin is poor in most cases, with few GCMs not capturing the monsoon signal at all. Although the models' outputs feature a remarkable spread for the monsoonal precipitations, a satisfactory representation of the western mid-latitude precipitation regime is instead observed. Similarly, most of the models exhibit a satisfactory agreement for the basin-integrated runoff in winter and spring, while the spread is large for the runoff during the monsoon season. For future climate scenarios, winter (spring) P - E decreases over all four (Indus and Ganges) basins due to decrease in precipitation associated with the western mid-latitude disturbances. Consequently, the spring (winter) runoff drops (rises) for the Indus and Ganges basins. Such changes indicate a shift from rather glacial and nival to more pluvial runoff regimes, particularly for the Indus basin. Furthermore, the rise in the projected runoff along with the increase in precipitations during summer and autumn indicates an intensification of the summer monsoon regime for all study basins.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.; Böhner, J.

2013-07-01

105

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

106

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

107

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

108

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

109

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

110

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

111

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

112

The forest biotic pump of river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moist soil is necessary for life on the land. Soil moisture determines the formation of river runoff, which is correlated with it. Given an optimal moisture content of soil and constant slope of the ground, the river runoff density (per unit area) is also constant throughout the river basin. In a steady state, the river runoff to the ocean must

A. M. Makar’eva; V. G. Gorshkov

2008-01-01

113

Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ˜4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers such as the Indus.

Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)

2011-09-01

114

Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is confined in its valley. Upon entering the sedimentary basin, the Brahmaputra River develops a DFS and becomes broadly braided in form. Distally on the DFS, the braided system bifurcates, leaving relatively large areas where floodplain deposits may be preserved. At the toe of the DFS, the Brahmaputra River becomes the axial system for this portion of the foreland basin. In this axial position, it is held between opposing DFS, thus the channel system migrates back and forth between these DFS and fills this portion of the basin with coarse-grained material. Other large rivers show similar change as they enter a continental sedimentary basin. In areal extent, DFS from smaller rivers occupy more of the modern continental sedimentary basins than the big rivers (either in axial or DFS position), therefore deposits of all rivers in sedimentary basins must be considered in order to fully interpret the rock record.

Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

2010-12-01

115

The resilience of big river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big river basins are complex systems of people and nature. This article explores the resilience of nine case studies of big river basins. A system description and generic conceptual model suggests that resilience to changes in water quantity is critical. When water becomes limiting, the social-ecological system must adapt rapidly if key elements (for example, communities, biodiversity) are to be

Graeme S. Cumming

2011-01-01

116

INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY FOR RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are adopting water policies and legislative instruments for water management in conformance to the agenda 21. According to this agenda, the use and protection of surface water and groundwater are coordinated at a river basin level. The success of river basin management systems relies upon coordinated actions, including provision of and access to information as well as the

Jackson Roehrig

117

GUNNISON RIVER (COLORADO) BASIN SELENIUM TARGETING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins Targeting Project will gather water quality data necessary to characterize the selenium loads that are being contributed from within the basins. Evaluation of the variabiliy of selenium loading in the basins will guide the implementation...

118

Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin, Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The thematic layers of soils, landuse, hydrology, infrastructure and climate were developed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. Integration of GIS with groundwater modelling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analysing and monitoring groundwater status and its associated land conditions. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater modelling, integration and presentation of image processing and modelling results. The groundwater behaviour of the regional model shows a gradual decline in watertable from year 1999 onward. The persistent dry condition and high withdrawal rates play an influential role in lowering down the groundwater levels. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The results of the study provide useful information regarding the behaviour of aquifer in order to organize management schemes on local and regional basis to monitor future groundwater development in the area.

Ashraf, A.; Ahmad, Z.

2008-04-01

119

Geoinformatics for assessing the morphometric control on hydrological response at watershed scale in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five watersheds (W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5) in the upper Indus basin were chosen for detailed studies to understand the influences of geomorphology, drainage basin morphometry and vegetation patterns on hydrology. From the morphometric analysis, it is evident that the hydrologic response of these watersheds changes significantly in response to spatial variations in morphometric parameters. Results indicate that W1, W2 and W5 contribute higher surface runoff than W3 and W4. Further, the topographic and land cover analyses reveal that W1, W2 and W5 generate quick runoff that may result in flooding over prolonged rainy spells. A physically based semi-distributed hydrologic model (soil and water assessment tool, SWAT) was used for simulating the hydrological response from the watersheds. As per the simulations, W5 watershed produces the highest runoff of 11.17 mm/year followed by W1 (7.9 mm/year), W2 (6.6 mm/year), W4 (5.33 mm/year) and W3 (4.29 mm/year). Thus, W5 is particularly more vulnerable to flooding during high rain spells followed by W1, W2, W4 and W3, respectively. Synthetic unit hydrograph analysis of the five watersheds also reveals high peak discharge for W5. The simulated results on the hydrological response from the five watersheds are quite in agreement with those of the morphometric, topographic, vegetation and unit hydrograph analyses. Therefore, it is quite evident that these factors have significant impact on the hydrological response from the watersheds and can be used to predict flood peaks, sediment yield and water discharge from the ungauged watersheds.

Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Bhat, Shakeel Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan

2012-06-01

120

Shared Water Resources in the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of river basin development plans of the Jordan River basin riparians (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, and Syria) and to analyze the agreements among the Jordan River basin riparians in light of international law principles. The relationship among the Jordan River basin riparians is complicated by the fact that

Karen Hudes

121

Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

2010-12-01

122

Integrated data on key river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reference tool provides the most comprehensive data base of 154 of the world's river basins and sub-basins; representing those that cover most of Earth's land surface. It lists indicators and variables for each of these basins and, where appropriate, provides links and references to additional, relevant information.The "Watersheds of the World" compact disk and Web site was released on 18 March by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The resource provides information on land cover and land use; population density; basin indicators, including degree of river fragmentation and number of dams; and biodiversity information. It also contains 20 global maps portraying critical water resources issues.

Showstack, Randy

123

Ohio River Basin Energy Study: Health Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e....

M. A. Shapiro A. A. Sooky

1980-01-01

124

Geochemical Balance of the Salgado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salgado River basin (Bahia State, Brazil) was studied from the point of view of present climatic and geochemical conditions: inappropriate exploitation, irregular rainfall and high evaporation rate resulting in a state of unbalanced geochemical condit...

L. M. Moreira-nordemann D. Nordemann

1980-01-01

125

Dryness\\/wetness variations in ten large river basins of China during the first 50 years of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated future changes of dryness\\/wetness in ten large river basins: the Songhuajiang River basin, the Liaohe River basin, the Haihe River basin, the Yellow River basin, the Huaihe River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Pearl River basin, the Southeast River basins, the Southwest River basins and the Northwest Inland River basins across China during the first 50

Jian Qing Zhai; Bo Liu; Heike Hartmann; Bu Da Su; Tong Jiang; Klaus Fraedrich

2010-01-01

126

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

PubMed

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-06-13

127

Metabolic principles of river basin organization  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-01-01

128

Climatic variation and river flow in glacierised Himalayan basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal patterns of precipitation vary considerably along the Himalayan arc from substantial summer monsoon maximum in the south-east to winter precipitation maximum with drier summers in the north-west. In the south-east, river flow is reduced during part of the summer seasonal maximum discharge in basins at higher elevations by snowfall raising albedo of glacier surfaces and reducing meltwater production, whereas at lower elevations river flow arising from glacier melt is augmented by monsoon rainfall. In the north-west, glacier ice-melt provides most of the summer seasonal maximum flow. Year-to-year variations in river flow therefore respond to differing climatic signals. Year-to-year variability and long-term trends of the glaciologically-relevant variables winter and summer precipitation and summer air temperature have been examined for stations distributed along the length of the Karakoram-Himalayan ranges. Air temperature trend varied according to location, with increases in the later part of the twentieth century only at stations at higher elevations in the south-east. Total annual precipitation showed large year-to-year fluctuations, but with little trend from the 1900s to the 1990s, though varying from area to area. Discharge data for the Ganges are limited and totally missing for India since the 1970s. For the upper Indus, runoff declined from the 1970s to the 1990s, but the trend of flow in tributaries of the Ganges arising in Nepal is not clear. It is therefore difficult to identify the overall pattern of how runoff trends have responded to changes in monsoon precipitation, air temperature and glacier recession along the Himalayan arc.

Collins, D. N.; Davenport, J.

2011-12-01

129

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

130

Dynamic river basin water quality model  

SciTech Connect

RBM10 is a river basin model for simulating the dynamics of an aquatic ecosystem which has freely-flowing river reaches, river-run reservoirs, and vertically stratified reservoirs. An Eulerian viewpoint is adopted for solving the conservation equations for temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria and conservative constituents. The report describes the model development and the computer program which implements the mathematical model.

Yearsley, J.

1991-09-01

131

Institutional and policy analysis of river basin management: the tarcoles river basin, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and analyzes the effort to institute river basin management in the Tárcoles basin of Costa Rica. Located in west-central Costa Rica, the Tárcoles basin represents 4.2 percent of the nation's total land area, but is home to half the nation's population and the metropolitan area of San José, the nation's capital and largest city. Water management issues

William Blomquist; Maureen Ballestero; Anjali Bhat; Karin Kemper

2005-01-01

132

Institutional and policy analysis of river basin management: the Warta River Basin, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe and analyze the emergence of river basin management in the Warta River Basin of Poland. The Warta basin's 55,193 km2 cover approximately one-sixth of Poland, and the Warta is a principal tributary to the Oder. Water management issues include pollution of the Warta and its main tributaries, prompting cities to rely on groundwater supplies that are beginning

William Blomquist; Andrzej Tonderski; Ariel Dinar

2005-01-01

133

Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1993-07-01

134

Comparison of evapotranspiration variations between the Yellow River and Pearl River basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on daily meteorological data at 43 gauging stations in the Pearl River basin and 65 gauging stations in the Yellow River\\u000a basin, we analyze changing properties of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), reference evapotranspiration (ETref) and precipitation in these two river basins. In our study, Pearl River basin is taken as the ‘energy-limited’ system and\\u000a the Yellow River basin as the

Qiang Zhang; Chong-Yu Xu; Yongqin David Chen; Liliang Ren

2011-01-01

135

Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study. Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (Study), initiated in January 2010, was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamations (Reclamation) Upper Colorado and Lower Colorado regions, and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States...

2012-01-01

136

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat. 2000 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physica...

R. T. Shaw A. D. Sexton

2001-01-01

137

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes long-term (1935–99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations\\/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in

Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Douglas L. Kane

2004-01-01

138

Stochastic Basin for Comprehensive River Basin Planning. Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are given from Phase I of a study of the application of stochastic systems analysis to water resources problems. An extensive digital computer program was written to simulate the dissolved oxygen-biochemical demand dynamics in a river basin. The u...

F. G. Haag K. W. Bedford J. W. Fischetti J. D. Lloyd

1969-01-01

139

Conservation in the Delaware River Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

Featherstone, J. [Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01

140

GPP estimation over Heihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the sum of carbon absorbed by plant canopy. It is a key measurement of carbon mass flux in carbon cycle studies. Remote sensing based light use efficiency model is a widely used method to estimate regional GPP. In this study, MODIS-PSN was used to estimate GPP in Heihe River Basin. In order to better the model accuracy, maximum light use efficiency (?0) in MODIS-PSN is estimated using local observed carbon flux data and meteorological data. After adjustment of parameter ?0, MODIS-PSN can correctly estimate GPP for major vegetation type in the Heihe River Basin. Then, yearly GPP over Heihe River Basin was estimated. The results indicated that about 1.4*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem through vegetation photosynthesis in the Heihe River Basin one year. In contrast, there is just 5.73*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem according to the standard MODIS GPP product, which is greatly underestimated GPP in the Heihe River Bain.

Wang, Xufeng; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin; Han, Xujun; Ran, Youhua; Huang, Guanghui; Song, Yi; Tan, Junlei

2011-10-01

141

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

142

Research on runoff forecast approaches to the Aksu River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aksu River (the international river between China and Kirghiz) has become the main water source for the Tarim River. It\\u000a significantly influences the Tarim River’s formation, development and evolution. Along with the western region development\\u000a strategy and the Tarim River basin comprehensive development and implementation, the research is now focused on the Aksu River\\u000a basin hydrologic characteristic and hydrologic

RuLin Ouyang; WeiMing Cheng; WeiSheng Wang; Yan Jiang; YiChi Zhang; YongQin Wang

2007-01-01

143

A model of river basin evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branched networks are common in nature; examples are the forms assumed by blood distribution systems, leaf veins, plant roots and branches, lightning, crystal growth, and river basins. This somewhat peculiar solution to the transport of mass and energy is prevalent in such a variety of phenomena that it may point to a commonality of controlling principles. The search for these principles, which has occupied hydrologists and geomorphologists for a long time, has centered on such questions as: Why do river channels branch?

Willgoose, Garry; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

144

The "normal" elongation of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

Castelltort, Sebastien

2013-04-01

145

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

146

Flood Control Root River Basin, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action of the Root River basin consists of 3.1 miles of levees and 0.2 miles of road raises at Houston and encouragement of floodplain regulation and flood insurance at other flood-prone communities. The construction of the levee would result...

1977-01-01

147

Freshwater Scarcity in the Nile River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to a growing body of literature, scarcity of freshwater to meet the many needs of Third World countries is rapidly escalating. Furthermore, many of the remaining exploitable sources of freshwater are in river basins shared by two or more soverei...

K. F. Ubbelohde

2000-01-01

148

Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water in the Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses, with the exception of water in two wells which had iron concentrations that potentially could be tasted in

Fretwell

1984-01-01

149

Sediment Transport in the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States is one of the most extensively regulated drainages in the world. Total storage provided by two large reservoirs, each with a usable ca- pacity greater than 30 billion m3 and numerous smaller reservoirs, is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of approximately 17 billion m31year. The relatively large reservoir storage

EDMUND D. ANDREWS

1991-01-01

150

Documentary Research of the Lumber River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Documentary research was made of historic and pre-historic sites in the Lumber River Basin. The area of research included portions of three counties in South Carolina (Horry, Marion, and Dillon), and portions of nine counties in North Carolina (Columbus, ...

D. A. McLean M. R. Sellon

1978-01-01

151

Water quality in international river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major issue of pollution control in water quality management is too often postponed or neglected in treaties concerning international river basins. Deterioration of transboundary waters cannot be dealt with unilaterally, and is often treated by the affected parties as secondary to the primary goal of economic development, even in settings conducive to high levels of pollution. This frequently results

Deborah F Shmueli

1999-01-01

152

Scenario analysis of nutrient management at the river basin scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new river basin model (TRANS) for studying the transport, removal and accumulation of nutrients in rivers, lakes and riparian areas has been developed and tested on data from a 115 km2 river basin in Denmark (river Gjern). The model combines catchment information on soil type and land use with a physical hydrodynamic modelling system and several semi-dynamic empirical models

B. Kronvang; L. M. Svendsen; J. P. Jensen; J. Dørge

1999-01-01

153

Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported.

Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

2013-10-01

154

Hydrological characteristics of the Czerniejówka river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on an analysis of conditions of groundwaters occurrence in the Czerniejówka river basin. The paper also presents the outflow rate from the upper and middle course of the river, where the natural environment is only slightly influenced by human activity. The lower part of the catchment is under city impact, intensified since 1954, when the water intake Dziesi?ta has started exploitation of groundwater resources. The middle part of the catchment is influenced by exploitation of water resources in the water intake Wilczopole, since 1988. Ten-year (1979-1988) water gauge observations and discharge measurement and water levels in the upper and middle part of the catchment, in the period of documentation of water resources of the water intake Wilczopole, are the basis of analysis. The Czerniejówka river basin is under strong and diversified human impact. Two water intakes constructed in the catchment of the river assure the water for 40% of the city demand. Hydrogeological conditions, fissured rocks and low elevation of the water division, determine the possibilities of underground water flow from the left part of the catchment to the Bystrzyca river basin, which significantly influences the reduced water resources of the Czerniejówka river. Good permeability of rocks is favourable for retention of water that steadily inflows to the river channel. Surface runoff occurs sporadically, usually in the frozen ground period rather than in the summer, which determines the high share of the ground feeding in total runoff. Average specific runoff for the upper and middle part of the basin was estimated as 4.2 dm3·s-1·km-2 in the ten-year period. At present conditions of catchment land use and exploitation of Dziesi?ta and Wilczopole water intakes, the Czerniejówka river discharge will decrease with the only feeding from the upper part of the catchment. In dry periods, in the middle and lower course of the Czerniejówka river infiltration of river water to underground resources, as well as in the Skrzyniczanka river, will take place.

Michalczyk, Zdzis?aw; Bartoszewski, Stefan; G?owacki, S?awomir; Sposób, Joanna

2011-01-01

155

Recent morphodynamics of the Indus delta shore and shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural conditions, the Indus River had one of the largest sediment loads in the world, building an extensive delta on the high-energy coast of the Arabian Sea. However, water and sediment discharge have been drastically altered in the Indus since the early 1960s, when several barrages were built along the river to feed the world's largest irrigation system. A

Liviu Giosana; Stefan Constantinescub; Peter D. Cliftc; Ali R. Tabrezd; Muhammed Danishd; Asif Inamd

156

Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an overview of the geology, hydrology, and climate of the lower Helmand Basin, a large, closed, arid basin in southern Afghanistan. The basin is drained by the Helmand River, the only perennial desert stream between the Indus and Tigr...

