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1

The Indus and the Ganges: river basins under extreme pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basins of the Indus and Ganges rivers cover 2.20 million km and are inhabited by more than a billion people. The region is under extreme pressures of population and poverty, unregulated utilization of the resources and low levels of productivity. The needs are: (1) development policies that are regionally differentiated to ensure resource sustainability and high productivity; (2) immediate

Bharat Sharma; Upali Amarasinghe; Cai Xueliang; Devaraj de Condappa; Tushaar Shah; Aditi Mukherji; Luna Bharati; G. Ambili; Asad Qureshi; Dhruba Pant; Stefanos Xenarios; R. Singh; Vladimir Smakhtin

2010-01-01

2

Sustainable or Adaptive Water Resources Management in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan under Uncertainties?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan has one of the largest contiguous irrigation systems in the world called as Indus River Irrigation System (IRIS). In 1951, soon after its independence, Pakistan was water abundant country but due to poor management practices the country has now become water scarce. This study will provide a detailed analysis of the water management issues and emerging challenges of the Indus River Basin in Pakistan. The research shows the importance of hydrometeorologic forecast under aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and that the Pakistan needs to focus on adaptive management to climate and land use changes and developing reservoirs to enhance water storage capacity keeping in view environmental degradation, and also adopting modern techniques of monitoring the flow of water to have equitable and justifiable shares from individual watercourse to all provinces so as interprovincial and transboundary water conflicts may not happen in the future. Subsequently, a paradigm shift is needed in water resources development and management for sustainable economic growth.

Dars, G. H.; Moradkhani, H.

2012-12-01

3

Spatially distributed erosion and sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed erosion rates and sediment yields are predicted in the mountainous upper Indus River basin with coupled models of erosion and sediment delivery. Potential erosion rates are calculated with the Thornes model in combination with a surface runoff model. Sediment delivery ratios (SDRs) are hypothesized to be a function of travel time of surface runoff from catchment cells to the nearest downstream channel. Modeled monthly erosion rates for the upper Indus River basin indicate that 87% of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The erosion risk map suggests that the areas with the greatest erosion potential are concentrated in subbasins with high relief and a substantial proportion of glacierized area. Lower erosion rates can be explained by the arid climate and low relief on the Tibetan Plateau and by the dense vegetation and lower relief in the lower monsoon subregion. High erosion rates (>1.0 mm a-1) occur over 66.4% of the basin area. The model predicts an average annual erosion rate of 3.2 mm a-1 or 868 Mt a-1, which is approximately 4.5 times the long-term observed annual sediment yield of the basin. The predicted annual basin sediment yield is 244 Mt a-1, which compares reasonably well to the measured value of 195.1 Mt a-1. The overall sediment delivery ratio in the basin is calculated as 0.28. Model results indicate that higher delivery ratios (SDR > 0.6) are found in 18% of the basin area, mostly located in the high-relief subbasins. The sediment delivery ratio is lower than 0.2 in 70% of the basin area. The Indus subbasins generally show an increase of sediment delivery ratio with basin area. Model evaluation based on accuracy statistics suggest "very good" to "satisfactory" performance ratings for predicted sediment yields. The presented modeling framework requires relatively few data, all of which can be derived from global data sets. It therefore can be used to predict erosion and sediment yield in other ungaged or poorly gaged drainage basins.

Ali, Khawaja Faran; de Boer, Dirk H.

2010-08-01

4

Land surface hydrological investigation in Upper Indus River Basin (UIB), North Pakistan under the Framework of TPE Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is home to three of the world's mightiest mountain ranges. The Karakoram in north and the Himalaya in northeast while the Hindukush in the northwest of Pakistan. The Indus River emerges from the Tibetan Plateau and flows toward northern areas of Pakistan where it changes its direction toward the south and flows into the Arabian Sea. The catchment area of Indus River is located in Pakistan, China and India, but most part covered in Pakistan. The Upper Indus Basin lies within the variable influence of three major weather systems: the sub-Mediterranean regime of mainly winter, westerly storms; the summer monsoon; and the Tibetan anticyclone. The Upper Indus River Basin has a total catchment area of approx. 206,000 km2. The UIB includes the Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar and Shyok sub-basins. Nearly 11.5% (22,000 km2) of the total area of the UIB is covered by perennial glacial ice (including most of the largest valley glaciers) making it the largest area outside the polar and Greenland regions (Hewitt, 2007). UIB has a mean elevation of 4750 m with almost 60% of its total area above an elevation of 4500 m and 12% of its area (almost the same area is glacier covered) above 5500 m. Glacial melt is one of the major sources of inflow in the Upper Indus Basin, 44.8% of its river flow depends upon glacial melting. Its mean discharge at Tarbela dam is 5533 m3/s (IUCN, IWMI). Most of the annual precipitation in the UIB falls in the winter and spring and originates from the west (Young and Hewitt, 1990). Several researchers reported that 80% of the flow of the Upper Indus River is contributed by less than 20% of its area, essentially from the zones of heavy snowfall and glaciated basins above 3500m in elevation. Under the Framework of TPE Program, observational researches have been lunched since last year. The project aim to the objective of hydrological consequence of snow cover in UIB; impact of glacier dynamic to basin drainage and response of discharge to climatic changes during past 50 years. The presentation will highlight the research including field expedition in 2011, objective and strategies, and request to cooperation as well.

