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Sample records for indus river basin

  1. Water Availability in Indus River at the Upper Indus Basin under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the latter one is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C on May 26, 2010. The changing climate has impact on various areas including agriculture, water, health, among others. There are two main forces which have central role in changing climate: one is natural variability and the other one is human evoked changes, increasing the density of green house gases. The elements in the bunch of Energy-Food-Water are interlinked with one another and among them water plays a crucial role for the existence of the other two parts. This nexus is the central environmental issue around the globe generally, and is of particular importance in the developing countries. The study evaluated the importance and the availability of water in Indus River under different emission scenarios. Four emission scenarios are included, that is, the A2, B2, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. One way coupling of regional climate models (RCMs) and Hydrological model have been implemented in this study. The PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies) and CCAM (Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model) climate models and UBCWM (University of British Columbia Watershed Model) hydrological model are used for this purpose. It is observed that Indus River contributes 80 % of the hydro-power generation and contributes 44 % to available water annually in Pakistan. It is further investigated whether sufficient water will be available in the Indus River under climate change scenarios. Toward this goal, Tarbela Reservoir is used as a measurement tool using the parameters of the reservoir like maximum operating storage, dead level storage, discharge capacity of tunnels and spillways. The results of this study are extremely important for the economy of Pakistan in various key areas like agriculture, energy, industries and ecosystem. The analyses show that there will be much more water available in future under the considered emission scenarios but in some months there will be scarcity of water. However, by proper management and optimum utilization of the available water, the scarcity of water can be minimized considerably. Finally, a meta-analysis has been performed to present a combined picture of all scenarios considered in this study. One way to avoid water scarcity is to upgrade and install new reservoirs and water storage capacities to reserve the extra water during high river flow in Indus River, which will then be utilized during low river flow. __________________________________________________________________________________ KEY WORDS: Agriculture, Climate Change, Hydro-power, Indus River, Tarbela Reservoir, Upper Indus Basin, Meta-analysis, Hydrological model.

  2. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

  3. Land surface hydrological investigation in Upper Indus River Basin (UIB), North Pakistan under the Framework of TPE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is home to three of the world's mightiest mountain ranges. The Karakoram in north and the Himalaya in northeast while the Hindukush in the northwest of Pakistan. The Indus River emerges from the Tibetan Plateau and flows toward northern areas of Pakistan where it changes its direction toward the south and flows into the Arabian Sea. The catchment area of Indus River is located in Pakistan, China and India, but most part covered in Pakistan. The Upper Indus Basin lies within the variable influence of three major weather systems: the sub-Mediterranean regime of mainly winter, westerly storms; the summer monsoon; and the Tibetan anticyclone. The Upper Indus River Basin has a total catchment area of approx. 206,000 km2. The UIB includes the Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar and Shyok sub-basins. Nearly 11.5% (22,000 km2) of the total area of the UIB is covered by perennial glacial ice (including most of the largest valley glaciers) making it the largest area outside the polar and Greenland regions (Hewitt, 2007). UIB has a mean elevation of 4750 m with almost 60% of its total area above an elevation of 4500 m and 12% of its area (almost the same area is glacier covered) above 5500 m. Glacial melt is one of the major sources of inflow in the Upper Indus Basin, 44.8% of its river flow depends upon glacial melting. Its mean discharge at Tarbela dam is 5533 m3/s (IUCN, IWMI). Most of the annual precipitation in the UIB falls in the winter and spring and originates from the west (Young and Hewitt, 1990). Several researchers reported that 80% of the flow of the Upper Indus River is contributed by less than 20% of its area, essentially from the zones of heavy snowfall and glaciated basins above 3500m in elevation. Under the Framework of TPE Program, observational researches have been lunched since last year. The project aim to the objective of hydrological consequence of snow cover in UIB; impact of glacier dynamic to basin drainage and response of discharge to climatic changes during past 50 years. The presentation will highlight the research including field expedition in 2011, objective and strategies, and request to cooperation as well.

  4. Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra was dominated by reworking from the Thar Desert, at least prior to around 4 ka. Future work will deconvolve the relative influence of dunes versus fluvial components of the river. High-resolution clay mineralogy from the core sites will be carried out to establish a climate variability proxy. We will reconstruct a quantitative record of Indus Valley geomorphic-climate variability over the Holocene and test the hypothesis that cessation of flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra drove the Harappan people from the Indus valley 4,000 years ago.

  5. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

  6. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

  7. Hydrologic Sensitivities of Upper Indus Basin (North Pakistan) Rivers to Multi-Decadal Climatic Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhan, S. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Haifeng, G.; Jilani, R.; Hashmi, D.; Rasul, G.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal inputs play a vital role in the management and seasonal distribution of stream-flows particularly in snow and glacier fed basins, therefore the signatures of the recent climate trends can also be observed in various hydrological variables in those basins. Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is located in the western part of Tibetan Plateau, and most of its flows are dependent on snow- and glacier-melt produced water, thus the analyses of historical stream-flows and climatic indicators in the snow-melt dominated rivers of UIB was carried out, which points towards an advance in the spring flow onset time over the past few decades. Trend results reveal that warm temperature spells in spring have occurred much earlier in recent years, which explains in part the trend in the timing of spring peak stream-flows owing to earlier occurrence of snow melt onset. The observed increase in spring stream-flows and decrease in summer stream-flows suggests a broad shift of snow-melt yield and spring peak flows. These trends are found to be strongest at lower elevations basins where winter temperatures are closer to the melting point, even modest variation in temperatures are capable to enforce large shifts in the basin hydrologic feedback. In addition, it appears that in recent years due to winter and spring warming, more of the precipitation is falling as rain rather than snow particularly in late winter and early spring seasons, consequently it is speculated that this shift in precipitation ratio (snow vs rain) and early warming spells might also affect local (basin-scale) Albedo via early recession and systematic decrease of snow cover area, which tends in lowering Albedo from an increased fraction of snow-free area, which instigate positive feedback on radiative balance that can perhaps causes local-scale heat redistribution, which collectively in turn augmented winter and early spring stream-flows in those basins. These observed hydro-climatological trends over UIB can have significant impacts on water resource planning and management.

  8. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  9. Sensitivity of glacier runoff projections to baseline climate data in the Indus River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Michele; Rupper, Summer; Asay, Maria; Winter-Billington, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to water resources is particularly important in regions such High Mountain Asia, where glaciers provide a large percentage of seasonal river discharge and support large populations downstream. In remote areas, direct field measurements of glacier melt rates are difficult to acquire and rarely observed, so hydro-glaciological modeling and remote sensing approaches are needed. Here we present estimates of glacier melt contribution to the Upper Indus watershed over the last 40 years using a suite of seven reanalysis climate datasets that have previously been used in hydrological models for this region, a temperature-index melt model and > 29,000 km2 of ice cover. In particular, we address the uncertainty in estimates of meltwater flux that is introduced by the baseline climate dataset chosen, by comparing the results derived from each. Mean annual glacier melt contribution varies from 8 km3 yr-1 and 169 km3 yr-1, or between 4-78% of the total annual runoff in the Indus, depending on temperature dataset applied. Under projected scenarios of an additional 2-4C of regional warming by 2100 AD, we find annual meltwater fluxes vary by >200% depending on the baseline climate dataset used and, importantly, span a range of positive and negative trends. Despite significant differences between climate datasets and the resulting spread in meltwater fluxes, the spatial pattern of melt is highly correlated and statistically robust across all datasets. This allows us to conclude with confidence that fewer than 10% of the >20,000 glaciers in the watershed contribute more than 80% of the total glacier runoff to the Indus. These are primarily large, low elevation glaciers in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush. Additional field observations to ground-truth modeled climate data will go far to reduce the uncertainty highlighted here and we suggest that efforts be focused on those glaciers identified to be most significant to water resources.

  10. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

  11. Projected changes in climate over the Indus river basin using a high resolution regional climate model (PRECIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbhandari, R.; Shrestha, A. B.; Kulkarni, A.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bajracharya, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    A regional climate modelling system, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, has been used to study future climate change scenarios over Indus basin for the impact assessment. In this paper we have examined the three Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions simulations selected from 17-member perturbed physics ensemble generated using Hadley Centre Coupled Module. The climate projections based on IPCC SRES A1B scenario are analysed over three time slices, near future (2011-2040), middle of the twenty first century (2041-2070), and distant future (2071-2098). The baseline simulation (1961-1990) was evaluated with observed data for seasonal and spatial patterns and biases. The model was able to resolve features on finer spatial scales and depict seasonal variations reasonably well, although there were quantitative biases. The model simulations suggest a non-uniform change in precipitation overall, with an increase in precipitation over the upper Indus basin and decrease over the lower Indus basin, and little change in the border area between the upper and lower Indus basins. A decrease in winter precipitation is projected, particularly over the southern part of the basin. Projections indicate greater warming in the upper than the lower Indus, and greater warming in winter than in the other seasons. The simulations suggest an overall increase in the number of rainy days over the basin, but a decrease in the number of rainy days accompanied by an increase in rainfall intensity in the border area between the upper and lower basins, where the rainfall amount is highest.

  12. Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. ); Sutton, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

  13. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  14. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53ngg(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59pgm(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  15. Five centuries of Upper Indus River flow from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zafar, Muhammad Usama; Wahab, Muhammad; Khan, Nasrullah

    2013-04-01

    SummaryWater wars are a prospect in coming years as nations struggle with the effects of climate change, growing water demand, and declining resources. The Indus River supplies water to the world's largest contiguous irrigation system generating 90% of the food production in Pakistan as well as 13 gigawatts of hydroelectricity. Because any gap between water supply and demand has major and far-reaching ramifications, an understanding of natural flow variability is vital - especially when only 47 years of instrumental record is available. A network of tree-ring sites from the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) was used to reconstruct river discharge levels covering the period AD 1452-2008. Novel methods tree-ring detrending based on the 'signal free' method and estimation of reconstruction uncertainty based on the 'maximum entropy bootstrap' are used. This 557-year record displays strong inter-decadal fluctuations that could not have been deduced from the short gauged record. Recent discharge levels are high but not statistically unprecedented and are likely to be associated with increased meltwater from unusually heavy prior winter snowfall. A period of prolonged below-average discharge is indicated during AD 1572-1683. This unprecedented low-flow period may have been a time of persistently below-average winter snowfall and provides a warning for future water resource planning. Our reconstruction thus helps fill the hydrological information vacuum for modeling the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan region and is useful for planning future development of UIB water resources in an effort to close Pakistan's "water gap". Finally, the river discharge reconstruction provides the basis for comparing past, present, and future hydrologic changes, which will be crucial for detection and attribution of hydroclimate change in the Upper Indus Basin.

  16. Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. E.; Brown, C. M.; Yu, W.

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan relies on the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, known as the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) for its basic food security and water supply for all sectors of the economy. The basin that supports this irrigation system consists of the Indus River mainsteam and its major tributaries. The integrated systems framework used in this analysis provides a broad and unique approach to estimating the hydrologic and crop impacts of climate change risks, the macro-economic and household-level responses and an effective method for assessing a variety of adaptation investments and policies. In assessing the impacts, several different modeling environments must be integrated to provide a more nuanced and complete picture of how water and agriculture inter-relate. Moreover, such a framework allows for extensive scenario analysis to identify and understand key sensitivities. This is critical to making decisions in a highly uncertain future. Finally, through this integration of multiple disciplines, a richer and more robust set of adaptation investment options and policies for the agriculture and water sectors can be identified and tested. Continued refinements to the assessment approach developed in this volume will further help to sharpen critical policies and interventions by the Pakistan government. Fig 2. Impacts of climate change on GDP, Ag-GDP and Household income in the Indus Basin Fig1. The Indus River Basin

  17. Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

    Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

  18. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  19. The water balance as a confirmation of glacial melt in the upper Indus basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Droogers, P.; de Jong, S. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2009-04-01

    The spatial variation in observed and projected climate change is large and mountain ranges and their downstream areas are particularly vulnerable for several reasons. Firstly, the rate of warming in the lower troposphere increases with altitude, i.e. temperatures will increase more in high mountains than at low altitudes. Secondly, mountain areas exhibit a large spatial variation in climate zones due to large differences in altitude over small horizontal distances. These conditions make mountain areas more vulnerable to climate change. Finally, mountains play an important role in the water supply of downstream areas. More than one sixth of the global population depends on water supplied by mountains and changes in hydrology and water availability are expected to be large in mountain basins. Especially the diminishing role of snow and ice as a natural store for water supply will have a tremendous impact. For all of these reasons knowledge on snow cover and ice dynamics and how it influences water availability is of great importance and surprisingly regional studies on this topic are largely lacking. The focus of this study is on the upper Indus basin, where snow and ice melt from the Himalayan and Karakoram ranges constitute the most dominant part of river discharge in comparison with other large Asian rivers. Similar to other glaciated areas global warming also has its effect here. However the effects of climate change on the cryosphere and subsequently on the basin hydrology remain largely unknown. In this study various remote sensing products are used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin from 1999 to 2008. It is shown that remote sensing allows detection of spatial-temporal patterns of snow cover across large areas in inaccessible terrain, providing useful information on a critical component of the hydrological cycle. The upper Indus basin is, for its water resources, most dependent on snow and ice melt and large parts are snow covered for prolonged periods of the year. A significant negative winter snow cover trend was identified for the upper Indus basin. A hydrological model is used and forced with remotely sensed derived precipitation and snow cover. The model is calibrated using daily discharges from 2000 to 2005 and stream flow in the upper Indus basin can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. From the analysis it is concluded that there are clear indications that climate change is significantly affecting the hydrology of the upper Indus basin due to accelerated glacial melting. This conclusion is primarily based on the observation that the average annual precipitation over a five year period is less than the observed stream flow and the unexplained source of water is proxy for the cryospheric changes in the basin. We conservatively estimate the annual loss of ice to be 1% of the total ice reserve. Using the calibrated model and results of the PRECIS climate model several climate change scenarios are then simulated to assess the effects of the hydrograph. All scenarios show a shift in discharge from summer to spring due to accelerated melt and a shift from snow to rain precipitation.

  20. Fluvial-aeolian interactions in sediment routing and sedimentary signal buffering: an example from the Indus Basin and Thar Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Carter, Andrew; Alizai, Anwar; VanLaningham, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Sediment production and its subsequent preservation in the marine stratigraphic record offshore of large rivers are linked by complex sediment-transfer systems. To interpret the stratigraphic record it is critical to understand how environmental signals transfer from sedimentary source regions to depositional sinks, and in particular to understand the role of buffering in obscuring climatic or tectonic signals. In dryland regions, signal buffering can include sediment cycling through linked fluvial and eolian systems. We investigate sediment-routing connectivity between the Indus River and the Thar Desert, where fluvial and eolian systems exchanged sediment over large spatial scales (hundreds of kilometers). Summer monsoon winds recycle sediment from the lower Indus River and delta northeastward, i.e., downwind and upstream, into the desert. Far-field eolian recycling of Indus sediment is important enough to control sediment provenance at the downwind end of the desert substantially, although the proportion of Indus sediment of various ages varies regionally within the desert; dune sands in the northwestern Thar Desert resemble the Late HoloceneRecent Indus delta, requiring short transport and reworking times. On smaller spatial scales (110 m) along fluvial channels in the northern Thar Desert, there is also stratigraphic evidence of fluvial and eolian sediment reworking from local rivers. In terms of sediment volume, we estimate that the Thar Desert could be a more substantial sedimentary store than all other known buffer regions in the Indus basin combined. Thus, since the mid-Holocene, when the desert expanded as the summer monsoon rainfall decreased, fluvial-eolian recycling has been an important but little recognized process buffering sediment flux to the ocean. Similar fluvial-eolian connectivity likely also affects sediment routing and signal transfer in other dryland regions globally.

  1. Spatial quantification of groundwater abstraction in the irrigated Indus basin.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M J M; Immerzeel, W W; Bastiaanssen, W G M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to derive total annual irrigation applied in the irrigated areas of the basin during the year 2007. The SWAT model was parameterized by station corrected precipitation data (R) from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission, land use, soil type, and outlet locations. The model was calibrated using a new approach based on spatially distributed ET fields derived from different satellite sensors. The calibration results were satisfactory and strong improvements were obtained in the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (0.52 to 0.93), bias (-17.3% to -0.4%), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.78 to 0.93). Satellite information on R and ET was then combined with model results of surface runoff, drainage, and percolation to derive groundwater abstraction and depletion at a nominal resolution of 1 km. It was estimated that in 2007, 68 km³ (262 mm) of groundwater was abstracted in the Indus Basin while 31 km³ (121 mm) was depleted. The mean error was 41 mm/year and 62 mm/year at 50% and 70% probability of exceedance, respectively. Pakistani and Indian Punjab and Haryana were the most vulnerable areas to groundwater depletion and strong measures are required to maintain aquifer sustainability. PMID:23441997

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. R.; Fowler, H. J.

    Most of the flow in the River Indus from its upper mountain basin is derived from melting snow and glaciers. Climatic variability and change of both precipitation and energy inputs will, therefore, affect rural livelihoods at both a local and a regional scale through effects on summer runoff in the River Indus. Spatial variation in precipitation has been investigated by correlation and regression analysis of long-period records. There is a strong positive correlation between winter precipitation at stations over the entire region, so that, for practical forecasting of summer runoff in some basins, a single valley-floor precipitation station can be used In contrast, spatial relationships in seasonal precipitation are weaker in summer and sometimes significantly negative between stations north and south of the Himalayan divide. Although analysis of long datasets of precipitation from 1895 shows no significant trend, from 1961-1999 there are statistically significant increases in winter, in summer and in the annual precipitation at several stations. Preliminary analysis has identified a significant positive correlation between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter precipitation in the Karakoram and a negative correlation between NAO and summer rainfall at some stations.

  3. Predictable Equilibrium Multichannel Network Characteristizes The Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2015-04-01

    PREDICTABLE EQUILIBRIUM MULTICHANNEL NETWORK CHARACTERIZES THE INDUS RIVER, PAKISTAN Carling, P.A.1, Trieu, H.1, Hornby, D.2, Darby, S.E.1, Sear, D.A.1, Hutton, C.2, Ali, Z.3, Iqbal, I.3 1Geography & Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2GeoData, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 3SUPARCO, Karachi, Pakistan The Indus River in Pakistan between Chasma and Taunsa is a 304 river km reach characterised by islands dividing multiple channels. Previously, the behaviour of such channel networks has been considered unpredictable. Crosato & Mosselman (2009) argue that physics-based predictors of channel splitting developed for braided-river bars apply poorly to island-divided rivers and recommend the application of regime theory (Bettess & White, 1983) to predict the number (n) of channels in rivers such as the Indus. The Indus is characterized by two to 11 channels at each cross section with, on average, about four channels being active during the dry season and five during the monsoon. Thus the expansion of the network during the monsoon is slight and is due to reoccupation of channels that are dry during low flows. The network evolves on an annual basis primarily due to bendway progression, whilst avulsions to form major new channels are relatively rare (one or two in the reach per year) and are matched by a similar number of closures. Thus the network structure, if not its shape, is relatively stable year to year. The standard deviation of channel numbers comparing sections throughout the reach is practically identical at c. two channels and there is no significant variation between years. Theory indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the stability in the number of active channels through the annual monsoon and between years accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network that demonstrates local disequilibrium when 3 > n > 4, being perturbed by the annual monsoon. Application of the Bettess & White regime theory demonstrates that the river channel network does not respond to monsoon floods (which typically peak at 13,200 m3s-1), but rather it maintains a network that is in near-equilibrium with the 20-year mean annual flow (3090 m3s-1) for a narrow range of channel slopes (2.8 - 2.9 10-4) and a narrow range of total sediment load (120 - 180 mg l-1). Given the stability in n and B (channel width), it can be inferred that channel depths (d) also are relatively stable during the monsoon. Thus despite any minor adjustments in B:d during the annual hydrological cycle, the time-scale for adjustment of the physical network is much longer than the time-scale of the monsoon hydrograph, with the annual excess water being stored and transported across neighbouring floodplains, rather than being conveyed in enlarged channels or in new avulsed channels. The analysis explains the lack of significant channel adjustment following the largest recorded flood in 40 years: 27,100 m3s-1 in 2010.

  4. Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

  5. Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

  6. Quantification of glacier elevation changes using ICESat and SRTM elevation data in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas suggest an expansion of glaciers. Many studies conducted in the Himalayan region have focused on monitoring changes in the aerial extent of individual glaciers from remotely sensed data or through field surveys. Limited work, however, has been done in this region to estimate glacier volume changes using measurements of elevation change over time, particularly at a large scale. Here we used Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate glacier elevation changes within the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The elevation changes were estimated within snow-covered and clean-ice zones which were delineated using historic Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (Landsat) images. ICESat/GLA06 elevations data from spring campaigns, release 28 were used to estimate ice elevation changes for the period of 2004-2008 relative to 2000. The accuracy of elevation change was assessed by analyzing non-glacier elevation difference points within different categories of a Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI). This comparison showed that elevations precision decreased with increasing TRI, so using TRI to categorize glacier areas helps to identify data points with higher accuracy. Our analysis of elevation changes estimated from the ICESat altimeter identified two clear patterns in elevation changes. Firstly, glaciers in the northern half of the Upper Indus valley have thickened in the last decade, while those in the southern sub-watersheds are thinning. Secondly, glacier thickening occurred on the higher elevation snow-covered ice zone, while more thinning rates were observed within the clean ice zone for all sub-watersheds of the UIB, except in the Hunza river basin. Such results showed the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions.

  7. Impact of altitudinal variability on streamflows in mountainous catchments under changing climate (Upper Indus Basin), Himalayas Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Yaseen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pakistan's economy is based on agriculture that is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Various rivers i.e. Chitral, Swat, Kabul, Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar, Shyok & tributaries contribute water to main Indus River. The elevation of UIB ranges from 254 m to 8570 m a.m.s.l. Changes in climate and related hydrological impacts vary in space and time as affected by local climatic and topographic settings. So, the objective of this study was to assess the climate change and related hydrological impacts resulting from altitudinal variability. Trend analyses were performed by applying Mann-Kendall and Sen's method was applied to estimate slope time series that indicates changes in river flows. The results of this study indicate that maximum temperature in annual, winter, spring and autumn seasons has increased with increased in altitude while annual, winter and autumn minimum temperature has decreased with increased in altitude for the period (1961-2011). Moreover, annual, winter, summer and autumn precipitation has been decreased. The impact of altitudinal variability under changing climate yields that annual and seasonal streamflows in River Indus (at Kharmong, Alam Br. and Khairabad), Sawat (at Kalam) and Kabul (at Nowshera) have decreased whereas in River Shoyk (9%), Shigar (7%) and Indus at Kachura (5%) have been increased. However, annual runoff in Gilgit (1%) and Hunza River (18%) has increased by increasing 2 % annual temperature. A seasonal correlation coefficient between temperature and streamflow has the positive correlation in most of the sub-basins of UIB for both spring and summer. With increased 1 oC temperature in spring yields increased streamflow for rives Gilgit, Chitral, Astore, Shoyk, Shigar, Indus at Kachura & Kharmong and Hunza with percentage of 19, 5, 11, 15, 9, 7, 1 and 12 respectively. The prevailing trends and variability, caused by climate change, have an effect on the flows that should be considered by the water managers for better water management in a water scarcity country like Pakistan. On the basis of collected real time data, an awareness regarding present Integrated Water Management (IWM) working with up-to-date techniques is recommended for effective water on-going reform process.

  8. Effect of climate change on water resources of the Upper Indus River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, L. C.; Naz, B. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, accelerated glacier recession trends have been reported for the Himalayan region, based largely on the studies in the Eastern Himalayas. However, recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas, suggest an expansion of glaciers and a reduction in summer streamflow due to a significant decrease in summer temperatures. Snow and ice melt from these glaciers is the primary input to the Upper Indus River, upstream of Tarbela Reservoir, a water resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power in Pakistan. Given the complexity of variations in the Himalayan glaciers and their socio-economic significance, it is important to understand the mechanisms that governed these changes in the historical period. More importantly, it is critical to accurately project expected future changes in the extent of Himalayan glaciers due to anthropogenic variations in temperature and precipitation patterns and impacts of such changes on water supply and agriculture. Projecting future changes to perennial water supply or flood risk in the Upper Indus River requires a modeling tool that can represent the effect of glacier and snow cover fluctuations. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model is modified to better represent ice accumulation, ablation and transport in alpine glacier systems. Ice transport from the higher elevations to the lower elevations within a new glacial ice layer is represented via both ice deformation and basal sliding based on the Glens flow law. The transformation of snow to ice during the snow metamorphism process is implemented based on snow density changes within snowpack. The revised VIC model forced with daily precipitation and temperature data from the high resolution FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model for reference time period of 1961-1990, is evaluated at watershed scale using observed historical river discharge, glacier velocities and point observations of snow accumulation. Changes in streamflow seasonality in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are determined for the future climate period 2071-2100 relative to the reference period using daily precipitation and temperature data from RegCM3 climate model. The results from this analysis provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of glacier and snow cover variations on the magnitude and timing of total annual discharge of major rivers in the UIB.

  9. Hydrological Sensitivity of the Upper Indus River to Glacier Changes in the Karakoram Himalaya Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Owens, P.; Ashfaq, M.; Shafiq-Ur-Rehman, S.

    2009-12-01

    Due to the difficulties involved in field surveys and the absence of any long-term measurement program for glaciological variables in the Karakoram Himalaya region, a combination of remotely sensed data and land surface hydrological modeling are used to assess the effect of glacial fluctuations on annual runoff discharge of major rivers in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). In order to achieve this objective, changes in snow line elevation were first determined from mass balance estimation using a degree-day snowmelt model. The temperature and precipitation data from FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model at 25 km resolution from 1961 to 1990 was used as input to the mass balance model. The changes in snowline were also estimated from Landsat images available at the end of the melting season for the years 1977, 1998 and 2006. The mean elevation of the snow line from Landsat images within each 25 km2 grid cell for the period between 1977 and 1998 compare well with those derived from the mass balance estimation. Our preliminary results show a shift of snow line to lower elevations between 1961-2006 for highly glaciated grid cells (glacier cover more that 50%). The impact of these glacier changes on stream flow variability were first examined through analysis of observed Indus River streamflow for multiple gauging stations. The large scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, run using daily precipitation and temperature data from RegCM3, is then used to examine the effects of glaciers and snow cover variations on runoff discharge at a variety of scales with respect to different hydrological regimes (high-, middle and low-altitudes). The results from this analysis provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of glacier fluctuations on the magnitude and timing of total annual discharge of major rivers in the UIB.