J. W. Whitney

2006-01-01

157

Investigation of hydrometeorological relationships, Pasu Glacier basin, northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of air temperature, global radiation and discharge from the Pasu Glacier basin in the Upper Indus River Basin have been examined with a view to developing a modest understanding of the simple physically based processes in action within this globally extreme mountainous region. Some glaciological data are also reported but in a preliminary manner. Relationships between air temperature characteristics,

Bob Boyce

1992-01-01

158

Decision Support System for Catawba River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

WARMF (Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework) was developed as a decision support system for the entire 12,330 km2 (~5,000 mile2) Catawba River Basin of North and South Carolina. The watershed is divided into a network of land catchments, stream segments, and stratified lakes. WARMF applies daily meteorology data to land catchments to simulate runoff and nonpoint loads. The nonpoint loads

Laura H. Z. Weintraub; Larry Olmsted; Carl W. Chen; Robert Goldstein; Gene Vaughan; Steve Johnson; Ty Ziegler; Bill Foris; Andy Brown; Doug Besler; Dave Braatz

2001-01-01

159

Retention of nutrients in river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Denmark, as in many other European countries, the diffuse losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the rural landscape are the major causes of surface water eutrophication and groundwater pollution. The export of total N and total P from the Gjern river basin amounted to 18.2 kg ha-1 and 0.63 kg P ha-1 during June 1994 to May

Brian Kronvang; Carl Christian Hoffmann; Lars M. Svendsen; Jørgen Windolf; Jens P. Jensen; Jesper Dørge

1999-01-01

160

Multiscale Trend Analysis of River Basin Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storm runoff hydrographs are the signature of a basin's dynamics to a given precipitation forcing. As such, their study across basins and over a range of scales offers the opportunity to detect and quantify nonlinearities and scaling laws in river basin dynamics. Manual extraction of hydrograph characteristics (e.g., time to peak, relaxation time and peak magnitude) however, is tedious and has prevented extensive regional analyses of such observations for the purpose of scaling and regionalization. In this paper, (1) we propose a new methodology, called multiscale trend analysis (MTA) for the automatic and reliable extraction of hydrograph characteristics from hourly or finer scale streamflow series, and (2) we report the results of a regional multiscaling analysis of hydrologic response characteristics from 31 stations for drainage areas ranging from 10 to 104 km2 over the Kansas/Oklahoma region. Our results suggest the presence of statistical multiscaling in hydrologic response characteristics and a change of scaling regimes at a scale of approximately 700 km2. We relate this scale to the scale at which channel morphometry properties, fluvial regimes, and statistical properties of floods also change and highlight the interconnection of physical processes and statistical laws in river basin dynamics.

Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Zaliapin, I.; Dodov, B.

2004-12-01

161

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

162

Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested system of observations, will intersect the important landforms, climate zones, ecology, and human activities of the basin. Characterizing how humans and climate impact the sustainability of water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin will require an evolutionary approach, involving coordination of historical information and a phased-design for the new observing system. Detecting change (past and present) requires that the atmosphere, vegetation, geochemistry, and hydrology of the Susquehanna, are all observed coherently from the headwaters to the Chesapeake, from the boundary layer to the water table. The River Basin Adaptive Monitoring and Modeling Plan (RAMP) represents the design strategy to coherently select and assess core monitoring sites as well as new sites targeted for both short-term and long term scientific campaigns. Rich in historical research and infrastructure, SRBHOS will serve as a fundamental resource for the hydrologic science community into the future, while providing a "characteristic" hydrologic node in the national network.

Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

2004-12-01

163

Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

2005-12-01

164

Procedures for ensuring community involvement in multijurisdictional river basins: a comparison of the Murray-Darling and Mekong river basins.  

PubMed

Community involvement is fundamental to the management of multijurisdictional river basins but, in practice, is very difficult to achieve. The Murray-Darling basin, in Australia, and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia are both cooperatively managed multijurisdictional river basins where the management authorities have expressed an aim of community involvement. In the Murray-Darling basin vigorous efforts have promoted a culture of community consultation throughout each of the state jurisdictions involved, although true participation has not necessarily been achieved. In the Mekong basin the community is much more diverse and the successes so far have been largely at the local level, involving action in subsections of the basin. These case studies suggest that community involvement in the form of community consultation across large multijurisdictional river basins is achievable, but more comprehensive participation is not necessarily possible. PMID:12071500

Chenoweth, Jonathan L; Ewing, Sarah A; Bird, Juliet F

2002-04-01

165

Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

Fretwell, M. O.

1984-01-01

166

Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Gascó, Jose

2013-04-01

167

Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaçanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.

2009-04-01

168

Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas, Ouachita River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas, determined in accordance with procedure recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology of the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee, are listed for points on streams in the Ouachita River basin in Arkansas. Points on the streams are identified by some topographic feature and by latitude and longitude. (USGS).

Yanchosek, John J.; Hines, Marion S.

1979-01-01

169

Fuzzy Evaluation of River Basin Water Resources Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

River basin water resources allocation is a complicated multi-scale system related to water resources, social economy and ecological environment. Water quantities allocated to living, industry, agriculture and ecology are chosen as the four indicators to evaluate the river basin water resources allocation's effect on social economic sustainable development in this paper. Making use of variable fuzzy evaluation method to evaluate

Haofang Wang; Wenyan Chen

2009-01-01

170

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994).

Sam T. Onjukka; Jim Harbeck

2003-01-01

171

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994).

Sam T. Onjukka; Jim Harbeck

2003-01-01

172

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

173

Controlling erosion in the Missouri River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most pervasive conservation concern in the vast 510,000 square mile Missouri River basin in the western United States is excessive rates of wind erosion during dry periods, though conservation efforts can help control erosion, according to a 30 August report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project. During some dry years, rates of wind erosion—which include nitrogen and phosphorus losses—can be higher than 4 tons per acre on 12% and higher than 2 tons per acre on 20% of the approximately 148,000 square miles of cultivated cropland, notes the report Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on Cultivated Cropland in the Missouri River Basin. Between 2003 and 2006, conservation practices, including reducing tillage and building terraces, yielded about a 75% reduction in sediment runoff and phosphorus loss and a 68% reduction in nitrogen loss, according to the report. About 15 million acres in the region—18% of cultivated cropland—are considered to have either a high or moderate level of need for conservation treatment, and efforts in those areas in particular could result in additional reductions in sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loss, the report states.

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

174

Water - Essential Resource of the Southern Flint River Basin, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Abundant water resources of the Flint River Basin have played a major role in the history and development of southwestern Georgia. The Flint River-along with its tributaries, wetlands, and swamps-and the productive aquifers of the river basin are essential components of the area's diverse ecosystems. These resources also are necessary for sustained agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Increasing, and in some cases conflicting, demand for water makes careful monitoring and wise planning and management of southwestern Georgia's water resources critical to the ecological and economic future of the area. This poster presents the major issues associated with increasing competition for water resources in the southern Flint River Basin.

Warner, Debbie; Norton, Virgil

2004-01-01

175

New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountain...

M. J. Pawlewicz T. M. Finn

2013-01-01

176

Fuzzy synthetic model for risk assessment on Haihe River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive indicator model for risk assessment and a multiple-level theoretical indicator system of the water quality–quantity-ecosystem\\u000a (WQQE) for the Haihe River basin were constructed in this research. A fuzzy optimization model was used to assess risks for\\u000a the four water systems of the Haihe River basin, and their risk order from high to lower risk was southern Haihe River

Jingling LiuQiuying ChenYongli Li; Qiuying Chen; Yongli Li; Zhifeng Yang

2011-01-01

177

Climate sensitivity of major river basins in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate the land surface water balance of five major African river basins using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface hydrologic model forced by gridded climate data of precipitation and temperature for the period 1979-1999. The seasonality and inter-annual variability of the water balance terms vary across the continent and at each river basin. The long-term mean vapor flux convergence P-E agrees well with observed runoff for the eastern and north western basins, whereas there is a relatively large imbalance (28%) for the Oranje River basin possibly because of its small size. The Zambezi and Oranje River basins act as a net source of moisture in dry seasons (strong negative P-E). Both the Nile and Zambezi basins have a low runoff efficiency and a high dryness index, indicating a high sensitivity to climate change in the case of the Nile, and moderate sensitivity in the case of the Zambezi. Although the severity of climate change impacts depends primarily on the magnitude of change, the different hydrological sensitivities of the basins are also important. Precipitation elasticities range from 2.2 to 3.1 for 10% increase and -2.1 to -2.7 for 10% decrease in precipitation respectively over the five river basins, whereas the sensitivity of runoff to temperature ranges (absolute value) from a high of -5%/degC for the Niger basin to a low of -1% for the Orange basin.

Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.

2011-12-01

178

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

179

Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

2004-12-01

180

Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October–September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The

Connie A. Woodhouse; Stephen T. Gray; David M. Meko

2006-01-01

181

Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia River basin area extends across seven states, and winds its way along the current border between Washington and Oregon, before heading into the eastern part of Washington state proper. During the past several centuries, the area has been home to a number of ethnic groups, including African-Americans, Asians, and Hispanics, among others. In a collaborative effort, a number of local and regional institutions (including Washington State University and the Oregon Historical Society) came to share resources to create this digital archive that collects the records, images, remembrances, and artifacts of this particular region. The first part of the site introduces users to a map of the region, and provides information about the project's organization and its partners. The second section allows visitors to browse the database, where they will find various aspects of visual culture, including newspapers and photographs. The third section of the site provides tutorials and lesson plans.

182

Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

2009-04-01

183

Diamondoids and biomarkers: as a tool to better define the effects of thermal cracking and microbial oxidation on oils\\/condensates from reservoirs of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined crude oils and condensates from 12 productive oil field zones present in the Upper Indus Basin,\\u000a Pakistan, located at 33°11?00?N to 33°56?00?N and 73°10?00? to 73°56?00?E. These crude oils and condensates belonged to Eocene,\\u000a Paleocene, and Jurassic ages. GC and GC–MS parameters revealed that these samples were mature and contained marine and algal\\/bacterial\\u000a organic matter sources

Muhammad Irfan Jalees; Thomas S. Bianchi; Roger Sassen; Fazeelat Tahira

2011-01-01

184

Multiobjective River Basin Planning With Qualitative Criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of alternative river basin development strategies is examined from a multicriterion viewpoint using the ELECTRE I and II techniques. The main stem of the Santa Cruz River in the vicinity of Tucson, Arizona is taken as a case study. A systematic formulation of the problem is provided leading to an array of 25 alternative systems versus 13 criteria, only 5 of which are quantified. A procedure for ranking these alternatives is presented which uses ELECTRE I to obtain preference graphs as input into ELECTRE II, which is then used to obtain the ordering. Sensitivity analysis shows that changing the weights assigned to each criterion has a greater effect on the results than does changing the scales. However, neither effect is very significant. It is recommended that ELECTRE I be used for screening purposes to narrow the set of alternatives under consideration. ELECTRE II can then be applied to this reduced set to obtain a complete ordering. For the case study the preferred systems include reservoirs and channelization and the least preferred systems include new groundwater development.

Gershon, Mark; Duckstein, Lucien; McAniff, Richard

1982-04-01

185

Optical and Radar Remote Sensing Measurements of the Extreme Flood of 2003, Indus River, Pakistan and NW India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major flooding (36 on a globally-applicable flood magnitude scale) occurred over a large area of Pakistan and northwestern India between July 15 and September 1, 2003. During this flooding, 285 fatalities occurred and over 900,000 people were displaced. This monsoon-related flood (DFO-2003-165) was extensively measured by orbital remote sensing. Multispectral classification of optical data from the MODIS sensors aboard Terra and Aqua allow multi-temporal mapping of the progress of several flood waves down the Indus Valley, and intersection of MODIS inundation limits with the newly released SRTM topographic data allows repeat measurements of flood stages along an array of flood gaging reaches. High spatial resolution (15 m pixels) data from the ASTER sensor aboard Terra is sparse but provides locally detailed imaging of the event and calibration of the time series of MODIS water surface areas. At favorable locations, flood discharge can also be estimated and a series of such estimates provides an entirely remote-sensing based flood hydrograph at a 20 km long reach near, Pakistan. Finally, backscatter polarimetry from the SeaWinds radar aboard NASA's QuikSCAT satellite records the flood by a decrease of 7 day running mean VV/HH ratios retrieved over the gaging reaches; from the pre-flood average of -2.5 and dropping to -3.3 coincident with arrival of the flood wave. The record of lands inundated by this event is accessible to an international public at:

Brakenridge, G. R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Anderson, E.; Caquard, S.

2004-05-01

186

AIRS impact on analysis and forecast of an extreme rainfall event (Indus River Valley, Pakistan, 2010) with a global data assimilation and forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments is performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches toward assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. The impact is first assessed globally on a sample of more than forty forecasts per experiment, through the standard 500 hPa anomaly correlation metrics. Next, the focus is on precipitation analysis and precipitation forecast skill relative to one particular event: an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that, in addition to improving the global forecast skill, the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 days is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2012-04-01

187

Sediment Yield Modeling in a Large Scale Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of spatially distributed sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin. Spatial erosion rates calculated by using the Thornes model at 1-kilometre spatial resolution and monthly time scale indicate that 87 % of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The model predicts a total annual erosion rate of 868

K. Ali; D. H. de Boer

2009-01-01

188

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

189

Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat–Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nanga Parbat–Haramosh Massif has some of the greatest relief on Earth and highest measured rates of uplift, denudation, and river incision in bedrock. Many studies have sought to understand how its morphology relates to geotectonic evolution and glaciations. However, few catastrophic rock slope failures had been recognised and many of their impacts had been attributed to other processes. Recently

Kenneth Hewitt

2009-01-01

190

Rock Avalanche Dams on the Trans Himalayan Upper Indus Streams: A Survey of Late Quaternary Events and Hazard-Related Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Out of more than 320 late Quaternary rock avalanches identified in the Upper Indus Basin, some 161 formed cross-valley barriers\\u000a impounding one or more rivers have been investigated. At least 228 lakes were associated with them. Only a few small lakes\\u000a exist today, but many former lakes exceeded 20 km long, a few, 90 km. More than half the dams had an

Kenneth Hewitt

191

Umatilla River Basin fish habitat enhancement. FY 1991 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 1991, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. 1991 was the final year of this five year projec...

M. Northrop

1992-01-01

192

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

193

Analysis of the Tanana River Basin Using Landsat Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervi...

L. A. Morrissey V. G. Ambrosia C. Carson-henry

1981-01-01

194

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

195

Program Review. Missouri-Souris-Red River Basin Comprehensive Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study plan represents background material required for a program review of the Missouri-Souris-Red River Basins Project. It contains information relative to budget, personnel, administrative and operational procedures likely to be encountered during t...