Zhang, Y.

2012-12-01

5

Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

2013-11-01

6

Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra was dominated by reworking from the Thar Desert, at least prior to around 4 ka. Future work will deconvolve the relative influence of dunes versus fluvial components of the river. High-resolution clay mineralogy from the core sites will be carried out to establish a climate variability proxy. We will reconstruct a quantitative record of Indus Valley geomorphic-climate variability over the Holocene and test the hypothesis that cessation of flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra drove the Harappan people from the Indus valley 4,000 years ago.

Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

2009-12-01

7

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

8

Flooding in the Indus River basin — A spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Station and gridded precipitation data from all over the Indus basin were analyzed for the periods 1951 to 2010 and 1986 to 2010. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test was applied to determine whether statistically significant changes in precipitation amounts occurred over time, in due consideration of autocorrelation in the data. In addition, linear regression trend lines were fitted to the precipitation series by the method of least squares. We also investigated whether the precipitation in 2010, the year of a devastating flood, was the highest, second highest or third highest recorded annual and monsoonal total in the periods under observation.

Hartmann, Heike; Andresky, Lisa

2013-08-01

9

Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

2014-05-01

10

Projected changes in climate over the Indus river basin using a high resolution regional climate model (PRECIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate modelling system, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, has been used to study future climate change scenarios over Indus basin for the impact assessment. In this paper we have examined the three Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions simulations selected from 17-member perturbed physics ensemble generated using Hadley Centre Coupled Module. The climate projections based on IPCC SRES A1B scenario are analysed over three time slices, near future (2011-2040), middle of the twenty first century (2041-2070), and distant future (2071-2098). The baseline simulation (1961-1990) was evaluated with observed data for seasonal and spatial patterns and biases. The model was able to resolve features on finer spatial scales and depict seasonal variations reasonably well, although there were quantitative biases. The model simulations suggest a non-uniform change in precipitation overall, with an increase in precipitation over the upper Indus basin and decrease over the lower Indus basin, and little change in the border area between the upper and lower Indus basins. A decrease in winter precipitation is projected, particularly over the southern part of the basin. Projections indicate greater warming in the upper than the lower Indus, and greater warming in winter than in the other seasons. The simulations suggest an overall increase in the number of rainy days over the basin, but a decrease in the number of rainy days accompanied by an increase in rainfall intensity in the border area between the upper and lower basins, where the rainfall amount is highest.

Rajbhandari, R.; Shrestha, A. B.; Kulkarni, A.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bajracharya, S. R.

2014-06-01

11

Ganges and Indus river basin land use\\/land cover (LULC) and irrigated area mapping using continuous streams of MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to map irrigated areas in the Ganges and Indus river basins using near-continuous time-series (8-day), 500-m resolution, 7-band MODIS land data for 2001–2002. A multitemporal analysis was conducted, based on a mega file of 294 wavebands, made from 42 MODIS images each of 7 bands. Complementary field data were gathered from 196 locations.

Prasad S. Thenkabail; Mitchell Schull; Hugh Turral

2005-01-01

12

Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Sutton, S.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1991-03-01

13

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.

Shuaib, S.M.