  10. Influence of mid-latitude circulation on upper Indus basin precipitation: the explicit role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Saeed, Sajjad; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Since much of the flow of the Indus River originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of weather characteristics leading to precipitation over the region is essential for water resources management. This study examines the influence of upper level mid-latitude circulation on the summer precipitation over upper Indus basin (UIB). Using reanalysis data, a geopotential height index (GH) is defined at 200 hPa over central Asia, which has a significant correlation with the precipitation over UIB. GH has also shown significant correlation with the heat low (over Iran and Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan), easterly shear of zonal winds (associated with central Asian high) and evapotranspiration (over UIB). It is argued that the geopotential height index has the potential to serve as a precursor for the precipitation over UIB. In order to assess the influence of irrigation on precipitation over UIB, a simplified irrigation scheme has been developed and applied to the regional climate model REMO. It has been shown that both versions of REMO (with and without irrigation) show significant correlations of GH with easterly wind shear and heat low. However contrary to reanalysis and the REMO version with irrigation, the REMO version without irrigation does not show any correlation between GH index and evapotranspiration as well as between geopotential height and precipitation over UIB, which is further confirmed by the quantitative analysis of extreme precipitation events over UIB. It is concluded that although atmospheric moisture over coastal Arabian sea region, triggered by wind shear and advected northward due to heat low, also contribute to the UIB precipitation. However for the availability of necessary moisture for precipitation over UIB, the major role is played by the evapotranspiration of water from irrigation. From the results it may also be inferred that the representation of irrigated water in climate models is unavoidable for studying the impact of global warming over the region.

  11. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  12. Basin-wide water accounting based on remote sensing data: an application for the Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The paper demonstrates the application of a new water accounting plus (WA+) framework to produce information on depletion of water resources, storage change, and land and water productivity in the Indus basin. It shows how satellite-derived estimates of land use, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in addition to measured basin outflow, for water accounting with WA+. It is demonstrated how the accounting results can be interpreted to identify existing issues and examine solutions for the future. The results for one selected year (2007) showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (501 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The water storage systems that were effected are groundwater storage (30 km3), surface water storage (9 km3), and glaciers and snow storage (2 km3). Evapotranspiration of rainfall or "landscape ET" was 344 km3 (69 % of total depletion). "Incremental ET" due to utilized flow was 157 km3 (31% of total depletion). Agriculture depleted 297 km3, or 59% of the total depletion, of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. Due to excessive soil evaporation in agricultural areas, half of all water depletion in the basin was non-beneficial. Based on the results of this accounting exercise loss of storage, low beneficial depletion, and low land and water productivity were identified as the main water resources management issues. Future scenarios to address these issues were chosen and their impacts on the Indus Basin water accounts were tested using the new WA+ framework.

  13. Reconciling high altitude precipitation in the upper Indus Basin with glacier mass balances and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wanders, N.; Lutz, A. F.; Shea, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-05-01

    Mountain ranges in Asia are important water suppliers, especially if downstream climates are arid, water demands are high and glaciers are abundant. In such basins, the hydrological cycle depends heavily on high altitude precipitation. Yet direct observations of high altitude precipitation are lacking and satellite derived products are of insufficient resolution and quality to capture spatial variation and magnitude of mountain precipitation. Here we use glacier mass balances to inversely infer the high altitude precipitation in the upper Indus Basin and show that the amount of precipitation required to sustain the observed mass balances of the large glacier systems is far beyond what is observed at valley stations or estimated by gridded precipitation products. An independent validation with observed river flow confirms that the water balance can indeed only be closed when the high altitude precipitation is up to a factor ten higher than previously thought. We conclude that these findings alter the present understanding of high altitude hydrology and will have an important bearing on climate change impact studies, planning and design of hydropower plants and irrigation reservoirs and the regional geopolitical situation in general.

  14. Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of extremely high rainfall (point or areal) is one of the major components of design storm derivation. The estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) involves selection of heavy rainstorms and its maximization for the moisture content during the rainstorm period. These heavy rainstorms are nothing but the widespread heavy rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The present study examines the characteristics of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin selected from present climate and future scenarios simulated by the regional climate model. Such information on heavy rainfall forms the basis for the hydrologic design projects and also for the water management of a river basin. Emphasis is given to severe rainstorms of 1-day duration covering an area of at least 40,000 km 2 with spatial average rainfall of at least 5cm. This analysis also provides the information on the temporal changes in the storm factors such as shape, orientation, and movement, and shows that the model can well simulate the rainstorm pattern in terms of its intensity, orientation, and shape of the rainstorm, but overestimates the frequency of such heavy rainstorms. The future scenario indicates increase in rainfall intensity at the center of the rainstorm with decreasing areal spread. Decrease in the frequency of rainstorms is projected under the global warming conditions.

  15. Reconciling high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin with glacier mass balances and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wanders, N.; Lutz, A. F.; Shea, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-11-01

    Mountain ranges in Asia are important water suppliers, especially if downstream climates are arid, water demands are high and glaciers are abundant. In such basins, the hydrological cycle depends heavily on high-altitude precipitation. Yet direct observations of high-altitude precipitation are lacking and satellite derived products are of insufficient resolution and quality to capture spatial variation and magnitude of mountain precipitation. Here we use glacier mass balances to inversely infer the high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin and show that the amount of precipitation required to sustain the observed mass balances of large glacier systems is far beyond what is observed at valley stations or estimated by gridded precipitation products. An independent validation with observed river flow confirms that the water balance can indeed only be closed when the high-altitude precipitation on average is more than twice as high and in extreme cases up to a factor of 10 higher than previously thought. We conclude that these findings alter the present understanding of high-altitude hydrology and will have an important bearing on climate change impact studies, planning and design of hydropower plants and irrigation reservoirs as well as the regional geopolitical situation in general.

  16. Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network approach and water balance. Also, crop water demands, rainfall, and surface water are calculated to estimate the groundwater abstraction in different districts of Lower Chenb Canal East to understand its usage patterns in year 2008-09. Crop water demand has been estimated using SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm which is based on surface energy balance. Landsat 5 TM satellite images are used to estimate actual crop water demand and the results are compared with Penman Monteith method. The irrigation supplies are calculated from real time data collected by Project Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU), Punjab Irrigation Department. The PMIU envisaged for efficient and optimal canal operations oriented towards equity and transparency. Initial results from nodal network water balance model also provide the spatial variation in crop water demand for each node in LCC East. This work is also aimed at evaluating surface water availability and the assessment of spatial distribution of groundwater abstractions by considering the present crop water demand.

  17. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2011-03-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options.

  18. Surging glaciers and glacial floods in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    A review of glacial hazards in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan, has identified 52 catastrophic floods that have occurred between 1826 and 2000 arising from ice dam failures and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Surging glaciers have formed large ice dams, where the rapid glacier advances have blocked the adjacent river, and have failed subsequently releasing up to 3 km^3 of water in less than 48 hrs with peak discharges in excess of 40,000 m^3/s. Such catastrophic floods have had run-out distances in excess of 1,200 km and have caused major damage downstream and resulted in many hundreds of fatalities. Since 1980, 75% of recorded glacier-derived floods have originated from GLOFs with only few ice dam failures associated with surging glaciers. Glacier surges have occurred in clusters with individual glaciers going through phases of active surging and then quiescent periods in from 30 to over 100 years. Previous reviews of surging glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin have identified 20 glaciers that have demonstrated surge-type behaviour with the bulk of glacier surges apparently occurring prior to 1933. However, recent satellite imagery (Landsat-5 from 1998/99) has shown that there are a further 16 glaciers that have surged within this region, with several surging simultaneously and in recent years. At least one glacier has been identified on satellite imagery as going through a surge from 1998 to June 2001 when the resultant ice dam failed producing a locally devastating flood. The study has also demonstrated that there is no obvious link between what triggers an individual glacier to surge and climate change. Furthermore, within this seismically very active area, there is no evidence that earthquakes have triggered either surges, collapses of ice dams, or failures of other glacial lake dams, over the period 1927--2001 for which records are available. Surge behaviour within composite glaciers results in highly complex structural effects especially where tributary glaciers surge into main glaciers downstream. This paper provides examples of different styles of advancing glaciers and of surge-type glaciers and examines their associated glacial hazards.

  19. Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2008-09-01

    Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements. PMID:21396072

  20. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

  1. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin.

    PubMed

    Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Ludwig, Fulco; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Asif; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates at the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the high-altitude Indus basin. The available observations signified the importance of orography in each sub-hydrological basin but could not infer an accurate distribution of precipitation with altitude. We used Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation scheme with elevation as a predictor to appraise spatiotemporal distribution of mean monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation for the period of 1998-2012. The KED-based annual precipitation estimates are verified by the corresponding basin-wide observed specific runoffs, which show good agreement. In contrast to earlier studies, our estimates reveal substantially higher precipitation in most of the sub-basins indicating two distinct rainfall maxima; 1st along southern and lower most slopes of Chenab, Jhelum, Indus main and Swat basins, and 2nd around north-west corner of Shyok basin in the central Karakoram. The study demonstrated that the selected gridded precipitation products covering this region are prone to significant errors. In terms of quantitative estimates, ERA-Interim is relatively close to the observations followed by WFDEI and TRMM, while APHRODITE gives highly underestimated precipitation estimates in the study area. Basin-wide seasonal and annual correction factors introduced for each gridded dataset can be useful for lumped hydrological modelling studies, while the estimated precipitation distribution can serve as a basis for bias correction of any gridded precipitation products for the study area. PMID:26802357

  2. Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ahmad Z; Hafeez M; Ahmad I

    2012-09-01

    Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in Shyok River at Yogo and a maximum trend in Swat River at Kalam. Long-term recorded data used to estimate flow duration curves have shown a uniform trend and are important for hydropower generation for Pakistan which is seriously facing power crisis in last 5 years.

  3. Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2012-09-01

    Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in Shyok River at Yogo and a maximum trend in Swat River at Kalam. Long-term recorded data used to estimate flow duration curves have shown a uniform trend and are important for hydropower generation for Pakistan which is seriously facing power crisis in last 5 years. PMID:22109645

  4. The hydrologic sensitivity of the upper Indus River to glacier changes in the western Karakoram Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Bibi S.

    2011-12-01

    Recent controversy regarding the rates of disappearance of glaciers in the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain, has primarily been focused on the eastern Himalayas. Studies carried out in the Central Karakoram Himalayan region suggest an expansion of glaciers. Little information exists about long-term glacier changes and their impact on streamflow in the Karakoram Himalayas where field surveys are difficult due to complex terrain and long term measurements have not been collected. The availability of global remotely sensed and climate datasets in the public domain provides an opportunity for studying large data sparse drainage basins. Following this approach, here I use remotely sensed datasets in combination with observational-based and simulated climate data to estimate glacier changes and their impact on streamflow variability in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) located in the Karakoram Himalayas. Using Landsat images acquired between 1977 and 2006 and climate data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), change detection analysis shows that the extent of perennial snow cover at higher elevations in the Central Karakoram has increased coinciding with a significant increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer temperature. Similarly, analysis of glacier thickness change estimated from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter data available between 2003 and 2008 with respect to the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data acquired in year 2000 identifies two clear patterns of change in the UIB. Strong thickening rates are observed within highly glacierized northern sub-watersheds (i.e. the Hunza and Shyok River basins), while thinning glaciers are identified in southern sub-watersheds. Statistically significant decreasing streamflow trends identified in all seasons for the Hunza River basin and increasing trends identified in other sub-basins of UIB for the period of 1974 -- 2000 illustrate that observed streamflow response among sub-watersheds is closely related to the existence of distinct patterns in observed glacier changes. Trend analysis of water equivalence, snowmelt and glacier melt simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to represent glacier storage and melt, clarifies that increasing trends in ice and snow water equivalence and positive glacier thickening rates in the Hunza River basin decrease the melt contribution from higher altitude areas. Conversely, in other sub-basins increasing trends in streamflow are associated with increases in snow and ice melt contributions to the total streamflow. As a result of this study, an improved understanding of the governing factors of annual variability and timing of flows allow us to better assess the impacts of glaciers on streamflow in a changing climate. Additionally, the presented methodology for estimating glacier changes and their impact on streamflow requires relatively few data, mostly derived from global datasets. It therefore can be utilized for other data sparse drainage basins of the world.

  5. Human induced flooding of the Indus River in 2010: How it changed the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Major rivers in densely populated areas are typically heavily engineered to fulfill. water needs and importantly to ensure protection for citizens and structures. The Indus River forms no exception to this. The river has been dammed and engineered for centuries, comprising one of the largest irrigation networks in the world. The engineered river system results in a reduction of its outflow to 10% of its historical value, with commonly no flow at the outlet for several months of the year. During July 2010, extensive flooding occurred causing ~2,000 fatalities and ~20 million people were displaced for weeks to months due to a peak discharge that was not exceptional in any sense (~10 year reoccurrence interval). The northern breach was located near the Sukkur Barrage and likely caused by undercapacity of the engineered channel. We analyzed AMSR-E, ASTER-A1 and MODIS satellite data to map the propagation of the Indus flood wave in the main channel and through the major breaches. The flood wave traveled through the main channel in ~20 days and much slower through newly-formed avulsion pathway onwards from the breach at Sukkur Barrage (~42 days).Analysis of MODIS reflectance changes between pre- and post-flood imagery allowed analysis of the extent of sandy flood deposition as well as quantification of channel migration patterns. The river channel migrates over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event controlled by massive pointbar accretion and river cutbank erosion and slumping. Lateral migration averaged ~340m in just 52 days along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River. Crevasse splaying is widespread and appears to occur as a flow stripping process both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Crevasse deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. The mapped flood deposits are analyzed for different river stretches and quantitatively related to river gradient and sinuosity. The 2010 Indus flood shows an example of a heavily engineered system, it provides us with insights on flood water propagation and sedimentation and river migration in a river system with many dams and stopbanks.

  6. CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

  7. Impact of warming climate on the monsoon and water resources of a western Himalayan watershed in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn J.

    2015-04-01

    This study discusses the impact of a warming climate on the monsoon and on water resources in the Astore watershed, a major tributary of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). It uses precipitation and temperature time series data from climatic stations, European Reanalysis (ERA) interim precipitation data, and monthly river flow data, all for the 1984-2009 period. Monthly average temperature data show statistically significant increasing trends for November-June through this period, while June and July, which experience episodic and intense precipitation, show statistically significant but opposing trends between the first and second halves of the period. To examine precipitation and flow data in more detail, two equal sub-periods were defined; 1984-1996 (T1) and 1997-2009 (T2). Basin-wide average annual precipitation (based on ERA data) declined by ~29% from 1481 mm/yr in T1 to 1148 inT2, whereas during the same periods flows declined by only ~17% (1245 to 1061 mm/yr), suggesting an increase in glacier melt in the T2 period. Spring to early summer flows increased during the T2 period concomitant with shift in the streamflow peak from July to June. Increasing spring discharge, the shift in timing of annual peak discharge, and an increase in the glacial melt component in river flows have been accompanied by a depletion of glacial storage within the Astore watershed, especially in the T2 period. If recent trends in climate and river flow continue in the future, then river flows will eventually decrease more sharply once the glacial reserves can no longer provide sustained nourishment to the river waters. Thus, there is a vital need to prepare and adopt policies for water resource management and reservoir operation that support sustainable development, agricultural expansion, and increased hydro-power generation.

  8. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt runoff in a distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework at Upper Indus Basin, Karakoram region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Koike, T.; Xue, Y.; Wang, L.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High mountain river basins in Hindukush Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) regions are considered as 'water towers' of Asia with abundant source of fresh water as snow and glaciers. Upper Indus basin is one of the mega scale river basin in HKH region where snow and glaciermelt runoff is the major contributor to the annual runoff. The hostile climate, remote and extreme rough topography imposes many restraints regarding hydro-meteorological and glaciological observations, leading towards limited understanding of hydrological processes of river basins in this region. It is vital to integrate snow and glacier melt processes in a distributed biosphere hydrological framework to estimate the snow and glacier melt runoff and to quantify the river flow composition (snowmelt, glacier melt and rainfall contribution). An integrated system of distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework with multilayer energy balance based snow and glaciermelt runoff schemes (WEB-DHM-S model) was implemented at Upper Indus basin (207300 km2) with a spatial resolution of 1 km and temporal resolution of an hour. Model input were meteorological forcing from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), APHRODITE precipitation and de-trended gridded air temperature from observations. Simulations were carried out for two hydrological years (2002-2003). Discharge simulation results at multiple gauges showed good agreement with the observed one having Nash efficiency at 0.86. The spatial distribution of snow cover is simulated well as compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived eight-day maximum snow-cover extent data (MOD10A2). Model accuracy, overestimation error and underestimation error in snow cover simulation were obtained at 78%, 7% and 15% respectively. Uncertainty in precipitation was the main reason for the biases in seasonal variation of snow pixel errors. The model demonstrated its sound capability in comprehensive simulation of discharge with its flow composition, spatial distribution of snow cover and net mass balance.

  9. Penobscot River Basin overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The New England River Basins Commission has prepared summary reports on each of the region's major river basins. These reports concentrate on identifying problems in the existing network of planning and resource management programs. The most significant water resources issues identified in the Penobscot River basin are concerned with hydropower development, minerals development, forestry, and acid rain. Other water resource problems in the basin, principally related to the urban centers in the southern portion, include point source wastewater discharges, water supply needs, some flooding, and access to water-related recreation.

  10. Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

    2010-08-01

    The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers. PMID:20873207

  11. A quantitative assessment of the genetic sources of the hydrologic flow regimes in Upper Indus Basin and its significance in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Khan, Asif

    2014-02-01

    Reliable quantitative estimates of contributions melt water of different genetic sources make to river flows in Himalayan river basins are largely unknown. Here we provide such estimates for Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Analyses of historical flow records at 11 gauging stations spanning 14-48 years during a period of record from 1962 to 2010 reveal: a uniform character of annual flow distributions at all gauging stations given by a Gaussian function implying a unique glacio-hydrometeorological condition prevailing throughout the basin controlling four hydrologic flow regimes within UIB. Two low flow regimes occur during the months of October to December (L1) and January to March (L2) and two high flow regimes that occur during April-June (H1) and July-September (H2). For all stations, flow magnitudes follow, H2 > H1 > L1 > L2. In the main stem of Upper Indus River, the contributions to total annual flow volumes (m3) during these flow regimes are 53-62% during H2, 24-32% during H1, 8-9% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. In the main tributaries, these ranges are 47-74% during H2, 15-38% during H1, 8-10% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. Separation of annual hydrographs by linear smoothing and recursive digital filtering technique shows that the annual contribution of melt water (M2) from an elevation band 3500-5300 m to total annual flow volume (m3) varies from 41% to 54% along the main stem of Indus, upstream of the Himalayan foothills. Contribution of melt water (M1) from an elevation band 2500-3500 m varies from 16% to 29%. In the tributaries, annual contributions of M2 vary from 37% to as high as 65%. Similarly, annual contributions of M1 in the tributaries vary from as low as 12% to 34%. Thus, the relative importance of melt water originating from high-altitudes far overweighs that originating from mid-altitudes, in river runoff within UIB. The chief component of M1 is seasonal snows whereas M2 is a mixture of glacial melts, seasonal snows falling in winter and spring, and monsoonal snows falling in the summer (July-September). The M2 component contributes to base flows during L1 regime. Base flow recession occurs during L2 regime. During the H2 regime, three watersheds with greatest glaciated surfaces straddling the Karakoram Mountains contribute 48-54% of flows at Shatial Bridge, a point upstream of Tarbela reservoir up to which rainfall contributions to river discharges in UIB are inconsequential. During the H1 regime, these watersheds drained by Shyok, Shigar, and Hunza rivers contribute 20-31% of flows at this point. During L1 and L2 regimes, their contributions are 33-39% and 31-32% respectively. Contributions of glacial melt and snowmelt to annual river flows vary from 18-35% and 38-50% respectively in the major tributaries and the main stem of Upper Indus, depending on the location. Upper Indus River just upstream of Tarbela Reservoir carries annual flows constituted of 70% melt water of which 21% is contributed by glacial melts and 49% by snowmelts. Thus, changes in climatic trends will greatly control the future water availability within UIB. If glacial retreat and reduction of the perennial snow and ice covers are happening in UIB in a changing climate, then there will indeed be long-term reductions in river flows in UIB and hence sustainability of water resources in this basin will potentially be at risk.

  12. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Flling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before 200 ka and 50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and 30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late- or post-glacial sediment pulse seems a more likely source of this widespread sedimentation that has partly buried the dissected bedrock topography. Overall, the long residence times of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine deposits in the region (>500 ka) support previous studies, but remain striking given the dominantly steep slopes and deeply carved valleys that characterise this high-altitude mountain desert. Recalculated late Quaternary rates of fluvial bedrock incision in the Indus and Zanskar of 1.5 0.2 mm yr-1 are at odds with the longevity of juxtaposed valley-fill deposits, unless a lack of decisive lateral fluvial erosion helps to preserve these late Pleistocene sedimentary archives. We conclude that alternating, 104-yr long, phases of massive infilling and incision have dominated the late Quaternary history of the Indus valley below the western Tibetan Plateau margin.

  13. Validation of surface soil moisture from AMSR-E using auxiliary spatial data in the transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, M. J. M.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Rutten, M. M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryInformation on soil moisture is vital to describe various hydrological processes. Soil moisture parameters are normally measured using buried sensors in the soil. Alternatively, spatial and temporal characteristics of surface soil moisture are estimated through satellites. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is one of such satellites that estimate surface soil moisture in an operational context. These estimates need validation prior to use in various hydrological and water management applications. Such validations are normally carried out using field measurements of soil moisture. This is not technically feasible in vast river basins such as the Indus Basin and for pixel sizes of 25 km 25 km with non-homogeneous soils and land use. Therefore, AMSR-E data interpreted with Njoku model and posted by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for the Indus Basin is evaluated by comparing it against auxiliary spatial data. The auxiliary data exists of (i) land use, (ii) rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, (iii) seasonality of vegetation from SPOT-Vegetation and (iv) saturated water content ( ? sat) inferred from soil maps. A strong relationship was observed between rainfall and surface soil moisture in the land use class "rainfed". Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ( r s) between the soil moisture and rainfall ranged from 0.14 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.36. For irrigated land uses, r s ranged from -0.04 to 0.52 with a mean of 0.29 due to control of soil moisture by irrigation water supply. The temporal analysis of soil moisture data with vegetation time series showed resemblance with growth phenology. Higher Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) between the soil moisture and vegetation development was found for time lags of a few weeks. The daily maximum values estimated by AMSR-E ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 cm 3 cm -3. The maximum values were near, but below ? sat limits for different soil types. AMSR-E captured the flooding processes during July and August 2010 by showing the soil moisture values to approximate the saturated soil moisture content for areas that are reported to be flooded. This suggests that the absolute AMSR-E soil moisture data from NSIDC are accurate in the upper range of land wetness. It is concluded that AMSR-E surface soil moisture data exhibits spatio-temporal behavior, and the trends agree with auxiliary spatial data sets.

  14. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use planning and soil conservation as well as flood management, with a focus on the reduction of erosion and resulting sedimentation as well as the restoration of ecosystem services like wetlands and natural floodplains. Water demand management options include: (1) the management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; as well as (2) the rehabilitation and modernization of existing infrastructure. Other demand management options are: (3) the increase of water productivity for agriculture; (4) crop planning and diversification including the critical assessment of agricultural export, especially (basmati) rice; (5) economic instruments and (6) changing food demand patterns and limiting post-harvest losses.

  15. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  16. Timing of Indian-Eurasian collision from the Indus Basin in Ladakh, northwestern Indian Himalaya: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, A.; Hodges, K.; Edwards, C. S.; Gordon, G. W.; Wartho, J.

    2012-12-01

    The early Cenozoic Indus Basin of northwest India straddles the Indus suture zone and has long been regarded as having the potential to yield important constraints on the timing of collision between India and Eurasia and final closure of the intervening Neo-Tethys ocean basin. Unfortunately, three issues have frustrated previous attempts to capitalize on that potential. First, outcrops in the Indus Basin are deformed, making accurate reconstructions of basin stratigraphy difficult. As a consequence, published maps of the basin are discrepant - in some cases significantly so. Second, previously published detrital zircon U-Pb data for Pre-Oligocene sandstone units point to a distinctive Eurasian source, with scant evidence for Indian detritus, leaving open the possibility that deposition could have been prior to the docking of India. Finally, much of the succession does not contain age-diagnostic fossils and datable volcanic units (e.g., tuffs) have not been found. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study that has permitted us to overcome these obstacles and better constrain the timing of collision at this sector of the orogen. Detailed photogeologic analysis of most of the Indus Basin using all bands (visible to thermal infrared) of ASTER satellite imagery, coupled with topical ground-truthing in the field, has allowed for both improved mapping of the macroscopic structure and improved resolution of key stratigraphic characteristics. Based upon our map, we present both isotopic and trace element geochemical data from various, carefully selected samples. First, the distribution of U-Pb dates for detrital zircons from quartzite cobbles within the oldest Indus Basin unit are comparable to those found in Indian passive margin units. Trace element geochemistry of mafic pebbles from throughout the older Indus Basin units appear to demonstrate derivation from the Shyok suture zone, situated north of the local Eurasian source area. However, several clasts are geochemically similar to ophiolitic material found within the Indus suture zone, implying sourcing from fragments of the Neo-Tethys ocean basin caught up in the suture or obducted onto the Indian passive margin prior to collision. 40Ar/39Ar cooling dates for detrital biotite from a sandstone unit intercalated with an upper Ypresian marine limestone (the youngest marine unit in the Indus Basin) are more consistent with an Indian plate source region than a Eurasian provenance. These results collectively point to an Early Eocene (upper Ypresian) minimum age for India-Eurasia collision in this sector of the orogenic system, consistent with conventional wisdom but seemingly inconsistent with suggestions of Oligocene-aged collision (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007). Aitchison, J. C., J. R. Ali, and A. M. Davis (2007), When and where did India and Asia collide?, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.