1966-01-01

196

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

197

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

198

Forecasting Streamflows in the San Juan River Basin in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a San Juan province, located in western Argentina, presents great climate variability with arid characteristics. Mean annual\\u000a rainfall averages less than 100 mm for the whole province, and snowmelt in the Andean upper basin provides the San Juan River\\u000a Basin with seasonal streamflow during summer, the period of highest water demand for irrigation.\\u000a Traditional streamflow forecasts for the San Juan River are

Juan Carlos Gimenez; Emilio Juan Lentini; Alicia Fernández Cirelli

199

Coupled Teleconnections and River Dynamics for Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting in the Upper Colorado River Basin USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy of water supply forecasts has improved for some river basins in the western U.S.A. by integrating knowledge of climate teleconnections, such as El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), into forecasting routines, but in other basins, such as the Colorado River Basin (CRB), forecast accuracy has declined (Pagano et al. 2004). Longer lead time and more accurate seasonal forecasts, particularly during floods

M. A. Matter; L. A. Garcia; D. G. Fontane

2005-01-01

200

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

1982-01-01

201

Procedures for Ensuring Community Involvement in Multijurisdictional River Basins: A Comparison of the Murray-Darling and Mekong River Basins 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community involvement is fundamental to the management of multijurisdictional river basins but, in practice, is very difficult\\u000a to achieve. The Murray-Darling basin, in Australia, and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia are both cooperatively managed\\u000a multijurisdictional river basins where the management authorities have expressed an aim of community involvement. In the Murray-Darling\\u000a basin vigorous efforts have promoted a culture

JONATHAN L. CHENOWETH; SARAH A. EWING; JULIET F. BIRD

2002-01-01

202

Performance of dynamical downscaling for Colorado River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing 2000s western U.S. drought has focused attention on drought susceptibility of the Colorado River basin. There is a concern that many climate models predict permanently drier conditions for the next century over the Colorado basin, however interpretation of these projections is complicated by their coarse spatial resolution which does not resolve the role of the relatively small mountain

Y. Gao; C. Zhu; D. P. Lettenmaier

2009-01-01

203

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind

B. S. Hinckley; H. P. Heasler

1985-01-01

204

Closure of the Savannah River Laboratory seepage basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four seepage basins connected in cascade have been used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for the disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. Waste discharges to these unlined basins occurred between 1954 and 1982 and included a variety of chemical, as well as radioactive, constituents from laboratory experiments and other programs requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These

D. E. Gordon; B. B. Looney; M. B. Hughes

1985-01-01

205

Ecological Restoration of Polluted Plain Rivers Within the Haihe River Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Haihe River basin is located in the north of China and has an area of 318,000 km2. The region is politically important and economically advanced. For example, the Haihe River basin sustains a population\\u000a of more than 120 million and generates a gross domestic production of approximately 2,600 billion Chinese Yuan. The ecological\\u000a health of plain rivers within the Haihe

W. Wang; X. Q. Tang; S. L. Huang; S. H. Zhang; C. Lin; D. W. Liu; H. J. Che; Q. Yang; Miklas Scholz

2010-01-01

206

Impact of Water Projects on River Flow Regimes and Water Quality in Huai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the impact of water projects (dams or floodgates) on river hydrology and the surrounding environment is important\\u000a in river basin management. However, it is a difficult scientific issue due to its complexity. Huai River Basin is a unique\\u000a region in China with high densities in both population and water projects and is experiencing a serious pollution problem.\\u000a Based

Yongyong Zhang; Jun Xia; Tao Liang; Quanxi Shao

2010-01-01

207

Estimating snowpack parameters in the Colorado River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting snow provides over 70% of the water supply for the western United States. Flooding in the Colorado River basin during the spring and early summer of 1983 led to recognition of the need for better estimates of snowmelt runoff from the high elevation watersheds which contribute most of the runoff for the Colorado River. Im­ proved knowledge of the

A. T. C CHANG; J. L. FOSTER; P. GLOERSEN

1987-01-01

208

Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present major and trace element data on the suspended and dissolved phases of the Amazon River and its main tributaries. The Sr isotopic composition of the dissolved load is also reported. Special attention is paid to the abundances of REE and to their fractionation between the dissolved and suspended phase. The rivers of the Amazon Basin are among the

Jérôme Gaillardet; Bernard Dupre; Claude J. Allegre; Philippe Négrel

1997-01-01

209

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 ± 1 Bq l–1, which is consistent with the data of 1998–99. However, it has been found that there are surface

A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

2003-01-01

210

Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin is believed to be at least partly responsible for the large zone of oxygen-depleted water that develops in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. Historical data show that concentrations of nitrate in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries have increased by factors of 2 to more than 5 since the early 1900s.

Donald A. Goolsby; William A. Battaglin; Brent T. Aulenbach; Richard P. Hooper

2000-01-01

211

Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

Mathes, M. V.; Payne, D. D., Jr.; Shultz, R. A.; Kirby, J. R.

1982-01-01

212

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

213

Groundwater issues in the Potomac River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great strides have been made by the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, along with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia, in protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Since these entities joined forces in a renewed effort to protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay area, a number of useful programs have been established and public awareness has been raised.The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers and several regional co-sponsors presented Ground Water Issues and Solutions in the Potomac River Basin/Chesapeake Bay Region Conference March 14 at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., to provide insight into groundwater-related issues. Attendance at the conference included 150 groundwater professionals from state, county and private agencies, along with a significant number of students from area universities. More than 30 papers were presented dealing with research projects and field studies. Topics included geohydrologic relationships, groundwater quality impacts, impact of industrial processes on groundwater quality, saltwater intrusion, groundwater protection in the Chesapeake Bay area, land-use impacts on groundwater quality, groundwater modeling, groundwater withdrawals, and policy issues. In addition to the technical sessions, a debate of “How clean is clean?” was held.

Lehr, Jay

214

Fuzzy synthetic model for risk assessment on Haihe River basin.  

PubMed

A comprehensive indicator model for risk assessment and a multiple-level theoretical indicator system of the water quality-quantity-ecosystem (WQQE) for the Haihe River basin were constructed in this research. A fuzzy optimization model was used to assess risks for the four water systems of the Haihe River basin, and their risk order from high to lower risk was southern Haihe River system (SH), northern Haihe River system (NH), Tuhaimajiahe River system (TH) and Luanjiyanhai River system (LJ). The highest risk value (SH) was 0.8737. In terms of the WQQE, the secondary parameters for assessment of the four water system risks were 0.3579, 0.7226, 0.9547, and 0.5428 respectively. The results indicated that the main control factors for pollution for LJ, TH, SH and NH differed from each other and involved pollutant level, development of water resources, water flow and quality, ecosystem health and the hydrologic structure. PMID:21380720

Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Li, Yongli; Yang, Zhifeng

2011-03-06

215

Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

1996-01-01

216

Organic geochemistry and petroleum potential of Pennsylvanian black shales, Powder River and Denver basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin, Middle Pennsylvanian organic-rich black shales (cumulative thickness generally less than 7 m) underlie much of the northern Denver basin and the southeastern Powder River basin. In the Powder River basin, these shales are part of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. During Desmoinesian time, the present-day area of the southeastern Powder River basin and the Nebraska panhandle was

J. L. Clayton; C. M. Lubeck; J. D. King; T. A. Daws

1987-01-01

217

Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

2013-04-01

218

M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

1991-01-01

219

M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

1991-12-31

220

Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

2006-12-01

221

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

2013-07-01

222

Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion

S. Carpentier; R. Moilleron; C. Beltran; D. Herve; D. Thevenot

2002-01-01

223

Water Quality, Middle Basin Tributary Streams, South Platte River Basin, Summer 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the study were to: Develop knowledge of the water quality in the Cache la Poudre River, Big Thompson River, and St. Vrain Creek sub-basins during the summer months; Evaluate water quality in terms of present and future water uses...

1967-01-01

224

Hydrologic investigation of the North Canadian River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study gives a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatological data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

1980-05-01

225

Hydrologic investigation of the north Canadian river basin  

SciTech Connect

This study gies a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatogical data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

1980-05-01

226

Resolving the scale incompatibility dilemma in river basin management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study illustrates how integrated river basin management can conflict with our increased emphasis on decentralizing water resources decision making. For over a decade, water and environmental decision making in many countries has been shifting from national levels to state/province and local levels. At the same time we have increasingly found that it is critical to consider how individual water resource decisions impact the river basin. We provide detailed examples of this incompatibility dilemma from the United States and Turkey as well as smaller examples from Japan and Macedonia. We argue that new institutional models are required for effective river basin management and that implementation of such models can be evaluated through the use of transaction costs. This study concludes with examples of institutional arrangements that can help bridge the incompatibility gap.

Perry, Jim; Easter, K. William

2004-08-01

227

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R. H.; Rayol, J. M.; Da, Conceicao, S. C.; Natividade, J. R. G.

1991-01-01

228

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

PubMed

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

229

Variation of mainstream length with basin area in river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainstream length in river networks from various parts of the world varies statistically in proportion to basin area raised to a power that decreases from about 0.6 for small to medium basins (1–103 km2) to near 0.5 for the largest in the world (nearly 107 km2). This relationship is predicted by the statistical theory of channel networks, which is founded

Ronald L. Shreve

1974-01-01

230

Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to

W. W. Woessner; S. W. Running; D. F. Potts; J. S. Kimball; T. H. Deluca; D. B. Fagre; S. Makepeace; M. S. Hendrix; M. S. Lorang; B. K. Ellis; J. Lafave; J. Harper

2004-01-01

231

Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations\\u000a showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought\\u000a in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of\\u000a various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter

Robert C. Balling Jr; Gregory B. Goodrich

2007-01-01

232

Anacostia River Basin: Large, Medium, and Small Lumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrologic Engineering Center, HEC, is performing a hydrologic analysis of the Anacostia River Basin in support of flood-damage-reduction studies there by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Baltimore District. The main objective is to determine the best estimate of flow-exceedance-probability functions at several flood-damage-index locations in the basin. Thus, a generalized methodology for determining flow-frequency curves anywhere in the

A. D. Feldman; A. Dufour; H. W. Dotson

2001-01-01

233

Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Mathes, M. V.

1977-01-01

234

Transport of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the application of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin occurs in winter to control wood-boring insects in dormant almond orchards. A federal-state collaborative study found that diazinon accounted for most of the observed toxicity of San Joaquin River water in February 1993. Previous studies focused mainly on west-side inputs to the San Joaquin River. In this 1994 study, the three major east-side tributaries to the San Joaquin River - the Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus rivers - and a downstream site on the San Joaquin River were sampled throughout the hydrographs of a late January and an early February storm. In both storms, the Tuolumne River had the highest concentrations of diazinon and transported the largest load of the three tributaries. The Stanislaus River was a small source in both storms. On the basis of previous storm sampling and estimated travel times, ephemeral west-side creeks probably were the main diazinon source early in the storms, whereas the Tuolumne and Merced rivers and east-side drainages directly to the San Joaquin River were the main sources later. Although 74 percent of diazinon transport in the San Joaquin River during 1991-1993 occurred in January and February, transport during each of the two 1994 storms was only 0.05 percent of the amount applied during preceding dry periods. Nevertheless, some of the diazinon concentrations in the San Joaquin River during the January storm exceeded 0.35 ??g/L, a concentration shown to be acutely toxic to water fleas. On the basis of this study and previous studies, diazinon concentrations and streamflow are highly variable during January and February storms, and frequent sampling is required to evaluate transport in the San Joaquin River Basin.

Kratzer, C. R.

1999-01-01

235

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic

John A. McLachlan

2003-01-01

236

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RETIREMENT IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of agricultural land retirement on nutrient concentrations and biological conditions of three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during 2005-2007. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from 52,500 to 96,031 acres, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings, but differ with respect to

Victoria G. Christensen; Kathy E. Lee

237

Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin include runoff-precipitation relationships for 28 selected subbasins for the period 1941-70; low-flow frequency curves for four mainstem Delaware River sites; monthly comparative duration curves and twenty year hydrographs at Montague and Trenton, New Jersey; and flow duration tables based on observed daily streamflow for gaging stations near 21 proposed dam sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Schopp, Robert D.; Gillespie, Brian D.

1979-01-01

238

RIVER INCISION IN RELATION TO POSTGLACIAL EVENTS IN THE HUMBER RIVER BASIN, ONTARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

River valleys in the Humber River drainage basin have derived most of their morphology from processes occurring over the last 13 000 14C BP. Some of the valley reaches possess very distinct characteristics in terms of plan-view morphology, such as valley mean- dering and loop features along the valley sides. In this study, the val- ley morphology and stratigraphy of

Roger T. J. PHILLIPS; André ROBERT

2006-01-01

239

An object-orient ed approach to model integration: a river basin information system example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes the WaterWare system, an object oriented information and decision support system for river basin management. The basic data framework,combines a hybrid GIS as the overall structure with classes of objects, including river basin elements, models and model scenarios, and tasks or decision problems. River basin elements are spati­ ally referenced, and represent, for example, subcatchments, reservoirs,

K. Fedra; D. G. Jamieson

1996-01-01

240

Land use and nitrogen export in the Piracicaba River basin, Southeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic N inputs and riverine export were determined for a meso-scale river basin in one of the most developed and economically important regions of South America. The Piracicaba River basin is located in southeastern Brazil and drains into a tributary of the Paraná River. The basin supports over 3 million people (about 2% of the population of Brazil) with intensive

Solange Filoso; Luiz A. Martinelli; Michael R. Williams; Luciene B. Lara; Alex Krusche; Maria Victoria Ballester; Reynaldo Victoria; Plinio B. de Camargo

2003-01-01

241

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures.

Shaw; R. Todd

2001-01-01

242

Dissolution of Permian salt and Mesozoic depositional trends, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt deposits in the Powder River basin of Wyoming occur in the Late Permian Ervay Member of the Goose Egg Formation which was deposited in a redbed-evaporite trend extending from the Williston basin of North Dakota to the Alliance basin of Nebraska and Wyoming. However, only remnants of the once extensive Ervay salt remain in the Powder River basin, with

D. L. Rasmussen; D. W. Bean

1983-01-01

243

Umatilla River Basin Water Quality Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation is preparing a comprehensive plan for water resource development of the entire Umatilla Basin. In developing the proposed plan for construction of dams, canals, and other facilities, they have considered all water needs, such as ...

1969-01-01

244

NATURAL AND MAN MADE STRESSES ON THE STABILITY OF INDUS DELTAIC ECO REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indus River, that has created one of the world's largest delta and submarine fan system, is currently contributing a fraction of fresh water or sediment in to the Arabian Sea. Consequently, the seawater intrusion has resulted in tidal intrusion in the prime agricultural land in the Indus Deltaic region. Extensive use of fresh water for irrigation in recent years

A. Inam; T. M. Ali Khan; A. R. Tabrez; S. Amjad; M. Danish; S. M. Tabrez

245

Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

2010-05-01

246

Work plan for the Sangamon River basin, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the Illinois Department of Transportation and other State agencies, recognizes the need for basin-type assessments in Illinois. This report describes a plan of study for a water-resource assessment of the Sangamon River basin in central Illinois. The purpose of the study would be to provide information to basin planners and regulators on the quantity, quality, and use of water to guide management decisions regarding basin development. Water quality and quantity problems in the Sangamon River basin are associated primarily with agricultural and urban activities, which have contributed high concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter to the streams. The impact has resulted in eutrophic lakes, diminished capacity of lakes to store water, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and turbid stream and lake waters. The four elements of the plan of study include: (1) determining suspended sediment and nutrient transport, (2) determining the distribution of selected inorganic and organic residues in streambed sediments, (3) determining the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Sangamon River, and (4) applying a hydraulic model to high streamflows. (USGS)

Stamer, J. K.; Mades, Dean M.

1983-01-01

247

The Thames Catchment: A River Basin at the Tipping Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper recapitulates the theory of catchment water deficits and the use of density analysis previously published in this journal. Thereafter theory and method are applied to the Thames River Basin in England where it is shown that the catchment is marginally in deficit but that future developments in population growth, output growth and climate change require the application of

Stephen Merrett

2005-01-01

248

On the coupled geomorphological and ecohydrological organization of river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the linkage between the drainage network and the patterns of soil water balance components determined by the organization of vegetation, soils and climate in a semiarid river basin. Research during the last 10 years has conclusively shown an increasing degree of organization and unifying principles behind the structure of the drainage network and the three-dimensional geometry of

Kelly K. Caylor; Salvatore Manfreda; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

2005-01-01

249

Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes data on an intensive sampling program in the North Branch Potomac River basin between March 1968 and May 1969. The principal objectives of the study were to: Determine the extent and magnitude of existing mine drainage pollution; ident...

L. J. Clark

1969-01-01

250

Umatilla River Basin fish habitat enhancement. Annual report, FY 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5/1/90 and ended 10/30/90. A tot...

M. Norththrop

1990-01-01

251

Assessment of Hydroclimatic Trends Over the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies by a broad range of governmental agencies, universities, and experts in the scientific community have begun to acknowledge and address issues regarding climate change and trends. Most of these studies have focused on global scale trends in hydroclimatic variables and long-term impacts of climate change. The impacts of climate change are particularly important in the Colorado River Basin

W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota

2007-01-01

252

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: LAND USE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It represents the final technical report summarizing land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses conducted for the study. The ORBES region consists of...

253

COAL MINE SITING FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentu...

254

Predictability of seasonal runoff in the Mississippi River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in climate prediction and remote sensing offer the potential to improve long-lead streamflow forecasts and to provide better land surface state estimates at the time of forecast. We characterize predictability of runoff at seasonal timescales in the Mississippi River basin due to climatic persistence (represented by El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation) and persistence related to the

Edwin P. Maurer; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2003-01-01

255

Climate variability and water supply of the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the implications of climate variability and long range forecasting to the water resources of the western United States. More specifically, the usefulness of this information to water agencies in the Colorado River Basin is studied. Streamflow data from select stations are evaluated for a relationship with the climate indices: (1) the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI); (2) the

Thomas C. Piechota

2002-01-01

256

The sublimation of falling snow over the Mackenzie River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublimation of falling snow may be an important component of the atmospheric water budget of the Mackenzie River Basin and many parts of the Arctic. To investigate this issue, a simple sublimation model is used along with surface precipitation observations and sonde data obtained during the autumn 1994 Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (BASE). Model results are then compared

Jason E. Burford; Ronald E. Stewart

1998-01-01

257

Achieving Accountability through Decentralization: Lessons for Integrated River Basin Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

While decentralization holds out the promise of increased flexibility and efficiency, the preconditions for realizing it are daunting. To draw lessons for productive decentralization in integrated river basin management, this paper surveys the decentralization experience in education, health care, roads, irrigation, and public infrastructure services. Case studies reveal that the prime focus in the design of a decentralized structure must

Jyothsna Mody

2004-01-01

258

Boreal forest anomalies in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forests are being impacted by climate change though productivity declines (browning), increased fire extents, frequencies, and intensities, more abundant insects, a thickening active layer, and projected increases in deciduous forest components. Quantification of the regional boreal forest impacts in the Yukon River Basin was achieved though remote sensing and productivity modeling which separated weather and non-weather interannual variations in

B. K. Wylie; J. A. Rover; K. Murnahan; J. Long; L. L. Tieszen; B. Brisco

2010-01-01

259

Joint Operation s in the James River Basin, 1862 - 1865.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is an analysis of Union joint operations in the James River Basin from 1862 to 1865. Specifically the contributions made by the Union Navy during the battles of this period. It begins with an analysis of the Peninsula Campaign conducted by Majo...