1982-07-01

14

Five centuries of Upper Indus River flow from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWater wars are a prospect in coming years as nations struggle with the effects of climate change, growing water demand, and declining resources. The Indus River supplies water to the world's largest contiguous irrigation system generating 90% of the food production in Pakistan as well as 13 gigawatts of hydroelectricity. Because any gap between water supply and demand has major and far-reaching ramifications, an understanding of natural flow variability is vital - especially when only 47 years of instrumental record is available. A network of tree-ring sites from the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) was used to reconstruct river discharge levels covering the period AD 1452-2008. Novel methods tree-ring detrending based on the 'signal free' method and estimation of reconstruction uncertainty based on the 'maximum entropy bootstrap' are used. This 557-year record displays strong inter-decadal fluctuations that could not have been deduced from the short gauged record. Recent discharge levels are high but not statistically unprecedented and are likely to be associated with increased meltwater from unusually heavy prior winter snowfall. A period of prolonged below-average discharge is indicated during AD 1572-1683. This unprecedented low-flow period may have been a time of persistently below-average winter snowfall and provides a warning for future water resource planning. Our reconstruction thus helps fill the hydrological information vacuum for modeling the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan region and is useful for planning future development of UIB water resources in an effort to close Pakistan's "water gap". Finally, the river discharge reconstruction provides the basis for comparing past, present, and future hydrologic changes, which will be crucial for detection and attribution of hydroclimate change in the Upper Indus Basin.

Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zafar, Muhammad Usama; Wahab, Muhammad; Khan, Nasrullah

2013-04-01

15

Irrigation Planning with Environmental Considerations: A Case Study of Pakistan's Indus Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a case study for the Indus Basin irrigation system, which analyzes causes of waterlogging and salinity and suggests possible remedies. It begins with an overview of the Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR); examines the environmental implication...

M. Ahmad G. P. Kutcher

1992-01-01

16

Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan relies on the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, known as the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) for its basic food security and water supply for all sectors of the economy. The basin that supports this irrigation system consists of the Indus River mainsteam and its major tributaries. The integrated systems framework used in this analysis provides a broad and unique approach to estimating the hydrologic and crop impacts of climate change risks, the macro-economic and household-level responses and an effective method for assessing a variety of adaptation investments and policies. In assessing the impacts, several different modeling environments must be integrated to provide a more nuanced and complete picture of how water and agriculture inter-relate. Moreover, such a framework allows for extensive scenario analysis to identify and understand key sensitivities. This is critical to making decisions in a highly uncertain future. Finally, through this integration of multiple disciplines, a richer and more robust set of adaptation investment options and policies for the agriculture and water sectors can be identified and tested. Continued refinements to the assessment approach developed in this volume will further help to sharpen critical policies and interventions by the Pakistan government. Fig 2. Impacts of climate change on GDP, Ag-GDP and Household income in the Indus Basin Fig1. The Indus River Basin

Yang, Y. E.; Brown, C. M.; Yu, W.

2012-12-01

17

Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

18

Quaternary Indus River Terraces as Archives of Summer Monsoon Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If we are to interpret the marine stratigraphic record in terms of evolving continental environmental conditions or tectonics, it is essential to understand the transport processes that bring sediment from mountain sources to its final marine depocenter. We investigate the role that climate plays in modulating this flux by looking at the Indus River system, which is dominated by the strong forcing of the Asian monsoon and the erosion of the western Himalaya. Lake, paleoceanographic, and speleothem records offer high-resolution reconstructions of monsoon intensity over millennial timescales. These proxies suggest the monsoon reached peak intensity at ~9-10 ka in central India, followed by a steady decline after ~7 ka, with a steep decline after 4 ka. New lake core records (Tso Kar and Tso Moriri), however, suggest a more complex pattern of monsoon weakening between 7-8 ka in the Greater Himalayan region, which contrasts with a time of strong monsoon in central India. This indicates that the floodplains of the major river systems may not experience the same climatic conditions as their mountain sources, resulting in different geomorphologic responses to climate change. Earlier research has established that the northern part of the Indus floodplain adjacent to the mountains experienced incision after ~10 ka. Incision and reworking is even more intense in the Himalayas but its timing is not well-constrained. High altitude river valleys, at least north of the Greater Himalaya, appear to be sensitive to monsoon strength because they lie on the periphery of the Himalayan rain shadow. These valleys may be affected by landslide damming during periods of strong monsoonal precipitation, such as slightly after the monsoon maximum from 9-10 ka. Damming of these river valleys provides sediment storage through valley-filling and later sediment release through gradual incision or dam-bursting. Terraces of a major tributary to the Indus, the Zanskar River, indicate valley-filling prior to ~10 or even ~30 ka, and suggest periods of strong summer rains; although existing dates on these landslide-dammed terraces are sparse. New OSL ages help constrain the timing of valley-filling events and the timing of river incision when this sediment was released to the Indus river and thus to the delta. Initial work suggests that sediment storage in mountain terraces may be the greatest source of sediment (~80%) to the post-glacial Indus, and that the timing of sediment release may be modulated by periods of strong precipitation . In order to interpret the marine erosional archive as an environmental record, it is fundamental to understand how this sediment is stored on the continent and released to the ocean.