  17. Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

    2011-04-01

    In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in facts typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

  18. Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

    2011-07-01

    In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in fact typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

  19. A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential implications of the vertical (hypsometric) distribution of these parameters are considered. Interlinkages between observed changes in these parameters and the evolution of large-scale circulation indices (ENSO, NAO, local vorticity) are also investigated. In parallel to these climatological considerations, the study presents the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- including interannual variability as quantified from the available river gauging record. In order to begin to assess potential implications of future climate change on UIB hydrology, key modes of variability in the climate parameters are identified. The study then analyses in detail the corresponding observed anomalies in UIB discharge for years exemplifying these modes. In conclusion, this work postulates potential impacts of changes in the hydrological variability stemming from continuation of estimated present local climatic trends.

  20. Sustainability Within the Great Monsoon River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    For over five millenia, the great monsoon river basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus have provided for great and flourishing agrarian civilizations. However, rapid population growth and urbanization have placed stress on the rural sector causing the use of land that is more prone for flood and drought. In addition, increased population and farming have stressed the availability of fresh water both from rivers and aquifers. Additionally, rapid urbanization has severely reduced water quality within the great rivers. Added to these problems is delta subsidence from water withdrawal that, at the moment far surpasses sea level rise from both natural and anthropogenic effects. Finally, there appear to be great plans for river diversion that may reduce fresh water inflow into the Brahmaputra delta. All of these factors fall against a background of climate change, both anthropogenic and natural, of which there is great uncertainty. We an attempt a frank assessment assessment of the sustainability of society in the great basins and make some suggestions of factors that require attention in the short term.

  1. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides from the Indus Basin, Pakistan: sources, air-soil exchange fluxes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Ali, Usman; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-11-01

    Present study aimed to evaluate the contamination status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their associated potential for air-soil exchange and health risks from ecologically important sites of the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Among different OCPs investigated, ?DDTs and ?HCHs were more prevalent compounds in the agricultural soils and ambient air samples of the study area. The average concentrations for DDTs were found higher at downstream agricultural sites, particularly at Head Panjnad (Soil: 320 ng/g; Air: 743 pg/m(3)) and acting as an ultimate sink of ?OCP burden in soils. Spatial distribution patterns inferred ubiquitous distribution of ?DDTs in soils and air of the study area. Source diagnostic ratios demonstrated that studied OCPs either are illegally being used in agricultural practices or/and they are residues of past use in the environment. Fugacity fraction model revealed wide variations (ff=0.12-0.94) with 20% of OCPs above equilibrium range and net volatilization of ?-endosulfan, ?-HCH and o,p'-DDD. Assessment of cancer risks for OCPs indicated a higher cancer risk (CR>110(-6)) for the residents of the Indus Basin. According to the available soil quality guidelines, DDTs and HCHs were above the permissible limits and pose a threat to natural habitat and biodiversity of the Indus Basin. PMID:25127446

  2. Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

  3. Hydrological cycle over south and southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

  4. Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, V.; Ul Hasson, S.; Pascale, S.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because precipitations are determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

  5. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)

    PubMed Central

    Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the worlds most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the worlds most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphins range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  6. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    PubMed

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  7. Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2011-02-01

    The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054

  8. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water Resources and Management of Tarbela Reservoir under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios in Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jrgen

    2014-05-01

    Water resources play a vital role in agriculture, energy, industry, households and ecological balance. The main source of water to rivers is the Himalaya-Karakorum-Hindukush (HKH) glaciers and rainfall in Upper Indus Basin (UIB). There is high uncertainty in the availability of water in the rivers due to the variability of the monsoon, Western Disturbances, prolonged droughts and melting of glaciers in the HKH region. Therefore, proper management of water resources is undeniably important. Due to the growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. For the assessment of possible climate change, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation were investigated and evidence was found in favor of climate change in the region. Due to large differences between historical meteorological data and Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulated data, different statistical techniques were used for bias correction in temperature and precipitation. The hydrological model was calibrated for the period of 1995-2004 and validated for the period of 1990-1994 with almost 90 % efficiencies. After the application of bias correction techniques output of RCM, Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS) were used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at Tarbela reservoir on Indus River. For climate change assessment, the results show that the above mentioned variables have greater increasing trend under A2 scenario compared to B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to Tarbela reservoir show that overall 59.42 % and 34.27 % inflow increasing to Tarbela Reservoir during 2040-2069 under A2 and B2 scenarios will occur, respectively. Highest inflow and comparatively more shortage of water is noted in the 2020s under A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climate are investigated on the operation of the Tarbela reservoir. The results show that there will be shortage of water in some months over different years. There are no chances of overtopping of the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under A2 and B2 scenarios. _______________________________________________________________________________KEY WORDS: Climate Model, Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Climate Change Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Inflow, Outflow, Evaporation, Indus River, Calibration, Bias Correction.

  9. UNCOMPAHGRE RIVER BASIN SELENIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Uncompahgre River Basin Selenium Phytoremediation Project will evaluate the ability of selected agricultural crops and trees to accumulate and volatilize selenium from contaminated soils in the basin. Three different species of plants (two types will be campanion planted) an...

  10. Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

    2011-03-01

    We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely Early-Mid Holocene, erosional state, in which the Lesser Himalaya were more important as sediment suppliers. Early-Mid Holocene sands show much less erosion from the Karakoram-Transhimalaya compared to those deposited at the Last Glacial Maximum, or calculated from the modern discharge. We favour variations in summer monsoon intensity as the primary cause of these temporal changes.

  11. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the principles of low-risk adaptation, participative decision making and local capacity building.

  12. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    The Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif has some of the greatest relief on Earth and highest measured rates of uplift, denudation, and river incision in bedrock. Many studies have sought to understand how its morphology relates to geotectonic evolution and glaciations. However, few catastrophic rock slope failures had been recognised and many of their impacts had been attributed to other processes. Recently more than 150 of these landslides have been found within a 100-km radius of Nanga Parbat (8125 m). New discoveries are reported east, north and west of Nanga Parbat along the Indus streams. Most generated long-run-out rock avalanches that dammed the Indus or its tributaries, some impounding large lakes. They initiated episodes of intermontane sedimentation followed by trenching and removal of sediment. Valley-floor features record a complex interplay of impoundment and sedimentation episodes, superimposition of streams in pre-landslide valley floors, and exhumation of buried features. These findings depart from existing reconstructions of Quaternary events. A number of the rock-avalanche deposits were previously misinterpreted as tills or moraine and their associated lacustrine deposits attributed to glacial lakes. Features up to 1000 m above the Indus, formerly seen as tectonically raised terraces, are depositional features emplaced by landslides, or erosion terraces recording the trenching of valley fill in landslide-interrupted river reaches. Unquestionably, tectonics and glaciation have been important but decisive and misread formative events of the Holocene involve a post-glacial, landslide-fragmented fluvial system. The latter has kept valley developments in a chronic state of disequilibrium with respect to climatic and geotectonic controls. Accepted glacial chronologies are put in doubt, particularly the extent and timing of the last major glaciation. The pace and role processes in the Holocene have been seriously underestimated.

  13. Modeling snowmelt-runoff under climate scenarios in the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Neppel, Luc; Ahmad, Bashir

    2011-10-01

    SummaryA major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Karakoram Range. It is therefore essential to estimate the snowmelt runoff from these catchments (with no or scarce precipitation records) for water resources management. The snowmelt runoff model (SRM) integrated with MODIS remote-sensing snow cover products was selected to simulate the daily discharges and to study the climate change impact on these discharges in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). The results obtained suggest that the SRM can be used efficiently in the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchments of the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The application of the SRM under future climate (mean temperature, precipitation and snow cover) change scenarios indicates a doubling of summer runoff until the middle of this century. This analysis suggests that new reservoirs will be necessary for summer flow storage to meet with the needs of irrigation supply, increasing power generation demand, flood control and water supply.

  14. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-01

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology. PMID:24604204

  15. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  16. Hydrological cycle over South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate how the climate models contributing to the PCMDI/CMIP3 dataset describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the 20th, 21st (13 models) and 22nd (10 models) centuries. For the 20th century, some models do not seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. The simulated precipitation minus evaporation (P - E), total runoff (R) and precipitation (P) quantities are neither consistent with the observations nor among the models themselves. Most of the models underestimate P - E for all four river basins, which is mainly associated with the underestimation of precipitation. This is in agreement with the recent results on the biases of the representation of monsoonal dynamics by GCMs. Overall, a modest inter-model agreement is found only for the evaporation and inter-annual variability of P - E. For the 21st and 22nd centuries, models agree on the negative (positive) changes of P - E for the Indus basin (Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins). Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of P - E for the Ganges and Mekong basins, thus suggesting an increase in large low-frequency dry/wet events. Instead, no considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of P - E is found for the Indus and Brahmaputra basins.

  17. Fifty-five million years of Tibetan evolution recorded in the Indus Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Shimizu, Nobu; Layne, Graham; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schlter, H.-U.; Clark, Marin; Amjad, Shahid

    Although the Indus Fan is only about one-third of the volume of its giant neighbor in the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the largest sediment bodies in the ocean basins, totaling 5106 km3. Its detrital sedimentary record is an important repository of information on the uplift and erosion of the western Himalaya. New seismic and provenance data from the Pakistan margin now suggest that the Indus River and fan system was initiated shortly after the India-Asia collision at 5 Ma. The modern Indus drainage basin is dominated by the high peaks of the Karakoram, Kohistan, and other tectonic units of the Indus Suture Zone rather than the High Himalaya. The Indus River, which rises in western Tibet near Mount Kailas, follows the Indus Suture Zone along strike before cutting orthogonally through the Himalaya to the Arabian Sea. The other tributaries to the Indus, such as the Chenab and Sutlej, do drain the crystalline High Himalayan range, but do so in an area where its topography is much reduced (Figure 1). In contrast, the Bengal Fans main feeder rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, follow the High Himalaya along strike for much of the length of the orogen. In practice, this means that the Bengal Fan is swamped by the large volume of material derived from the rapidly unroofing High Himalaya [France-Lanord et al, 1993], while the Indus Fan is dominated by tectonic units adjacent to the suture zone, including western Tibet. This allows their erosional signal to be more readily isolated in the Indus Fan compared to in the Bengal.

  18. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  19. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  20. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, upper Indus basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Bhner, J.; Lucarini, V.

    2015-03-01

    Largely depending on meltwater from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus basin (UIB) contribute to half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, we present a comprehensive hydro-climatic trend analysis over the UIB, including for the first time observations from high-altitude automated weather stations. We analyze trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures (Tx, Tn, and Tavg, respectively), diurnal temperature range (DTR) and precipitation from 18 stations (1250-4500 m a.s.l.) for their overlapping period of record (1995-2012), and separately, from six stations of their long term record (1961-2012). We apply Mann-Kendall test on serially independent time series to assess existence of a trend while true slope is estimated using Sen's slope method. Further, we statistically assess the spatial scale (field) significance of local climatic trends within ten identified sub-regions of UIB and analyze whether the spatially significant (field significant) climatic trends qualitatively agree with a trend in discharge out of corresponding sub-region. Over the recent period (1995-2012), we find a well agreed and mostly field significant cooling (warming) during monsoon season i.e. July-October (March-May and November), which is higher in magnitude relative to long term trends (1961-2012). We also find general cooling in Tx and a mixed response in Tavg during the winter season and a year round decrease in DTR, which are in direct contrast to their long term trends. The observed decrease in DTR is stronger and more significant at high altitude stations (above 2200 m a.s.l.), and mostly due to higher cooling in Tx than in Tn. Moreover, we find a field significant decrease (increase) in late-monsoonal precipitation for lower (higher) latitudinal regions of Himalayas (Karakoram and Hindukush), whereas an increase in winter precipitation for Hindukush, western- and whole Karakoram, UIB-Central, UIB-West, UIB-West-upper and whole UIB regions. We find a spring warming (field significant in March) and drying (except for Karakoram and its sub-regions), and subsequent rise in early-melt season flows. Such early melt response together with effective cooling during monsoon period subsequently resulted in a substantial drop (weaker increase) in discharge out of higher (lower) latitudinal regions (Himalaya and UIB-West-lower) during late-melt season, particularly during July. These discharge tendencies qualitatively differ to their long term trends for all regions, except for UIB-West-upper, western-Karakorum and Astore. The observed hydroclimatic trends, being driven by certain changes in the monsoonal system and westerly disturbances, indicate dominance (suppression) of nival (glacial) runoff regime, altering substantially the overall hydrology of UIB in future. These findings largely contribute to address the hydroclimatic explanation of the "Karakoram Anomaly".

  1. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  2. Significance of black carbon in the sediment-water partitioning of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Bajwa, Anam; Iqbal Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the levels and black carbon mediated sediment-water partitioning of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from the Indus River. ∑OCPs ranged between 52-285ngL(-1) and 5.6-29.2ngg(-1) in water and sediment samples respectively. However, the ranges of sedimentary fraction of total organic carbon (fTOC) and black carbon (fBC) were 0.82-2.26% and 0.04-0.5% respectively. Spatially, OCPs concentrations were higher at upstream sites as compared to downstream sites. Source diagnostic ratios indicated the technical usage of HCH (α-HCH/γ-HCH>4) and significant presence of DDT metabolites with fresh inputs into the Indus River as indicated by the ratios of (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs (0.27-0.96). The partitioning of OCPs between the sediments and water can be explained by two carbon Freundlich adsorption model which included both organic carbon and black carbon pools as partitioning media. PMID:26761782

  3. Separating snow, clean and debris covered ice in the Upper Indus Basin, Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas, using Landsat images between 1998 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Naz, Bibi S.; Bowling, Laura C.

    2015-02-01

    The Hindukush Karakoram Himalayan mountains contain some of the largest glaciers of the world, and supply melt water from perennial snow and glaciers to the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) upstream of Tarbela dam, which constitutes greater than 80% of the annual flows, and caters to the needs of millions of people in the Indus Basin. It is therefore important to study the response of perennial snow and glaciers in the UIB under changing climatic conditions, using improved hydrological modeling, glacier mass balance, and observations of glacier responses. However, the available glacier inventories and datasets only provide total perennial-snow and glacier cover areas, despite the fact that snow, clean ice and debris covered ice have different melt rates and densities. This distinction is vital for improved hydrological modeling and mass balance studies. This study, therefore, presents a separated perennial snow and glacier inventory (perennial snow-cover on steep slopes, perennial snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice) based on a semi-automated method that combines Landsat images and surface slope information in a supervised maximum likelihood classification to map distinct glacier zones, followed by manual post processing. The accuracy of the presented inventory falls well within the accuracy limits of available snow and glacier inventory products. For the entire UIB, estimates of perennial and/or seasonal snow on steep slopes, snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice zones are 7238 724, 5226 522, 4695 469 and 2126 212 km2 respectively. Thus total snow and glacier cover is 19,285 1928 km2, out of which 12,075 1207 km2 is glacier cover (excluding steep slope snow-cover). Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) estimates based on the Snow Line Elevation (SLE) in various watersheds range between 4800 and 5500 m, while the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) ranges between 7% and 80%. 0 C isotherms during peak ablation months (July and August) range between ? 5500 and 6200 m in various watersheds. These outputs can be used as input to hydrological models, to estimate spatially-variable degree day factors for hydrological modeling, to separate glacier and snow-melt contributions in river flows, and to study glacier mass balance, and glacier responses to changing climate.

  4. Modelling runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, Upper Indus Basin under prevailing and projected climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Lucarini, Valerio

    2015-04-01

    We, analyzing observations from high altitude automated weather stations from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) within upper Indus basin (UIB), assess prevailing state of climatic changes over the UIB and whether such state is consistently represented by the latest generation climate model simulations. We further assess impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of the UIB, and changes in its snow and glacier melt regimes, separately. For this, a semi-distributed watershed model (UBC - University of British Columbia) has been calibrated/validated for UIB at Besham Qila (just above the Tarbela reservoir) using daily historical climate (Tmax, Tmin and Precipitation) and river flow data for the period 1995-2012. Our results show that the UIB stands out the anthropogenic climate change signal, featuring a significant cooling (warming) during the mid-to-late (early) melt season and an enhanced influence of the westerly and monsoonal precipitation regimes. We also show that such phenomena, particularly the summer cooling is largely absent from the latest generation climate model simulations, suggesting their irrelevance for at least near-future assessment of climate change impacts on the hydrology of UIB. Therefore, we construct a hypothetical but more relevant near-future climate change scenario till 2030 based on prevailing state of climate change over UIB. We additionally obtain climate change scenario as projected by five high-resolution CMIP5 climate models under an extreme representative concentration pathway RCP8.5 for the period 2085-2100, assuming that such a scenario may only be realized in the far-future, if at all. Under the hypothetical near-future scenario, our modelling results show that the glacier melt (snowmelt) contribution will decrease (increase) due to cooling (warming) in mid-to-late (early) melt season, though the overall flows will drop. Consequently, the overall hydrological regime will experience an early snow- but a delayed glacier melt, with both the regimes shifting apart. The reduced glacier melt in conjunction with enhanced precipitation regimes, further implies an overall positive mass balance of the UIB glaciers, consistent with recent findings of non-negative geodetic mass balance and related investigations. On the other hand, in case the UIB starts following the global climate change signal, it will result in short-term increase in the water availability mainly due to an increased glacier melt, which will be followed by an abrupt decrease when the glaciers will disappear in the far-future. Based on our results, we caution the impact assessment communities focusing on the water resources of UIB and the policy makers to consider the relevance of the climate change scenarios while planning of the water resources of Pakistan, as it is not clear when the global warming scenario will unfold.

  5. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  6. Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)

    2011-09-01

    The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to 4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers such as the Indus.

  7. Ecological River Basin Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  8. River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

  9. Surface energy balance and actual evapotranspiration of the transboundary Indus Basin estimated from satellite measurements and the ETLook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Cheema, M. J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Miltenburg, I. J.; Pelgrum, H.

    2012-11-01

    The surface energy fluxes and related evapotranspiration processes across the Indus Basin were estimated for the hydrological year 2007 using satellite measurements. The new ETLook remote sensing model (version 1) infers information on actual Evaporation (E) and actual Transpiration (T) from combined optical and passive microwave sensors, which can observe the land-surface even under persistent overcast conditions. A two-layer Penman-Monteith equation was applied for quantifying soil and canopy evaporation. The novelty of the paper is the computation of E and T across a vast area (116.2 million ha) by using public domain microwave data that can be applied under all weather conditions, and for which no advanced input data are required. The average net radiation for the basin was estimated as being 112 Wm-2. The basin average sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes were estimated to be 80, 32, and 0 Wm-2, respectively. The average evapotranspiration (ET) and evaporative fraction were 1.2 mm d-1 and 0.28, respectively. The basin wide ET was 496 16.8 km3 yr-1. Monte Carlo analysis have indicated 3.4% error at 95% confidence interval for a dominant land use class. Results compared well with previously conducted soil moisture, lysimeter and Bowen ratio measurements at field scale (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.45 mm d-1; RE = -11.5% for annual ET). ET results were also compared against earlier remote sensing and modeling studies for various regions and provinces in Pakistan (R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 0.29 mmd-1; RE = 6.5% for annual ET). The water balance for all irrigated areas together as one total system in Pakistan and India (26.02 million ha) show a total ET value that is congruent with the ET value from the ETLook surface energy balance computations. An unpublished validation of the same ETLook model for 23 jurisdictional areas covering the entire Australian continent showed satisfactory results given the quality of the watershed data and the diverging physiographic and climatic conditions (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.31 mmd-1; RE = -2.8% for annual ET). Eight day values of latent heat fluxes in Heibei (China) showed a good resemblance (R2 = 0.92; RMSE = 0.04 mm d-1; RE = 9.5% for annual ET). It is concluded that ETLook is a novel model that can be operationalized furtherespecially after improving the preprocessing of spaceborne soil moisture data. This preprocessing includes (1) downscaling of topsoil moisture from 25 to 1 km pixels, and (2) translation of topsoil moisture into subsoil moisture values.

  10. Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between India and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stphane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Mtais, Grgoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz H.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen and its role in global climate, oceanic chemistry, and ecological evolution. Despite much active research, the basic pre-collision tectonic configuration and the timing of terminal India-Asia suturing remain debated. For example, debates regarding when and how the intervening Kohistan-Ladakh arc was sutured with India and Asia still remain elusive; some models propose the arc collided with Asia at about 100 Ma, with India-Asia collision at ca. 55 Ma, whilst a newer model proposed the arc's collision with India at 50 Ma and subsequently with Asia at 40 Ma. Another example is the recent proposition that an oceanic Greater India Basin separated the Tethyan Himalaya microcontinent from the remaining Indian plate until 20- 25 Ma with the consumption of this oceanic basin marking the final collision at this time. These controversies relate to whether the commonly documented 50 Ma contact represents the terminal India-Asia suturing or the amalgamation between various arcs or microcontinents with India or Asia. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus basin on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that Greater India was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the present-day Indus and named as the Paleo-Indus, which has been transporting Asian detritus southward across the suture zone and Kohistan-Ladakh arc since 50 Ma, suggesting no other ocean basins intervened between India and Asia after this time in this region. Our data require that in the west the India-Asia collision were accomplished by 50 Ma.

  11. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: A human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timmer; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-15

    The present study was conducted to reveal the concentrations and patterns of organochlorines [i.e., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] in freshwater fish species collected from four ecologically important sites of the Indus River i.e., Taunsa (TAU), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Guddu (GUD) and Sukkur (SUK). In the fish muscle tissues, concentrations of 15 OCPs (?15OCPs) and 29 PCBs (?29PCBs) varied between 1.93-61.9 and 0.81-44.2ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Overall, the rank order of OCs was DDTs>PCBs>hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)>chlordanes (CHLs). The patterns of PCBs showed maximum contribution of tri-CBs (59%). Ratios of individual HCH and DDT analytes contributing to the summed values indicated both recent and past use of these chemicals in the region, depending upon fish species. To assess the associated health risks, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were calculated through hazard ratios (HRs). For carcinogenic risk, HR was >1 at both 50th and 95th percentile concentrations, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk of 1 in a million. HR for non-cancerous risk was <1 at both the percentiles, signifying no adverse effect by OCs exposure in native population. PMID:26476063

  12. Monitoring of trace metals in tissues of Wallago attu (lanchi) from the Indus River as an indicator of environmental pollution

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghanim, K.A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Seemab, Sadia; Sultana, S.; Sultana, T.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Ahmed, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the bioaccumulation of selected four trace metals (Cd, Ni, Zn and Co) in four tissues (muscles, skin, gills and liver) of a freshwater fish Wallago attu (lanchi) from three different sites (upstream, middle stream and downstream) of the Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. Heavy metal contents in water samples and from different selected tissues of fish were examined by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The data were statistically compared to study the effects of the site and fish organs and their interaction on the bioaccumulation pattern of these metals at P < 0.05. In W. attu the level of cadmium ranged from 0.004 to 0.24; nickel 0.003–0.708; cobalt 0.002–0.768 and zinc 47.4–1147.5 μg/g wet weight. The magnitude of metal bioaccumulation in different organs of fish species had the following order gills > liver > skin > muscle. The order of bioaccumulation of these metals was Ni < Zn < Co < Cd. Heavy metal concentrations were increased during the dry season as compared to the wet season. The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish produced and marketed in Mianwali have concentrations below the standards of FEPA/WHO for these toxic metals. PMID:26858541

  13. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method. PMID:25693371

  14. High-resolution reconstruction of abrupt climate change during the late Quaternary in the Arabian Sea: grain-size analysis and end-member modelling as a tool to distinguish wind-blown dust and Indus-River sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fant, M.; Ptzold, J.; Stuut, J.-B. W.

    2009-04-01

    The Arabian Sea is surrounded by several sources of terrigenous sediments, i.e. the Indus River, the suspension sediment of which is enhanced by the melting of Himalayan ice (including Karakoram Mountains), and deserts, supplying eolian dust transported to the sea by at least five potential wind systems. The fundamental feature of the Indian climate is the monsoon system, in particular: the southwest monsoon winds (June-August) cause an increase in river discharge, connected also with an increase in primary productivity in the ocean, whereas the winter monsoon winds (September-April) determine dry conditions and the predominance of dustfalls. In general, variations in monsoon intensity on glacial timescales can be explained by the mechanism of precessional forcing, which affects the insolation of the Earth, even if also variations on sub-Milankovitch (i.e. millennial) timescales occur. Unfortunately, a clear explanation about the forcing mechanisms is not yet available. Grain-size distribution modelling of the terrigenous fraction of the upper part of sediment core SO130-289KL (from 20 to 440 cm), drilled from the central Pakistan continental slope off the Indus Delta, allowed the reconstruction in a high-resolution detail (about 1 sample every 100 yrs) of paleoclimate changes in the continental areas surrounding the northeastern Arabian Sea. This interval, composed predominantly by a mixture of hemipelagic mud and wind-blown sediments that are respectively proxies for continental humidity and aridity, represents the Late Quaternary, i.e. about the last 20 kyrs BP, and it was studied to check the possible teleconnections with climatic events recorded in the Northern Hemisphere, thus assessing the occurrence of common forcing agents. The unmixing of multisourced basin fills based on the grain sizes resulted in the partition of the terrigenous fraction into four sediment subpopulations, two finer fluvial inputs, one due to the sediment load of the Indus River and the other to the enhancement of the discharge by the meltwater, and two types of wind-blown dust, related to "distal" and "proximal" sources. In general, a partial teleconnection with the Northern Hemisphere climate changes can be pointed out, but unfortunately the provenance of the eolian dust and the causes that determined variations in terrigenous supply are still unknown: sea level changes? Orbital changes that drove variations in the monsoon system? Wind strength? Currents?