D. K. Zatt

1993-01-01

260

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

261

Colorado River Basin Development Its Potential Impact on Tribal Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since no mechanism presently exists for the effective distribution of tribal income to tribal members, the wealth created by development of natural resources on the American Indian reservations of the Colorado River Basin will not substantially alter the quality of Indian life. (JC)

Hackenberg, Robert A.

1976-01-01

262

Shortcomings of linear programming in optimizing river basin allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous computer models for river basin planning and management have been developed and used extensively since the mid-1970s. Early developments have relied on the use of network flow algorithms (NFA), due mainly to higher execution speed than the standard Simplex solvers. However, subsequent efforts to include proper modeling of hydraulic and hydrologic constraints introduced iterative schemes into the NFA-based models,

Nesa Ilich

2008-01-01

263

Overcoming anti-hydro policies in the Ohio River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the need to develop a national energy policy, with hydroelectric power playing a greater role. As an example of the consequences of a lack of a cohesive policy, the authors use the regulatory battles taking place over the development of hydroelectric power in the Ohio River Basin. Sixteen potential plants could provide 1,560 gigawatts of power

P. C. Kissel; A. I. Robbins

1991-01-01

264

COMMENTS ON THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES) has been conducted by university researchers over a four-year period. During this time an Advisory Committee, which numbered up to 50 members, was active in critiquing and commenting on the research work. The committee included representa...

265

The epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in the Senegal river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive water development has taken place in the north of Senegal over the last decade, resulting in a large increase in the amount of fresh water for irrigation. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Senegal river basin (SRB), and to ascertain the distribution of the

M. Picquet; J. C. Ernould; J. Vercruysse; V. R. Southgate; A. Mbaye; B. Sambou; M. Niang; D. Rollinson

1996-01-01

266

Operating Model for the Green River Basin Reservoir System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was concerned with the operation of the four reservoirs of the Green River Basin in Kentucky. This reservoir system is regulated by the Corps of Engineers. The purpose was to gain some insight of the current practices in regulating the reservoi...

C. Rukvichai

1977-01-01

267

Geothermal Resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which inc...

B. S. Hinckley H. P. Heasler

1985-01-01

268

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

269

Coal mine siting for the Ohio River Basin energy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.) Topics include coal

Blome

1981-01-01

270

Voluntary Basinwide Water Management: South Platte River Basin, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demands for water in the South Platte River Basin are the most intense in Colorado and the result is increasing conflict over water use. The resulting litigation places financial burdens on water right owners and stresses one capability of the state admin...

N. S. Grigg H. P. Caulfield N. A. Evans J. E. Flack D. W. Hendricks

1984-01-01

271

SEASONAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR FLOODPLAINS IN THE DELAWARE RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overland pollutant transport via surface runoff and flooding is a primary concern in the manage- ment of agricultural land resources in the Delaware River Basin. The Catskills is home to multiple water reservoirs that supply the drinking water for New York City. Contamination of this water by pollutants emanating from agricultural sources located in floodplain areas necessitates risk quantification for

Kirk Weiler; M. Todd Walter; Michael F. Walter; Erin S. Brooks; Chris A. Scott

2009-01-01

272

Quaternary paleolake development in the Fen River basin, North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiyuan Graben and the Linfen Graben are two fault-controlled grabens in the Fen River basin, north China. Broad paleolakes periodically occupied the two grabens during the Pleistocene. This paper discusses how neotectonic activities and paleoclimate changes may have influenced the development of the paleolakes in the two grabens during the middle to late Quaternary, based on the lacustrine landforms

Xiaomeng Hu; Youli Li; Jingchun Yang

2005-01-01

273

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1991 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1991, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. 1991 was the final year of this five year project. Work started in May 1 and ended on November 31. Preconstruction activity consisted of final layout and design of the project, movement

Northrop

1992-01-01

274

Water, agriculture and poverty in the Niger River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livelihoods in the Niger River basin rely mainly on rainfed agriculture, except in the dry extreme north. Low yields and water productivity result from low inputs, short growing seasons, dry spells, and excessive water. The overlap of traditional and modern rules impedes secure access to water and investments in agriculture by generating uncertain land tenure. Improved agriculture and water management

Andrew Ogilvie; Gil Mahé; John Ward; Georges Serpantié; Jacques Lemoalle; Pierre Morand; Bruno Barbier; Amadou Tamsir Diop; Armelle Caron; Regassa Namarra; David Kaczan; Anna Lukasiewicz; Jean-Emmanuel Paturel; Gaston Liénou; Jean Charles Clanet

2010-01-01

275

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

276

Seasonality of Reproduction in Amazon River Dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) in Three Major River Basins of South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction of Amazon River Dolphins, Inia geoffrensis, is generally reported to be highly seasonal; however, this conclusion is based on studies from only one area of Inia distribution from throughout the Amazon and Orinoco river basins. Our observations of live dolphins from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Mamore river basins (in Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia, respectively) indicate that reproduction in Inia

Tamara L. McGuire; Enzo R. Aliaga-Rossel

2007-01-01

277

Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

2010-12-01

278

Some hydrologic aspects of snowmelt runoff under summer conditions, in the Barpu glacier basin, Central Karakoram, Himalaya, northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow and ice in high mountains represent and important water resource in many parts of the world, especially the dry continental interior of Central Asia. In the Northern Areas of Pakistan, mountain ranges are the primary sources of annually renewed water supplies. They give rise to rivers which are the only significant, sustainable source of fresh water. The Indus basin

Ali Ghazanfar

1989-01-01

279

Priority targets for environmental research in the Sinos River basin.  

PubMed

The Sinos River Basin is often mentioned as a highly degraded watershed. A series of impacts on water quality, soil and air has been reported in this environment on a recurring basis over the years. This situation of environmental degradation has its origins in a process of huge economic development uncoupled from environmental conservation concerns. The intense consequent urbanization observed for the municipalities within the watershed was not preceded by urban planning proper zoning. The time has arrived for initiatives in scientific research in the Sinos River basin that are applicable to a more efficient and integrated management and recovery of the basin. In this article, a set of targets for research is suggested which the authors consider as the main priorities for the next few years, aiming for better knowledge and better management of the watershed. Some are still in course, while others have to be initiated as soon as possible. PMID:21225166

Spilki, F R; Tundisi, J G

2010-12-01

280

Hydrogeologic data for the Shetucket River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during an investigation of water resources in the Shetucket River basin of Connecticut in cooperation with the Connecticut Water Resources Commission. The Shetucket River basin occupies about 507 square miles in the eastern part of the State, including the towns of Andover, Ashford, Chaplin, Coventry, Mansfield, Scotland, Sprague, Windham, and Willington, and parts of Bolton, Canterbury, Columbia, Eastford, Ellington, Franklin, Lebanon, Lisbon, Hampton, Hebron, Norwich, Pomfret, Stafford, Tolland, Union, Vernon, and Woodstock. A companion interpretive report, Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin ll, (Thomas, and others, 1967), evaluates the water resources of the basin. The data on the following pages serve to document and supplement that report and should be especially useful in planning the development of water resources at specific localities.

Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Bednar, Gene A.; Thomas, Mendall P.; Wilson, William E.

1967-01-01

281

Sustainable Livelihoods and Water Management in Shared River Basins. Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Songkram River is an undammed, major tributary of the Mekong River in Northeast Thailand. Approximately 960 square kilometers of the Lower Songkram River Basin (LSRB) floods seasonally, generating a large wetland area that supports key livelihoods suc...

2008-01-01

282

Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D. K.; Mathes, M. V.

1995-01-01

283

Selected basin characteristics and water-quality data of the Minnesota River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected basin characteristics and water-quality dam for the Minnesota River Basin are presented in this report as 71 maps, 22 graphs, and 8 tables. The data were compiled as part of a four-year study to identify non-point sources of pollution and the effect of this pollution on water quality. The maps were prepared from geographic information system data bases. Federal, State, and local agencies, and colleges and universities collected and assembled these data as part of the Minnesota River Assessment Project.

Winterstein, T. A.; Payne, G. A.; Miller, R. A.; Stark, J. R.

1993-01-01

284

Elements for a political ecology of river basins development: The case of the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Like other natural resources, water can be mobilized for wealth generation. The spatial expression of land resources and of the natural water regime, in terms of quantity, quality, timing, variability and availability (or easiness to divert or abstract), coupled with the distribution of power in society, defines and underpins the early development of river basins and the pattern of

Francois Molle

2005-01-01

285

Chi river basin irrigation demand model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of irrigation demands and return flows is an essential component of the Chi Basin (Northeast Thailand) simulation model. The irrigation demand model is based on a simple field water balance so does not use the concept of effective rainfall. The paper describes the structure of the model. A sensitivity analysis on the model output is described.

B. S. Piper; C. Chawalit; V. Pantheep

1989-01-01

286

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

287

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn...

2010-07-01

288

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn...

2009-07-01

289

Transport of diazinon in the San Joaquin River basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the application of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin occurs in winter to control wood boring insects in dormant almond orchards. A federal-state collaborative study found that diazinon accounted for most of the observed toxicity of San Joaquin River water to water fleas in February 1993. Previous studies focussed mainly on west-side inputs to the San Joaquin River. In this 1994 study, the three major east-side tributaries to the San Joaquin River, the Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus Rivers, and a downstream site on the San Joaquin River were sampled throughout the hydrographs of a late January and an early February storm. In both storms, the Tuolumne River had the highest concentrations of diazinon and transported the largest load of the three tributaries. The Stanislaus River was a small source in both storms. On the basis of previous storm sampling and estimated traveltimes, ephemeral west-side creeks were probably the main diazinon source early in the storms, while the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers and east-side drainage directly to the San Joaquin River were the main sources later. Although 74 percent of diazinon transport in the San Joaquin River during 199193 occurred in January and February, transport during each of the two 1994 storms was only 0.05 percent of the amount applied during preceeding dry periods. Nevertheless, some of the diazinon concentrations in the San Joaquin River during the January storm exceeded 0.35 micrograms per liter, a concentration shown to be acutely toxic to water fleas. Diazinon concentrations were highly variable during the storms and frequent sampling was required to adequately describe the concentration curves and to estimate loads.

Kratzer, Charles R.

1997-01-01

290

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

291

Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the chemical composition of the streams. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration and hardness of water observed in major irrigation areas were 507 and 262 parts per million, respectively, for the. Walla Walla River near Touchet, Wash. In terms of the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff classification (1954, p. 80), water in most streams in the basin has low salinity and sodium hazards and is suitable for irrigation. A salt-balance problem does exist in the Hermiston-Stanfield, Oreg., area of the Umatilla River basin, and because of poor drainage, improper irrigation practices could cause salt-balance problems in the Willamette River Valley, Oreg., in which irrigation is rapidly increasing. Pollution by sewage disposal has reached undesirable levels in the Walla Walla River, in the Willamette River from Eugene to Portland, Oreg., and in the Columbia River from Portland to Puget Island. In the lower reaches of the Willamette River, the pollution load from sewage and industrial-waste disposal at times depletes the dissolved oxygen in the water to concentrations below what is considered necessary for aquatic life. Water in most of the tributaries to the lower Columbia River is of excellent quality and after some treatment could be used for industrial and municipal supplies. The principal treatment required would be disinfection and turbidity removal.

Santos, John F.

1965-01-01

292

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

2003-01-01

293

Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (1 sample), pH (1 sample), sodium (9 samples), chloride (1 sample), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (7 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (8 samples), manganese (6 samples), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). Fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were each detected in one sample. Concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, and uranium, and gross alpha activities, did not exceed existing drinking-water standards in any of the samples collected. Methane concentrations in two samples were greater than 28 milligrams per liter, and the maximum measured concentration was 44.3 milligrams per liter.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

2013-01-01

294

Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions

Xun Wu; Dale Whittington

2006-01-01

295

Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins  

SciTech Connect

Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

Smith, D.G.

1984-07-01

296

Basin-wide architecture of sandstone reservoirs in the Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin, Wyoming, was studied using lithofacies, grain size, bounding surfaces, sedimentary structures, internal organization, and geometry. Two principal groups of reservoirs, both erosionally based and fining upward, consist of either conglomeratic sandstone or sandstone lithofacies. Two types of architecture were recognized in conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs:

R. M. Flores; C. W. Keighin; W. R. Keefer

1991-01-01

297

River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

2012-04-01

298

Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

2012-04-01

299

River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake/ reservoir and river operations including diversion of Truckee River water to the Truckee Canal for transport to the Carson River Basin. In addition to the operations and streamflow-routing modules, the modeling system is structured to allow integration of other modules, such as water-quality and precipitation-runoff modules. The USGS Truckee River Basin operations model was designed to provide simulations that allow comparison of the effects of alternative management practices or allocations on streamflow or reservoir storages in the Truckee River Basin over long periods of time. Because the model was not intended to reproduce historical streamflow or reservoir storage values, a traditional calibration that includes statistical comparisons of observed and simulated values would be problematic with this model and database. This report describes a chronology and background of decrees, agreements, and laws that affect Truckee River operational practices; the construction of the Truckee River daily operations model; the simulation of Truckee River Basin operations, both current and proposed under the draft TROA and WQSA; and suggested model improvements and limitations. The daily operations model uses Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate flow-routing and reservoir and river operations. The operations model simulates reservoir and river operations that govern streamflow in the Truckee River from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake, including diversions through the Truckee Canal to Lahontan Reservoir in the Carson River Basin. A general overview is provided of daily operations and their simulation. Supplemental information that documents the extremely complex operating rules simulated by the model is available.

Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

2001-01-01

300

Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

2010-05-01

301

Capturing the nature of cooperation, unstable cooperation and conflict over international rivers: the story of the Indus, Yarmouk, Euphrates and Tigris rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the existing definitions of conflict and cooperation over international rivers and introduces new definitions to remedy some of the shortcomings. Conflict tends to be defined as militarised confrontation, firing guns, political flare-ups or deterioration in relations. This range of violence is too wide. To remedy this weakness, it is necessary to incorporate the category of unstable cooperation

Neda A. Zawahri

2008-01-01

302

Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

2006-01-01

303

Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

2006-02-01

304

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

305

Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical

R. R. Ray; W. R. Keefer

1985-01-01

306

Accelerating Human Impacts on the Water Resources in the Heihe River Basin, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

River discharge and groundwater level data are collected within the Heihe River basin in Northwestern China. The surfacewater-groundwater interaction, particularly in the lower desert reaches, is analyzed with the help of isotope data of water of this river. In the irrigation season, the river was usually dried up in the lower desert reaches. The river water in the lower reaches

Tomohiro AKIYAMA

2009-01-01

307

The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

1995-11-01

308

Multi-Decadal Variability of Colorado River Basin Streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional water resource planning and management are based upon the assumption that past run-off records are indicative of future hydrologic conditions. The severe and sustained nature of the recent drought in the Southwestern United States has underscored the limitation of this planning approach. Furthermore, a growing collection of scientific literature indicates that anthropogenic climate change may further dry the region and strain its water resources. Thus, developing tools and strategies to address streamflow variability, is critical for effective water management in regions such as the Colorado River Basin. A crucial first step toward this end is the understanding of streamflow variability at multi-decadal time scales, driven by large scale climate features such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), etc. Here, a systematic analysis of basin-wide natural streamflow and paleo-reconstructed flows in the Colorado River Basin is presented, using time domain principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral methods based on wavelets and a multi-taper method. The dominant patterns of variability are related to global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to identify potential large scale climate features that drive the variability. Results indicate that the first two PCs explain approximately 60% of the total streamflow variance in the Basin. The first PC, which is a predominantly Upper Basin signal, correlates strongly with Atlantic Ocean SSTs and shows an AMO pattern, while the second PC has distinct ties to the Pacific Ocean, reminiscent of PDO and ENSO patterns. The spectral analyses of the leading PCs indicate strong coherence with the corresponding indices of the aforementioned climate forcings. The spectrum of the first PC displays a strong signal at 10-15 year and 60-70 year periodicities. Spectral analysis of paleo-reconstructed Upper Basin streamflow indicates that these periodicities are modulated, especially the decadal signal being modulated at a 75-year time scale. These results provide insight into the multi-decadal variability of Colorado River streamflow. Furthermore, they will have considerable utility in realistic simulation of near-term streamflows and consequently, efficient planning and management of water resources in the Colorado River Basin.

Nowak, K. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hoerling, M.; Zagona, E. A.