Jonell, Tara N.; Clift, Peter D.

2013-04-01

19

Spatial quantification of groundwater abstraction in the irrigated Indus basin.  

PubMed

Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to derive total annual irrigation applied in the irrigated areas of the basin during the year 2007. The SWAT model was parameterized by station corrected precipitation data (R) from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission, land use, soil type, and outlet locations. The model was calibrated using a new approach based on spatially distributed ET fields derived from different satellite sensors. The calibration results were satisfactory and strong improvements were obtained in the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (0.52 to 0.93), bias (-17.3% to -0.4%), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.78 to 0.93). Satellite information on R and ET was then combined with model results of surface runoff, drainage, and percolation to derive groundwater abstraction and depletion at a nominal resolution of 1 km. It was estimated that in 2007, 68 km³ (262 mm) of groundwater was abstracted in the Indus Basin while 31 km³ (121 mm) was depleted. The mean error was 41 mm/year and 62 mm/year at 50% and 70% probability of exceedance, respectively. Pakistani and Indian Punjab and Haryana were the most vulnerable areas to groundwater depletion and strong measures are required to maintain aquifer sustainability. PMID:23441997

Cheema, M J M; Immerzeel, W W; Bastiaanssen, W G M

2014-01-01

20

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

2002-05-01

21

Deltaic Morphology and Sedimentology, with Special Reference to the Indus River Delta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patterns of sedimentation and morphologic development of a delta result primarily from the interaction of fluvial and marine processes. Historically, the Indus River delta has formed in and arid climate under conditions of high river discharge (400 x ...

J. T. Wells J. M. Coleman

1985-01-01

22

Modeling Efficient Water Allocation in a Conjunctive Use Regime : The Indus Basin of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient resource use where ground- and surface waters are used conjunctively may require special policies to rationalize the interaction between water use by farmers and the response of the stream aquifer system. In this paper, we examine alternative policies for achieving more efficient conjunctive use in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Using a simulation model which links the hydrology of a conjunctive stream aquifer system to an economic model of agricultural production for each of 53 regions of the basin together with a network model of the flows in river reaches, link canals, and irrigation canals, we have studied the joint effect of various canal water allocation and associated private tube well tax or subsidy policies on overall system efficiency. The results suggest that large gains in agricultural production and employment are possible, given more efficient policies.

O'Mara, Gerald T.; Duloy, John H.

1984-11-01

23

Changing Pattern of Heavy Rainstorms in Indus Basin of India Under Global Warming Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern of the hydraulic design engineers is to determine a practical value for the design storm where maximum protection against structural failure is required. Design of such structures is based on the extremely large values such as 'Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP)'. The estimation of PMP involves selection of heavy rainstorm, its areal rainfall distribution and maximization of areal rainfall for moisture content. The study attempts to examine the characteristics of heavy rainstorms of Indus basin located in northern parts of India under changing climate and to provide information on heavy rainfall over a large area which serves as a guide in hydrologic design projects in the basin. The Indus river originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash ranges in the Himalaya and flows through India and Pakistan where it meets Arabian sea. Heavy rainstorms occurred in the Indus basin during 1971-2009 are selected and analyzed. Future scenarios of such heavy rainstorms occurring in this basin are projected using regional climate model, PRECIS (Providing REgional Climate for Impact Studies) scenarios for the period 2071-2100. Baseline simulations (1961-1990) generated by this model used to assess the efficiency of the model to generate widespread heavy rainfall in the basin. Primary emphasis is given on the areal distribution of rainfall during severe rainstorms having durations of 24 hours and producing excessive amount of rainfall over an area of at least 25000 square kilometers with rainfall intensity at the centre of rainstorm more than 30cm. Information is also provided on other important storm factors such as its shape, orientation and movement. Fig.1 shows the spatial patterns of severe-most rainstorms from observational data sets, baseline and future simulated datasets from PRECIS. Table gives the average shape factor (ratio of major to minor axis) and average orientation of these rainstorms. In general it is observed that common shape of the rainstorm occurring in the study basin is elliptical with its orientation in WNW-ESE direction. It has also been observed that model well generates the rainstorm pattern in terms of rainfall intensity and orientation and shape. Future scenario indicates increase in central value of rainfall value with decreasing areal spread.; t;

Deshpande, N. R.; Kulakarni, B. D.