  15. Measurement of natural radioactivity in sand samples collected along the bank of rivers Indus and Kabul in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, F; Matiullah; Akram, M; Rajput, M U

    2011-01-01

    Radioactivity is a part of the natural environment. The presence of natural radioactivity in sand and other building materials results in internal and external exposure to the general public. Therefore, it is desirable to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides, namely (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in sand, bricks and cement which are commonly used as building materials in Pakistan. In this context, sand samples were collected from 18 different locations covering an area of ?1000 km(2) along the banks of river Indus (Ghazi to Jabba) and river Kabul (Nowshera to Kund) in the northern part of Pakistan, whereas bricks and cement samples were collected from local suppliers of the studied area. In order to measure the specific activities in these samples, a P-type coaxial high-purity germanium-based gamma-ray spectrometer was used. In sand samples, the average specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were found to be 30.511.4, 53.219.5 and 53149 Bq kg(-1), whereas in brick samples, specific activities of 3014, 4121 and 525183 Bq kg(-1) were observed, respectively. In cement samples, measured specific activity values were 215, 143 and 23130 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated and found to be 143.838.6, 12449.8 and 56.697 Bq kg(-1) for sand, brick and cement samples, respectively. The annual mean effective dose for the studied sand samples was found to be 0.40 mSv. External and internal hazard indices were less than unity for all the studied samples. The present results have been compared with those reported in the literature. PMID:21062802

  16. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  17. Hydrological applications of Landsat imagery used in the study of the 1973 Indues River floor, Pakistand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris; Ruggles, F.H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    During August and September 1973, the Indus River Valley of Pakistan experienced one of the largest floods on record, resulting in damages to homes, businesses, public works, and crops amounting to millions of rupees. Tremendous areas of lowlands were inundated along the Indus River and major tributaries. Landsat data made it possible to easily measure the extent of flooding, totaling about 20,000 km2 within an area of about 400,000 km2 south from the Punjab to the Arabian Sea. The Indus River data were used to continue experimentation in the development of rapid, accurate, and inexpensive optical techniques of flood mapping by satellite begun in 1973 for the Mississippi River floods. The research work on the Indus River not resulted in the development of more effective procedures for optical processing of flood data and synoptically depicting flooding, but also provided potentially valuable ancillary information concerning the hydrology of much of the Indus River Basin.

  18. Bedrock geology and chemistry of rivers basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2003-04-01

    The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earths surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river and ocean chemistry, is striking. While some attempts have been made to quantify the lithologic composition of bedrock in individual river basins (e.g., Reeder et al., 1972; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2002), the geologic age distribution of bedrock in river basins has not been investigated. We have therefore initiated a project aimed at generating a worldwide dataset on the bedrock lithology and age distribution of river basins, using the latest digital geologic maps and modern geographic information system technology. To date we have completed analysis of the digital geologic maps North America. These data have been used in conjunction with digital river basin polygons (Revenga et al., 1998, World Resources Institute) to compute the lithologic composition and geologic age structure of major river basins in North America. The lithologic composition of 14 large river basins range from predominantly igneous rocks dominated (Frazer, Columbia), to those dominated by sedimentary rocks (Brazos, Susquehanna, Mississippi), to basins with an equal mix of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock (Thelon). Subdividing sedimentary rocks into marine and continental rocks reveals that continental sediments account for no more than 25% of sedimentary rocks in these river basins (e.g., Nelson, Colorado, Mississippi). A further subdivision of igneous rocks into intrusive and volcanic rocks reveals the entire range of igneous composition, from basins dominated by intrusive rocks (Hudson, Mackenzie, Nelson) to those dominated by volcanic rocks (Susquehanna, Colorado, Frazer, Columbia). We are currently analyzing the age distribution of major lithologic units in each river basin. In cases where detailed hydrochemical data is available for major tributaries we will expand the analysis to sub-basins (e.g., Frazer, Mississippi). Basins smaller than about 40,000 km^2 will require analysis of higher-resolution digital geologic bedrock maps. In the next project phase we will combine bedrock data for major river basins with hydrochemical data to investigate the influence bedrock exerts on river chemistry, specifically radiogenic isotopes and macronutrients. Combining digital information on bedrock geology with digital maps of precipitation will allow us to use precipitation-weighted bedrock area rather than simple area-lithology relationships. Extending this analysis to pre-Quaternary periods is beyond the current focus of the project, but will be necessary to fully utilize reconstructions of ocean paleochemistry in models of global biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Bluth and Kump, 1991).

  19. Climatic variation and river flow in glacierised Himalayan basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.; Davenport, J.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal patterns of precipitation vary considerably along the Himalayan arc from substantial summer monsoon maximum in the south-east to winter precipitation maximum with drier summers in the north-west. In the south-east, river flow is reduced during part of the summer seasonal maximum discharge in basins at higher elevations by snowfall raising albedo of glacier surfaces and reducing meltwater production, whereas at lower elevations river flow arising from glacier melt is augmented by monsoon rainfall. In the north-west, glacier ice-melt provides most of the summer seasonal maximum flow. Year-to-year variations in river flow therefore respond to differing climatic signals. Year-to-year variability and long-term trends of the glaciologically-relevant variables winter and summer precipitation and summer air temperature have been examined for stations distributed along the length of the Karakoram-Himalayan ranges. Air temperature trend varied according to location, with increases in the later part of the twentieth century only at stations at higher elevations in the south-east. Total annual precipitation showed large year-to-year fluctuations, but with little trend from the 1900s to the 1990s, though varying from area to area. Discharge data for the Ganges are limited and totally missing for India since the 1970s. For the upper Indus, runoff declined from the 1970s to the 1990s, but the trend of flow in tributaries of the Ganges arising in Nepal is not clear. It is therefore difficult to identify the overall pattern of how runoff trends have responded to changes in monsoon precipitation, air temperature and glacier recession along the Himalayan arc.

  20. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  1. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Caylor, K. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  2. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  3. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin.

    PubMed

    Civic, M A

    1999-03-01

    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region. PMID:12290383

  4. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and

  5. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  6. Dynamic river basin water quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J.

    1991-09-01

    RBM10 is a river basin model for simulating the dynamics of an aquatic ecosystem which has freely-flowing river reaches, river-run reservoirs, and vertically stratified reservoirs. An Eulerian viewpoint is adopted for solving the conservation equations for temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria and conservative constituents. The report describes the model development and the computer program which implements the mathematical model.

  7. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems. Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

  9. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  10. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  11. AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

    2011-01-01

    A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

  12. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

  13. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  14. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  15. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  16. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  17. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  18. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  19. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  1. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  3. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  4. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  5. Nutrient levels in the Yazoo River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings to aquatic ecosystems are linked to environmental problems including harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Presented is an assessment of accessible data on nutrient sources, sinks and inputs to streams within the Yazoo River Basin of northern Mississippi. Ac...

  6. Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

  7. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ?W = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  8. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    PubMed

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management. PMID:25461078

  9. SOURCE AREAS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN: ILLS AND CURES IN THE YAZOO RIVER BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi River drains two thirds of the continental United States. This basin contains the largest amount of concentrated livestock and crop agriculture in the United States. Because of size and land use, the river transports enough nutrients produce plankton blooms. The dying plankton neg...

  10. Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2004-08-01

    Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

  11. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    PubMed

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

  12. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested system of observations, will intersect the important landforms, climate zones, ecology, and human activities of the basin. Characterizing how humans and climate impact the sustainability of water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin will require an evolutionary approach, involving coordination of historical information and a phased-design for the new observing system. Detecting change (past and present) requires that the atmosphere, vegetation, geochemistry, and hydrology of the Susquehanna, are all observed coherently from the headwaters to the Chesapeake, from the boundary layer to the water table. The River Basin Adaptive Monitoring and Modeling Plan (RAMP) represents the design strategy to coherently select and assess core monitoring sites as well as new sites targeted for both short-term and long term scientific campaigns. Rich in historical research and infrastructure, SRBHOS will serve as a fundamental resource for the hydrologic science community into the future, while providing a "characteristic" hydrologic node in the national network.

  13. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (a)...

  16. Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

  17. Spatial and altitudinal variation of precipitation and the correction of gridded precipitation datasets for the Upper Indus Basin and the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn J.; Duan, Zheng; Naz, Bibi S.; Lee, Junhak; Khan, Mujahid

    2015-04-01

    Precise and accurate precipitation data (of both snow and rain) are a vital input for hydrological modeling, climatic studies and glacier mass balance analysis. This study investigates the accuracy of eight widely used gridded datasets, based on mass balance assessments, for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain region. The eight datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) v 2.2, 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU) v 3.2.2, 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B33 v 7, and 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data. Precipitation derived from these datasets has been compared with the sum of flow, MODIS ETact (Actual Evapo-transpiration), and glacier imbalance contribution to flows. All these datasets significantly underestimate precipitation, being 40-80% less than the measured flows, except for the NCEP/NCAR and ERA interim datasets, which only slightly underestimate precipitation. This is the case for almost all watersheds in the UIB, particularly the Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar and Astore watersheds. To provide alternative, more physically-reasonable precipitation estimates, annual and seasonal (October-May and June-September) precipitation values have been derived for the entire UIB using multiple regressions relating precipitation for 46 climate stations to the local altitude, slope, aspect, latitude and longitude. The results are distributed across the whole basin on a 1km grid, with an estimated uncertainty of 5-10%. The spatial pattern shows good agreement with the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) v 3.2 data, and with previous local studies that have measured and or modelled precipitation for various altitudes and watersheds. For the entire UIB (at Tarbela Dam), the revised annual average precipitation is 794±79 mm/yr compared to the sum of flow and ETact of 877±77 mm/yr, and a glacier melt contribution of about 20-40 mm/yr (6 ± 2% of annual average flows). This provides the best precipitation estimate currently available. This study therefore cautions against use of the gridded data products listed above without substantial effort in bias correction; and argues that previous hydro-climatic studies for the UIB and its region, based on these datasets, need significant re-evaluation,. The precipitation distribution estimated here can, however, be used in the future to correct existing gridded data products and to improve hydro-climatic studies in the Himalayan region.

  18. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

  19. Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain visible as water fall on left bank, from top of dam embankment, view to north - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  20. Outlet Works, from foreground: Deschutes River, Stilling Basin, Outlet Opening, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outlet Works, from foreground: Deschutes River, Stilling Basin, Outlet Opening, Valve House, dam embankment, and Emergency Gates Control Tower, view to southwest - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  1. Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Mara Gasc, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  2. The Piracicaba River basin: isotope hydrology of a tropical river basin under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Gat, Joel R; de Camargo, Plnio B; Lara, Lucienne L; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2004-03-01

    The stable isotope content of samples of precipitation and of the river water throughout the Piracicaba basin in Brazil was measured over a two-year period. The isotope values of precipitation follow a consistent pattern of relatively depleted values of both deuterium and oxygen 18 during the rainy summers and enriched ones during the dry winters, with all values aligned slightly above the Global Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of the river water throughout the basin shows a remarkable spatial coherence and much smaller scatter of data than those of the precipitation. The isotope composition of river water is close to that of the precipitation in the rainy season, however, with a consistent lower d-excess value by 1/1000-2/1000. This is attributed to evaporative water loss in the basin, in part an expression of the recycling of water due to the anthropogenic activity in the region. The more divergent values are recorded during high-water stages in the rivers. In many cases, the floods during the beginning of the rainy season are characterized by an enrichment of the heavy isotopes and lower d-excess values when compared to the precipitation, with the opposite situation later in the rainy season. This is interpreted as resulting from the watershed/riverflow interaction pattern, and it thus suggests that the isotope composition can monitor the hydrologic situation in the basin and its changes. PMID:15085983

  3. ANCIENT EARTHWORK IMPLEMENTS AND LAND DEVELOPMENT ON ONGA RIVER BASIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Hirotada; Esaki, Tetsuro; Mitani, Yasuhiro; Ikemi, Hiroaki

    Present land use in a river basin is consequence of all land development in the past. This study is an attempt to recognize land development of a river basin, focusing on Onga river basin in ancient days (until 6th century). After confirming geological and topographical characteristics, the study pays attention to earthwork capability in Jomon, Yayo i and Kofun era. Leading-edge impl ements in each era support us to make an interpretation of ancient monuments' location and archaeological findings. Especially wooden how/spades in Yayoi era and iron blade edges in Kofu n era had typical impact to expand ricefield towards uncultivated area. The conclution indicates that the a dvanced earthwork implements enabled people shift main paddy field from lower lagoon area to upper alluvial terrains on Onga river basin through ancient days. This ancient land development history has much suggestions for today's river/river basin management.

  4. Powder River Basin: new energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.

    1981-02-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming represents a new energy frontier, where traditional ranch styles are giving way to boomtown development around new coal mines. Plans for extensive strip mining, coal trains and pipelines, and synthetic fuels plants will transform a 12,000 square mile area. The environmental and social impacts of trailer villages and the influx of new mores and life styles are already following traditional patterns for newcomers and long-time residents alike. Some local residents, however, are optimistic about the opportunities energy development will have. (DCK)

  5. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State..., Congress initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project (YRBWEP) in response to...

  6. Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

  7. Application of a stochastic weather generator to assess climate change impacts in a semi-arid climate: The Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Harpham, C.; Hashmi, M. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Assessing local climate change impacts requires downscaling from Global Climate Model simulations. Here, a stochastic rainfall model (RainSim) combined with a rainfall conditioned weather generator (CRU WG) have been successfully applied in a semi-arid mountain climate, for part of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), for point stations at a daily time-step to explore climate change impacts. Validation of the simulated time-series against observations (1961-1990) demonstrated the models' skill in reproducing climatological means of core variables with monthly RMSE of <2.0 mm for precipitation and ?0.4 C for mean temperature and daily temperature range. This level of performance is impressive given complexity of climate processes operating in this mountainous context at the boundary between monsoonal and mid-latitude (westerly) weather systems. Of equal importance the model captures well the observed interannual variability as quantified by the first and last decile of 30-year climatic periods. Differences between a control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) regional climate model (RCM) time-slice experiment were then used to provide change factors which could be applied within the rainfall and weather models to produce perturbed future' weather time-series. These project year-round increases in precipitation (maximum seasonal mean change:+27%, annual mean change: +18%) with increased intensity in the wettest months (February, March, April) and year-round increases in mean temperature (annual mean +4.8 C). Climatic constraints on the productivity of natural resource-dependent systems were also assessed using relevant indices from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) and indicate potential future risk to water resources and local agriculture. However, the uniformity of projected temperature increases is in stark contrast to recent seasonally asymmetrical trends in observations, so an alternative scenario of extrapolated trends was also explored. We conclude that interannual variability in climate will continue to have the dominant impact on water resources management whichever trajectory is followed. This demonstrates the need for sophisticated downscaling methods which can evaluate changes in variability and sequencing of events to explore climate change impacts in this region.

  8. Combination of remote sensing data products to derive spatial climatologies of "degree days" and downscale meteorological reanalyses: application to the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Rutter, N.; Brock, B. W.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of observations for the full range of required variables is a critical reason why many cryosphere-dominated hydrological modelling studies adopt a temperature index (degree day) approach to meltwater simulation rather than resolving the full surface energy balance. Thus spatial observations of "degree days" would be extremely useful in constraining model parameterisations. Even for models implementing a full energy balance, "degree day" observations provide a characterisation of the spatial distribution of climate inputs to the cryosphere-hydrological system. This study derives "degree days" for the Upper Indus Basin by merging remote sensing data products: snow cover duration (SCD), from MOD10A1 and land surface temperature (LST), from MOD11A1 and MYD11A1. Pixel-wise "degree days" are calculated, at imagery-dependent spatial resolution, by multiplying SCD by (above-freezing) daily LST. This is coherent with the snowpack-energy-to-runoff conversion used in temperature index algorithms. This allows assessment of the spatial variability of mass inputs (accumulated snowpack) because in nival regime areas - where complete ablation is regularly achieved - mass is the limiting constraint. The GLIMS Randolph Glacier Inventory is used to compare annual totals and seasonal timings of "degree days" over glaciated and nival zones. Terrain-classified statistics (by elevation and aspect) for the MODIS "degree-day" hybrid product are calculated to characterise of spatial precipitation distribution. While MODIS data products provide detailed spatial resolution relative to tributary catchment areas, the limited instrument record length is inadequate for assessing climatic trends and greatly limits use for hydrological model calibration and validation. While multi-decadal MODIS equivalent data products may be developed in the coming years, at present alternative methods are required for "degree day" trend analysis. This study thus investigates the use of the hybrid MODIS "degree day" product to downscale an ensemble of modern global meteorological reanalyses including ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, NASA MERRA and JRA-55 which overlap MODIS instrument record. This downscaling feasibility assessment is a prerequisite to applying the method to regional climate projections.

  9. Controlling erosion in the Missouri River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The most pervasive conservation concern in the vast 510,000 square mile Missouri River basin in the western United States is excessive rates of wind erosion during dry periods, though conservation efforts can help control erosion, according to a 30 August report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project. During some dry years, rates of wind erosionwhich include nitrogen and phosphorus lossescan be higher than 4 tons per acre on 12% and higher than 2 tons per acre on 20% of the approximately 148,000 square miles of cultivated cropland, notes the report Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on Cultivated Cropland in the Missouri River Basin. Between 2003 and 2006, conservation practices, including reducing tillage and building terraces, yielded about a 75% reduction in sediment runoff and phosphorus loss and a 68% reduction in nitrogen loss, according to the report. About 15 million acres in the region18% of cultivated croplandare considered to have either a high or moderate level of need for conservation treatment, and efforts in those areas in particular could result in additional reductions in sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loss, the report states.

  10. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  11. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  12. Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-05-01

    The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, ?, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of ? across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher ? value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted as resulting from a positive feedback between divide migration, which causes topological modifications and area change, on the one hand, and channel slope adjustments, which change the erosion rates on opposing sides of water divides and promote their migration, on the other hand. Furthermore, the constantly shifting drainage area and the changing topology of the drainage network are shown to be a possible source for autogenic sediment flux variations.

  13. [Landscape change in middle Heihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Cheng, G; Li, X

    2001-02-01

    Using GIS and a landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS, this paper dealt with the landscape change in the middle Heihe River Basin during the past 20 years. During the past 20 years, the landscape elements had a complex change of landscape structure and an apparent transition of landscape composition, but the landscape in a whole still displayed a pattern of sharply contrast between oasis landscape and desertification landscape. Human activities significantly changed the distribution and allocation of the limited water resource in the basin, leading to an acute contradiction between desertification and oasisfication. Moreover, the transitional area between desertification and oasisfication was very sensitive to these processes. The decrease of Shannon's diversity index and evenness index manifested the intensive management and reconstruction of landscape by human beings, which improved the socioeconomic benefits of the region on one hand, but decreased the landscape heterogeneity and landscape diversity, leading to the decrease of eco-environmental benefits of some areas in the basin on the other hand. The research method and technology used in this paper were also discussed. PMID:11813437

  14. Examination of elevation dependency in observed and projected temperature change in the Upper Indus Basin and Western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, H. J.; Forsythe, N. D.; Blenkinsop, S.; Archer, D.; Hardy, A.; Janes, T.; Jones, R. G.; Holderness, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of two distinct, complementary analyses to assess evidence of elevation dependency in temperature change in the UIB (Karakoram, Eastern Hindu Kush) and wider WH. The first analysis component examines historical remotely-sensed land surface temperature (LST) from the second and third generation of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3) instrument flown on NOAA satellite platforms since the mid-1980s through present day. The high spatial resolution (<4km) from AVHRR instrument enables precise consideration of the relationship between estimated LST and surface topography. The LST data product was developed as part of initiative to produce continuous time-series for key remotely sensed spatial products (LST, snow covered area, cloud cover, NDVI) extending as far back into the historical record as feasible. Context for the AVHRR LST data product is provided by results of bias assessment and validation procedures against both available local observations, both manned and automatic weather stations. Local observations provide meaningful validation and bias assessment of the vertical gradients found in the AVHRR LST as the elevation range from the lowest manned meteorological station (at 1460m asl) to the highest automatic weather station (4733m asl) covers much of the key range yielding runoff from seasonal snowmelt. Furthermore the common available record period of these stations (1995 to 2007) enables assessment not only of the AVHRR LST but also performance comparisons with the more recent MODIS LST data product. A range of spatial aggregations (from minor tributary catchments to primary basin headwaters) is performed to assess regional homogeneity and identify potential latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in elevation dependency. The second analysis component investigates elevation dependency, including its uncertainty, in projected temperature change trajectories in the downscaling of a seventeen member Global Climate Model (GCM) perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) of transient (130-year) simulations using a moderate resolution (25km) regional climate model (RCM). The GCM ensemble is the17-member QUMP (Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Projections) ensemble and the downscaling is done using HadRM3P, part of the PRECIS regional climate modelling system. Both the RCM and GCMs are models developed the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and are based on the HadCM3 GCM. Use of the multi-member PPE enables quantification of uncertainty in projected temperature change while the spatial resolution of RCM improves insight into the role of elevation in projected rates of change. Furthermore comparison with the results of the remote sensing analysis component - considered to provide an 'observed climatology' - permits evaluation of individual ensemble members with regards to biases in spatial gradients in temperature as well timing and magnitude of annual cycles.

  15. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqu River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqu River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water in the Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses, with the exception of water in two wells which had iron concentrations that potentially could be tasted in beverages and could cause staining of laundry and porcelain fixtures. A comparison of the chemical compositions of ground and surface waters showed a strong similarity over a wide geographic area. Proportions of the major chemical constituents in the rivers of the basin were nearly constant despite concentration fluctuations in response to dilution from precipitation and snowmelt. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water use and water-quality criteria. Fecal-coliform bacteria counts generally were much lower than the total-coliform bacteria counts, indicating that most of the coliform bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated in soils. Fecal coliform concentrations in all the major tributaries met State water-quality criteria. Water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow; dissolved-oxygen concentrations were occasionally less than criteria minimum because of increased water temperature. Both conditions occurred naturally. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low and about the same as in streams from virgin forestland in the Olympic National Park. However, some slight increases in nutrient concentrations were observed, particularly in the vicinity of Mill Creek and the town of Forks; due to dilution and biological assimilation, these slightly elevated concentrations decreased as the water moved downstream. 35 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Coupled modelling of cryosphere dynamics and hydrological processes at the watershed scale in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.; Blenkinsop, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Rutter, N.; Brock, B. W.; Archer, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrology of the UIB (above the Tarbela reservoir) is overwhelmingly dominated by nival (seasonal snowmelt) and glacial regimes exhibited by its constituent tributaries. Similarly the future of glaciers in this western extremity of the Himalayan arc is dependent upon changes in precipitation and energy (most easily indexed by temperature). While previous large-scale modelling studies primarily stipulated fixed scenarios of glacial retreat (e.g. areal reductions of 25 to 100%), recent climatological and remote sensing studies have shown evidence of glacial stagnation or expansion in the Karakoram coupled with decreases in summer temperature. Summer cooling is part of seasonally asymmetric temperature change in the region over recent decades with large winter temperature increases yielding net annual warming. In light of this uncertainty in present glacial mass balance sign and rate, it was decided to develop a custom large-scale (>1000km2), high resolution (500m grid) model capable of simulating cryosphere response to variable mass and energy inputs along with the resulting hydrological impacts in meltwater generation. The model presented here yields improvements over previous studies including: i) modelling of snow covered area (SCA) as an output; ii) modelling of glacial catchment fractions variable both in mass and area; and iii) modelling of mass transfer between grid cells based on gravity-driven basal sliding. Simulation results are presented for two UIB tributary catchments, a nival and a glacial dominated regime, for both calibration/validation runs as well as a simulated synthetic control climate and two contrasting scenarios of Summer temperature. The resulting divergence in glacial mass balance and seasonality of river flows between the future scenarios is striking with strong warming leading to drastic glacier retreat but Summer cooling yielding consistent glacial expansion. Furthermore, prior to simulation of future conditions remote sensing data products (MODIS, AVHRR) are utilised in novel ways to calibrate and validate the model. This includes not only using the SCA and land surface temperature (LST) data products to tune and test model output, but also using the product of SCA and LST as a proxy for the 'degree days' measure of energy-to-runoff conversion used in meltwater generation calculations in order to assess spatial variability in mass inputs. In terms of calibration and validation results the model very accurately captured the timing and magnitude of annual hydrological cycles for both nival and glacial regime catchments. The model performed reasonably in capturing interannual variability in runoff volumes. Work is on-going to improve the accuracy of vertical gradient in glacial mass balance and matching of the simulated equilibrium line altitude with values reported in the literature for major glaciers.

  19. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  20. Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

  1. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  2. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  3. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): A Case Study from the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. GeoÖko (submitted). Livingstone, A.J.; Erdenechimeg, C. & Oyunsuvd, A. (2009): Needs assessment on institutional capacity for water governance in Mongolia. Ulaan Baatar: Government of Mongolia & UNDP Mongolia. Malsy, M.; aus der Beek, T.; Eisner, S. & Flörke, M. (2012): Climate Change impacts on Central Asian water resources. Advances in Geosciences 32:77-83. Menzel, L.; Hofmann, J. & Ibisch, R. (2011): Untersuchung von Wasser- und Stoffflüssen als Grundlage für ein Integriertes Wasserressourcen - Management im Kharaa-Einzugsgebiet (Mongolei). Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung 55(2):88-103. MoMo Consortium (2009): Integrated Water Resources Management for Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia (MoMo). Case Study in the Kharaa River Basin. Final Project Report. Mun, Y.; Ko, I.H.; Janchivdorj, L. et al. (2008): Integrated Water Management Model on the Selenge River Basin: Status Survey and Investigation (Phase I). Seoul: KEI Publications. Scharaw, B. & T. Westerhoff (2011): A Leak Detection in Drinking Water Distribution Network of Darkhan in Framework of the Project Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia, Model Region Mongolia. Proceedings of the IWA 1st Central Asian Regional Young and Senior Water Professionals Conference, Almaty/Kazakhstan, pp. 275-282.

  4. Floods in the Skagit River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James E.; Bodhaine, George Lawrence

    1961-01-01

    According to Indian tradition, floods of unusually great magnitude harassed the Skagit River basin about 1815 and 1856. The heights of these floods were not recorded at the time; so they are called historical floods. Since the arrival of white men about 1863, a number of large and damaging floods have been witnessed and recorded. Data concerning and verifying the early floods, including those of 1815 and 1856, were collected prior to 1923 by James E. Stewart. He talked with many of the early settlers in the valley who had listened to Indians tell about the terrible floods. Some of these settlers had referenced the maximum stages of floods they had witnessed by cutting notches at or measuring to high-water marks on trees. In order to verify flood stages Stewart spent many weeks finding and levelling to high-water marks such as drift deposits, sand layers in coves, and silt in the bark of certain types of trees. Gaging stations have been in operation at various locations on the Skagit River and its tributaries since 1909, so recorded peak stages are available at certain sites for floods occurring since that date. All peak discharge data available for both historical and recorded floods have been listed in this report. The types of floods as to winter and summer, the duration of peaks, and the effect of reservoirs are discussed. In 1899 Sterling Dam was constructed at the head of Gages Slough near Sedro Woolley. This was the beginning of major diking in the lower reaches of the Skagit River. Maps included in the report show the location of most of the dike failures that have occurred during the last 73 years and the area probably inundated by major floods. The damage resulting from certain floods is briefly discussed. The report is concluded with a brief discussion of the U.S. Geological Survey method of computing flood-frequency curves as applied to the Skagit River basin. The treatment of single-station records and a means of combining these records for expressing regional significance are exemplified. Historical data are used in the development of both the single-station and the regional curves.