2010-12-01

309

Forest landscape patterns dynamics of Yihe-Luohe river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the information from forest resources distribution maps of Luoning County of 1983 and 1999, six indices were used\\u000a to analyze spatial patterns and dynamics of forest landscapes of the typical region in the middle of the Yihe-Luohe river\\u000a basin. These indices include patch number, mean patch area, fragment index, patch extension index, etc. The results showed\\u000a that: (1)

Ding Shengyan; Shang Fude; Qian Lexiang; Cao Xinxiang; Li Shuang; Li Haomin

2003-01-01

310

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Agency, Environmental P.

311

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monthly water balance (WB) model was developed for the Yukon River Basin (YRB). The WB model was calibrated using mean monthly\\u000a values of precipitation and temperature derived from the Precipitation-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)\\u000a data set and by comparing estimated mean monthly runoff with runoff measured at Pilot Station, Alaska. The calibration procedure\\u000a used the Shuffled Complex

Lauren E. Hay; Gregory J. McCabe

2010-01-01

312

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and ECBM in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal seams are both a source of coal bed methane (CBM) and a potential carbon dioxide sink. For sub-bituminous coals like those in the Powder River Basin (PRB), the CO2\\/CH4 adsorption ratio is approximately 10:1, which indicates the significant potential for sequestering carbon dioxide. In addition, injected carbon dioxide would also enhance the production of methane from the coal seam

L. B. Colmenares; M. D. Zoback

2003-01-01

313

Characterizing Drought Risk in a Sicilian River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter summarizes the results of the application of proposed methodologies for drought characterization and risk assessment\\u000a in water supply systems to the Italian case study, namely the Simeto River basin in Sicily. In particular, after a general\\u000a description of the case study, the results of the drought identification, carried out by means of several drought indices\\u000a and methods such

Giuseppe Rossi; Brunella Bonaccorso; Vincenzo Nicolosi; Antonino Cancelliere

314

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1990 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5\\/1\\/90 and ended 10\\/30\\/90. A total of five large log weirs, eight large rock weirs, 17 associated weir structures, 19 small to medium rock deflectors, four bank and island

Northrop

1990-01-01

315

Basin-Scale Stream-Aquifer Modeling of the Lower Arkansas River, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for modeling stream-aquifer interactions at the river basin scale that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN), a geographical information system (GIS), and the MODSIM generalized river basin network flow model. The methodology allows development of dynamic, spatially dependent relationships between measurable aquifer stresses and river return flow; as well as providing a linkage of spatial system

Enrique Triana; John W. Labadie; Timothy K. Gates

316

Trends and persistence in precipitation in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basins occupy about 1.75 x 10 6 km2 of the Himalayan region. More than half a billion people in Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh are directly or indirectly dependent on the water resources of the GBM rivers. These river basins are characterized by diversified climatic patterns. Analyses of trends and persistence in precipitation

M. Q. MIRZA; R. A. WARRICK; N. J. ERICKSEN; G. J. KENNY

1999-01-01

317

Impacts of Precipitation Uncertainty on Discharge Calculations for Main River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forcing data to hydrological models is often presented as observations and therefore neglected as possible source of error in discharge calculations. This study quantifies the uncertainty in river discharge calculations caused by uncertainty in precipitation input for 300 river basins worldwide. For seven different global gridded precipitation datasets mean annual and mean seasonal precipitation at river basin scale are compared.

H. Biemans; R. Hutjes; P. Kabat; B. Strengers; D. Gerten; S. Rost

2008-01-01

318

The Potomac River Basin and Western Shore Chesapeake Bay Drainage as a Proposed CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term hydrologic observatory is proposed for an area encompassing the Potomac River Basin and the basins that form the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay from the Gunpowder River on the north to the Rappahannock River on the south. The area is approximately 52,000 sq km and spans five physiographic provinces, with total relief of about 1200 m, and

A. J. Miller; J. A. Smith; C. Welty; K. N. Eshleman; M. Piasecki; K. L. Prestegaard; K. L. Brubaker; M. A. Palmer; P. T. Imhoff; P. R. Wilcock; T. M. Scanlon; G. T. Fisher; R. J. Shedlock; A. C. Gellis; P. M. Groffman; K. Belt; L. Toran; R. Traver; T. Jordan

2004-01-01

319

Integrated Regional Assessment of Climate Change for Korean River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first national assessment, we investigated the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Korean peninsula that has varying climates and complex topography. Together with the precipitation runoff modeling system model, we used high resolution climate change scenarios and population and industrial growth scenarios for 2030. Climate change alone is projected to decrease mean annual runoff by 10% in four major river basins located in southern Korea. Summer floods and spring droughts are likely to occur more frequently at the sub-basin scale, suggesting the increasing vulnerability of regional water resources to climate change. When climate change scenarios are combined with population and industrial growth scenarios, the geographical variations of water stress increased. This necessitates the need for water allocation among different water users under the changing environment. A tool is being developed to address optimizing water allocation under changes in water availability for a selected basin of Korea.

Chang, H.; Franczyk, J.; Bae, D.; Jung, I.; Kwon, W.; Im, E.

2006-12-01

320

Suspended sediment dynamics in the Mississippi River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated sediment trends in a heavily managed basin influenced by substantial human impacts. Spatial and temporal patterns of suspended sediment dynamics were examined in the Mississippi River basin by utilizing all available USGS suspended-sediment data with a minimum of 30 matching samples of suspended-sediment concentration and water discharge. These spatial trends were related to the land use change which has occurred over the last century and this includes dams, soil conservation measures and channelization. Sediment sources and sinks along the main stem of the Mississippi River and its main tributaries were identified and mapped. Three main trends were identified. 1) Sediment yields decreasing with increasing drainage area imply systematically increasing sediment storage downstream the landscape. 2) Sediment yields increasing with drainage area indicate net recruitment of sediment along the main valleys from banks and floodplain erosion. 3) Sediment yields showing no relationship with drainage area are attributed to the complexity arising from diverse climate, geology and land use of the basin. Based on the results, regional scale sediment yield maps were prepared and linked to the land use and the history of the basin.

Ali, K.; Cullis, J. D.; Xu, X.; More, M.; Hassan, M. A.; Simon, A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

2010-12-01

321

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2011-07-01

322

Environmental flows allocation in river basins: Exploring allocation challenges and options in the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision for environmental flows is currently becoming a central issue in the debate of integrated water resources management in river basins. However, the theories, concepts and practical applications are still new in most developing countries with challenging situations arising in complex basins with multiple water uses and users and increasing water demands and conflicts exemplified by the Great Ruaha River

Japhet J. Kashaigili; Reuben M. J. Kadigi; Bruce A. Lankford; Henry F. Mahoo; Damus A. Mashauri

2005-01-01

323

Distribution, Status, and Likely Future Trends of Bull Trout within the Columbia River and Klamath River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarized existing knowledge regarding the distributionand statusof bull trout Salvelinus confluentus across 4,462 subwatersheds of the interiorColumbia River basin in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada and of the Klamath River basin in Oregon, a region thatrepresents about 20% of the species' global range .We used classificationtreesand the patterns of association between known distributions and landscape characteristics to predict

BRUCE E. RIEMAN; DANNY C. LEE; RUSSELL F. THUROW

1997-01-01

324

Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23-26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22-24. A breach of t...

D. A. Eash

2011-01-01

325

Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

Samples, Bob, Ed.

326

Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

Samples, Bob, Ed.

327

Trophic structure of a fish community along environmental gradients of a subtropical river (Paraitinga River, Upper Tietê River Basin, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research characterized the feeding ecology of the fish community of the upper-middle course of Paraitinga River, located\\u000a within the Upper Tietê River Basin, a peculiar Atlantic Forest area, regarded as a hotspot for fish conservation. Considering\\u000a the several anthropogenic modifications, knowledge of the trophic structure might contribute to a better understanding of\\u000a the factors that maintain the present fish

Katharina Eichbaum Esteves; Ana Valéria Pinto Lobo; Marcos Daniel Renó Faria

2008-01-01

328

Anacostia River Basin: Large, Medium, and Small Lumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hydrologic Engineering Center, HEC, is performing a hydrologic analysis of the Anacostia River Basin in support of flood-damage-reduction studies there by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Baltimore District. The main objective is to determine the best estimate of flow-exceedance-probability functions at several flood-damage-index locations in the basin. Thus, a generalized methodology for determining flow-frequency curves anywhere in the basin was developed. Three methodologies were used to make best estimates of the flow-frequency curves: watershed-runoff computer simulation modeling, statistical analysis of stream-gauge records, and application of USGS regional regression equations. This paper addresses the watershed-modeling portion of the study. The Anacostia River Basin originates in Maryland and consists of two primary tributaries: the Northwest Branch, 128 sq km at the Hyattsville gauge, and the Northeast Branch, 188 sq km at the Riverdale gauge. After the confluence a short distance downstream, it flows south into eastern Washington, D.C., and the Potomac River. The basins were mostly rural until the 1960's when the D.C.-area urbanization spread from west to east. The streamflow gauges have been in operation since 1939 and precipitation gauges since 1948. The hydrologic model is key to several aspects of such an investigation. Calibrating a hydrologic model helps the engineer understand the precipitation-runoff processes in the basin. Simulating frequency-based storm runoff, e.g., NWS TP-40 with commensurate initial moisture conditions, is an estimate of a like-frequency flow. Simulating key historical storms with current land-use conditions can be used to adjust non-stationary (due to urbanization) gauged annual peak flows. Simulating frequency-based storms, with a model calibrated to a best-estimate flow-frequency curve, can be used to estimate flow frequencies anywhere in the basin for existing and future land-use conditions. The watershed model was constructed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS. HMS can simulate any-sized river basin with unlimited subbasins and routing reaches. It can also simulate subbasin runoff on a gridded, semi-distributed basis. The Anacostia Basin was analyzed in three levels of detail at each gauge: one subbasin, five-to-ten subbasins, and 20-to-30 subbasins. Those levels of detail serve three analysis purposes, respectively: flow-frequency at the gauge, flow frequencies at flood-damage centers in other locations, and flow frequencies throughout the basin for local floodplain management. In addition to comparing simulation results for these different-sized lumps, a 4-km gridded representation of the basin is compared to the large, single-subbasin approach.

Feldman, A. D.; Dufour, A.; Dotson, H. W.

2001-05-01

329

Assessment of Hydroclimatic Trends Over the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies by a broad range of governmental agencies, universities, and experts in the scientific community have begun to acknowledge and address issues regarding climate change and trends. Most of these studies have focused on global scale trends in hydroclimatic variables and long-term impacts of climate change. The impacts of climate change are particularly important in the Colorado River Basin to resource managers, and water users who depend upon the Colorado River to provide water for flood control, consumptive use, irrigation, environmental, recreational, and energy demands. In this study, trends in hydroclimatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, streamflow and snowpack over the Colorado River Basin are considered and their interdependency discussed. Impacts of observed trends on the operation of the Colorado River and affects on water users are assessed. In this study, early peak runoff corresponds to persistent increasing trends in temperature. Observed monthly streamflow rates are consistently decreasing between April and July, traditionally when peak flow is observed. The potential for incorporation of hydroclimatic trends into the improvement of forecasts is explored.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.

2007-12-01

330

Decrease of Metagonimus yokogawai Endemicity along the Tamjin River Basin  

PubMed Central

The Tamjin River which flows from Jangheung-gun via Gangjin-gun to the South Sea was reported to be a highly endemic area of Metagonimus yokogawai infection in 1977 and 1985. However, there were no recent studies demonstrating how much change occurred in the endemicity, in terms of prevalence and worm burden, of metagonimiasis in this river basin. Thus, a small-scale epidemiological survey was carried out on some residents along the Tamjin River basin in order to determine the current status of M. yokogawai infection. A total of 48 fecal samples were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. The egg positive rate of all helminths was 50.0%, and that of M. yokogawai was 37.5%, followed by C. sinensis 22.9% and G. seoi 4.2%. To obtain the adult flukes of M. yokogawai, 6 egg positive cases were treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium sulfate. A total of 5,225 adult flukes (average 871 specimens per person) of M. yokogawai were collected from their diarrheic stools. Compared with the data reported in 1977 and 1985, the individual worm burdens appeared to have decreased remarkably, although the prevalence did not decrease at all. It is suggested that the endemicity of M. yokogawai infection along the Tamjin River has been reduced. To confirm this suggestion, the status of infection in snail and fish intermediate hosts should be investigated.

Lee, Jin-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Jae; Yi Lee, Jo Woon; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Ji-Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jae-Lip

2008-01-01

331

Management of Dams in TransNational River Basins — a Preliminary Sustainability Impact Assessment for the Upper Elbe River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams or systems of dams can significantly change the properties of river basins, such as flow, retention or the management\\u000a of the water resources in general. Furthermore, dams and their management are known to show relevant impacts on the environment,\\u000a economic activities and social structures in their very neighbourhood, upstream and downstream. Taking into consideration\\u000a that nowadays numerous dams in

Martin Socher; Stefan Dornack; Hans Ulrich Sieber

332

Thermal maturation and oil generation history of Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) black shales of Powder River and northern Denver basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) organic-rich black shales (cumulative thickness < 50 ft) underlie much of the northern Denver basin and southeastern Powder River basin. In the Powder River basin, these shales are part of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. During Desmoinesian time, the present area of the southeastern Powder River basin and Nebraska panhandle was a shallow, at

J. L. Clayton; T. A. Daws

1989-01-01

333

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...999, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106; New England River Basins Commission, 55 Court...Federal Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87101; Pacific Southwest...Basins Inter-Agency Committee, 402 New Walton Building, Atlanta,...

2013-04-01

334

Large-Scale Conservation Assessment for Neotropical Migratory Land Birds in the Interior Columbia River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status and habitats of Neotropical migratory land birds (NTMB) are evaluated within the interior Columbia River basin (interior basin). Objectives are to examine population trends, estimate NTMB responses to alternative management activities, and prov...

V. A. Saab T. D. Rich

1997-01-01

335

Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M. D.; Amundson, Frank D.

1988-01-01

336

Silver and thallium historical trends in the Seine River basin.  

PubMed

Records on pollution by metals of minor economic importance (e.g. silver and thallium) but which prove to be toxic are rarely documented in river sediment. This study used two sediment cores collected downstream of the Seine River to describe the temporal evolution of Ag and Tl concentrations in an urban catchment. Radionuclide analysis (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210) allowed dating sediment deposition within the cores (1933-2003). Ag concentration reached maximum values of 14.3-24.6 mg kg(-1) in the 1960s and 1970s, before gradually decreasing up to values which approximated 4 mg kg(-1) in 2003. In contrast, Tl concentrations remained roughly constant throughout the core (median value of 0.86 mg kg(-1)). Suspended solids was collected at upstream locations in the catchment to derive the background concentrations in Ag and Tl. Very high Ag concentrations were measured in the upstream Seine River sites (0.33-0.59 mg kg(-1)), compared to the values reported in the literature (0.055 mg kg(-1)). This suggests the presence of a widespread and ancient Ag pollution in the Seine River basin, as demonstrated by the very high Ag enrichment ratios recorded in the cores. Annual flux of particulate Ag in the Seine River was estimated at 1.7 t yr(-1) in 2003. In contrast, Tl concentrations remained in the same order of magnitude as the natural background signal (0.3-0.5 mg kg(-1)). This study suggests that the Seine River basin is free of Tl contamination. Future concerns should hence mostly rely on Ag contamination, in a context of increasing Ag uses and possible releases to the environment. PMID:20938543

Ayrault, Sophie; Priadi, Cindy Rianti; Evrard, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe

2010-10-11

337

Sources of nitrate yields in the Mississippi River Basin.  