2012-12-01

24

Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

2013-04-01

25

Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

2013-12-01

26

Quantification of glacier elevation changes using ICESat and SRTM elevation data in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas suggest an expansion of glaciers. Many studies conducted in the Himalayan region have focused on monitoring changes in the aerial extent of individual glaciers from remotely sensed data or through field surveys. Limited work, however, has been done in this region to estimate glacier volume changes using measurements of elevation change over time, particularly at a large scale. Here we used Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate glacier elevation changes within the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The elevation changes were estimated within snow-covered and clean-ice zones which were delineated using historic Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (Landsat) images. ICESat/GLA06 elevations data from spring campaigns, release 28 were used to estimate ice elevation changes for the period of 2004-2008 relative to 2000. The accuracy of elevation change was assessed by analyzing non-glacier elevation difference points within different categories of a Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI). This comparison showed that elevations precision decreased with increasing TRI, so using TRI to categorize glacier areas helps to identify data points with higher accuracy. Our analysis of elevation changes estimated from the ICESat altimeter identified two clear patterns in elevation changes. Firstly, glaciers in the northern half of the Upper Indus valley have thickened in the last decade, while those in the southern sub-watersheds are thinning. Secondly, glacier thickening occurred on the higher elevation snow-covered ice zone, while more thinning rates were observed within the clean ice zone for all sub-watersheds of the UIB, except in the Hunza river basin. Such results showed the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions.

Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

2010-12-01

27

Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reassesses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and provenance of the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. Using field observations, biostratigraphy, and petrographic and isotopic analyses we create a paleodepositional reconstruction within the paleotectonic setting of the early phases of India-Eurasia collision. We then re-examine existing constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision previously interpreted from the earliest occurrence of mixed Indian- and Eurasian-derived detritus in the succession. From mid-Cretaceous to early Paleocene times the Jurutze and Sumda Formations were deposited within an arc-bounded marine basin between the Dras and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arcs. The <51 Ma aged deltaic Chogdo Formation then filled the basin until deposition of the 50.8-49.4 Ma aged Nummulitic Limestone during a marine incursion, before continental facies developed in an evolving intermountain basin with the deposition of the Paleogene Indus Group. Within these systems, sediment was sourced from the Eurasian margin to the north and was transported southward into the suture zone. In this section, we see no unequivocal evidence of Indian Plate input to the sedimentary succession (and thus no evidence of mixed Indian-Eurasian-derived detritus indicative of India-Asia collision) until the upper stratigraphic horizons of the Indus Group, when facies are representative of an axial, northwesterly flowing river system. We suggest that the paleo-Indus River was initiated within the ITSZ during late Oligocene-early Miocene times. Sedimentation of the Indus Group continued until the late Miocene.

Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Barford, Dan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio

2010-12-01

28

Multi- Sensor Imaging and Space-Ground Cross-Validation for Flood Monitoring triggered by the 2010 Monsoon along Indus River, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-sensor network-based flood monitoring framework is developed by integrating space- borne optical, hyper-spectral, passive and active microwave sensors, with cross-validation using ground-based rain gauges and streamflow stations along the Indus River, Pakistan. First, the optical imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to delineate the extent of the 2010 flood along the Indus River, Pakistan. Moreover, the all-weather all-time capability of higher resolution imagery from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) is used to monitor flooding in the lower Indus river basin. Then a proxy for river discharge from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to retrieval streamflow time series and precipitation patterns. The AMSR-E detected water surface signal was cross-validated with ground-based river discharge observations at multiple streamflow stations along the main Indus River. A high correlation was found as indicated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7, 0.72, 0.7, 0.82, 0.84, 0.88, 0.83 for stations at Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur, Kotri, respectively. It is concluded that remote-sensing data integrated from optical, hyper-spectral and microwave sensors could be used to supplement stream gauges in sparsely gauged basins to detect floods. The study demonstrates that the capability to detecting ongoing flooding situations in its upper reaches can be valuable early warning for spatially distributed flood monitoring and even prediction in the lower reaches of the Indus river basin.

Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.