  5. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with ?66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays ?66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 g/L).

  6. Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  7. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  8. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  9. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  10. An Operational Flood Forecast System for the Indus Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K.; Webster, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Indus River is central to agriculture, hydroelectric power, and the potable water supply in Pakistan. The ever-present risk of drought - leading to poor soil conditions, conservative dam practices, and higher flood risk - amplifies the consequences of abnormally large precipitation events during the monsoon season. Preparation for the 2010 and 2011 floods could have been improved by coupling quantitative precipitation forecasts to a distributed hydrological model. The nature of slow-rise discharge on the Indus and overtopping of riverbanks in this basin indicate that medium-range (1-10 day) probabilistic weather forecasts can be used to assess flood risk at critical points in the basin. We describe a process for transforming these probabilities into an alert system for supporting flood mitigation and response decisions on a daily basis. We present a fully automated two-dimensional flood forecast methodology based on meteorological variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Variable Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS). Energy and water fluxes are calculated in 25km grid cells using macroscale hydrologic parameterizations from the UW Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. A linear routing model transports grid cell surface runoff and baseflow within each grid cell to the outlet and into the stream network. The overflow points are estimated using flow directions, flow velocities, and maximum discharge thresholds from each grid cell. Flood waves are then deconvolved from the in-channel discharge time series and propagated into adjacent cells until a storage criterion based on average grid cell elevation is met. Floodwaters are drained back into channels as a continuous process, thus simulating spatial extent, depth, and persistence on the plains as the ensemble forecast evolves with time.

  11. Nitrogen contamination in the Yellow River basin of China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Zhou, Jingsong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen contamination is one of the most serious problems in the Yellow River of China. This study was conducted to analyze monitoring data on nitrogen contamination for the Yellow River basin in the years 1980, 1990, 1997, and 1999. Several significant results have arisen from the study. First, in conjunction with an increase in economic indexes from the Yellow River's upper basin to its lower basin, the nitrogen concentration in the tributaries also showed an increasing trend from the upper to the lower basin, which, in turn, led to an increase in the nitrogen concentration of the mainstream from the upper to the lower reaches. Second, nitrogen in the river water in the mainstream and the tributaries of the Yellow River was attributed mainly to point sources. In spite of the fact that the ratio of point to nonpoint sources decreased from 2.7 in 1990 to 1.8 in 1997 for total inorganic nitrogen in river water at the Tongguan Station in the lower basin, point sources increased more than nonpoint sources. Third, the ammonium nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen content of the river water increased significantly in the mainstream and the tributaries during the 1980-1999 period, a change caused by an increase in wastewater discharge and nitrogenous fertilizer application in the Yellow River catchment. PMID:12026096

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

  13. 19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  15. 18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. 16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

  18. Ohio River Basin energy study: Social values and energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, H. R.; Norville, H. J.

    1981-04-01

    American social values and their relationship to energy production and use within the the Ohio River Basin area are identified and analyzed. The major topics are (1) an overview of social values and energy policy, (2) an identification of values implicit in the Ohio River Basin Energy Study scenarios, (3) a secondary analysis of survey data, and (4) a discussion of variations in social values by social and demographic characteristics.

  19. Water resources of Wisconsin, Pecatonica-Sugar River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical environment, availability, characteristics, distribution, movement, and quailty of water in the Pecatonica-Sugar River basin.  In addition, water use and water problems are summarized to give an understanding of man's management of water within the basin.

  20. Chemical character of streams in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; McCarthy, Leo T., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The water chemistry of streams in the Delaware Riverbasin falls into eight general groups, when mapped according to theprevalent dissolved-solids content and the predominant ions normallyfound in the water. The approximate regions representing each of theseiso-chemical quality groups are shown on the accompanying base map ofthe drainage basin.

  1. Contributions of small river basins to large-scale hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lebing

    2015-04-01

    Data from small river basins can provide useful information to improve our understanding of hydrology of large regions. For instance, climate and hydrology of a large river basin can be well resembled by a number of small river basins. Those small river basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics for the large region. Extrapolation of annual discharge was first tested in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (Gong 2014). Result showed that selected sub-basins that cover 2-4% of the gauged area gave the best resemblance of discharge of the gauged basin area. 200 ensemble estimations from the extrapolation method estimates annual discharge for gauged area consistently well with on average 6% error. Further tests using Mopex dataset in Australia and the U.S., as well as a global-scale application using the GRDC dataset also showed promising results. There are strong correlation of climatic and land surface data between the small basins and large area which share similar discharge dynamic as the small basins. This would help to develop a systematic way to identify those small basins and their link to large-scale hydrological variability. Discharge data all around the world collected from basins of various scales are inter-connected because of the similarities of climate and land surface across scales. This inter-connectivity is evolving over time as a result of the change of climate. Understanding it will not only help with filling data gap in un-gauged regions, but also help to improve our understanding of the change of the hydrological system. Gong, L.: Data-driven scale extrapolation: estimating yearly discharge for a large region by small sub-basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 343-352, doi:10.5194/hess-18-343-2014, 2014.

  2. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  3. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  4. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  5. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  6. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  7. Coal stratigraphy of northern and central Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, M.W.; Biewick, L.H.; Molina, C.L.; Pierce, F.W.

    1986-08-01

    Reconstructed stratigraphic frameworks contribute to understanding depositional and structural history of Paleocene rocks in the Powder River basin. By correlating Fort Union Formation coal beds from Foster Creek, Montana, 100 mi southward to near Gillette, Wyoming, they reconstructed the framework from Terret up through Anderson coal beds, about 1700 ft of stratigraphic section. This framework comprises intersecting stratigraphic sections showing distribution of thick coal beds and sandstones across the study area. Coal beds from Terret up through Knobloch are thickest in northern Powder River basin. Stratigraphically above in the Cache through Wall section, the coal beds are thickest farther south in Moorhead and northern Spotted Horse coalfields. Otter through Anderson coal beds are thickest still farther south in central Powder River basin. Principal coal beds had been mapped in individual local coal fields and identified by local names. They have correlated the coal beds and connected these stratigraphic sections (framework) with stratigraphic frameworks from the southern Powder River basin to provide an integrated picture of coal deposition. Large coal swamps existed in Fort Union time, first in northern Powder River basin and successively farther southward. Basin margins were tectonically active during the Paleocene. Clastic sedimentation resulting from this tectonism may have created conditions controlling peat deposition. Intermittently, peat deposition was interrupted across large areas by a great influx of clastic sediments. At other times, peat deposits were cut by narrow channels as drainage systems changed course.

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Export from the Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegl, R. G.; Dornblaser, M. M.; Aiken, G. R.; Walvoord, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen loads and yields were measured and modeled at five locations in the Yukon River basin at the 60,000 to 830,000 square km scale during 2001-05. The entire basin exported an average of 7.8 Tg C per year (30 percent organic) and 0.12 Tg N per year (84 percent organic) during the study. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprised 68 and 45 percent of the organic C and N fractions respectively. Differences in load and yield among sub-basins were evaluated with respect to hydrologic setting and seasonal and inter-annual hydrologic variability. Total C and N yields were linearly proportional to water yield among all sub-basins and all seasons. However, DOC and DON yields were highly seasonal among sub basins, with a wide range in DOC and DON yield over a small range in water yield during spring, and a small range in DOC and DON yield over a wide range in water yield during summer and autumn. Comparison of historical (1978-80) and current (2001-05) DOC yields indicates that historical basin-wide discharge-normalized export of DOC during summer through autumn was more similar to current export from the Porcupine River basin than to current basin-wide export. The Porcupine River basin comprises 14 percent of the northeastern Yukon basin and is presently dominated by wetlands underlain by nearly continuous permafrost. This downward shift in the relationship between dissolved organic matter and water yield is explored in the context of hydrologic change that is occurring in the basin, including increased melting of perennial snow pack and alpine glaciers, drying of wetlands and lakes in areas of thermokarst formation, and increased ground water discharge throughout the basin.

  9. Chemical and Strontium, Oxygen, and Carbon Isotopic Compositions of Carbonates from the Lesser Himalaya: Implications to the Strontium Isotope Composition of the Source Waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Pande, K.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1998-03-01

    Samples of Precambrian carbonate (mostly dolomite) outcrops collected across the Lesser Himalaya have been analysed for their mineralogy, chemical composition, and isotope ratios of Sr, O, and C to assess the extent of their preservation and their role in contributing to the high radiogenic strontium isotope composition of the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus. Their Sr concentrations range from 20 to 363 ppm, ? 18O PDB -1.4 to -12.8 and Mn 11-2036 ppm. The petrography of the samples, their low Sr concentrations, and wide range of ? 18O values are suggestive of their postdepositional alteration. The 87Sr/ 86Sr of the bulk samples and their carbonate fractions are similar to one another with values ranging from 0.7064 to 0.8935 and are generally more radiogenic than that of contemporaneous seawater. Comparison of the 87Sr/ 86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios among the carbonates and silicates from the Lesser Himalaya and the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus shows that the values for the source waters overlap with those of the silicates but are much higher than those in carbonates. An upper limit of carbonate Sr in the various source waters is calculated to be between 6% and 43%, assuming that all the Ca in the rivers is of carbonate origin. The results show that on the average, weathering of the Precambrian carbonates is unlikely to be a major contributor to the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition of these source waters; however, they can be a dominant supplier of radiogenic Sr to some rivers on a regional scale. The silicate Sr component in some of the source waters of the Ganga (Bhagirathi, Bhilangna, Alaknanda, and Ganga), Ghaghara (Kali and Sarju), and the Indus (Sutlej) was calculated from the Ca/Na, Sr/Na ratios, and strontium isotope compositions of these rivers and the silicate endmember. These calculations suggest that 33-89% of Sr in the Bhagirathi, Bhilangna, Alaknanda, Ganga, and Sarju rivers is of silicate origin, whereas in the Kali and the Sutlej it is much lower, only 8%. The remaining Sr to all these waters has to be supplied from other sources such as weathering of carbonates and evaporites. This study underscores the importance of weathering of silicates, carbonates, and evaporites in contributing to the Sr mass balance and 87Sr/ 86Sr of the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus. The present day silicate and carbonate Sr contributions to the Sr budget of the rivers vary considerably, but among the major source waters of the Ganga, silicate Sr exerts a more dominant control on their Sr abundance and 87Sr/ 86Sr.

  10. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  11. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  12. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  13. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2014-07-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  14. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2015-03-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0-7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators and the performance is compared to persistence and climatology benchmarks. The forecasting system delivers useful forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  15. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  16. Spatio-temporal snow cover change and hydrological characteristics of the Astore, Gilgit and Hunza river basins (western Himalayas, Hindukush and Karakoram region) - Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Lane, Stuart; Terzago, Silvia; Adamowski, Jan Franklin

    2015-04-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is drawn from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) ranges. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its high-altitude snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - southern part of the UIB), Gilgit (Hindukush - western part of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - northern part of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal evolution and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This study compares data from the Astore, Gilgit and Hunza River basins (mean catchment elevation, 4100, 4250 and 4650 m ASL, respectively), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images. The hydrological regime of these sub-catchments was analyzed using hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin areas. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas), western (Hindukush) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff in the southern part, but snow and glacier melt is dominant in the northern and western parts of the catchment. Despite similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing), different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and Gilgit, decreasing in Hunza) suggest that a sub-catchment level study of the UIB is needed to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management and to quantify how the system is being forced by changing climate.

  17. Assessing the utility of passive microwave data for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimation in the Sutlej River Basin of the northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Bookhagen, B.; Dozier, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1978, space based passive microwave (PM) radiometers have been used to comprehensively measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a global basis. The ability of PM radiometers to directly measure SWE at high temporal frequencies offers some distinct advantages over optical remote sensors. Nevertheless, in mountainous terrain PM radiometers often struggle to accurately measure SWE because of wet snow, saturation in deep snow, forests, depth hoar and stratigraphy, variable relief, and subpixel heterogeneity inherent in large pixel sizes. The Himalaya, because of their high elevation and high reliefmuch above tree lineoffer an opportunity to examine PM products in the mountains without the added complication of trees. The upper Sutlej River basin the third largest Himalayan catchmentlies in the western Himalaya. The river is a tributary of the Indus River and seasonal snow constitutes a substantial part of the basin's hydrologic budget. The basin has a few surface stations and river gauges, which is unique for the region. As such, the Sutlej River basin is a good location to analyze the accuracy and effectiveness of the current National Snow and Ice Data Center's (NSIDC) standard AMSR-E/Aqua Daily SWE product in mountainous terrain. So far, we have observed that individual pixels can "flicker", i.e. fluctuate from day to day, over large parts of the basin. We consider whether this is an artifact of the algorithm or whether this is embedded in the raw brightness temperatures themselves. In addition, we examine how well the standard product registers winter storms, and how it varies over heavily glaciated pixels. Finally, we use a few common measures of algorithm performance (precision, recall and accuracy) to test how well the standard product detects the presence of snow, using optical imagery for validation. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of PM imagery in the mountains will help to clarify the technology's limits.

  18. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  19. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  20. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Information describing floods is essential for proper planning, design, and operation of bridges and other structures on or over streams and their flood plains. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the English River and some of its tributaries. It covers the English River, the North English River to near Guernsey, the south Eaglish River to Barnes City and the lower reaches of the Biddle English and Deep Rivers

  1. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

  2. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Farms left dry by the water shortage appear brown in this year's image. Most of the farms without irrigation water are between Upper Klamath Lake and Tule Lake. The land immediately surrounding Tule Lake did receive irrigation water this year, and as a result is greener than the fields to the north. Some farms rely on wells and not Klamath Project water, and many of these remained green, as well. Images courtesy USGS EROS Data Center and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  3. Hydrologic investigation of the north Canadian river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    This study gies a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatogical data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

  4. Hydrologic investigation of the North Canadian River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ghermazien, T.; Zipser, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    This study gives a hydrologic appraisal of surface water resources in the North Canadian River stream system. Its main objective is to determine the source, extent and dependability of water supply for four different segments of the stream. This study was based on existing data. For streamflow, gages of the US Geological Survey were used. Precipitation and Class A pan evaporation were obtained from publications of climatological data, US Department of Commerce. Other data was obtained from previous reports, water departments of cities and from records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The content includes a general description of the North Canadian River basin and its sub-basins, climatological data, streamflow, appropriated and unappropriated water, monthly water consumption, and determination of the irrigation requirement for the four sub-basins of the North Canadian River.

  5. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 1: Quinebaug River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.; Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Baker, John A.

    1966-01-01

    The Quinebaug River basin is blessed with a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 to 67 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 44-year period. Approximately 21 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Quinebaug River. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basin, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered ground-water levels.

  6. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge exchange and knowledge transfer within the basin to reach the goal of integrated basin management. PMID:26589137

  7. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  9. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

  11. Nitrogen Removal by Streams and Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study, based on chemistry and channel dimensions data collected at 893 randomly-selected stream and river sites in the Mississippi River basin, demonstrated the interaction of stream chemistry, stream size, and NO3-N uptake metrics across a range of stream sizes and across re...

  12. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual framework for assessing possible geomorphic and ecological changes in response to river-flow modifications. Suggestions for future biomonitoring and investigations are also provided. This study was one in a series of similar tributary streamflow and geomorphic studies conducted for the Willamette Sustainable Rivers Project. The Sustainable Rivers Project is a national effort by the USACE and The Nature Conservancy to develop environmental flow requirements in regulated river systems.

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  15. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  16. 76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  17. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  18. 77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. The basin conservation program is structured to provide... implementation of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal AGENCY: Bureau...

  19. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  20. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  1. Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

    2011-12-01

    Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and mature topography with high homogenous erosion. Hydrological system of the study region is complex. Analysis of the Morphometric parameter provides adequate information of both terrain characteristics and hydrological behavior of the catchment and also it is observed that the drainage density of the river is very low which indicates the basin is highly permeable subsoil with dense vegetation cover. Analysis based on circularity ratio, form factor and elongation ratio showed that basin shape of the river is close to circular. The study have significant role to understand landform processes and erosional characteristics of a high altitudinal landform. Present study infers that the integration of morphometrical analysis along with the conventional watershed assessment methods would have a beneficial effect on judicious watershed management of the river Basin. It also included the decrease land resources, soil erosion, and shift runoff of the river basin. Attempt had been made to understand the impact of the river ecosystem of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve especially the upper region of river.

  2. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  3. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  4. Work plan for the Sangamon River basin, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Mades, Dean M.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the Illinois Department of Transportation and other State agencies, recognizes the need for basin-type assessments in Illinois. This report describes a plan of study for a water-resource assessment of the Sangamon River basin in central Illinois. The purpose of the study would be to provide information to basin planners and regulators on the quantity, quality, and use of water to guide management decisions regarding basin development. Water quality and quantity problems in the Sangamon River basin are associated primarily with agricultural and urban activities, which have contributed high concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter to the streams. The impact has resulted in eutrophic lakes, diminished capacity of lakes to store water, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and turbid stream and lake waters. The four elements of the plan of study include: (1) determining suspended sediment and nutrient transport, (2) determining the distribution of selected inorganic and organic residues in streambed sediments, (3) determining the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Sangamon River, and (4) applying a hydraulic model to high streamflows. (USGS)

  5. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  6. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  7. FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

  8. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  9. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Levels in the Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings to aquatic ecosystems are linked to environmental problems such as hypoxia. Presented is an assessment of accessible data on nutrient sources, sinks and inputs to streams within the Yazoo River Basin of northern Mississippi. Spatial trends were examined by p...

  10. COMMENTS ON THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES) has been conducted by university researchers over a four-year period. During this time an Advisory Committee, which numbered up to 50 members, was active in critiquing and commenting on the research work. The committee included representa...

  11. WATERSHED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS BALANCE: THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen and phosphorus mass balances were estimated for the portion of the Potomac River basin watershed located above Washington, D.C. he total nitrogen (N) balance included seven input source terms, six sinks, and one "change-in-storage" term, but was simplified to five input ...

  12. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: SOCIAL VALUES AND ENERGY POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives of the analysis are to identify American social values and to examine their relationship to ...

  13. EVALUATION OF WATERSHED QUALITY IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose for this research was Lo evaluate the baseline (existing) watershed conditions in the Minnesota River basin. he field work was conducted during 1989-1992). hree kinds of procedures were employed: physical (habitat related), chemical (surface and sediment quality) and biol...

  14. Digital Atlas of the Upper Washita River Basin, Southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

  15. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

  16. OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

  17. Colorado River Basin Development Its Potential Impact on Tribal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Since no mechanism presently exists for the effective distribution of tribal income to tribal members, the wealth created by development of natural resources on the American Indian reservations of the Colorado River Basin will not substantially alter the quality of Indian life. (JC)

  18. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: LAND USE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It represents the final technical report summarizing land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses conducted for the study. The ORBES region consists of...

  19. COAL MINE SITING FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentu...

  20. The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

  1. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  2. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  3. Hydrogeologic data in the Quinebaug River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1966-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during an investigation of water resources in the Quinebaug River basin of Connecticut in cooperation with the Connecticut Water Resources Commission. The Quinebaug River basin occupies about 425 square miles in the northeastern part of the State, including the towns of Brooklyn, Griswold, Killingly, Plainfield, Pomfret, Putnam, Sterling, and Thompson, and parts of Canterbury, Hampton, Lisbon, North Stonington, Preston, Voluntown, and Woodstock. A companion interpretive report evaluating the water resources of the basin will be published as Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin 8. The data on the following pages serve to document and supplement that report, and should be especially useful in planning the development of water resources at specific localities.

  4. Priority targets for environmental research in the Sinos River basin.

    PubMed

    Spilki, F R; Tundisi, J G

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River Basin is often mentioned as a highly degraded watershed. A series of impacts on water quality, soil and air has been reported in this environment on a recurring basis over the years. This situation of environmental degradation has its origins in a process of huge economic development uncoupled from environmental conservation concerns. The intense consequent urbanization observed for the municipalities within the watershed was not preceded by urban planning proper zoning. The time has arrived for initiatives in scientific research in the Sinos River basin that are applicable to a more efficient and integrated management and recovery of the basin. In this article, a set of targets for research is suggested which the authors consider as the main priorities for the next few years, aiming for better knowledge and better management of the watershed. Some are still in course, while others have to be initiated as soon as possible. PMID:21225166

  5. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  6. Contaminants in suspended sediment from the Fraser River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sekela, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Moyle, G.; Brewer, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of trace organic contaminants were measured in suspended sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of six pulp mills located in the Fraser River basin. Sampling occurred at three hydrological periods; fall low flow, winter base flow (under ice) and spring freshet. Suspended sediments were analyzed for dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenolics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Initial results indicate that (i) trace organic contaminants are detectable in suspended sediments collected over 265 river kilometers downstream of the nearest pulp mill; (ii) the 1992 to 1994 levels of 2,3,7,8-TCD-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-TCD-furan in Fraser river suspended sediments are lower than the levels measured in 1990; (iii) there is a measurable increase in trace organic contaminant levels in Fraser River suspended sediments associated with the initial rise in the Fraser River hydrograph at freshet.

  7. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  8. Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

  9. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  10. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards wetland restoration has more weight than the rural population's towards flood protection.

  11. Aquatic risk assessment of priority and other river basin specific pesticides in surface waters of Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    To meet good chemical and ecological status, Member States are required to monitor priority substances and chemicals identified as substances of concern at European Union and local/river-basin/national level, respectively, in surface water bodies, and to report exceedances of the environmental quality standards (EQSs). Therefore, standards have to be set at national level for river basin specific pollutants. Pesticides used in dominant crops of several agricultural areas within the catchment of Mediterranean river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo', Portugal) were selected for monitoring, in addition to the pesticides included in priority lists defined in Europe. From the 29 pesticides and metabolites selected for the study, 20 were detected in surface waters of the river basins, seven of which were priority substances: alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, simazine and terbutryn, all of which exceeded their respective EQS values. QSs for other specific pollutants were calculated using different extrapolation techniques (i.e. deterministic or probabilistic) largely based on the method described in view of the Water Framework Directive. Non-acceptable aquatic risks were revealed for molinate, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, propanil, terbuthylazine, and the metabolite desethylatrazine. Implications of these findings for the classification of the ecological status of surface water bodies in Portugal and at the European level are discussed. PMID:26002046

  12. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  13. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Policy, politics, and water management in the Guadalquivir River Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Anjali; Blomquist, William

    2004-08-01

    Among countries with river basin organizations to manage their water resources, Spain's experience is one of the longest. One of the first basin agencies established in Spain was for the Guadalquivir River in the south. A case study of that river basin and its management indicates how basin management is shaped by political economy factors such as the historical path of the agency's evolution, the basin agency's relationships with central government and with regional or local governments, the patterns of water user representation within the agency, and developments in water law and policy external to the basin agency. The case raises questions about whether and how integrated water resources management at the river basin scale is implemented, even in locations where basin agencies already exist. It also suggests that the politics of management at the river basin level will affect the implementation of national water policies intended to promote integrated management.

  16. Estimation of the Water Budget for Major Canadian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, J.; Li, J.; Rivera, A.; Russell, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding regional water budgets is essential in water resources management, particularly for irrigation planning, drought, flood and pollution control, drainage system design, and climate modelling. A water budget for a drainage basin is needed to determine the magnitude of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on terrestrial water cycle and to evaluate possible mitigation actions. In this study, the monthly and 30-year (1979-2008) average water budgets were calculated for large Canadian river basins with an area > 90,000 km2. The total area studied takes about 58% of the entire Canadian landmass. The datasets used include two gridded precipitation products based on measurement, the land surface evapotranspiration product derived from the EALCO model, the river discharge measured from hydrometric stations, and the total water (surface water+groundwater) storage anomaly derived from GRACE satellite observations. These datasets are deemed as the best-available long-term national scale datasets that meet the requirement of this study. Our objectives are to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water budget across the vast Canadian landmass and to answer the questions of (1) how well can we close the water budget at both long-term and monthly time scales for the major Canadian river basins and (2) which component(s) of the water budget (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge, or total water storage change) and in which season and which region contribute the main error source to the water budget imbalance? We also examined the decadal change in total water storage in the major Canadian river basins and quantified the bias in evapotranspiration estimation by using the widely-accepted surface water budget approach. Our results show that the national scale water budget imbalance is very close to 0 (-0.2 mm year-1) due to the offset of positive and negative imbalances among the studies basins. Basins with positive imbalances were located mostly in the south and basins with negative imbalances were more commonly located in the north. The mean absolute annual water budget imbalance of river basins studied is 49.1 mm year-1, or 9.7% of the mean annual precipitation. The mean absolute monthly water budget imbalance is 12.1 mm month-1, or 2.5% of the mean annual precipitation. The basins of the Cordillera showed large negative trend in the total water storage over the past decade, consistent with the observations of glacier and snow cover shrinkage, permafrost degradation, and river discharge increase. Different error source was identified with different river basins in different seasons. The results will contribute to a reduction in uncertainties and a better understanding of the water cycles and water resources across the country.

  17. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  18. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  19. Uranium transport in the Walker River Basin, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Leach, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the summer of 1976 waters from tributaries, rivers, springs and wells were sampled in the Walker River Basin. Snow and sediments from selected sites were also sampled. All samples were analyzed for uranium and other elements. The resulting data provide an understanding of the transport of uranium within a closed hydrologic basin as well as providing a basis for the design of geochemical reconnaissance studies for the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States. Spring and tributary data are useful in locating areas containing anomalous concentrations of uranium. However, agricultural practices obscure the presence of known uranium deposits and render impossible the detection of other known deposits. Uranium is extremely mobile in stream waters and does not appear to sorb or precipitate. Uranium has a long residence time (2500 years) in the open waters of Walker Lake; however, once it crosses the sediment-water interface, it is reduced to the U(IV) state and is lost from solution. Over the past two million years the amount of uranium transported to the terminal point of the Walker River system may have been on the order of 4 ?? 108 kg. This suggests that closed basin termini are sites for significant uranium accumulations and are, therefore, potential sites of uranium ore deposits. ?? 1979.