PubMed

Riverine nitrate N in the Mississippi River leads to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Several recent modeling studies estimated major N inputs and suggested source areas that could be targeted for conservation programs. We conducted a similar analysis with more recent and extensive data that demonstrates the importance of hydrology in controlling the percentage of net N inputs (NNI) exported by rivers. The average fraction of annual riverine nitrate N export/NNI ranged from 0.05 for the lower Mississippi subbasin to 0.3 for the upper Mississippi River basin and as high as 1.4 (4.2 in a wet year) for the Embarras River watershed, a mostly tile-drained basin. Intensive corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] watersheds on Mollisols had low NNI values and when combined with riverine N losses suggest a net depletion of soil organic N. We used county-level data to develop a nonlinear model ofN inputs and landscape factors that were related to winter-spring riverine nitrate yields for 153 watersheds within the basin. We found that river runoff times fertilizer N input was the major predictive term, explaining 76% of the variation in the model. Fertilizer inputs were highly correlated with fraction of land area in row crops. Tile drainage explained 17% of the spatial variation in winter-spring nitrate yield, whereas human consumption of N (i.e., sewage effluent) accounted for 7%. Net N inputs were not a good predictor of riverine nitrate N yields, nor were other N balances. We used this model to predict the expected nitrate N yield from each county in the Mississippi River basin; the greatest nitrate N yields corresponded to the highly productive, tile-drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. This analysis can be used to guide decisions about where efforts to reduce nitrate N losses can be most effectively targeted to improve local water quality and reduce export to the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21043271

David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E; McIsaac, Gregory F

338

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force a hydrologic model utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the CBRFC hydrologic model is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the CBRFC's hydrologic model resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2010-08-01

339

Salinity Trends in Surface Waters of the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved-solids data collected in the Upper Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, Colorado, and in the Gunnison River Basin were analyzed for trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentra- tions and loads for water years 1970 to 1993, 1980 to 1993, and 1986 to 1993. Trend results for flow-adjusted periodic dissolved-solids con- centrations for the Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, CO,

Nancy J. Bauch; Norman E. Spahr

1998-01-01

340

Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-08-01

341

Episodic Emplacement of Sediment + Carbon within Large Tropical River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of advanced methods for imaging (sub-bottom sonar and ERGI), dating (high resolution 210-Pb and 14-C from deep cores), and biogeochemical analysis have facilitated the characterization and inter-comparison of floodplain sedimentation rates, styles, and carbon loading across disparate large river basins. Two examples explored here are the near-pristine 72,000 km2 Beni River basin in northern Bolivia and the similarly natural 36,000 km2 Strickland River basin in Papua New Guinea - that are located on either side of the Equatorial Pacific warm pool that drives the ENSO phenomenon. Our published research suggests that large, rapid-rise, cold-phase ENSO floods account for the preponderance of sediment accumulation within these two tropical systems. New results to be presented at EGU further clarify the extent of modern deposits (~100 yrs) within both systems and add a deeper perspective into how these extensive floodplains developed over the Holocene, both in response to external forcing (climate and base level) and internal system morphodynamics. The vast scale of these temporally discrete deposits (typically 100s of millions of tonnes over relatively short time periods) involved equate to high burial rates, which in turn support the high carbon loadings sequestered within the resulting sedimentary deposits. We have identified the principal source of this carbon and sedimentary material to be extensive landslides throughout the high-relief headwaters - failures that deliver huge charges of pulverized rock and soil directly into canyons (in both the Bolivian Andes and the PNG Highlands), where raging floodwaters provide efficient transport to lowland depocentres. We present recent results from our research in these basins, providing insight into the details of such enormous mass budgets that result in a signicant carbon sink within the floodplains. Processes, timing, and rates are compared between the two systems, providing insight into the nature of geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling within tropical dispersal systems.

Aalto, R.; Aufdenkampe, A.

2012-04-01

342

Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations alone. Verification of these results by local, in-situ measurements can increase our confidence in these methods. However, this work demonstrates the ability to establish a starting point for water resources planners in southern Africa and other regions with intermittent or sparse streamflow observations.

Minihane, M.

2011-12-01

343

Delineation and Correlation of Salinity to Landforms and Geologic Formations, Upper Colorado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation was aimed at assessment of the potential contribution of dissolved mineral salts by natural lands in the Grand and Gunnison River Valleys in the Upper Colorado River Basin. The Mancos, Sego and Mount Garfield formations, are important co...

A. E. Deyo C. G. Higgins K. K. Tanji L. D. Whittig

1986-01-01

344

Effects of Water Level Changes on Fishes of the Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of surface water withdrawal on habitat availability and quality were investigated in one lacustrine (Mossy Lake) and various river habitats in the Yazoo River Basin during the summer and fall of 1984 for the following fishes: bigmouth buffalo ...

K. J. Killgore A. C. Miller

1985-01-01

345

Evaluation of Population Estimates for Colorado Pikeminnow and Humpback Chub in the Upper Colorado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (UCRRP) coordinates population estimates for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and humpback chub (Gila cypha) in the Colorado River Basin. Reliable and precise estimates are...

2006-01-01

346

Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre-projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

2010-12-01

347

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

348

Nutrient mobility within river basins: a European perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this special issue of the Journal of Hydrology is brought together with associated information of relevance to the thematic area in this concluding paper. Some of the important gaps in our current knowledge are outlined with a view to identifying future research needs for the development of an integrated analysis of nutrients in river basins and their management. Identification of these needs is important if we are to meet the defined set of catchment management objectives specified under the EU Water Framework Directive that must be delivered against a specified timetable. The Directive raises wider concerns such as how to define ‘good ecological status’ and pertinent to this special issue: what role nutrients have in framing this definition. In this paper, the importance of nutrient pressures on receiving waters is evaluated in the context of the key scientific uncertainties and options for characterising the biological, physico-chemical and hydro-morphological parameters necessary to meet the science needs of the Directive. An assessment of the significance of nutrient mobility within river basins for current understanding of freshwater systems functioning on a catchment and basin scale is made together with an evaluation of where research on nutrient pressures should be focussed in order underpin effective management.

Neal, Colin; Heathwaite, A. L.

2005-03-01

349

An integrated geophysical approach for imaging subbasalt sedimentary basins: Case study of Jam River Basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anintegratedgeophysicalstrategycomprisingdeepelectrical resistivity and gravity data was devised to image subbasalt sedi- mentarybasins.A3Dgravityinversionwasusedtodeterminethe basementstructureofthePermiansedimentsunderlyingtheCre- taceous formation of the Jam River basin in India.The thickness of the Cretaceous formation above the Permian sediments esti- mated from modeling 60 deep-electric-sounding data points agrees well with drilling information. The gravity effect of mass deficit between the Cretaceous and Permian formations was found using 3D

V. Chakravarthi; G. B. K. Shankar; D. Muralidharan; T. Harinarayana; N. Sundararajan

2007-01-01

350

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr-1 in the HRB over 2004-2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr-1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P. H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-05-01

351

Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.

2009-01-01

352

Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

2009-12-01

353

Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

2008-12-01

354

Performance of dynamical downscaling for Colorado River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing 2000s western U.S. drought has focused attention on drought susceptibility of the Colorado River basin. There is a concern that many climate models predict permanently drier conditions for the next century over the Colorado basin, however interpretation of these projections is complicated by their coarse spatial resolution which does not resolve the role of the relatively small mountain headwaters area that is the source of much of the basin’s runoff. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to resolve these spatial scales, and for this reason arguably should be a preferred source of information about the future hydrology of the Colorado basin. We use the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF/ARW) regional climate model to explore the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the basin. Initially, we selected three years -- 1993 (wet), 2002 (dry), and 1980 (normal) as test cases, with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis. For these years, we evaluated the impact of domain size through comparison with WRF runs performed for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) Phase I, with particular attention to the Colorado River basin. We also tested spatial resolutions of 16 km and 25 km in addition to the NARCCAP 50 km spatial resolution. We then performed an 11-year current climate run for the period 1980-1990 with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis at 50 km spatial resolution and compared spatial patterns of simulated winter precipitation and snow water equivalent (SWE) with the 1/8-degree historical North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data set. Subsequently, we evaluated the impacts of projected future climate change on changes in the spatial distribution of winter precipitation and SWE using 10-year runs with boundary conditions taken from the CCSM General Circulation Model for current and mid-21st century boundary conditions. We also compared the RCM results for current and future climate with inferred changes taken directly from the GCM via statistical downscaling.

Gao, Y.; Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2009-12-01

355

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

1986-08-01

356

Sustainable Water Management in the Major Basins of South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Asia is the setting for rapid socioeconomic development, demographic growth and change, policy achievements and failures, and a variable and changing climate. These changes will have major consequences for the management of water resources which consequently affect the lives and livelihoods of over a billion local residents. This study will provide an overview of the water management issues of South Asia through the context of climate change in large river basins. The study reviews recent and ongoing studies of the Indus River Basin and the Ganges River Basin. The analyses employ comprehensive agro-economic & water resources management models. The modeling results reveal the emerging challenges to water management in South Asia and priority concerns to enable sustainable economic growth without environmental degradation. The results are expected to provide policy-related insights for adaptation to change for the major river basins of South Asia.

Yang, Y. E.; Yu, W.; Brown, C. M.; Savitsky, A.

2011-12-01

357

Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

2010-05-01

358

Basin-wide distribution of land use and human population: stream order modeling and river basin classification in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis. PMID:21416375

Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

2011-03-18

359

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2??C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4??C. A warming of 2?? to 4??C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from -39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

McCabe, Jr. , Gregory, J.; Ayers, Mark, A.

1989-01-01

360

Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New tree-ring records of ring-width from remnant preserved wood are analyzed to extend the record of reconstructed annual flows of the Colorado River at Lee Ferry into the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when epic droughts are hypothesized from other paleoclimatic evidence to have affected various parts of western North America. The most extreme low-frequency feature of the new reconstruction, covering A.D. 762-2005, is a hydrologic drought in the mid-1100s. The drought is characterized by a decrease of more than 15% in mean annual flow averaged over 25 years, and by the absence of high annual flows over a longer period of about six decades. The drought is consistent in timing with dry conditions inferred from tree-ring data in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau, but regional differences in intensity emphasize the importance of basin-specific paleoclimatic data in quantifying likely effects of drought on water supply.

Meko, David M.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Baisan, Christopher A.; Knight, Troy; Lukas, Jeffrey J.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Salzer, Matthew W.

2007-05-01

361

Development of Streamflow Projections under Changing Climate Conditions over Colorado River Basin Headwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are impacted by forecasts developed by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. Here, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. The NWS RFS is modified to evaluate the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2010-12-01

362

The 2010 flood in the Sele river basin (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 7th of November 2010, a deep Atlantic trough across the North-African Coast triggered an intense flux of hot-humid and unstable currents toward Italy. On the 8th of November, this trough extended over the Italian Peninsula, enhancing wind currents from south-west in the lower atmospheric layers in the west-facing regions. This structure has been almost stable within the following three days, from the 8th to the 10th of November. The southern currents, filled of humidity gained during their passage over the Tyrrhenian Sea, have generated diffuse rainstorms. Raingauges located along the Apennine range of the Campania Region have measured rainfall depths with estimated return period up to 90 years within time intervals of 48 hours, particularly across the Sele River basin (5.000 km2). At catchment scale, the overall rainfall event appeared as an unusual succession of three important sub-events, with a temporal scale of ten hours each. These sub-events generated three successive floods, with increasing peak values, within Sele sub-catchments (spatial extents of 1000-2000 km2) characterised by response times of the order of 10 hours. The overall event generated a major flood within the Sele River basin, with relevant damages to urban infrastructures, network utilities, agricultural and industrial settlements. The measured water level within Sele cross-section at Albanella (10 km uplsope the sea outlet) was the highest level ever measured since the gauge station has been established in 1933. A time series of spatial average rainfall depth from 1933 to 2010 have been reconstructed from historical daily raingauge data, in order to assess the return period of the spatial average rainfall depth across the entire Sele River basin. The probabilistic distribution of the catchment average annual maximum rain depth in two days is efficiently modelled by Gumbel law and the estimated return period of the two-days rain depth in 8-9 November 2010 is 130 years. Campania Region is now developing a new flood forecasting system for the Sele River basin to be integrated within the Regional Flood Warning system.

Biafore, M.; Cristiano, L.; Gentile, S.; Gentilella, M.; Giannattasio, M.; Napoli, F.

2012-04-01

363

Distribution and evolution of water chemistry in Heihe River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface- vs. ground-water chemistry in the Heihe River basin, assessed through field sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater, allowed geographical zones and chemical types to be differentiated. The geographical zones included: alpine ice-snow (>3,900 m), alpine meadow (3,400–3,900 m), mountain forest and shrub (2,600–3,400 m), mountain grassland (1,900–2,600 m) and desert grassland (1,500–1,900 m). Groundwater chemical types included: (1) mountain fissure and piedmont gravel,

Q. Feng; W. Liu; Y. H. Su; Y. W. Zhang; J. H. Si

2004-01-01

364

Mercury in the Tapajós River basin, Brazilian Amazon: a review.  

PubMed

This paper presents a review about mercury contamination and human exposure in the Tapajós River basin (Brazil), one of the major tributaries of the Amazon impacted by traditional gold mining from the mid 1980s. The most recent review in this region was published more than ten years ago and since then many articles about environment and especially human populations have revealed new aspects of mercury toxicology. Additionally, new biomarkers of mercury exposure and toxicity have been studied in these populations. However, there are still many open, about both mercury's biogeochemical cycle and mercury health risks. Further environmental and human risk research directions are proposed. PMID:20483161

Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C; Guzmán Bernardo, F J; Jiménez Moreno, M; Herculano, A M; do Nascimento, J L M; Crespo-López, M E

2010-05-16

365

Ohio River Basin energy study: Land use and terrestrial ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES) region consisting of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania is presented. This 122 million acre region has a variety of land uses, which are summarized. Also discussed is the terrestrial ecology of the region (climate, physiography, soils, flora, fauna, and ecosystem dynamics). For the various ORBES energy development scenarios, land use conversion due to energy-related use was calculated, and impacts on terrestrial ecology were determined by application of the terrestrial ecosystem assessment methodology developed for ORBES.

Randolph, J. C.; Jones, W. W.

1981-09-01

366

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

367

Comprehensive Water Quality Management for the State of South Dakota. 303(e) Basin Plan for the Niobrara River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document states South Dakota's strategy for correcting water pollution and thereby improving and maintaining water quality in the Niobrara River Basin. It specifies the process of planning and managing pollution abatement operations to achieve South ...

1976-01-01

368

Water Source Dynamics of High Arctic River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meltwater from snow and glaciers exerts a strong influence on aquatic habitat conditions in many headwater catchments, yet there is currently limited understanding of spatiotemporal variability in water source dynamics of Arctic river systems that in turn determine stream physicochemical properties. Furthermore, identification of space-time dynamics in water source contributions to stream flow provides important insights into catchment hydrological functioning. This research gap was addressed by characterising the seasonal evolution of water source contributions (snow/glacial melt and soil/groundwater) to river flow at seven sites spanning a range of catchment glaciation (0-61 %) across north-west Svalbard during the 2010 and 2011 meltwater seasons. Hydrochemically-informed end-member mixing analysis demonstrated that 'quickflow' (i.e. snow and glacier runoff) meltwaters dominated river flow in 2010 in glacierized river basins (typically >85%), while discharge in a non-glacial system (i.e. no catchment glaciation) was maintained initially by snowmelt but become increasingly dependent on subsurface soil water inputs which comprised more than 75% of flow volume in late summer. In 2011, river discharge increased under warmer and wetter climatological conditions. Flow contributions from soil water were higher than in 2010, comprising up to 100% of total flow at some sites following the loss of seasonal snowpacks. In the context of future warming scenarios, these results provide the basis for analogue modelling of the impact of climate-induced hydrological changes on water availability and flow regimes in polar regions during the 21st century. A decline in glacial meltwater inputs and progressive shift towards the dominance of non-glacial water sources may affect ecosystem functioning and have important implications for local and regional biodiversity. Further work is currently ongoing as part of a broader linked investigation that will provide insight into the hydroecological response of Arctic rivers to climate change.

Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Milner, A. M.

2012-04-01

369

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1991, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. 1991 was the final year of this five year project. Work started in May 1 and ended on November 31. Preconstruction activity consisted of final layout and design of the project, movement of approximately 600 cubic yards of large boulders and 12 log trucks loads of woody material to the construction site. A total of five rock weirs, five rock deflectors, 20 woody debris placements and 79 individual boulder placements were constructed in the South Fork and the main stem of the Umatilla River. A total of twelve log weirs, four rock weirs, two rock deflectors, and ten woody debris placements were placed in Meacham Creek. In addition, 47 weirs in Thomas Creek and the upper portion of the South Fork of the Umatilla River were repaired. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the Umatilla River construction project area, and mapping and photographing all structures.

Northrop, Michael

1992-01-01

370

Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated

Salman A. Al-Shami; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Siti Azizah Mohd Nor

2011-01-01

371

Assessment of Interstate Streams in the Susquehanna River Basin Monitoring Report No. 23, January 1-December 31, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) reviews projects that may have interstate impacts on water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin. SRBC established a monitoring program in 1986 to collect data that were not available from monitoring progra...