2013-12-01

29

Effect of climate change on water resources of the Upper Indus River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, accelerated glacier recession trends have been reported for the Himalayan region, based largely on the studies in the Eastern Himalayas. However, recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas, suggest an expansion of glaciers and a reduction in summer streamflow due to a significant decrease in summer temperatures. Snow and ice melt from these glaciers is the primary input to the Upper Indus River, upstream of Tarbela Reservoir, a water resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power in Pakistan. Given the complexity of variations in the Himalayan glaciers and their socio-economic significance, it is important to understand the mechanisms that governed these changes in the historical period. More importantly, it is critical to accurately project expected future changes in the extent of Himalayan glaciers due to anthropogenic variations in temperature and precipitation patterns and impacts of such changes on water supply and agriculture. Projecting future changes to perennial water supply or flood risk in the Upper Indus River requires a modeling tool that can represent the effect of glacier and snow cover fluctuations. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model is modified to better represent ice accumulation, ablation and transport in alpine glacier systems. Ice transport from the higher elevations to the lower elevations within a new glacial ice layer is represented via both ice deformation and basal sliding based on the Glen’s flow law. The transformation of snow to ice during the snow metamorphism process is implemented based on snow density changes within snowpack. The revised VIC model forced with daily precipitation and temperature data from the high resolution FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model for reference time period of 1961-1990, is evaluated at watershed scale using observed historical river discharge, glacier velocities and point observations of snow accumulation. Changes in streamflow seasonality in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are determined for the future climate period 2071-2100 relative to the reference period using daily precipitation and temperature data from RegCM3 climate model. The results from this analysis provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of glacier and snow cover variations on the magnitude and timing of total annual discharge of major rivers in the UIB.

Bowling, L. C.; Naz, B. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

2010-12-01

30

Influence of mid-latitude circulation on upper Indus basin precipitation: the explicit role of irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since much of the flow of the Indus River originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of weather characteristics leading to precipitation over the region is essential for water resources management. This study examines the influence of upper level mid-latitude circulation on the summer precipitation over upper Indus basin (UIB). Using reanalysis data, a geopotential height index (GH) is defined at 200 hPa over central Asia, which has a significant correlation with the precipitation over UIB. GH has also shown significant correlation with the heat low (over Iran and Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan), easterly shear of zonal winds (associated with central Asian high) and evapotranspiration (over UIB). It is argued that the geopotential height index has the potential to serve as a precursor for the precipitation over UIB. In order to assess the influence of irrigation on precipitation over UIB, a simplified irrigation scheme has been developed and applied to the regional climate model REMO. It has been shown that both versions of REMO (with and without irrigation) show significant correlations of GH with easterly wind shear and heat low. However contrary to reanalysis and the REMO version with irrigation, the REMO version without irrigation does not show any correlation between GH index and evapotranspiration as well as between geopotential height and precipitation over UIB, which is further confirmed by the quantitative analysis of extreme precipitation events over UIB. It is concluded that although atmospheric moisture over coastal Arabian sea region, triggered by wind shear and advected northward due to heat low, also contribute to the UIB precipitation. However for the availability of necessary moisture for precipitation over UIB, the major role is played by the evapotranspiration of water from irrigation. From the results it may also be inferred that the representation of irrigated water in climate models is unavoidable for studying the impact of global warming over the region.

Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Saeed, Sajjad; Jacob, Daniela

2013-01-01

31

Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

2012-11-01

32

Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network approach and water balance. Also, crop water demands, rainfall, and surface water are calculated to estimate the groundwater abstraction in different districts of Lower Chenb Canal East to understand its usage patterns in year 2008-09. Crop water demand has been estimated using SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm which is based on surface energy balance. Landsat 5 TM satellite images are used to estimate actual crop water demand and the results are compared with Penman Monteith method. The irrigation supplies are calculated from real time data collected by Project Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU), Punjab Irrigation Department. The PMIU envisaged for efficient and optimal canal operations oriented towards equity and transparency. Initial results from nodal network water balance model also provide the spatial variation in crop water demand for each node in LCC East. This work is also aimed at evaluating surface water availability and the assessment of spatial distribution of groundwater abstractions by considering the present crop water demand.

Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

2010-05-01

33

Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.  

PubMed

Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements. PMID:21396072

Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

2008-09-01

34

Basin scale natural gas source, migration and trapping traced by noble gases and major elements: the Pakistan Indus basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

He, Ne and Ar concentrations, He and Ar isotopic ratios, carbon isotopic ratios and chemical compositions of hydrocarbon gases were measured in natural gas samples from gas-producing wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan, where no oil has ever been found. 3He\\/4He ratios are in the range 0.01–0.06 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric value of 1.38×10?6) indicating the absence of mantle-derived

Anne Battani; Philippe Sarda; Alain Prinzhofer

2000-01-01

35

Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.  