  20. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the chemical composition of the streams. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration and hardness of water observed in major irrigation areas were 507 and 262 parts per million, respectively, for the. Walla Walla River near Touchet, Wash. In terms of the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff classification (1954, p. 80), water in most streams in the basin has low salinity and sodium hazards and is suitable for irrigation. A salt-balance problem does exist in the Hermiston-Stanfield, Oreg., area of the Umatilla River basin, and because of poor drainage, improper irrigation practices could cause salt-balance problems in the Willamette River Valley, Oreg., in which irrigation is rapidly increasing. Pollution by sewage disposal has reached undesirable levels in the Walla Walla River, in the Willamette River from Eugene to Portland, Oreg., and in the Columbia River from Portland to Puget Island. In the lower reaches of the Willamette River, the pollution load from sewage and industrial-waste disposal at times depletes the dissolved oxygen in the water to concentrations below what is considered necessary for aquatic life. Water in most of the tributaries to the lower Columbia River is of excellent quality and after some treatment could be used for industrial and municipal supplies. The principal treatment required would be disinfection and turbidity removal.

  1. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  2. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

  3. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Bea River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mgL(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mgL(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Bea River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. PMID:25918888

  4. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (1 sample), pH (1 sample), sodium (9 samples), chloride (1 sample), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (7 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (8 samples), manganese (6 samples), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). Fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were each detected in one sample. Concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, and uranium, and gross alpha activities, did not exceed existing drinking-water standards in any of the samples collected. Methane concentrations in two samples were greater than 28 milligrams per liter, and the maximum measured concentration was 44.3 milligrams per liter.

  5. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishment of a localized broodstock in the near-term, and provide the opportunity to establish natural production over the long-term. Phase II information is presented in this document to clearly articulate the long-term intent and vision of the coho salmon reintroduction program. Phase II would be proposed only if Phase I meets several indicators of success. If Phase I meets all identified indicators of success, authorization for Phase II funding would be pursued via a supplement to this Master Plan.

  6. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

  7. Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1984-07-01

    Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

  9. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Gray, Stephen T.; Meko, David M.

    2006-05-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past.

  10. Water Quality of the upper Litani River Basin, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydar, Chaden Moussa; Nehme, Nada; Awad, Sadek; Koubaissy, Bachar; Fakih, Mohamad; Yaacoub, Ali; Toufaily, Joumana; Villeras, Frederic; Hamieh, Tayssir

    Water pollution is a major problem in Lebanon, which is has been exacerbated lately. However, surface water sources are most exploited, and more certainly the water from rivers. The Litani River has been lately subjected to several aspects of deterioration in its quality. This includes the major physiochemical characteristics. The aims of this study are to assess the seasonal variations in water quality in the Upper Litani River Basin, including the Qaraaoun Lake. The collected samples were from representative sites along the river, and this was carried out at several dates during 2010 and 2011. The carried analysis implies the physical (pH, T, TDS, EC), chemicals (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO2-4, NH3+, NO-3, PO2-4, K+, Heavy metals. This resulted numeric data are being compared with WHO guidelines. In addition, PCA was applied to evaluate the data accuracy. It can be conclude that the measured variables used are creditable for the assessment.

  11. People and water in the Assabet River basin, eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    An accounting of the inflows, outflows, and uses of water in the rapidly developing Assabet River Basin, along Interstate 495 in eastern Massachusetts, was done to quantify how people's activities alter the hydrologic system. The study identified subbasins and seasons in which outflows resulting from people's activities were relatively large percentages of total flows, and quantified the fraction of streamflow in the Assabet River that is treated wastewater. Computer models of ground-water flow were also used to test how the components of the hydrologic system, particularly streamflow, would change with future development and increased water use. Computer simulations showed that, when water use was increased to currently permitted levels, streamflows in tributaries would decrease, particularly during the low-flow period. In the Assabet River, increased wastewater discharges resulted in a slight increase in total streamflow and an increase in the fraction of streamflow in the river that is wastewater, relative to existing conditions.

  12. Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

    2009-05-01

    Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

  13. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

  14. River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  15. Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

  16. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromrivers impacted by industrial discharges. Among the rivers directly flowing into the sea, Brenta, Po and Arno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  17. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

  18. River enhancement in the Upper Mississippi River basin: Approaches based on river uses, alterations, and management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is characterized by a series of locks and dams, shallow impoundments, and thousands of river channelization structures that facilitate commercial navigation between Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Cairo, Illinois. Agriculture and urban development over the past 200 years have degraded water quality and increased the rate of sediment and nutrient delivery to surface waters. River enhancement has become an important management tool employed to address causes and effects of surface water degradation and river modification in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We report information on individual river enhancement projects and contrast project densities, goals, activities, monitoring, and cost between commercially non-navigated and navigated rivers (Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers, respectively). The total number of river enhancement projects collected during this effort was 62,108. Cost of all projects reporting spending between 1972 and 2006 was about US$1.6 billion. Water quality management was the most cited project goal within the basin. Other important goals in Navigated Rivers included in-stream habitat improvement and flow modification. Most projects collected for Non-navigated Rivers and their watersheds originated from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the USDA were important sources for projects in Navigated Rivers. Collaborative efforts between agencies that implement projects in Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers may be needed to more effectively address river impairment. However, the current state of data sources tracking river enhancement projects deters efficient and broad-scale integration. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  19. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  20. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake/ reservoir and river operations including diversion of Truckee River water to the Truckee Canal for transport to the Carson River Basin. In addition to the operations and streamflow-routing modules, the modeling system is structured to allow integration of other modules, such as water-quality and precipitation-runoff modules. The USGS Truckee River Basin operations model was designed to provide simulations that allow comparison of the effects of alternative management practices or allocations on streamflow or reservoir storages in the Truckee River Basin over long periods of time. Because the model was not intended to reproduce historical streamflow or reservoir storage values, a traditional calibration that includes statistical comparisons of observed and simulated values would be problematic with this model and database. This report describes a chronology and background of decrees, agreements, and laws that affect Truckee River operational practices; the construction of the Truckee River daily operations model; the simulation of Truckee River Basin operations, both current and proposed under the draft TROA and WQSA; and suggested model improvements and limitations. The daily operations model uses Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate flow-routing and reservoir and river operations. The operations model simulates reservoir and river operations that govern streamflow in the Truckee River from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake, including diversions through the Truckee Canal to Lahontan Reservoir in the Carson River Basin. A general overview is provided of daily operations and their simulation. Supplemental information that documents the extremely complex operating rules simulated by the model is available.

  1. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  2. Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

    2011-12-01

    The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

  3. Generation of synthetic seasonal hydrographs for a large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmaker, Tapas; Dutta, Subashisa

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThis paper describes a methodology for the generation of synthetic seasonal stage hydrographs with a number of flood waves for a large braided river basin based on statistical analysis of the historical stage records. The synthetic seasonal hydrographs in a river is required for different purposes such as assessing the hydraulic performances of various river training structures, morphological predictions, environmental impact analysis. The typical stage hydrograph of such a river has two components: flood waves and seasonal (monsoonal) response. Using historical stage records, flood waves in a seasonal stage record were identified and their characteristics were approximated using Maxwell distribution. The extracted characteristics of flood waves such as time of occurrence and successive flood lifts were analysed with various probability distribution function to find out their best distribution. The frequency analysis of the annual maximum flood lift was carried out. Beside this, seasonal responses were also approximated using Maxwell distribution. A relationship between the seasonal lift and total monsoonal rainfall was established. For a given total seasonal rainfall and return period of annual maximum flood wave lift, synthetic seasonal hydrograph is generated by superimposing both seasonal response and flood waves. The generated hydrographs are evaluated by comparing the cumulative frequency function of river stage and relative frequency of daily stage changes (rise/fall) for three seasons with different flood wave return periods, at two river gauging stations for the river Brahmaputra, India.

  4. Availability of ground water, upper Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, William Burrows; Hahn, Glenn Walter; Brackley, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    The upper Pawcatuck River basin is a 70-square-mile area in southcentral Rhode Island consisting of broad, rolling hills and narrow valleys in the north and fiat-floored plains in the south. It is drained by the Pawcatuck River and its two major tributaries, the Usquepaug-Queen River and the Chipuxet River. Analysis of the water budget for the basin shows that approximately 94 mgd (million gallons per day) or about 63 percent of the precipitation flows out of the basin as streamflow. Of this amount, about 66 mgd is from ground-water seepage. Two ground-water reservoirs composed of glacial deposits of sand and gravel and capable of substantial yields are in the basin. The larger reservoir underlies the central part of the Usquepaug-Queen River valley. This reservoir ranges in width from 3,000 to 4,000 feet and is 32,000 feet long. A large part of the reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 100 feet thick, having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of this reservoir is estimated to be about 17 mgd. The smaller ground-water reservoir is in the Chipuxet River valley. It is about 4,000 feet wide and 16,000 feet long. A large part of this reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 150 feet thick having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of the Chipuxet reservoir is estimated to be about 8.6 mgd. Mineral content of water from both of the reservoirs is generally less than 200 parts per million of dissolved solids. However, in the Chipuxet groundwater reservoir the dissolved solids are somewhat higher, and the iron content is a problem. Only about 1.5 mgd of water is used in the basin. Most of it is used for public supplies and is obtained from wells not tapping the Usquepaug-Queen or Chipuxet ground-water reservoirs. Estimates of the 25 mgd of ground water potentially available are believed to be conservative, and substantially larger quantities may actually be available when development takes place.

  5. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  6. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  7. Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

  8. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  9. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. PMID:25777957

  10. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0~28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  12. Characterization of Stream Morphology and Sediment Yield for the Big Black and Tombigbee River Basins, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three segments within the Big Black River Basin, and nine within the Tombigbee River Basin are on the Mississippi 303d list of water bodies as having impaired conditions for aquatic life due to sediment. An additional 56 reaches of channel are listed for biologic impairment between the two basins. ...

  13. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  14. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration. PMID:25142344

  15. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  16. Charles River lower basin artificial destratification project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferullo, A.F.; DiPietro, P.J.; Shaughnessy, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    The Charles River Basin which was created by construction of a dam in 1910 has been stratified since that time with salt water intruding from Boston Harbor through a boat lock and leaky sluices. In order to eliminate nuisance conditions and fish kills caused by hydrogen sulfide from the anoxic bottom water, destratification by air-mixing was initiated in the spring of 1978. Six diffusers were installed on the bottom in the deep sections of the Basin and operated as necessary to induce sufficient circulation to maintain a minimum of 4.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen throughout the water column. After two and a half years of operation, hydrogen sulfide has been eliminated and water quality has generally improved in the area of the Basin influenced by the diffusers.

  17. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  18. Sedimentation in three small forested drainage basins in the Alsea River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.C.

    1964-01-01

    A multidiscipline investigation to determine the effects of logging on the ecology of three small forested tributary basins is a part of an overall study of the Alsea River basin in the Coast Range of Oregon. The investigation of these small basins will be to (1) establish pre-logging conditions, (2) determine the effects of different logging methods, and (3) study the rate of recovery after the timber harvest. This report presents results of sedimentation in the basins, Deer and Flynn Creeks and Needle Branch, for the first 2 years of study (1959 and 1960 water years). Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are seasonal for the Coast Range of western Oregon. About 95 percent of the rainfall and runoff occurs during the period October to May, but nearly 100 percent of the suspended-sediment discharge occurs during the same period. For Deer Creek, in the 1960 water year, 23 percent of the annual suspended-sediment discharge occurred on 1 day, 58 percent during the 10 days of greatest discharge, and 78 percent during the 38 days of greatest discharge. Rainfall is practically equal for all three of the basins. The runoff of the Deer and Flynn Creek basins is about equal, but that of the Needle Branch basin averaged 8 percent less. Sediment yield varies considerably for the three basins. The suspended-sediment yield of the Deer Creek basin is almost twice that of the Needle Branch basin and almost 1? times that of the Flynn Creek basin. Water temperature of the three streams varied only 22?F during the 2 water years. The greatest variation between streams was 3?F in the minimums. Water temperature effect can be neglected in comparing the sediment yields of the basins. The aquifers of the basins have low storage capacities as illustrated by the very low, late summer flow. A study of a midwinter freshet period for the Deer Creek basin showed that virtually all the rainfall left the basin as runoff within 4 days; the period of significant sediment transport was thus very short.

  19. Flood tracking chart for the Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles F.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Tracking Chart for the Illinois River Basin in Illinois can be used to record and compare the predicted or current flood-crest stage to past flood-crest information. This information can then be used by residents and emergency-response personnel to make informed decisions concerning the threat of flooding to life and property. The chart shows a map of the Illinois River Basin (see below), the location of real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the basin, graphs of selected historical recorded flood-crest stages at each of the stations, and sea-level conversion (SLC) factors that allow conversion of the current or predicted flood-crest stage to elevation above sea level. Each graph represents a streamflow-gaging station and has a space to record the most current river stage reported for that station by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The National Weather Service (NWS) predicts flood crests for many of the stations shown on this chart.

  20. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation guidelines, and climate change scenario assumptions. This potential risk mitigation could be at least partly realized through enhancements to current management practices, possibly in the Gila River, that could improve the water supply reliability for all stakeholders in the Colorado River Basin.

  1. Streamflow characteristics of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, through 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, L. Grady; Shields, Ronald R.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for selected stream-gaging and crest-stage gage sites are presented in this report to aid in appraising the hydrology of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana. Streamflow records presented for 45 gaging stations and 45 crest-stage gages for the period of record. Streamflow record collection in the Yellowstone River basin began in 1889. For each gaging station selected for this report, a brief description is given for station location, drainage area , period of record, revisions of previously published records, type and history of gages, regulation and diversions, and extremes of discharge. These data are followed by tables of monthly and annual flow statistics, high-flow and low-flow frequency data, flood-frequency data, flow-duration information, and for natural-flow sites selected basin characteristics. For each crest-stage gage, the brief description consists of location, drainage area, period of record, and type and history of gage. This information is followed by tables of flood-frequency data and selected basin characteristics. (USGS)

  2. Water Temperature Dynamics in High Arctic River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of polar regions to climate change, and the strong influence of temperature upon ecosystem processes, contemporary understanding of water temperature dynamics in Arctic river systems is limited. This research gap is addressed by exploring high-resolution water column thermal regimes for glacier-fed and non-glacial rivers at eight sites across Svalbard during the 2010 melt season. Mean water column temperatures in glacier-fed rivers (0.3 - 3.2 C) were the lowest and most thermally-stable near the glacier terminus but increased downstream (0.7 - 2.3 C km-1). Non-glacial rivers, where discharge was sourced primarily from snowmelt, were warmer (mean 2.9 - 5.7 C) and more variable, indicating increased water residence times in shallow alluvial zones with increased potential for atmospheric influence. Mean summer water temperature and the magnitude of daily thermal variation were similar to those of Alaskan rivers but low at all sites when compared to alpine glacierized environments at lower latitudes. Thermal regimes were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with incoming shortwave radiation, air temperature, and river discharge. Principal drivers of thermal variability were inferred to be: (1) water source (i.e. glacier melt, snowmelt, groundwater); (2) exposure time to the atmosphere; (3) prevailing meteorological conditions; (4) river discharge; and (5) basin-specific geomorphological features (e.g. channel morphology). These results provide insight into the potential changes in high-latitude river systems in the context of projected warming in polar regions. We hypothesise warmer and more variable temperature regimes may prevail in future as the proportion of bulk discharge sourced from glacial meltwater declines and rivers undergo a progressive shift towards snow- and groundwater sources. Importantly, such changes could have implications for species diversity and abundance in benthic communities and influence rates of ecosystem functioning in high-latitude aquatic systems.

  3. Climate Oscillations and the Hydroclimatology of the Fraser River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, S. J.; Hernndez-Henrquez, M.; Owens, P. N.; Parkes, M.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Fraser River is by volume the largest Canadian waterway flowing to the Pacific Ocean and remains largely unaffected by flow regulation. The Fraser River Basin (FRB) spans across 234,000 square kilometers or one quarter of British Columbia, Canada and bears a magnificent amount of natural and human heritage and the cultural and linguistic diversity of this region encompasses various First Nations peoples who use the Fraser River and its tributaries as waterways and for sustenance. This presentation will focus on the role of climate oscillations on the 1910-2009 variability and trends in annual streamflow at 141 sites across the FRB of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Our analyses reveal high runoff rates and low interannual variability in alpine and coastal rivers and low runoff rates and high interannual variability in streams on BC's interior plateau. Large-scale climate teleconnections such as El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), in conjunction with retreating glaciers, may be contributing to the greater range in annual streamflow fluctuations across the basin. This poses significant challenges for water resource managers and also has implications on ecological processes such as migrating salmon that are especially important to First Nations communities. As the climate continues to warm, greater variability in annual streamflow, and hence in hydrological extremes, may arise across the FRB in the 21st century.

  4. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  5. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  6. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are

  7. A Basin-Wide Integrated Analysis of Human Impacts on River Basins Using Horton-Strahler Stream Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Michioku, K.

    2010-12-01

    Human impacts, such as land use change and human population distributed within a river basin, may affect the balance of water resources utilization and the ecological condition on the river basin environment. In this study, we proposed a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahlers stream order to analyze basin-wide distributions of the human activity impacts across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assumed that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type, such as paddy fields, farmlands, forests, cites, etc., and the human population formed a geometric sequence, which was the same mathematical relationship as stated in Hortons laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implied basically fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 river basins of Japan were used to verify the model. Then, we quantitatively compared the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics and classified these river basins into four categories through principal component analysis (PCA). The four categories could be labeled by the two PCA axes, i.e., the forested/urbanized and the cultivated /waters. Furthermore, GIS datasets of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and gross domestic product (GDP) with the basin classification obtained were used to evaluate the human activity influence on both the water quality (BOD) and the economic condition (GDP) in the 109 river basins of Japan and discussed their relationships through the framework of the Horton-type stream order model for land use and human settlement.

  8. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  9. Sources of nitrate yields in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E; McIsaac, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    Riverine nitrate N in the Mississippi River leads to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Several recent modeling studies estimated major N inputs and suggested source areas that could be targeted for conservation programs. We conducted a similar analysis with more recent and extensive data that demonstrates the importance of hydrology in controlling the percentage of net N inputs (NNI) exported by rivers. The average fraction of annual riverine nitrate N export/NNI ranged from 0.05 for the lower Mississippi subbasin to 0.3 for the upper Mississippi River basin and as high as 1.4 (4.2 in a wet year) for the Embarras River watershed, a mostly tile-drained basin. Intensive corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] watersheds on Mollisols had low NNI values and when combined with riverine N losses suggest a net depletion of soil organic N. We used county-level data to develop a nonlinear model ofN inputs and landscape factors that were related to winter-spring riverine nitrate yields for 153 watersheds within the basin. We found that river runoff times fertilizer N input was the major predictive term, explaining 76% of the variation in the model. Fertilizer inputs were highly correlated with fraction of land area in row crops. Tile drainage explained 17% of the spatial variation in winter-spring nitrate yield, whereas human consumption of N (i.e., sewage effluent) accounted for 7%. Net N inputs were not a good predictor of riverine nitrate N yields, nor were other N balances. We used this model to predict the expected nitrate N yield from each county in the Mississippi River basin; the greatest nitrate N yields corresponded to the highly productive, tile-drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. This analysis can be used to guide decisions about where efforts to reduce nitrate N losses can be most effectively targeted to improve local water quality and reduce export to the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21043271

  10. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, W.; Martinez, J.-M.; Espinoza-Villar, R.; Cochonneau, G.; Vauchel, P.; Moquet, J.-S.; Baby, P.; Espinoza, J.-C.; Lavado, W.; Carranza, J.; Guyot, J.-L.

    2015-03-01

    Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  11. [Comprehensive assessment on environmental quality in vulnerable ecotone of Tarim River Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Song, Y; Fan, Z; You, X

    2001-03-01

    Tarim River Basin (TRB) is one of ecological environment vulnerable areas. Due to the matching of material and energy existed in some problems, the different fragility characteristics occurred obviously. According to related principles of ecological environment quality assessment, combined with ecological environment situation of Tarim River Basin, 20 indexes were selected, and the indicator system for synthetically ecological environment assessment was built. Moreover, ecological fragility index was set up, which can be used to indicate the degree of ecological environment quality in Tarim River Basin. The results were as follows: Aksu River Basin belongs to improved area. Yerkart River Basin and the upper reaches of TRB belongs to balance areas and Hetian River Basin and the middle reaches of TRB belongs to maladjustment areas. The lower reaches of TRB belongs to severe damage area. The assessment results are consonant with actual situation, which play an important function in ecological environment construction. PMID:11432072

  12. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  13. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  14. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

  15. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Hudson River Basin study area covers 5,607 square miles and encompasses the part of the Lower Hudson River Basin that lies within New York plus the parts of the Housatonic, Hackensack, Bronx, and Saugatuck River Basins that are in New York. Twelve of the wells sampled in the Lower Hudson River Basin are completed in sand-and-gravel deposits, and 13 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Lower Hudson River Basin was generally of good quality, although properties and concentrations of some constituentspH, sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, aluminum, iron, manganese, radon-222, total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, and heterotrophic plate countequaled or exceeded primary, secondary, or proposed drinking-water standards. The constituent most frequently detected in concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards (20 of 25 samples) was radon-222.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  17. Summary of the river-quality assessment of the upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, R.N.; Faye, R.E.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The river-quality assessment of the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin included studies of (1) the impact of heat loads on river quality, (2) sediment transport and deposition, (3) magnitude and nature of point and nonpoint discharges, and (4) phytoplankton growth in the river and reservoirs. The combined thermal effects of flow regulation and powerplants effluents resulted in mean daily river temperature downstream of the powerplants about equal to or less than computed natural temperatures. The average annual river temperature in 1976 was 14.0 ? Celsius just upstream of the Atkinson-McDonough thermoelectric powerplants and 16.0 ? Celsius just downstream from the powerplants. During a low-flow period in June 1977 the heat load from the two powerplants caused an increase in river temperatures of about 7 ? Celsius and a subsequent decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration of about 0.2 milligrams per liter. During the June low-flow period, point sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand and 97 percent of ammonium as nitrogen at the Franklin station. Oxidation of ultimate biochemical demand and ammonium caused dissolved-oxygen concentrations to decrease from about 8.0 milligrams per liter at river mile 299 to about 4.5 milligrams per liter at river mile 271. Dissolved orthophosphate is the nutrient presently limiting phytoplankton growth in the West Point Lake when water temperatures are greater than about 26 ? Celsius.

  18. Ground-water conditions in the Navajo Sandstone in the central Virgin River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The central Virgin River basin, Utah, includes about 1,000 square miles (2,600 square kilometers) in the drainage basin of the Virgin River downstream from the Hurricane Cliffs. The Navajo Sandstone of Late Triassic(?) and Jurassic age crops out in 234 square miles (606 square kilometers) of the basin and underlies younger rocks in about 450 square miles (1,200 square kilometers) of the basin.

  19. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic impacts. Reference: Ashton, W.D. 1986. River and lake ice engineering. Water Resources Publication, USA 485 p. Starosolszky, Ö., 1990. Effect of river barrages on ice regime. Journal of Hydraulic Research 28/6, 711-718. Williams, G.P., 1970. A note on the break-up of lakes and rivers as indicators of climate change. Atmosphere 8 (1), 23-24.

  20. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  1. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  2. Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

    1986-08-01

    Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

  3. Flood frequency analysis for Germany's Weser River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, J.; Qu, Y.; Beighley, E.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of flood risk is more challenging outside of the U.S., as other countries typically do not have centralized agencies such as the USGS and FEMA that provide easily-accessible stream gauge data and flood maps. Therefore, modifications to the typical flood frequency methods used in the U.S. (e.g., USGS Bulletin 17b with regional regression, or regional frequency analysis using L-Moments) are often necessary with limited data. For the Weser River Basin in northern Germany, we obtained discharge data from 114 stream gauges, but full records of instantaneous annual maximum discharges were available for only 19 of those gauges. The 19 gauges were located along larger rivers draining areas greater than approximately 2500 sq km. The other 95 gauges draining areas less than 2500 sq km contained only the 10 largest observations (top 10) over the period of record. In order to make use of all available data, we used a hybrid approach, applying 1) regional frequency analysis using L-Moments for the annual maximum data for large (greater than 2000 sq km) watersheds, and 2) regional regression analysis for small (less than 2000 sq km) watersheds using the top 10 data, to estimate flood (i.e., 100-yr and 500-yr) discharges for all river and stream reaches throughout the basin. This presentation highlights the challenges and solutions for using a limited number of gauges and incomplete record lengths to estimate flood discharges for both large and small watersheds.

  4. Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre-projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

  5. Climatic Variation and River Flows in Himalayan Basins Upstream of Large Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D.; Collins, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    High specific discharges from Himalayan headwater basins feed major reservoirs generating hydropower and supplying water to irrigation schemes across the Punjab plains of north-west India and Pakistan. Flow arises from seasonal winter snow cover, summer monsoon precipitation and melting glacier ice in varying proportions and differing absolute quantities along west -east axes of the Karakoram and western Himalaya. Discharge records for stations above Tarbela (Indus), Mangla (Jhelum), Marala (Chenab) and Bhakra (Sutlej) dams have been examined for periods between 1920 and 2009, together with precipitation and air temperature data for stations with long records (within the period 1893 to 2013) at elevations between 234 and 3015 m a.s.l. Ice-cover age in the basins above the dams was between 1 and 12 %. Flows in the Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum reached maxima in the 1950s before declining to the 1970s. Flow in the Chenab and Jhelum increased to 1950s levels in the 1990s, before falling steeply into the 2000s mimicking variations in winter and monsoon precipitation. Discharge in the Indus at Tarbela increased from the 1970s, reaching a maximum in the late 1980s/early 1990s, before declining back to 1970s levels in the 2000s, flow being influenced not only by precipitation fluctuations but also by changes in air temperature affecting glacier melt in headwater basins. Runoff at Bhakra was augmented by flow from the Beas-Sutlej link canal after 1977, but natural flow in the Sutlej above Luhri reduced considerably from the 1990s influenced by declining flows in the relatively dry but large Tibetan portion of the basin area. Large year-to-year fluctuations of reservoir inflows are nonetheless based on significant sustained underlying discharge levels at all four reservoirs.

  6. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  7. Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Ayers, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4C. A warming of 2 to 4C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from {minus}39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. In this humid temperate climate, where precipitation is evenly distributed over the year, decreases in snow accumulation in the northern part of the basin and increases in evapotranspiration throughout the basin could change the timing of runoff and significantly reduce total annual water availability unless precipitation were to increase concurrently.