M. K. Shank

2010-01-01

372

Ecosystem-based river basin management: its approach and policy-level application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Water Resources Management is an approach aimed at achieving sustainable development with a focus on water resources. This management concept is characterized by its catchment approach, inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach and multiple management objectives. There is an effort to widen the management scope to include multiple resources and environmental considerations in the river basin management schemes. In order to achieve river basin management objectives and multiple global environmental benefits, an ecosystem approach to river basin management is promoted. The Ecosystem-based River Basin Management aims to maximize and optimize the total value of the ecosystem functions relevant to classified ecosystems within a river basin by conserving and even enhancing these functions for the next generations. A procedure to incorporate such ecosystem functions into policy framework is presented in this paper. Based on this policy framework of the Ecosystem-based River Basin Management, a case study is introduced to apply the concept to the Yangtze River basin. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assessment report, this basin suffers from frequent floods of large magnitudes, which are due to the degradation of ecosystem functions in the basin. In this case, the government of the People's Republic of China introduced Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to conserve ecosystem functions related to flood events and magnitude, such as soil conservation, agricultural practices and forestry, while producing economic benefits for the local population. Copyright

Nakamura, Takehiro

2003-10-01

373

RADAR ALTIMETRY FOR STUDIES OF LARGE RIVER BASINS: HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE EUPHRATES-TIGRIS RIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of analysis of hydrological regime of the Euphrates-Tigris river basin using a satellite radar altimetry. We use the data from several radar altimetry missions: TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) (1992-2002), Geosat Follow-On (GFO) (since January 2000) and ENVISAT (since November 2002) satellites. We analyze the variability of water level for large reservoirs for the Tigris and Euphrates, as well

Elena A. Zakharova; Alexei V. Kouraev; Jean-François Crétaux; Faiza Al-Yamani; Igor Polikarpov

2007-01-01

374

Uncertainty in climate change projections of discharge for the Mekong River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mekong River Basin is a key regional resource in Southeast Asia for sectors that include agriculture, fisheries and electricity production. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater resources within the river basin. We quantify uncertainty in these projections associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity, as well as from hydrological model parameter specification. This is

D. G. Kingston; J. R. Thompson; G. Kite

2011-01-01

375

Uncertainty in climate change projections of discharge for the Mekong River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mekong River Basin comprises a key regional resource in Southeast Asia for sectors that include agriculture, fisheries and electricity production. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater resources within the river basin. We quantify uncertainty in these projections associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity, as well as from hydrological model parameter specification. This is

D. G. Kingston; J. R. Thompson; G. Kite

2010-01-01

376

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATION FOR ASSESSING COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES: A RIVER BASIN APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to understand the nature and state of geomorphic environment changes occurred in a southwestern coastal river basin of Bangladesh over a period of three decades (1967-2003). The study concentrates on the Kholpetua river basin, which receive fresh water flow from Betna in the upstream and tidal flow in the middle from Morichapa and finally

M. Shamsul Alam

377

Effects of Climate Variability on Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the Colorado River basin and relate them to climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the

R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; Peter A. Troch; Remko Uijlenhoet; P. J. J. F. Torfs; Matej Durcik

2009-01-01

378

Changes of Pan Evaporation in the Recent 40 Years in the Yellow River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on monitoring data of 123 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2000 near or in the Yellow River Basin, the spatial and temporal distributions and their trends for pan evaporation (PE) are investigated in this study. The results indicate that, despite the annual mean air temperature over the Yellow River Basin has, on average, increased by 0.6° over the past

Changming Liu; Yan Zeng

2004-01-01

379

Land Degradation in the Heihe River Basin in Relation to Plant Growth Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land degradation is a crucial issue in semi-arid and arid areas. The Heihe River basin is the second largest inland river basin in the arid regions of Northwest China. Land degradation is a serious passive problem for the socioeconomic development in this region. In this paper, we develop a land degradation model. Land Degradation Index (LDI), which integrates the main

Fengming Hui; Yongyuan Yin; Jiaoguo Qi; Peng Gong

2005-01-01

380

Sahra integrated modeling approach to address water resources management in semi-arid river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources decisions in the 21Sf Century that will affect allocation of water for economic and environmental will rely on simulations from integrated models of river basins. These models will not only couple natural systems such as surface and ground waters, but will include economic components that can assist in model assessments of river basins and bring the social dimension

E. P. Springer; Hoshin V. Gupta; David S. Brookshire; Y. Liu

2004-01-01

381

Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Çoruh river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Çoruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Çoruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities

Adem Akp?nar; Murat ?hsan Kömürcü; Murat Kankal

2011-01-01

382

An attempt of ensemble modelling of future hydrological regime for selected river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble modelling of hydrological regime may refer to usage of different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) coupled with one hydrological model, or usage of one RCM coupled with multiple hydrological models. Our goal was to examine future flow regimes based on different hydrological models. We conducted a river basin study based on one particular subbasin (Berze) of the river Lielupe basin.

A. Valainis; A. Timuhin; U. Bethers

2009-01-01

383

Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Rainfall in the NAM River DAM Basin of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into rainfall variability in time and space in the Nam River dam basin of Korea is made with the use of the coefficient of variation and the correlation coefficient. The Nam River dam basin is a small mountainous watershed where wind direction and orography are the dominant influences on the pattern and distribution of rainfall. Rainfall distribution was

J. I. Park; V. P. Singh

1996-01-01

384

THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HIGH WATER REGISTERED IN BEGA RIVER BASIN DURING FEBRUARY 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1999 was characterized by high water events with a rare probability of appearance, produced in different months of the year, in different river basins from the Banat Region (area situated in the south - west part of Romania). In Bega River Basin the most important high water appeared in the middle of February and was generated both by

Niculae Iulian Teodorescu

385

The main characteristics of the high water registered in the River Basin Bega in February 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1999 was characterized by high water events with a rare rate of occurrence. The events were produced in different months of the year, in different river basins in the Banat Region (area situated in the south – western part of Romania). In the River Basin Bega the most important high water appeared in mid February and was generated

Niculae Iulian Teodorescu

2008-01-01

386

The main characteristics of the high water registered in the River Basin Bega in February 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1999 was characterized by high water events with a rare rate of occurrence. The events were produced in different months of the year, in different river basins in the Banat Region (area situated in the south - western part of Romania). In the River Basin Bega the most important high water appeared in mid February and was generated

Niculae Iulian Teodorescu

2008-01-01

387

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1995 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1995 - 96 project period, four new habitat enhancement projects were implemented under the Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the upper Umatilla River Basin. A total of 38,644 feet of high tensile smooth wire fencing was constructed along 3.6 miles of riparian corridor in

Shaw; R. Todd

1996-01-01

388

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects

R. Todd Shaw; Amy D. Sexton

2003-01-01

389

Regional estimation of base flow and groundwater recharge in the Upper Mississippi river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge and discharge (base flow) estimates from two methods were compared in the Upper Mississippi River basin (USGS hydrologic cataloging unit 07). The Upper Mississippi basin drains 491,700km2 in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and outlets in the Mississippi River north of Cairo, Illinois. The first method uses the water balance components from the soil and water assessment

J. G. Arnold; R. S. Muttiah; R. Srinivasan; P. M. Allen

2000-01-01

390

Sulfur Isotopes in the Rivers of the Mackenzie River Basin: Implication for CO2 Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass budgets of chemical weathering in hydro-systems usually assume that the dissolution of CO2 in rain and soil waters provides most of the protons that attack rock minerals. However, the oxidative weathering of reduced species containing sulfur, such as pyrite, can be a significant source of protons. On a global scale, the origin of sulfate in rivers is still unclear. At least three possibilities can be envisaged: sulfate from sedimentary gypsum, atmospheric pollution and oxidative weathering of sulfide. As shown by previous studies, S and O isotopes of the sulfate molecule can allow deciphering between the different sources. In the aim of constraining the origin of sulfate delivered to the ocean by rivers and to refine CO2 consumption budgets for chemical weathering reactions, we have started to measure S and O isotopes in the largest river systems. Among them, the Mackenzie River basin is an ideal case, because it has been recognized by geologists to contain both gypsum and reduced sediments, mainly black-shales, rich in pyrite. The O and S isotopes of the sulfate molecule do show large discrepancies between the two main geomorphic units of the Mackenzie River basin: the Rocky-Mackenzie Mountains to the West and the interior platform to the East. For example, river samples from the lowlands are characterized by values of ? 34S ranging from \\ -3.25‰ to \\ -18.47‰ and those from the mountains varying between 2.06\\permil and 9.87\\permil. We interpret these values and the relationships between isotopic composition of sulfate and major elements as showing the dominant contribution of sulfide oxidation in the lowlands and gypsum dissolution in the mountains. The details of our mixing model, e.g. end-member choices, will be discussed in detail; but based on our data we calculate that 54 to 96% and 18 to 40% of dissolved sulfate come from sulfide oxidation in lowland rivers and mountain rivers, respectively. The mean value obtained for the Mackenzie River Basin is 32%. Assuming that protons added in water by pyrite oxidation react preferentially with carbonate rocks, we calculate that 30% of the protons reacting with carbonate minerals do not originate from the dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in soil water. For a long-term perspective and at a global scale, the oxidative weathering of sulfide coupled to rock weathering can lead to a release in the atmosphere of CO2 originating from the carbonate reservoir. This process may be significant in mountainous regions, such as Himalayas, where surface rocks have been recently exhumed and where high physical weathering rates sustain a continuous contact between fresh rocks and water.

Calmels, D.; Gaillardet, J.; Brenot, A.; France-Lanord, C.

2004-12-01

391

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

PubMed

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2013-04-23

392

Coal spoil and groundwater chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents data describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at two Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at the Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining

1988-01-01

393

Hydrometeorology Testbed in the American River Basin of Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, most precipitation occurs in the winter, as a mixture of rain at lower elevations and snow in the higher mountains. Storms from the Pacific carry large amounts of moisture, and put people and property at risk from flooding because of the vast urban development and infrastructure in low-lying areas of the central valley of California. Improved flood prediction at finer spatial and temporal resolutions can help minimize these risks. The first step is to accurately measure and predict spatially-distributed precipitation. This is particularly true for river basins with complex orography where the processes that lead to the development of precipitation and determine its distribution and fate on the ground are not well understood. To make progress in this important area, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is leading a Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) effort designed to accelerate the testing and infusion of new technologies, models, and scientific results from the research community into daily forecasting operations. HMT is a national effort (http://hmt.noaa.gov) that will be implemented in different regions of the U.S. over the next decade. In each region, the focus will be on individual experimental test basins. The first full-scale implementation of HMT, called HMT-West, targets northern California's flood-vulnerable American River Basin (4740 km2) on the west slopes of the Sierra Nevada between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. The deployment strategy is focused on the North Fork of the basin (875 km2), which is the least- controlled portion of the entire catchment. This basin was selected as a test basin because it has reliable streamflow records dating back to 1941 and has been well characterized by prior field studies (e.g. the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project) and modeling efforts, focusing on both short-term operations and long-term climate scenarios. Intensive field activities in the North Fork of the American River started in 2005 and will occur over the next 2-3 winter seasons, with less intensive long-term monitoring continuing thereafter. This paper focuses on activities that occurred during the 2005-2006 winter season (http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2006/hmt/). Several research observing systems from NOAA were deployed to the region to focus on spatially-distributed precipitation. Transportable and mobile scanning precipitation radars (polarimetric and Doppler) were deployed to complement and fill gaps in the operational radar network. Additional remote sensors that were deployed include wind-profiling radars, precipitation-profiling radars, and GPS sensors for measuring precipitable water vapor. Also, radiosondes were released serially upwind of the area during storm episodes. Precipitation gauges, raindrop disdrometers, surface meteorological stations, soil moisture/temperature probes and stream level loggers were operating within the coverage areas of the scanning radars. These will help determine the fate of the precipitation on the ground and through the river network.

Kingsmill, D.; Lundquist, J.; Jorgensen, D.; McGinley, J.; Werner, K.

2006-12-01

394

Modelling hydrological responses of Nerbioi River Basin to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate change will affect aquatic systems on various pathways. Regarding the hydrological cycle, which is a very important pathway, changes in hydrometeorological variables (air temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration) in first order impact discharges. The fourth report assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is evidence that the recent warming of the climate system would result in more frequent extreme precipitation events, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. Available research and climate model outputs indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99%). For example, it is likely that up to 20% of the world population will live in areas where river flood potential could increase by the 2080s. In Spain, within the Atlantic basin, the hydrological variability will increase in the future due to the intensification of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This might cause flood frequency decreases, but its magnitude does not decrease. The generation of flood, its duration and magnitude are closely linked to changes in winter precipitation. The climatic conditions and relief of the Iberian Peninsula favour the generation of floods. In Spain, floods had historically strong socio-economic impacts, with more than 1525 victims in the past five decades. This upward trend of hydrological variability is expected to remain in the coming decades (medium uncertainty) when the intensification of the positive phase of the NAO index (MMA, 2006) is considered. In order to adapt or minimize climate change impacts in water resources, it is necessary to use climate projections as well as hydrological modelling tools. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate and assess the hydrological response to climate changes in flow conditions in Nerbioi river basin (Basque Country, North of Spain). So that adaptation strategies can be defined. In order to fulfil this objective four subobjectives are defined: (1)selection of the future climate projections for the case study area from a wide spectrum of possibilities; (2) model the hydrological processes of the basin with a physically distributed complex hydrological model; (3) validation of the hydrological model with observation data; and (4) runoff simulation introducing regional climate model data selected. The analysis of climate models suggests that extreme precipitation in the Basque Country increased by about 10% during the twenty-first century. This increase of extreme precipitations raised discharge and water level in Nerbioi river basin. That is why in the 21st century it is expected that the flood-prone area will expand for precipitation with a return period of 50 years. In this context, it is necessary to define and evaluate different adaptation options which are already in practice or conceivable according to the current scientific knowledge. As well as evaluate the adaptation measures in terms of their ability to lower the vulnerability of water resources to climate change. For example, land use change could be a useful tool to adapt our basin systems. The land use plays an important role on the water balance of a river by varying the proportion of precipitation that runs off and the fraction that is lost by evapotranspiration. Therefore, both climate change and adaptation strategies will have an impact on the hydrodynamic conditions of rivers; particularly the changes in flow conditions will have a severe ecological, economical and social impact. As future work, adaptation measures will introduce in the future runoff simulation in order to evaluate the effectiveness and as a decision-making tool to operational organisations.

Mendizabal, Maddalen; Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Torp, Peter

2010-05-01

395

International river basin development and climatic change: The Lower Mekong of Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's most important effort in international river basin planning has been carried out in the Lower Mekong Basin of Southeast Asia. Coordinated planning of water resource development in the basin has been the responsibility of the United Nations-sponsored Mekong Committee, established in 1957. Original member nations of the Committee were Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Committee has made

1992-01-01

396

Eocene sediment dispersal pattern records asymmetry of Laramide Green River basin, southwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provenance and paleocurrent data from synorogenic fluvial sandstones can be used to constrain theories about the timing and structural style of Laramide foreland uplifts and associated basins. The Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming is a large ellipsoidal basin bounded by uplifts with diverse orientations and basement rock compositions. Sandstone from the main body of the Eocene Wasatch Formation in

R. J. Baldwin; D. W. Andersen

1987-01-01

397

Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope,

N. Neupane

2010-01-01

398

Use of Geometric Morphometrics to Differentiate Gila (Cyprinidae) within the Upper Colorado River Basin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video images of 215 adult Gila robusta and 148 endangered Gila cypha were col- lected from May 1991-October 1992 at eight Colorado River basin localities (seven upper basins and one lower basin). The two species were sympatric at five of these locations; G. robusta was absent at one site, whereas G. cypha was missing at two others. Saggital views of

MICHAEL E. DOUGLAS; M ARLIS R. DOUGLAS; OHN M. LYNCH; DOUGLAS M. MCELROY

399

Towards Upstream-Downstream Hydrosolidarity Australia's Murray-Darling River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray-Darling Basin is made up of a mosaic of contrasting and competing circumstances and community interests. These contrasts represent formidable impediments to realizing the mutual dependence and commonality of interests required to achieve and maintain true hydrosolidarity across a river basin. This paper discusses Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, draining more than 1 million km, and the attempts made to coordinate

John J. Pigram

2000-01-01

400

Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been

David L. Macke

1988-01-01

401

Freshwater fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River basin of China: patterns, threats and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesized information on freshwater fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River basin. We documented 361 species and subspecies that had been recorded and described from the basin. Of these, 177 species are endemic. The basin is usually divided into three parts, i.e. the upper reaches, the middle reaches and the lower reaches. This study indicated that the ‘three reaches’ approach

Cuizhang Fu; Jihua Wu; Jiakuan Chen; Qianhong Wu; Guangchun Lei

2003-01-01

402

Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tuscarawas River Basin drains approximately 2,600 square miles in eastern Ohio and is home to 600,000 residents that rely on the water resources of the basin. This report summarizes the hydrologic conditions in the basin, describes over 400 publicatio...

L. A. Simonson R. J. Haefner

2010-01-01

403

Data synthesis and bioindicator development for nontidal streams in the interstate Potomac River basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource agencies are increasingly confronted with issues of methods and data comparability when assessing inter-jurisdictional waters. The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) is developing an assessment framework for the diverse nontidal monitoring data collected by Potomac basin jurisdictions. The ICPRB's goal is to augment the jurisdictions’ water quality assessments with uniform, basin-wide evaluations of habitat and

LeAnne E. Astin

2006-01-01

404

The Alzette Experimental River Basin: Contribution of The Irma-sponge Project Frhymap  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main objectives of the FRHYMAP project being the developpment and the testing of hydrological and hydraulic model robustness and transposability, differ- ent models were developped by the partners of the project in their own experimental basins and then transposed to a common experimental research basin: the transbound- ary Alzette river basin (France, Luxembourg and Belgium) for testing.

J. F. Iffly; L. Pfister; A. El Idrissi; L. Hoffmann

2002-01-01

405

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

2002-01-01

406

A Yukon River Basin Landsat Mosaic for Assessing Environmental Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produced from 66 Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images collected from 1999-2002. Two products were created: (1) a geographically referenced database containing all seven of the spectral bands for the individual scenes and (2) a 3-band (shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and green - 7,4,2) radiometrically normalized shaded relief image map using the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset and Canadian Digital Elevation Data from Natural Resources Canada. The science data product will facilitate studies to map the extent of snow, ice and surface water at a basin-wide scale. Focused studies on snow/ice transitions for selected glaciers will be conducted in order to establish accumulation ratios for use in future monitoring. The mosaic also shows the complex patterns of wildfires in the interior forests and the diversity of ecosystems throughout the basin. The shaded relief product image mosaic is a reference map for reconnaissance studies as well as a geographic framework within which to spatially integrate project-wide data and information.

Bouchard, M. A.; Dwyer, J. L.; Granneman, B.

2009-12-01

407

Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

1982-02-01

408

Drainage areas in the James River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The James River of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface-water supply for the agricultural economy within the basin. Proposed water-resource development has prompted numerous hydrologic studies of the James River. To aid in planning for future development, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than 10 square miles within the James River basin South Dakota and lists by stream name and area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey seven and one-half minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins, reaches, and noncontributing areas and drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M. E.; Amundson, F. D.; Wipf, V. J.

1987-01-01

409

[Variation characteristics of runoff coefficient of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006].  

PubMed

Based on the daily precipitation and runoff data of six main embranchments (Haicheng River, Nansha River, Beisha River, Lanhe River, Xihe River, and Taizi River south embranchment) of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006, this paper analyzed the variation trend of runoff coefficient of the embranchments as well as the relationship between this variation trend and precipitation. In 1967-2006, the Taizi River south embranchment located in alpine hilly area had the largest mean annual runoff coefficient, while the Haicheng River located in plain area had the relatively small one. The annual runoff coefficient of the embranchments except Nansha River showed a decreasing trend, being more apparent for Taizi River south embranchment and Lanhe River. All the embranchments except Xihe River had an obvious abrupt change in the annual runoff coefficient, and the beginning year of the abrupt change differed with embranchment. Annual precipitation had significant effects on the annual runoff coefficient. PMID:21941759

Deng, Jun-Li; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2011-06-01

410

Runoff variations in the Luanhe River Basin during 1956–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decrease of runoff in the Luanhe river basin, which caused water crisis in Tianjin for several times, was investigated\\u000a using discharge data covering the period 1956–2002. The data from the differential integral curves of the annual runoff indicate\\u000a that the decreasing point began in 1979 in the six sub-basins. The decrease of runoff in the Luanhe river basin resulted

Jianzhu Li; Ping Feng

2007-01-01

411

Nutrient Mass Balance for the Mobile River Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source and fate of nutrients in the Mobile River drainage basin are important water-quality concerns in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Land cover in the basin is 74 percent forested, 16 percent agricultural, 2.5 percent developed, and 4 percent wetland. A nutrient mass balance calculated for 18 watersheds in the Mobile River Basin indicates that agricultural non-point nitrogen and phosphorus

D. A. Harned; J. S. Harvill; G. McMahon

2001-01-01

412

Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to support water resource planning and management

Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

2011-12-01

413

Statistical Development of Flood Frequency and Magnitude Equations for the Cosumnes and Mokelumne River Drainage Basins, Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-basin statistical relations allow for development of regional flood frequency and magnitude equations in the Cosumnes River and Mokelumne River drainage basins. Current equations were derived from data collected through 1975, and do not reflect newer data with some significant flooding. Physical basin characteristics (area, mean basin elevation, slope of longest reach, and mean annual precipitation) were correlated against predicted

R. G. Burns; R. W. Meyer; K. Cornwell

2003-01-01

414

A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. PMID:21546679

Jacobson, Linda M; David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E

415

Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

2011-01-01

416

A Water Balance Derived Drought Index for Pinios River Basin, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates hydrological drought characteristics using a water balance derived drought index in Pinios river basin,\\u000a Thessaly, Greece. The concept of hydrological management at subwatershed scale has been adopted because it encompasses the\\u000a areal extent of a drought event. Fourteen (14) sub-watersheds of Pinios river basin were delineated according to the major\\u000a tributaries of Pinios river using GIS. For

Lampros Vasiliades; Athanasios Loukas; Nikos Liberis

2011-01-01

417

Glacier change and glacier runoff variation in the Tuotuo River basin, the source region of Yangtze River in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and\\u000a high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period\\u000a from 1968\\/1971 to 2001\\/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence

Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Junli Xu; Donghui Shangguan

2008-01-01

418

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5/1/90 and ended 10/30/90. A total of five large log weirs, eight large rock weirs, 17 associated weir structures, 19 small to medium rock deflectors, four bank and island reinforcements, three rock flow controls, 19 woody debris placements, and 85 individual boulders were constructed in the South Fork of the Umatilla River. In addition, one large rock weir was constructed at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Umatilla River, and repair work was completed on 33 structures in Thomas Creek. Also, 300 cubic yards of rock and some logs and woody material were moved on site for use in 1991. Preconstruction activity consisted of moving approximately 1,500 cubic yards of large boulders, and dive log truck loads of woody material to the construction site. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the project area and, mapping and photographing and structures. 7 figs.

Northrop, Michael

1990-01-01

419

Isotope composition of iron delivered to the oceans by intertropical rivers: The Amazon River Basin case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverborne iron is a notable source for this biogeochemically key element to the oceans. Recent investigations have shown that its isotopic composition may vary significantly in oceanic waters. Hence, a proper understanding of the Fe cycle at the surface of the Earth requires a good characterization of the isotopic composition of its various reservoirs. However, as the database growths, it appears that the isotope composition of the riverborne Fe delivered to the oceans may be more varied than initially thought, in agreement with inferences from soil studies from different climatic contexts. It is therefore important to compare major rivers from different latitudes. We focused our attention on the Amazon River and its tributaries that represent ca. 20% of the freshwater delivered to the oceans by world rivers. Preliminary experiments suggest that water filtration may induce biases in stable Fe isotope composition. Therefore, we worked first on bulk waters, sampled during multidisciplinary field campaigns on the Amazon River and its tributaries, including the Solimoes, Negro, Madeira and Tapajos Rivers. Besides a complete sample physical-chemical characterization, Fe isotope determinations were conduced after water sample mineralization, iron purification and MC-ICP-MS analysis. Our first results reveal that most bulk water samples cluster close to the continental crust value (0.1% ?57FeIRMM-14) with an overall range of 0.2%. This is consistent with the restricted range found in lateritic soils elsewhere that represent 80% of the Amazon basin surface. Only black water rivers flowing over the podzols of the northern portion of the Amazon basin tend to show lighter isotopic compositions, down to -0.18%. However, sediment analyses suggest that this light Fe isotopic is lost through sedimentation on the river bed, thereby leading the waters to have Fe isotope compositions remaining close to that of the continental crust. This constant isotopic signature holds whatever the relative proportion of dissolved Fe in the bulk waters budget, that ranges from 5 to 50% in these waters, whatever the sample depth and whenever the samples were taken in the river cycle. Hence, given that several studies have shown that Fe loss through flocculation in estuaries does not affect Fe isotope signatures, we conclude that the bulk waters from the Amazon River delivered to the ocean should have an isotopic composition close to that of the continental crust.

Poitrasson, F.; Vieira, L. C.; Seyler, P.; dos Santos Pinheiro, G. M.; Mulholland, D. S.; Ferreira Lima, B. A.; Bonnet, M.; Martinez, J.; Prunier, J.

2011-12-01

420

From decentralized autonomy to central governance: case of Murray-Darling River Basin and its implication for the governance of Tai Lake Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Murray-Darling River Basin and Tai Lake Basin share much similarity in terms of their economic and political background, this paper presents a comparative research on proposing an effective solution to the interjurisdictional water pollution. With the study of the transition of the governance structure for Murray-Darling River Basin, a clear trajectory from decentralized autonomy to central governance could

Yang Yu

2009-01-01

421

Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in the San Joaquin River basin, California, January and February 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2000 in the San Joaquin River Basin was less than 21 percent of application in 1993 and 1994. A total of 13 sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during two storm periods. The sites included five major river and eight minor tributary sites. The highest concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos occurred during the storm periods. Four samples from major river sites (Tuolumne River and two San Joaquin River sites) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 microgram per liter, the concentration being considered by the state of California as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitat. One sample from a major river site (San Joaquin River) exceeded the equivalent State guideline of 0.02 microgram per liter for chlorpyrifos. At the eight minor tributary sites, 24 samples exceeded the diazinon guideline and four samples exceeded the chlorpyrifos guideline. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 19.6 pounds active ingredient; of this, 8.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. In 1994, 27.4 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 5.68 pounds active ingredient; of this, 2.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during the two storms. During the frequently sampled February 2000 storm, the main sources of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (25 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (14 percent), and the Stanislaus River Basin (10 percent). The main sources of chlorpyrifos in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (17 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (13 percent), and the Merced River Basin (11 percent). The total January and February diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis was 0.17 percent of dormant application; total January and February chlorpyrifos load was 0.16 percent of dormant application.

Kratzer, Charles R.; Zamora, Celia; Knifong, Donna L.

2002-01-01

422

Surface Water Quality Nitrogen Contamination in the Yellow River Basin of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

these regions are facing a severe water shortage due to the increasing demand on the Yellow River's water Nitrogen contamination is one of the most serious problems in resources to support agricultural and industrial develop- the Yellow River of China. This study was conducted to analyze monitoring data on nitrogen contamination for the Yellow River basin ment within the catchment.

Xinghui Xia; Jingsong Zhou; Zhifeng Yang

423

A distributed hydrological model for drought and flood forecast in the upper Yangtze River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangzte River (also called Changjiang in Chinese) is the largest river basin in China, which has frequent flood and drought. Building on the physically-based description of hydrological processes, a distributed model has been established in the upper Yangtze River for drought and flood forecast have been addressed in this study. For assessing water resources and drought, a large scale

X. Jijun; Y. Dawen; L. Zhidong; H. Wei

2007-01-01

424

A macro-scale hydrological analysis of the Lena River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A macro-scale hydrological analysis of the Lena River basin, located in eastern Siberia, Russia was carried out to understand both physical and biological roles in a cold region. A combined model which is composed of a SVAT model, runoff model and river routing model was proposed to explain snowmelt, evapotranspiration, thawing and freezing of permafrost, runoff formation and river flow.

Xieyao Ma; Yoshihiro Fukushima; Tetsuya Hiyama; Tetsu Hashimoto; Tetsuo Ohata

2000-01-01

425

Tracing Sources of Nitrate and Organic Matter in the Willamette River Basin During Summer Baseflow Conditions using Isotopic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of land use on water quality at the large river basin scale is poorly understood. In particular, quantifying the sources of water, nutrients, and organic matter to the river and linking these sources to specific land uses and point-sources of pollution is problematic in large basins. The Willamette River in Oregon is the 13th largest river by volume

C. Kendall; K. Lajtha; J. J. McDonnell; H. Johnson; C. Anderson; J. Frentress; S. M. Griffith; R. A. Grove

2006-01-01

426

Geohydrologic reconnaissance of the upper Potomac River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The upper Potomac River basin, in the central Appalachian region in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, is a humid temperate region of diverse fractured rocks. Three geohydrologic terranes, which underlie large parts of the basin, are described in terms of their aquifer characteristics and of the magnitude and duration of their base runoff: (1) fractured rock having a thin regolith, (2) fractured rock having a thick regolith, and (3) carbonate rock. Crystalline rock in the mountainous part of the Blue Ridge province and shale with tight sandstone in the folded Appalachians are covered with thin regolith. Water is stored in and moves through fairly unmodified fractures. Average transmissivity (T) is estimated to be 150 feet squared per day, and average storage coefficient (S), 0.005. Base runoff declines rapidly from its high levels during spring and is poorly sustained during the summer season of high evapotranspiration. The rocks in this geohydrologic terrane are the least effective in the basin for the development of water supplies and as a source of dry-weather streamflow. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks in the Piedmont province and in the lowland part of the Blue Ridge province are covered with thick regolith. Water is stored in and moves through both the regolith and the underlying fractured rock. Estimated average values for aquifer characteristics are T, 200 feet squared per day, and S, 0.01. Base runoff is better sustained in this terrane than in the thin-regolith terrane and on the average .is about twice as great. Carbonate rock, in which fractures have been widened selectively by solution, especially near streams, has estimated average aquifer characteristics of T, 500 feet squared per day, and S, 0.03-0.04. This rock is the most effective in the basin in terms of water supply and base runoff. Where its fractures have not been widened by solution, the carbonate rock is a fractured-rock aquifer much like the noncarbonate rock. At low values the frequency of specific capacities of wells is much the same in all rocks in the basin, but high values of specific capacity are as much as 10 times more frequent in carbonate rock than in noncarbonate rock. Nearly all the large springs and high-capacity wells in the basin are in carbonate rock. Base runoff from the carbonate rock is better sustained during dry weather and on the average is about three times as great as base runoff from fractured rock having a thin regolith. The potential role of these water-bearing terranes in water management probably lies in the local development of large water supplies from the carbonate rock and in the possible manipulation of underground storage for such purposes as providing space for artificial recharge of ground water and providing ground water to be used for the augmentation of low streamflow. The chief water-quality problems in the basin--acidic mine-drainage water in the western part of the basin, local highly mineralized ground water, and the high nitrate content of ground water in some of the densely populated parts of the basin--would probably have little adverse affect on the use of ground water for low-flow augmentation.

Trainer, Frank W.; Watkins, Frank A.

1975-01-01

427

Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

Eash, David A.

2006-01-01

428

Factors affecting pesticide occurrence and transport in a large Midwestern River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several factors affect the occurrence and transport of pesticides in surface waters of the 29,400 km2 White River Basin in Indiana. A relationship was found between pesticide use and the average annual concentration of that pesticide in the White River, although this relationship varies for different classes of pesticides. About one percent of the mass applied of each of the commonly used agricultural herbicides was transported from the basin via the White River. Peak pesticide concentrations were typically highest in late spring or early summer and were associated with periods of runoff following application. Concentrations of diazinon were higher in an urban basin than in two agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas. Concentrations of atrazine, a corn herbicide widely used in the White River Basin, were higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, well-drained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Although use of butylate and cyanazine was comparable in the White River Basin between 1992 and 1994, concentrations in the White River of butylate, which is incorporated into soil, were substantially less than for cyanazine, which is typically applied to the soil surface.

Crawford, C. G.

2001-01-01

429

Remote sensing research on fragile ecological environment in continental river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on some remote sensing data and software platform of image processing and analysis, the standard image for ecological thematic mapping is decided. Moreover, the vegetation type maps and land sandy desertification type maps are made. Relaying on differences of natural resources and ecological environment in Tarim River Basin, the assessment indicator system and ecological fragility index (EFI) of ecological environment are built up. The assessment results are very severely. That is, EFI is only 0.08 in Akesu River Basin, it belongs to slight fragility area. EFI of Yarkant River Basin and upper reaches of Tarim River Basin are 0.23 and 0.25 respectively, both of them belong to general fragility areas. Meanwhile, EFI of Hotan River Basin and middle reaches of Tarim River Basin are 0.32 and 0.49 respectively; they all belong to middle fragility areas. However, the fragility of the lower reaches of Tarim River Basin belongs to severe fragility area that the EFI is 0.87.The maladjustment among water with hot and land as well as salt are hindrance of energy transfer and material circulation and information transmission. It is also the main reason that caused ecological environment fragility.

Wang, Ranghui; Peng, Ruyan; Zhang, Huizhi

2003-07-01

430

Hydrogeologic data from the northern Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and geologic data have been collected as part of energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Powder River basin of southeastern Montana. Records of 1924 stock, domestic, irrigation, public supply and test wells are tabulated in the report. The data include well location, depth of well, casing diameter, type of lift, type of power, use of water, principal aquifer, altitude of land surface , water level, discharge, field specific conductance, and water temperature. Locations of the inventoried wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:500,000. Lighologic logs of 373 wells and test holes are also included. The geologic units considered range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. (Kosco-USGS)

Slagle, Steven E.; Stimson, James R.

1979-01-01

431

Environmental and hydrologic overview of the Yukon River basin, Alaska and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yukon River, located in northwestern Canada and central Alaska, drains an area of more than 330,000 square miles, making it the fourth largest drainage basin in North America. Approximately 126,000 people live in this basin and 10 percent of these people maintain a subsistence lifestyle, depending on the basin's fish and game resources. Twenty ecoregions compose the Yukon River Basin, which indicates the large diversity of natural features of the watershed, such as climate, soils, permafrost, and geology. Although the annual mean discharge of the Yukon River near its mouth is more than 200,000 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs in the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Eight major rivers flow into the Yukon River. Two of these rivers, the Tanana River and the White River, are glacier-fed rivers and together account for 29 percent of the total water flow of the Yukon. Two others, the Porcupine River and the Koyukuk River, are underlain by continuous permafrost and drain larger areas than the Tanana and the White, but together contribute only 22 percent of the total water flow in the Yukon. At its mouth, the Yukon River transports about 60 million tons of suspended sediment annually into the Bering Sea. However, an estimated 20 million tons annually is deposited on flood plains and in braided reaches of the river. The waters of the main stem of the Yukon River and its tributaries are predominantly calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters with specific conductances generally less than 400 microsiemens per centimeter. Water quality of the Yukon River Basin varies temporally between