  8. [Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme. PMID:24483070

  9. Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, David M.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Baisan, Christopher A.; Knight, Troy; Lukas, Jeffrey J.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Salzer, Matthew W.

    2007-05-01

    New tree-ring records of ring-width from remnant preserved wood are analyzed to extend the record of reconstructed annual flows of the Colorado River at Lee Ferry into the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when epic droughts are hypothesized from other paleoclimatic evidence to have affected various parts of western North America. The most extreme low-frequency feature of the new reconstruction, covering A.D. 762-2005, is a hydrologic drought in the mid-1100s. The drought is characterized by a decrease of more than 15% in mean annual flow averaged over 25 years, and by the absence of high annual flows over a longer period of about six decades. The drought is consistent in timing with dry conditions inferred from tree-ring data in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau, but regional differences in intensity emphasize the importance of basin-specific paleoclimatic data in quantifying likely effects of drought on water supply.

  10. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  11. Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

    1981-01-01

    Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

  12. Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Ayers, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2??C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4??C. A warming of 2?? to 4??C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from -39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  13. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Sa-Requejo, A.; Gasc, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both sub-periods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  15. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  16. Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lindau, C W; Delaune, R D; Scaroni, A E; Nyman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen has been implicated as a major cause of hypoxia in shallow water along the Louisiana/Texas, USA coasts. Excess nitrogen (mainly nitrate) from Mississippi and Atchafalaya River drainage basins may drive the onset and duration of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoring and enhancing denitrification have been proposed to reduce and control coastal hypoxia and improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. Sediments were collected from six baldcypress restoration sites within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USA. The acetylene blockage technique was used to measure background and potential sediment denitrification rates. Denitrification fluxes were measured before nitrate addition (background rates) and after nitrate addition of 100mgNl(-1) (potential denitrification) at three seasonal temperatures. Background denitrification was low across all cypress swamp sites ranging from 0.9 to 8.8, 0.6 to 28.5 and 8.8 to 47.5g N evolved ha(-1)d(-1) at water/sediment column temperatures of 8, 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. After nitrate addition, temperature had a significant effect on sediment denitrification potential. Maximum rates measured at 8, 22 and 30 degrees C were approximately 250-260, 550 and 970gNha(-1)d(-1), respectively. Most of the added nitrate in water columns, incubated at 8 degrees C, was removed after 65d compared to 32d and 17d at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate cypress swamps have the potential to assimilate and process elevated levels of floodwater nitrate with denitrification being a major removal mechanism. PMID:17707455

  17. On the occurrence of Anaecypris hispanica, an extremely endangered Iberian endemism, in the Guadalquivir River basin.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, R; Pino, E; Ramiro, A; Aranda, F; Pea, J P; Doadrio, I; Fernndez-Delgado, C

    2010-04-01

    The jarabugo Anaecypris hispanica, considered endemic to the Guadiana River basin, has been found in the Guadalquivir River. First genetic data showed a high degree of similarity to those of the Guadiana River populations. The genetic study recovered five different groups of haplotypes, the Guadalquivir River specimens belong to the largest and most widely extended group. PMID:20537024

  18. Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

  19. The 2010 flood in the Sele river basin (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.; Cristiano, L.; Gentile, S.; Gentilella, M.; Giannattasio, M.; Napoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    On the 7th of November 2010, a deep Atlantic trough across the North-African Coast triggered an intense flux of hot-humid and unstable currents toward Italy. On the 8th of November, this trough extended over the Italian Peninsula, enhancing wind currents from south-west in the lower atmospheric layers in the west-facing regions. This structure has been almost stable within the following three days, from the 8th to the 10th of November. The southern currents, filled of humidity gained during their passage over the Tyrrhenian Sea, have generated diffuse rainstorms. Raingauges located along the Apennine range of the Campania Region have measured rainfall depths with estimated return period up to 90 years within time intervals of 48 hours, particularly across the Sele River basin (5.000 km2). At catchment scale, the overall rainfall event appeared as an unusual succession of three important sub-events, with a temporal scale of ten hours each. These sub-events generated three successive floods, with increasing peak values, within Sele sub-catchments (spatial extents of 1000-2000 km2) characterised by response times of the order of 10 hours. The overall event generated a major flood within the Sele River basin, with relevant damages to urban infrastructures, network utilities, agricultural and industrial settlements. The measured water level within Sele cross-section at Albanella (10 km uplsope the sea outlet) was the highest level ever measured since the gauge station has been established in 1933. A time series of spatial average rainfall depth from 1933 to 2010 have been reconstructed from historical daily raingauge data, in order to assess the return period of the spatial average rainfall depth across the entire Sele River basin. The probabilistic distribution of the catchment average annual maximum rain depth in two days is efficiently modelled by Gumbel law and the estimated return period of the two-days rain depth in 8-9 November 2010 is 130 years. Campania Region is now developing a new flood forecasting system for the Sele River basin to be integrated within the Regional Flood Warning system.

  20. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

  1. Simulation of upper Kuantan River basin streamflow using SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Mohd Syazwan Faisal; Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin; Rahman, Nor Faiza Abd; Khalid, Khairi; Haron, Siti Humaira

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the capabilities of Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) in simulating streamflow in a tropical watershed - upper Kuantan river basin. Two statistical metrics were used for model evaluation; i) coefficient of determination (R2) and ii) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSI). The calibration result shows that there is a good agreement between the observed and simulated monthly streamflow with R2=0.84 and NSI=0.82. For validation the result is acceptable which the value of R2=0.59 and NSI=0.57. The results suggest that SWAT model is able to simulate the hydrologic characteristics of the tropical watershed well.

  2. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  3. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  4. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10⁴ km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10⁴ km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  5. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  6. Water resources of the Penobscot River basin, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, Harold Kilbrith; Babb, Cyrus Cates

    1912-01-01

    This report on the Penobscot River drainage system, the largest and one of the most important in Maine, has been compiled chiefly from the records, reports, and maps of the United States Geological Survey and from the results of surveys made in cooperation with the Maine State Survey Commission. The report includes all data on precipitation, stream flow, water storage, and water power that were available at the end of the calendar year 1909 and is accompanied by plans and profiles of the principal rivers, lakes, and ponds in the basin (Pis. XIII-XIX, at end of volume). Stream-flow data for 1910 and 1911 will be published in Water-Supply Papers 281 and 301, respectively.

  7. Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, Jorge D.; Montoro, Hugo; Latrubesse, Edgardo

    2013-01-01

    The Tropical Rivers 2012 international conference (http://www.crearamazonia.org/tropicalrivers2012/) was part of the International Geoscience Programme 582 project of The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's International Union for Geological Sciences (UNESCO-IUGS). The aim of the IGCP 582 is to provide an integrated assessment of long-term direct effects of climate variability and human-induced change and management of tropical river basins. This assessment is to be achieved by identification, quantification, and modeling of key hydro-geomorphologic indicators during the past and present times, and assessment of the potential influences of global change on fluvial systems and the socio-economic implications of these changes.

  8. Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the fitted regression lines ranged from 0.95 to 1.01 (correlation coefficient > 0.96) for the basins studied. Values for the residence time of waters within the basins and average relative contributions of the within-year and long-term reservoirs to outflow were obtained. Values for river basin residence times ranged from 2 years for the Kissimmee River basin to 20 years for the Potomac River basin. The residence times indicate the time scale in which the basin responds to anthropogenic inputs. The modeled tritium concentrations for the basins also furnish input data for urban and agricultural settings where these river waters are used. ?? 1992.

  9. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  10. Wetlands Response to Climate Change across Susquehanna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; Bhatt, G.; Kumar, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) lies in the northeastern United States and contains a mosaic of wetlands that range from permanently wet to temporary embedded in a landscape matrix of natural deciduous forest and agriculture. This study explores the prospects for SRB wetlands under modified hydrologic processes induced due to climatic change. Five mesoscale watersheds: Little Juniata River (560 sq. km.), Mahantango Creek (420 sq. km.), Young Womans Creek (120 sq. km.), Muddy Creek (344 sq. km.), and Lackawanna River (860 sq. km.) were selected as representative watersheds to include variability in climate, topography, soil, geomorphology, and land cover across SRB. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across these watersheds between climate and wetland health using groundwater predictions from Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling System (PIHM) -- a spatially distributed fully-coupled physics-based model. Near present (2004-2010) hourly climate data (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, wind velocity and solar radiation) were obtained from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), climate reanalysis product. The predicted wetland locations were validated against the National Wetland Inventory. We analyzed the effect of spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic states such as streams, groundwater, and evaporative and hydrologic fluxes on the wetland hydrology. To predict the impacts of climate change on the health of the wetland, meteorological data for two 20 year climate periods (History: 1979-1998 and Scenario: 2046-2065) from Meteorological Research Institute's GCM were used as model forcing. The scenarios output showed different responses across the wetlands in the river basin. The key to this study is that a high resolution spatial and temporal model can resolve the coupled effects of wetlands in the context of complete mesoscale watershed simulations.

  11. An Exploration, for the Upper Indus Basin, of Elevation Dependency in the Relationships Between Locally Observed Near Surface Air Temperature (SAT) and Remotely-Sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Hardy, A. J.; Holderness, T. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of ground-based observations of near-surface air temperature (SAT) is extremely skewed toward low elevation areas. Land surface temperature (LST) remote sensing data products -- from thermal and infrared wavelength satellite imagery -- provide spatial coverage independent of elevation, although they only provide values for "clear sky" conditions, the prevalence of which may be influenced by elevation-dependent factors. It is thus imperative for researchers studying EDW to characterise the relationship between observations of "all-sky" SAT and "clear-sky" thermal/infrared (TIR) LST in order to overcome the extreme sparseness of SAT observations at high elevations. Drawing on local SAT observation data from both manned meteorological stations and AWS units covering an elevation range from 1500 to 4700m asl in the Upper Indus Basin, coupled with cloud climatologies from MODIS and global reanalyses, this study develops "clear-sky" and "all-sky" comparative, site-based climatologies of: [a] ground-observed SAT [b] reanalysis SAT and LST (skin surface temperature) Relationships between these climatologies and corresponding clear-sky/TIR satellite-retrieved LST are quantitatively assessed in the context of elevation-dependency and cloud cover prevalence. The implications of these relationships are discussed in the context of efforts to develop a multi-decadal TIR LST data product. While multi-decadal and even centennial trends are calculated from station-based observations of SAT, the relatively short record lengths of satellite-borne instruments used to produce currently available TIR LST data products better lend themselves to characterisation of interannual variability than trend calculation. Thus progress is detailed on EDW-driven efforts to validate such an LST product for the Himalayan region using historical imagery from the second and third generation of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3) instrument flown on NOAA satellite platforms since the mid-1980s through present day. Progress and remaining challenges are quantified in terms of skill and bias of AVHRR LST with respect to MODIS LST as well the intrinsically coupled AVHRR cloud product with respect to its MODIS analogue.

  12. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vj; Almeida, Mc; Cruz, Rea; Nunes, Lg

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  13. ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    2003-03-31

    Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity inversion surface (i.e., pressure surface boundary); (b) detection and delineation of gas-charged domains beneath the velocity inversion surface (i.e., volumes characterized by anomalously slow velocities); and (c) variations within the internal fabric of the velocity anomaly (i.e., variations in gas charge). Using these procedures, it is possible to construct an anomalous velocity profile for an area, or in the case of the Wind River Basin, an anomalous velocity volume for the whole basin. Such an anomalous velocity volume has been constructed for the Wind River Basin based on 1600 mi of 2-D seismic data and 175 sonic logs, for a total of 132,000 velocity/depth profiles. The technology was tested by constructing six cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume coincident with known gas fields. In each of the cross sections, a strong and intense anomalously slow velocity domain coincided with the gas productive rock/fluid interval; there were no exceptions. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, six target areas were chosen from a series of cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume. The criteria for selection of these undrilled target areas were (1) they were characterized by anomalous velocity domains comparable to known gas fields; (2) they had structural, stratigraphic, and temporal elements analogous to one of the known fields; and (3) they were located at least six sonic miles from the nearest known gas field. The next step in the exploration evolution would be to determine if the detected gas-charged domains are intersected by reservoir intervals characterized by enhanced porosity and permeability. If, in any of these targeted areas, the gas-charged domains are penetrated by reservoir intervals with enhanced storage and deliverability, the gas-charged domains could be elevated to drillable prospects. Hopefully, the work described in this report (the detection and delineation of gas-charged domains) will enable operators in the Wind River Basin and elsewhere to reduce risk significantly and increase the rate and magnitude of conve

  14. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    The Farmington River basin covers 435 square miles in north-central Connecticut upstream from Tariffville and downstream of the Massachusetts state line. Most water in the basin is derived from precipitation, which averages 48 inches (366 billion gallons) per year. An additional 67 billion gallons of water per year enters the basin from Massachusetts in the West Branch of the Farmington River, Hubbard River, Valley Brook and some smaller streams. Of the total 433 billion gallons, 174 billion gallons returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. 239 billion gallons flows out of the study area in the Farmington River at Tariffville, and 20 billion gallons is diverted for Hartford water supply. Variations in streamflow at 23 continuous-record gaging stations are summarized in standardized graphs and tables that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics at other sites. For example, mean flow and low-flow characteristics such as the 7-day annual minimum flow for 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals, have been determined for many partial-record stations from the data for the 23 continuous-record stations. Of the 31 principal lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the basin, eight have usable storage capacities of more than 1 billion gallons. Two of the largest, Colebrook River Lake and Barkhamsted Reservoir, have more than 30 billion gallons usable storage. Floods have occurred in the area in every month of the year. The greatest known flood on the Farmington River was in August 1955, which had a peak flow of 140,000 cubic feet per second at Collinsville. Since then, three major floodcontrol reservoirs have been constructed to reduce the hazards of high streamflow. The major aquifers underlying the basin are composed of unconsolidated materials (stratified drift and till) and bedrock (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic). Stratified drift overlies till and bedrock in valleys and lowlands; it averages about 90 feet in thickness, and is capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Based on hydrologic characteristics and available recharge, sixteen stratified-drift areas are selected as the most favorable for large-scale development. Potential yields can be estimated by several methods. Small water supplies can be obtained from all aquifers. Wells in bedrock yield at least one to two gallons per minute at most sites. The probability of adequate yields for domestic supply is greater from sedimentary than from crystalline bedrock and is also greater from stratified-drift overburden than from till. The quality of water from all sources in the basin is good except where adversely affected by swamp drainage, aquifer composition or human activities. The water is generally low in dissolved-solids concentration and is soft to moderately hard. Surface water is less mineralized than ground water, especially during high-flow conditions when it is primarily direct runoff. Samples of water collected from 20 streams during high flow had 34 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 16 mg/L median hardness. Samples collected from the same sites at low flow had 52 mg/L median dissolved solids and 28 mg/L median hardness. In contrast, water from wells had 112 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 60 mg/L median hardness. Iron and manganese occur in objectionable concentrations ~n a few parts of the basin where streams drain swamps and aquifers are rich in iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. Five percent of streams at high flow, 21 percent at low flow, and 7 percent of ground-water samples contained iron in sufficient concentration to cause stains on plumbing fixtures and laundry. Human activities have modified the quality of water in parts of the basin. The high bacterial content of the Pequabuck River. and the high nitrate and chloride concentrations in some ground-water samples, are evidence of mans influence. The quantity and quality of water in the basins streams and aquifers are satisfactory for a wide variety of uses. and, with suitable treatment, may be used for most

  15. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  16. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flowmore » events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.« less

  17. [Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation. PMID:24483090

  18. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimes tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

  19. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of temporal variations of water quality in the basin. PMID:23443942

  20. Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.

  1. The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

    2013-12-01

    Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

  2. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  3. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  4. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, Franois

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms tribunals that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate. PMID:21922685

  5. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  6. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  7. 75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Washington on the structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. In... identification and implementation of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of...

  8. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  9. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-11-01

    Total nitrogen (TN), which consists of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), is transported with not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals. In general, TPN export from an entire river basin to the ocean is larger than TDN in a mountainous region. Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are hypothesized to be mainly transported as suspended matters from the ground surface, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated TN export from an entire river basin, and also we estimated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen input across a river basin. The maximum potential contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was found to be 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin. The contribution of particulate nitrogen based on suspended sediment from the ocean to the river basin soils was 22.9 % with SD of 3.6 % by using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (δ15N).

  10. Reconstruction of The Extreme Flood In The Vycoma River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubes, R.

    In the paper methods and results of the reconstruction of the extreme flood in the Vycoma River Basin in the village Klatova Nova Ves in Slovakia are presented. No flow measurements were accessible at site, only results from an a-posteriori made flood level survey were available. The method of isochrones was applied for the flood reconstruction; its parameters were estimated from catchment characteristics and by hydrological analogy from a part of the basin where flow and rainfall measurements were available. Velocities of runoff for all possible flow pathways were estimated by hydraulic methods. The catchment was split up into zones with equal travel time of runoff to the catchment outlet. Maps of the spatial distribution of rainfall were estimated using rainfall data from neighboring catchments and meteorological radar measurements. The effective rainfall and changes of the runoff coefficients during the event were estimated by hydrological analogy according to the flood measured at a gauging station in subcatchment in the upper part of the basin. Isochrones constructed for the subcatchment were also used in the calibration. Timing and the maximum peak of the flood in Klatova Nova Ves from the isochrone model were compared with flood characteristics estimated by one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Applicabil- ity of the approach was discussed.

  11. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  12. Response of River Runoff in Cryolithic Zone of Eastern Siberia (Lena River Basin) to Recent and Future Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A.; Milyukova, I.; Kashutina, E.

    2006-12-01

    During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. Seasonal and long-term changes of river runoff in different parts of the Lena river basin are characterized by significant differences. The main causes of these differences are regional distinctions of climatic conditions, types and properties of permafrost, character of relief, hydrogeological conditions, features of surface and underground water interaction, types and properties of vegetation and soil covers and also regional features of cryogenic processes and phenomena. The above mentioned causes determine non-uniform long-term (since 1930th) response of river runoff changes (its annual amount and its distribution on seasons and role of genetic components) to recent climate changes within the Lena river basin. Nevertheless results of analysis of river runoff long-term trends in different parts of the Lena river basin show that over the past 10-15 years rather synchronous river runoff increase is observed. But scales of the mentioned increase are different in different parts of this one of the largest river basins of the World. According to the results of hydrological modeling the expected anthropogenic climate warming in XXI century can bring more significant river runoff increase in the Lena river basin as compared with the recent one. The hydrology-related consequences of climate warming have been evaluated for the plain part of the Lena river basin basing on a macroscale hydrological model featuring simplified description of processes [Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006].

  13. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  14. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution such as agricultural pollution and runoff pollution caused by heavy rainfalls also showed considerable impact on water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin during flood seasons. These results provide useful information for better pollution control strategies in the Zhangweinan River basin. PMID:22509568

  15. Planning status report: water resources appraisal for hydroelectric licensing, Penobscot River basin, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The physical, demographic, and economic characteristics of the Penobscot River basin in central Maine are described. Data are presented on existing and potential water resource developments and on water use by the single thermal power plant in the basin. The statistics on potential and retired hydro power projects in the basin are tabulated. (LCL)

  16. Calibration and application of TRMM precipitation data in Irrawaddy River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W.; Lu, J. X.; Zhang, T. T.; Tan, Y. N.; Song, W. L.; Pang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite rainfall data were assessed and calibrated using limited ground meteorological and hydrological data in Irrawaddy River basin, a watershed with complex terrain conditions but lack of data. A correction factor was determined to adjust TRMM data, taking basin water balance and terrain slopes into consideration. A distributed hydrological model SWAT was established and used to simulate the basin rainfall-runoff processes from 2001 to 2011, driven by the calibrated TRMM rainfall data series. Results show that, in a data scarce basin like Irrawaddy River basin, such a water balanced based TRMM data calibration method is suitable and reliable.

  17. Intercomparison of CMIP5 simulations of summer precipitation, evaporation, and water vapor transport over Yellow and Yangtze River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiawei; Feng, Jinming

    2016-02-01

    Precipitation and other hydrologic variables play important roles in river basins. In this study, summer precipitation, evaporation, and water vapor transport from 16 models that have participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Yellow River basin (a water-limited basin) and the Yangtze River basin (an energy-limited basin) over the period 1986-2005 are analyzed and evaluated. The results suggest that most models tend to overestimate precipitation in the Yellow River basin, whereas precipitation in the Yangtze River basin is generally well simulated. Models that overestimate precipitation in the Yellow River basin also simulate evaporation with large positive biases. For water vapor transport, models and reanalysis data concur that both basins are moisture sinks in summer. In addition, models that strongly overestimate precipitation in the Yellow River basin tend to produce strong water vapor convergence in that region, which is likely to be related to the situation that the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) simulated by these models strengthens and advances further westward and northward, resulting in stronger water vapor convergence in the Yellow River basin. Moreover, convective precipitation biases simulated by the models are also partially responsible for their total precipitation biases. Finally, summer precipitation and evaporation are negatively correlated in the Yangtze River basin, whereas the relation between these variables is weak in the Yellow River basin. In both basins, precipitation and water vapor convergence are positively correlated, which is well simulated by all models.

  18. 78 FR 17643 - Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation No. 15-2-13

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board... Corps Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board. It is applicable to all Corps offices involved with water management within the Greater Mississippi River Basin. The Board consists of the...

  19. Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

  20. A large-scale model for simulating the fate & transport of organic contaminants in river basins.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; van Gils, J; Cousins, I T

    2016-02-01

    We present STREAM-EU (Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for EUropean basins), a novel dynamic mass balance model for predicting the environmental fate of organic contaminants in river basins. STREAM-EU goes beyond the current state-of-the-science in that it can simulate spatially and temporally-resolved contaminant concentrations in all relevant environmental media (surface water, groundwater, snow, soil and sediments) at the river basin scale. The model can currently be applied to multiple organic contaminants in any river basin in Europe, but the model framework is adaptable to any river basin in any continent. We simulate the environmental fate of perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the Danube River basin and compare model predictions to recent monitoring data. The model predicts PFOS and PFOA concentrations that agree well with measured concentrations for large stretches of the river. Disagreements between the model predictions and measurements in some river sections are shown to be useful indicators of unknown contamination sources to the river basin. PMID:26414740

  1. Nutrient Sources Within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of nutrients contained in fertilizer, livestock manure, municipal wastewater, atmospheric deposition, and legume residues were quantified in each of the major drainage basins within the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit (fig. 1) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These sources of nutrients may potentially affect surface- and ground-water quality, so knowledge about the relative importance of each source may assist in the management of surface and ground waters within the study unit. The relative importance of each nutrient source was expected to vary among each of the four drainage basins due to differences in land use across the study unit. [go to fig. 1] Fertilizer and livestock manure were potentially large sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in each of the four drainage basins. However, nitrogen in legume residues was a more important source in the Upper Mississippi, St. Croix, and Lower Mississippi River Basins because hay comprised a larger part of the total acreage of crops grown in these basins. Atmospheric deposition comprised a larger percentage of the nitrogen sources in the St. Croix River Basin compared to the other three drainage basins probably because amounts of the other sources are relatively low. Nitrogen and phosphorus yields in streams were greatest in the Lower Mississippi River Basin and the Minnesota River Basin, where amounts of nonpoint sources of these constituents also were the greatest per square mile.

  2. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful implementation. However, critical conceptual and design requirements have to be met in order to realise futures research potentials. Since the beginning of the 1990s futures studies are becoming (again) more and more widespread in many different domains (technology, education, urban development, agriculture, environment, etc.). Recently, experiences have been launched and are currently being launched in the water sector (of which the World Water Vision is a well -known - but not necessarily the most representative - example). Although futures studies on a river basin level are still scarce, they will offer already sufficient material for empirical analysis. The research, effectuated within a larger framework study on the implications of futures studies for environmental research, offers at this stage initially a conceptual understanding.

  3. Drainage areas of the Twelvepole Creek basin, West Virginia; Big Sandy River basin, West Virginia; Tug Fork basin, Virginia, Kentucky, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Drainage areas were determined for 61 basins in the Twelvepole Creek basin, West Virginia; 11 basins of the Big Sandy River Basin, West Virginia; and 210 basins in the Tug Fork basin of Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Most basins with areas greater than 5 square miles were included. Drainage areas were measured with electronic digitizing equipment, and supplementary measurements were made with a hand planimeter. Stream mileages were determined by measuring, with a graduated plastic strip, distances from the mouth of each stream to the measuring point on that stream. Mileages were reported to the nearest one-hundredth of a mile in all cases. The latitude and longitude of each measuring point was determined with electronic digitizing equipment and is reported to the nearest second. The information is listed in tabular form in downstream order. Measuring points for the basins are located in the tables by intersecting tributaries, by counties, by map quadrangles, or by latitude and longitude. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Development of river ecosystem models for Flemish watercourses: case studies in the Zwalm river basin.

    PubMed

    Goethals, P; Dedecker, A; Raes, N; Adriaenssens, V; Gabriels, W; De Pauw, N

    2001-01-01

    Only recently, modelling has been accepted as an interesting and powerful tool to support river quality assessment and management. The 'River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System' (RIVPACS), based on statistical modelling, was one of the first and best known systems in this context. RIVPACS was developed to classify macroinvertebrate community types and to predict the fauna expected to occur in different types of watercourses, based on a small number of environmental variables. The prediction is essentially a static 'target' of the fauna to be expected at a site with stated environmental features, in the absence of environmental stress. Therefore this system is rather limited to apply in river assessment and management. Models that offer a prediction of faunal responses to changes in environmental features (e.g. changes in discharge regime, dissolved oxygen level, ...) would be of considerable value for river management. In this context, models based on classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic were developed and applied to predict macro-invertebrate communities in the Zwalm river basin located in Flanders, Belgium. Structural characteristics (meandering, substrate type, flow velocity, ...) and physical-chemical variables (dissolved oxygen, pH, ...) were used as inputs to predict the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa in the headwaters and brooks of the Zwalm river basin. In total, data from 60 measurement sites were available. Reliability and particular strengths and weaknesses of these techniques were compared and evaluated. Classification trees performed in general well to predict the absence or presence of the different macroinvertebrate taxa and allowed also to deduct general relations from the dataset. Models based on artificial neural networks (ANNS) were also good in predicting the macroinvertebrate communities at the different sites. Sensitivity analyses related to ANNs allowed to study the impact of the input variables on the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa and to determine the major variables that affect the ecosystem quality and should be taken under direct consideration in the management of river basins. Performance of the fuzzy logic models was significantly related to the methods that were used to set up the membership functions and the reliability of the information that was available. Fuzzy logic did not perform as well as the other two techniques with regard to short term predictions. Fuzzy logic appeared to be better and more robust for long term predictions, because of the easy and pragmatic integration of general expert knowledge and data derived rules in the transparent inference engine. The overall conclusion of our study is that all three techniques, classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic appeared to be reliable to predict macroinvertebrate communities in polluted streams. PMID:15952431

  5. Streamflow analysis of the Apalachicola, Pearl, Trinity, and Nueces River basins, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, K.E.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Annual mean and annual minimum and maximum daily mean streamflow were compared with associated annual index precipitation for sites on the main channel and tributaries of the Apalachicola, Pearl, Trinity, and Nueces Rivers in the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Precipitation and annual minimum streamflow at the downstream station on each river increased over the available periods of record. No long-term changes were identified in mean and maximum streamflow to the Gulf from the Apalachicola River Basin. Annual mean and maximum streamflow to the Gulf increased with time from the Pearl River Basin and decreased from the Trinity River Basin. Annual mean streamflow showed varied trends and annual maximum streamflow decreased for the Nueces River Basin. Short-term trends in streamflow and precipitation generally corresponded at most stations. Total reported surface-water withdrawals from the Trinity River Basin increased more than fourfold since 1940 and currently represent about one-fourth of the mean streamflow near the mouth of the river. Total reported withdrawals from the Nueces River Basin increased more than eightfold since 1940 and currently represent about one-third of the annual mean streamflow near the mouth. Predicted peak streamflow into the Gulf from the Apalachicola River was 23 percent less for the 50-year peak streamflow after reservoirs were constructed. Annual mean streamflow to the Gulf was reduced following construction of the downstream reservoirs on the Apalachicola and Trinity Rivers. Peak streamflows from the Pearl and Trinity Rivers have not been affected. The annual mean streamflow from the Nueces River was reduced by about 24 percent as a result of filling and evaporation at Choke Canyon Reservoir.

  6. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  7. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, E.; Fan, M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial basin systems provide important information on paleoclimatic, paleoecological, and paleoenvironmental factors and how they control and respond to global changes and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Examining these dynamics is crucial for times of major global change like the broad-scale climatic trends (warm/wet/high-CO2 conditions) of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). As most climatic records of such events are derived from global marine datasets, regional terrestrial studies such as these provide a better model for understanding ecological responses and the localized effects of events like the EECO. The formation of the Wind River Basin (northwestern Wyoming) has been studied for decades, but its regional climatic, environmental, and ecological dynamics have been largely overlooked. Recent work in other contemporaneous sites in the Green River Basin has suggested that the dynamics and rapidity of climate change in terrestrial interiors during the EECO may have been significantly different than what is indicated by the marine record, so to address these issues on a more regional scale we examined paleosols preserved in the fluvial, basin-margin Wind River Formation preserved near Dubois, Wyoming. Field identification of the paleosols indicated a suite that includes primarily Inceptisols and Alfisols; most exhibited significant redoximorphic features and Bg horizons that indicate a ponded floodplain paleoenvironment, while others contained deep Bk horizons (>100 cm) consistent with more well-drained, but still sub-humid to humid conditions. Based on the identification of these well-developed soil features, along with distinct horizonation and root development, paleosols were robustly correlated and sampled throughout the Formation, and environmental descriptors were assigned. To further examine the question of regional terrestrial climate/environmental change, whole rock geochemistry (XRF) samples from paleosol depth profiles were analyzed for use in quantitative paleoclimatic proxies (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, ΔW). Samples were also collected for occluded carbon and phytolith (taxonomically diagnostic plant silica bodies) extractions, for the purpose of detailing local vegetation change throughout the EECO event. By combining these botanical and climatic proxies, we will reconstruct an integrated environmental history of the Early Eocene in the Wind River Basin that can be compared both to other regional paleoenvironmental records and to global paleoclimatic trends.

  8. Hydrologic and land-cover features of the Loxahatchee River Basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sabanska, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Historically the Loxahatchee River basin covered about 270 square miles in southeast Florida. Today the basin covers about 210 square miles and is defined by both topography, manmade features, and water-management policies. About 50% of the basin is wetlands. Urban and agricultural lands cover 17 and 18% of the basin, respectively. Soils are predominantly sandy and poorly drained. Water drains into the estuary, a shallow water body of about 2 square miles. (USGS)

  9. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a lead for the qualitative approximation of the amount of bed load transported along the river reach and thus hydropower project sites.

  10. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  11. Operational water quantity management in a river basin.

    PubMed

    Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

    2003-01-01

    The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management. PMID:15137160

  12. Application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in river basin management.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Mynett, A E

    2006-01-01

    Considering uncertainty in the decision-making process in river basin management is important because uncertainty is regarded as one of the main obstacles to sound decision-making. In case of high uncertainty, the risks of making a wrong decision could be quite high, which may have severe consequences. This paper applies a screening sensitivity analysis method, the Morris method, to investigate the propagation of uncertainty from factors in a flood damage model into the model outputs and explores the importance of factors based on the sensitivity analysis. Uncertainty reduction in the most influential factors identified by the Morris method is proposed as a means to reduce the uncertainty in model outputs. In this way the risks of making a wrong decision could be reduced. The results in this paper show that the Morris method is an efficient approach to help reduce the uncertainty in model outputs. PMID:16532734

  13. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  14. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  15. Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis of WF changes from the perspective of the river basin is more scientific. To address this perspective, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model and the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) model for WF could be implemented in a river basin by computing IO data for the river basin with the Generating Regional IO Tables (GRIT) method. This framework is illustrated in the Haihe River Basin (HRB), which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1% to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF; however, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy making in other water-limited river basins.

  16. Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gasc, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacin (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  17. Estimates of sublimation in the Upper Colorado River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Morgan

    Snowpack stored in mountain environments is the primary source of water for the population of much of the western United States, and the loss of water through direct evaporation (sublimation) is a significant factor in the amount of runoff realized from snow melt. A land surface modeling study was carried out in order to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of sublimation over the Upper Colorado River basin through the use of a spatially distributed snow-evolution model known as SnowModel. Simulations relied on forcing from high resolution atmospheric analysis data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). These data were used to simulate snow sublimation for several years over a 400 by 400 km domain in the Upper Colorado River Basin at a horizontal resolution of 250 m and hourly time-steps. Results show that total volume of sublimated water from snow varies 68% or between 0.95 x 107 acre feet in WY 2002 to the maximum of 1.37 x 107 acre feet in WY 2005 within the ten years of the study period. On daily timescales sublimation was found to be episodic in nature, with short periods of enhanced sublimation followed by several days of relatively low snowpack water loss. The greatest sublimation rates of approximately 3 mm/day were found to occur in high elevation regions generally above tree line in conjunction with frequent windblown snow, while considerable contributions from canopy sublimation occurred at mid-elevations. Additional sensitivity runs accounting for reduced canopy leaf area index as a result of western pine beetle induced tree mortality were also carried out to test the models sensitivity to land surface characteristics. Results from this comparison show a near linear decrease in domain total sublimation with reduced LAI. Model performance was somewhat satisfactory, with simulations underestimating precipitation and accumulated SWE, most likely due to biases in the precipitation forcing and errors in determining precipitation phase.

  18. Trends in Extremes Rainfall over the So Francisco River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, M. C.; Marengo, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The present study aims to analyze trends in rainfall extreme over the basin So Francisco (SF) using climate extreme indices (CEI). Also, it was analyzed the relationship between CEI and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). So Francisco River system is one of Brazil's most significant water bodies; it is the fourth largest river system of the continent, one of the two main plateau rivers, and the largest river wholly within Brazil. Inside it are installed a series of hydroelectric dams and irrigation projects that sustain the energy and economy in the Northeast region of Brazil. In order to facilitate the spatial analysis of the trends So Francisco basin was divided in four sectors, called geo-morphological regions. From upstream to downstream, the sectors are: Upper (USF), Middle (MSF), Sub-Middle (SSF) and Lower So Francisco (LSF). The CEI were derived from daily precipitation of Climatic Prediction Center (CPCp) for period of 1979-2005, and from a set of 10 stations' records of daily precipitations within the period 1960-1999. Most of the CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R50mm) and flood events (RX5day, RX1day and R95p). Droughts (CDDd) are identified by means of two indicators: the longest dry period (CDD) and the cycle annual. Additionally, it was used the ETA_HadCM3 model in order to simulate the present climate (1961-1990) and future projections (2011- 2099) of climate extremes in the basin. The results showed a high interannual variability of the indices and a good relationship between the CEI and SOI. Drought (CDDd), and short period of rainfall (RX1day, RX5day and R30mm) occurred with more frequency and intensity in the El Nio events. This would suggest that extreme rainfall events in short periods of time (RX1day and RX5day) can occur in very rainy or dry years, the difference could be assessed in terms of their impacts. In wet years, with the highest frequency of days with rain and with a moist soil, an extreme event could cause flooding or landslides. Already, an extreme event in a dry year could compensate the deficit of water that the soil of that region can be suffering, not disregarding the possibility of severe impacts due to urbanization problems on river slopes. The spatial distribution of trends showed increase of CDD in Upper SF. R95p showed opposite tends in Upper SF (increase) and Lower SF (decrease). Increasing trend of RX5day was observed in Lower and Lower-Middle SF. Extreme events obtained from model ETA_HadCM3 for the period 1979-1990 are compared with the same obtained from the CPCp. It was showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, suggesting dry periods with greater magnitude and short-term precipitation more intense. In future scenarios, dry periods are projected to increase in length and frequency until 2071-2099, while RX1day will be more intense. It is suggested that model outputs are needed to be calibrated with the observed datasets in daily-scale, especially in obtaining rainfall extremes.

  19. Climatology of extreme rainfall and flooding from orographic thunderstorm systems in the upper Arkansas River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier, Julie Rose N.; Smith, James A.; England, John; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Steiner, Matthias; Ntelekos, Alexandros A.

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the spatial and temporal distribution of extreme rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Pueblo, Colorado, are based on volume scan reflectivity observations from the Pueblo WSR-88D radar during the period 1995-2003. A storm catalog of 66 rainfall events during the 9-year period has been developed. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall are carried out both from an Eulerian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall at fixed locations are examined, and from a Lagrangian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall are based on storm-tracking algorithms. Of particular interest is the spatial heterogeneity of extreme rainfall in the complex terrain of the upper Arkansas River basin. Lagrangian analyses are used to characterize the spatially varying distribution of storm initiation, storm motion, and storm structure. Climatological analyses indicate that convective rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Canon City (drainage area of 8070 km2) does not contribute to the extreme flood response of the Arkansas River at Pueblo (drainage area of 12,140 km2). There is pronounced diurnal variation in warm season rainfall in the Arkansas River basin, and this feature of extreme rainfall is a key element of flood response in the upper Arkansas River basin. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall in the upper Arkansas River basin are examined relative to the spatial and temporal properties of rainfall for extreme flood events that have occurred in the basin, including major flood episodes in June 1921 and June 1965.

  20. Water quality: Salinity trends in surface waters of the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, N.J.; Spahr, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dissolved-solids data collected in the Upper Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, Colorado, and in the Gunnison River Basin were analyzed for trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentrations and loads for water years 1970 to 1993, 1980 to 1993, and 1986 to 1993. Trend results for flow-adjusted periodic dissolved-solids concentrations for the Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, CO, generally were downward or no trend was indicated. Trends in flow-adjusted monthly and annual dissolved-solids loads primarily were downward or absent. These trend results partly agree with the downward trends reported by a previous investigation for the Colorado River near Cameo site. In the Gunnison River Basin, trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentrations and loads were not detected for more than one-half of the site/analysis-period combinations. Of the trends that were present, most indicated decreases in concentrations and loads rather than increases. in both the Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, CO, and the Gunnison River Basin, trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentrations and flow-adjusted monthly and annual dissolved-solids loads may be affected by a variety of factors. These include channel evolution and hydrologic variation, water quality and flow rate of groundwater discharges and springs, sample size and period of record of dissolved-solids data, and changes in land use in the basin.

  1. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  2. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  3. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  4. Water quality assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Knifong, Donna L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Majewski, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the environmental setting and investigative activities of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is one of 60 study units located throughout the United States that has been scheduled for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is the most important source of freshwater in California. Water quality studies in the Sacramento River Basin study unit focus on the Sacramento Valley because it is here that the principal uses of water and potential impacts on water quality occur. Investigative activities include a network of surface water sites, where water chemistry and aquatic biological sampling are done, and a variety of ground water studies. In addition, investigations of the cycling and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the urban environment and the distribution of total and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River and tributaries will be completed.

  5. Floods of September 1952 in the Colorado and Guadelupe river basins, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeding, Seth D.; Montgomery, J.H.

    1954-01-01

    Following a severe drought floods of exceptional size occurred in the central Texas 'hill country' as a result of heavy rains during the period September 9-11, 1952. As much as 26 inches of rain fell in the Guadalupe River basin and in the central and lower Colorado River basin and broke the extended drought. The belt of the heavy rainfall was about 60 miles wide and extended northwest from New Braunfels for a distance of about 200 miles. The greatest concentration occurred along the divide between the Colorado and Guadalupe River basins. Record floods occurred on many large and small streams. Inflow into Lake Travis on the Colorado River reached 803,000 cfs from a 6, 650 square mile contributing area. Five persons were killed and 454 homes damaged. The total flood damage in the Colorado and Guadalupe River basins was nearly 12 million dollars.

  6. THE EFFECT OF VARYING ELECTROFISHING DESIGN ON BIOASSESSMENT RESULTS OF FOUR LARGE RIVERS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, the effect of electrofishing design (single bank or paired banks) and sampling distance on bioassessment results was studied in four boatable rivers in the Ohio River basin. The relationship between the number of species collected and the total distance electrofished wa...

  7. A Synoptic Survey of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Tributary Streams and Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combined stream chemistry and hydrology data from surveys of 467 tributary stream sites and 447 great river sites in the Upper Mississippi River basin to provide a regional snapshot of baseflow total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and to investigate th...

  8. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-04-01

    Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are transported not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen (TN) input across a river basin using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (δ15N). The contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin, providing a first estimate of MDN export for a river basin. The contribution of nitrogen from the ocean to the river basin soils was between 22.9 and 23.8 %. Furthermore, SIA showed that the transport of oceanic TN by sea eagles (Haliaeetus spp.) was greater than that by bears (Ursus arctos), which had previously been that bears are thought to be the major animal transporter of nutrients in the northern part of Japan.

  9. Environmental and hydrologic overview of the Yukon River basin, Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Wang, Bronwen; Meade, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The Yukon River, located in northwestern Canada and central Alaska, drains an area of more than 330,000 square miles, making it the fourth largest drainage basin in North America. Approximately 126,000 people live in this basin and 10 percent of these people maintain a subsistence lifestyle, depending on the basin's fish and game resources. Twenty ecoregions compose the Yukon River Basin, which indicates the large diversity of natural features of the watershed, such as climate, soils, permafrost, and geology. Although the annual mean discharge of the Yukon River near its mouth is more than 200,000 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs in the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Eight major rivers flow into the Yukon River. Two of these rivers, the Tanana River and the White River, are glacier-fed rivers and together account for 29 percent of the total water flow of the Yukon. Two others, the Porcupine River and the Koyukuk River, are underlain by continuous permafrost and drain larger areas than the Tanana and the White, but together contribute only 22 percent of the total water flow in the Yukon. At its mouth, the Yukon River transports about 60 million tons of suspended sediment annually into the Bering Sea. However, an estimated 20 million tons annually is deposited on flood plains and in braided reaches of the river. The waters of the main stem of the Yukon River and its tributaries are predominantly calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters with specific conductances generally less than 400 microsiemens per centimeter. Water quality of the Yukon River Basin varies temporally between summer and winter. Water quality also varies spatially among ecoregions

  10. Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.R.; Keefer, W.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical Laramide intermontane basin. Understanding the geometry of the basin margin and the timing of structural movement aids in prospecting for mountain-front subthrust structures, like Tepee Flats field, and stratigraphic traps, like Haybarn field, in fluvial and lacustrine basin-fill sequences. The Wind River basin is structurally asymmetric with the basin axis close to the Owl Creek Mountains and Casper Arch thrusts, which form the north and east basin boundaries. Major Laramide deformation began in latest Cretaceous time (beginning of Lance Formation deposition) with pronounced downwarping of the basin trough and broad doming of parts of the peripheral areas. The intensity of movement increased through the Paleocene and culminated in early Eocene time as high mountains were uplifted along thrust faults. Clastic debris, stripped from the surrounding rising mountain arches, was shed basinward, resulting in a pronounced wedge-shaped accumulation of fluvial and lacustrine sediments now representing the Lance, Fort Union, Indian Meadows, and Wind River Formations.

  11. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  12. Exposure of the Main Italian River Basin to Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Federico; Gallipoli, Agata; Balderacchi, Matteo; Ulaszewska, Maria M.; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study give a preliminary survey of pharmaceutical contamination and accumulation in surface waters and sediments along the river Po basin (74,000?km2, the largest in Italy), a strategic region for the Italian economy: it collects sewage from a vast industrialized area of Italy (Autorit di Baciono del fiume Po, 2006, 2009). 10 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, propanolol, metoprolol, nimesulide, furosemide, carbamazepine, ranitidine, metronidazole, paracetamol, and atorvastatin) from several therapeutic classes were searched in 54 sampling points along the river Po from the source to the delta, and at the mouth of its major effluents. In water samples were found pharmaceuticals in the range of 0.380.001??g/L, except for furosemide (max conc. 0.605??g/L), paracetamol (max conc. 3.59??g/L), metoprolol (never detected) and for atenolol (not analysed). In sediment samples, only paracetamol was not detected, while the others were generally found in the range of 0.40.02??g/kg ww with high concentrations for atenolol (max conc. 284 ?g/kg ww) and furosemide (max conc. 98.4 ?g/kg ww). The findings confirm also STPs as point sources of contamination. Despite of the much evidence for the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, the observed low levels cannot be considered to pose a serious risk to human health; further studies are necessary for a comprehensive risk assessment. PMID:21941542

  13. Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Arsenic mobility in sediments from Paracatu River Basin, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Costa, Letícia Malta; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2015-04-01

    Paracatu River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, houses long areas of irrigated agriculture and gold-, lead-, and zinc-mining activities. This region has a prevalence of sulfide minerals and a natural occurrence of high levels of arsenopyrite. In this work, surface water, groundwater, sediments and local vegetable samples were collected in October 2010 and November 2011 and were analyzed to evaluate arsenic (As) distribution, mobility, and transport in these environmental compartments. All sediment samples (738-2,750 mg kg(-1)) and 37 % of the water samples [less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 110 µg L(-1)] from the rivers and streams of Paracatu had As concentrations greater than the quality standards established by national and international environmental organizations (5.9 mg kg(-1) for sediments and 10 µg L(-1) for water). Most vegetable samples had As concentrations within the normal range for plants (lower than the LOD to 120 mg kg(-1)). A correlation among As concentrations in water, sediment, and vegetable samples was verified. PMID:25672271

  15. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  16. Observed low flow trends in major US river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournasiri Poshtiri, M.; Pal, I.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global climate would likely be associated with impacts on regional hydrological cycle, such as changes in variability of precipitation and stream flow. Hence, to formulate and implement climate risk management strategies, it is essential to detect where and when hydrological extremes have been changing and to what extent. This scientific research presents where and how low flow characteristics, particularly the occurrence, intensity and severity of hydrological extremes, have been changing in fourteen major river basins within the continental U.S. Of particular interest is to detect if monotonic trends in low flow characteristics shifted with decades, reflecting the known climatic shifts, particularly before and after 1980. Persistent low flow conditions in a river can directly influence water supply for domestic, agricultural, industrial, ecological, and other needs; and a monotonic trend in such persistent low flow condition can lead to chronic water scarcitya main driver of societal and cross-boundary conflicts around the world. Thus, outcomes from this research are instrumental for the water managers to develop suitable adaptive management measures at the locations and times of need.

  17. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of drought in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level α = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.

  19. A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Spencer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

  20. Trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in Hudson River basin sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, R F; Chillrud, S N; Shuster, E L; Simpson, H J; Estabrooks, F D

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of sections from dated sediment cores were used to establish geographic distributions and temporal trends of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant levels in sediments from natural waters of the Hudson River basin. Radiometric dating was based primarily on the depth distribution of 137(Cs) in the cores and on the occurrence of detectable levels of 7(Be) in surface sediment samples. Eighteen sampling sites included several along the main stem of the Hudson, its major tributaries, and components of the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) harbor complex. Drinking-water reservoirs were sampled to place upper limits on atmospheric inputs. Core sections were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT)-derived compounds, chlordane, and dioxins. Sediment concentrations of most contaminants at most sites have decreased significantly since the mid-1960s. The data provide a basinwide perspective on major point-source inputs of PCBs to the upper Hudson River and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and DDT to the lower Passaic River. Evidence was found for significant but poorly characterized sources of PCBs and chlordane to the western NY/NJ harbor, and of highly chlorinated dioxins to the upstream sites on the main stem of the Hudson. The results indicate that analysis of dated sediment samples is a most effective and efficient monitoring tool for the study of large-scale geographic and temporal trends in levels of particle-associated contaminants. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9703496

  1. Nutrient mass balance and trends, Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.; Atkins, J.B.; Harvill, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    A nutrient mass balance - accounting for nutrient inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, crop nitrogen fixation, and point source effluents; and nutrient outputs, including crop harvest and storage - was calculated for 18 subbasins in the Mobile River Basin, and trends (1970 to 1997) were evaluated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Agricultural nonpoint nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban nonpoint nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in this system. More than 30 percent of nitrogen yield in two basins and phosphorus yield in eight basins can be attributed to urban point source nutrient inputs. The total nitrogen yield (1.3 tons per square mile per year) for the Tombigbee River, which drains a greater percentage of agricultural (row crop) land use, was larger than the total nitrogen yield (0.99 tons per square mile per year) for the Alabama River. Decreasing trends of total nitrogen concentrations in the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers indicate that a reduction occurred from 1975 to 1997 in the nitrogen contributions to Mobile Bay from the Mobile River. Nitrogen concentrations also decreased (1980 to 1995) in the Black Warrior River, one of the major tributaries to the Tombigbee River. Total phosphorus concentrations increased from 1970 to 1996 at three urban influenced sites on the Etowah River in Georgia. Multiple regression analysis indicates a distinct association between water quality in the streams of the Mobile River drainage basin and agricultural activities in the basin.

  2. Past climate and land cover change impacts on streamflow in upper Yellow River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Upper Yellow River Basin is located in the northern Tibetan Plateau. More than half of the annual total yield of the entire Yellow River is contributed from the Upper Yellow River Basin. Like the other part of the world, upper Yellow River Basin has been experiencing climate change. Also, sponsored by China Central Government, local Provincial government launched "Returning Farm Land and Grazing Land to Grasses and Forests" in 2000 and "Three Rivers' Source Region Environmental Protection Project" in 2005 to conserve ecosystem in the source region of the Yellow River. Understanding climate and land cover change impacts on the streamflow in the upper Yellow River Basin is essential for local and downstream ecosystems. This study utilized a large scale hydrology model - Variable Infiltration Capacity model to investigate both climate and land cover change impacts on the streamflow in the upper Yellow River Basin. Past 50-year of climate data, and 1994 and 2004 land cover data obtained from NOAA AVHRR and MODIS satellites were used in the study. 1994 and 2004 were the years before and after the execution of environmental protection programs. The investigation revealed that warmer climate has resulted in lower annual total streamflow, higher spring peak but lower summer flow. After launching the ecosystem conservation programs, streamflow has decreased. In the source region of the Yellow River, climate change impact dominates over land cover change impact.

  3. Exposure assessment of pesticides in German river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rpke, B.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2003-04-01

    To assure the quality of surface water-bodies in integrated catchment management, the input and fate of agriculturally used plant protection products are essential factors to take into consideration. In the context of authorizing pesticides by governmental bodies within the European Union, modeling their environmental fate grew to be the focus of research activity being a rather inexpensive and effective alternative to monitoring campaigns. User-friendly Decision Support Systems (DSS) offer decision makers easy access to these models generally providing powerful tools for regional risk-assessment. DRIPS (Drainage Runoff Input of Pesticides in Surface Water), a GIS-DSS based on model algorithms describing the major pathways of pesticide entry into surface waters, was developed on behalf of the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA). The tool estimates the quantity of pesticide input from non-point sources via surface runoff, tile drainage and spraydrift. Furthermore, the resulting predicted environmental concentration (PEC surface water) of active ingredients (a.i.) can be retrieved considering the mean daily input of an a.i. into various types of river-basins characterized by their daily discharge. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was created to enable potential users of the DSS to interact with the model algorithms. Model parameters like dose rate, DT50, Koc of a.i., date of pesticides application et cetera can be modified by the user in order to generate customized scenarios for a choice of 11 field crops, orchards and vineyards. For river basin management purposes the probability of a set quantity of surface water pollution by a selected a.i. passing a defined threshold for selected months can be simulated after setting the parameters in the GUI. In order to calculate PEC spatial information, such as river-morphology, land-use, soil, precipitation et cetera is associated with the estimated input via the known pathways of entry. Daily catchment specific PEC were calculated for the 60 most commonly applied a.i. for approximately 400 catchments covering the territory of Germany. The probability of a certain concentration level to be reached was also determined for all a.i. in every catchment. With DRIPS, decision makers are provided with a probability based risk assessment DSS for predicting regionally differentiated pesticide contamination of surface water on a catchment scale featuring a spatial resolution of 1km(2) per pixel.

  4. Water Temperature Dynamics in High Arctic River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Milner, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary understanding of Arctic river water temperature dynamics is limited, despite the high sensitivity of polar aquatic ecosystems to climate change. This poster aims to address this important research gap by providing a comprehensive high-resolution (15 min.) study of thermal regimes in multiple river basins in Svalbard during the 2010 melt season. Water column temperature data were recorded continuously at five sites fed primarily by glacial meltwaters and at three additional sites derived from non-glacial sources (i.e. snowmelt and groundwater). Bed temperature (0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 m depth) and stream discharge were also recorded. Meteorological data obtained from a nearby monitoring station were used to characterise atmospheric conditions. M