PubMed

Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in Shyok River at Yogo and a maximum trend in Swat River at Kalam. Long-term recorded data used to estimate flow duration curves have shown a uniform trend and are important for hydropower generation for Pakistan which is seriously facing power crisis in last 5 years. PMID:22109645

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

2012-09-01

36

The hydrologic sensitivity of the upper Indus River to glacier changes in the western Karakoram Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent controversy regarding the rates of disappearance of glaciers in the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain, has primarily been focused on the eastern Himalayas. Studies carried out in the Central Karakoram Himalayan region suggest an expansion of glaciers. Little information exists about long-term glacier changes and their impact on streamflow in the Karakoram Himalayas where field surveys are difficult due to complex terrain and long term measurements have not been collected. The availability of global remotely sensed and climate datasets in the public domain provides an opportunity for studying large data sparse drainage basins. Following this approach, here I use remotely sensed datasets in combination with observational-based and simulated climate data to estimate glacier changes and their impact on streamflow variability in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) located in the Karakoram Himalayas. Using Landsat images acquired between 1977 and 2006 and climate data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), change detection analysis shows that the extent of perennial snow cover at higher elevations in the Central Karakoram has increased coinciding with a significant increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer temperature. Similarly, analysis of glacier thickness change estimated from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter data available between 2003 and 2008 with respect to the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data acquired in year 2000 identifies two clear patterns of change in the UIB. Strong thickening rates are observed within highly glacierized northern sub-watersheds (i.e. the Hunza and Shyok River basins), while thinning glaciers are identified in southern sub-watersheds. Statistically significant decreasing streamflow trends identified in all seasons for the Hunza River basin and increasing trends identified in other sub-basins of UIB for the period of 1974 -- 2000 illustrate that observed streamflow response among sub-watersheds is closely related to the existence of distinct patterns in observed glacier changes. Trend analysis of water equivalence, snowmelt and glacier melt simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to represent glacier storage and melt, clarifies that increasing trends in ice and snow water equivalence and positive glacier thickening rates in the Hunza River basin decrease the melt contribution from higher altitude areas. Conversely, in other sub-basins increasing trends in streamflow are associated with increases in snow and ice melt contributions to the total streamflow. As a result of this study, an improved understanding of the governing factors of annual variability and timing of flows allow us to better assess the impacts of glaciers on streamflow in a changing climate. Additionally, the presented methodology for estimating glacier changes and their impact on streamflow requires relatively few data, mostly derived from global datasets. It therefore can be utilized for other data sparse drainage basins of the world.

Naz, Bibi S.

37

Human induced flooding of the Indus River in 2010: How it changed the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major rivers in densely populated areas are typically heavily engineered to fulfill. water needs and importantly to ensure protection for citizens and structures. The Indus River forms no exception to this. The river has been dammed and engineered for centuries, comprising one of the largest irrigation networks in the world. The engineered river system results in a reduction of its outflow to 10% of its historical value, with commonly no flow at the outlet for several months of the year. During July 2010, extensive flooding occurred causing ~2,000 fatalities and ~20 million people were displaced for weeks to months due to a peak discharge that was not exceptional in any sense (~10 year reoccurrence interval). The northern breach was located near the Sukkur Barrage and likely caused by undercapacity of the engineered channel. We analyzed AMSR-E, ASTER-A1 and MODIS satellite data to map the propagation of the Indus flood wave in the main channel and through the major breaches. The flood wave traveled through the main channel in ~20 days and much slower through newly-formed avulsion pathway onwards from the breach at Sukkur Barrage (~42 days).Analysis of MODIS reflectance changes between pre- and post-flood imagery allowed analysis of the extent of sandy flood deposition as well as quantification of channel migration patterns. The river channel migrates over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event controlled by massive pointbar accretion and river cutbank erosion and slumping. Lateral migration averaged ~340m in just 52 days along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River. Crevasse splaying is widespread and appears to occur as a flow stripping process both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Crevasse deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. The mapped flood deposits are analyzed for different river stretches and quantitatively related to river gradient and sinuosity. The 2010 Indus flood shows an example of a heavily engineered system, it provides us with insights on flood water propagation and sedimentation and river migration in a river system with many dams and stopbanks.

Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

2012-12-01

38

ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

39

Sediment Source-to-Sink Processes in the Indus River since the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River drains the western Himalaya and Karakoram and feeds sediment to the second largest submarine sediment body on Earth. Erosion in the catchment is controlled by rock uplift rates but also by climatic variability that has caused erosional patterns to migrate as the SW monsoon first strengthened then weakened during the Holocene. The tributaries of the Indus have incised the flood plain extending >500 km from the mountain front since 10 ka recycling older deposits. This erosion accounts for about 20% of the total flux to the ocean. Much greater volumes were released from river terraces in the mountains, especially along the major river valleys and from the region within 100 km of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis. Very little new bedrock erosion is required to account for the sediment flux. About half the sediment load has been deposited onshore either in the delta or under the southern flood plains where the river sits on a major accretionary ridge. The remainder of the sediment is in the upper canyon and shelf clinoforms because no sediment has reached the deep sea since at least 7 ka. Comparison of different provenance proxies shows that zircon grains travel slowly through the river, taking 5-10 k.y. longer to travel to the river mouth than clays or micas, whose transport times are within the uncertainties for the dating methods. This slower bed load transport introduces a lag time between a change in erosion patterns and the appearance of the sediment at the river mouth. A further lag of at least 7 ka is assumed for sediments in the Indus Canyon and >11 ka for the upper fan.

Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.

2012-04-01

40

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

41

Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.  

PubMed

The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers. PMID:20873207

Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

2010-08-01

42

Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ?200 ka and ?50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ?30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late- or post-glacial sediment pulse seems a more likely source of this widespread sedimentation that has partly buried the dissected bedrock topography. Overall, the long residence times of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine deposits in the region (>500 ka) support previous studies, but remain striking given the dominantly steep slopes and deeply carved valleys that characterise this high-altitude mountain desert. Recalculated late Quaternary rates of fluvial bedrock incision in the Indus and Zanskar of 1.5 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 are at odds with the longevity of juxtaposed valley-fill deposits, unless a lack of decisive lateral fluvial erosion helps to preserve these late Pleistocene sedimentary archives. We conclude that alternating, ?104-yr long, phases of massive infilling and incision have dominated the late Quaternary history of the Indus valley below the western Tibetan Plateau margin.

Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

2014-06-01

43

Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in fact typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

2011-07-01

44

Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in facts typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

2011-04-01

45

A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential implications of the vertical (hypsometric) distribution of these parameters are considered. Interlinkages between observed changes in these parameters and the evolution of large-scale circulation indices (ENSO, NAO, local vorticity) are also investigated. In parallel to these climatological considerations, the study presents the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- including interannual variability as quantified from the available river gauging record. In order to begin to assess potential implications of future climate change on UIB hydrology, key modes of variability in the climate parameters are identified. The study then analyses in detail the corresponding observed anomalies in UIB discharge for years exemplifying these modes. In conclusion, this work postulates potential impacts of changes in the hydrological variability stemming from continuation of estimated present local climatic trends.

Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

2010-05-01

46

Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Pascale, Salvatore

2013-04-01

47

Hydrological cycle over south and southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for the Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because its precipitation regime is determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

2013-01-01

48

Hydrological Cycle over South and Southeast Asian River Basins as Simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indus basin. The only modest inter-model agreement is found for the Indus basin in terms of precipitation, evaporation and the strength of the hydrological cycle and for the Brahmaputra basin in terms of evaporation. While some models show inconsistencies for the Indus and the Ganges basins, most of the models seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. Models agree on a negative change of the water balance for Indus and a positive change in the strength of the hydrological cycle, whereas for Brahmaputra, Mekong and Ganges, most of the models project a positive change in both quantities. Most models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of the water balance for Ganges and Mekong basins which is consistent with the projected changes in the Monsoon precipitation. No considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of water balance is found for the Indus basin, characterized by a more complex meteorology, because precipitations are determined not only by the summer monsoon but also by the winter mid-latitude disturbances.

Lucarini, V.; Ul Hasson, S.; Pascale, S.

2013-05-01

49

Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world’s most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world’s most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin’s range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

2014-01-01

50

Assessing metal, protein, and DNA profiles in Labeo rohita from the Indus River in Mianwali, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study assessed metals in water and different tissues of Labeo rohita and the impact of these metals on DNA and proteins as biomarkers of gills and muscles of these fish from three different polluted sites (reference or low = KW, medium = CH and high = SK) of the Indus River, Pakistan. The Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr levels in water, gills, liver, muscles, and skin of these fish were compared with the international permissible levels. All metals except Pb and Hg in water were within the acceptable limits of drinking water. In contrast, the Mn, Hg, and Cr levels in the fish tissues were higher than their permissible limits for fish as a human food. Here, the gills contained higher metals than the other tissues. Different patterns of biomarkers were found in fish from these sites. While the gills did not show four protein bands (55, 30, 18.4, and 16.4 kDa), the muscles showed four new protein bands (100, 85, 45, and 20 kDa) for fish from the medium and high polluted sites as compared to the reference or low polluted site. The fish from the CH and SK sites of the Indus River contained low molecular weight DNA in their gills but high molecular weight DNA in their muscles when compared with the KW site. This study suggests that the proteins and DNA profiles of L. rohita could be used as biomarkers to assess the impact of potential environmental stressors such as metals on the freshwater systems. PMID:20461548

Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Jabeen, Farhat

2011-03-01

51

Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

2011-02-01

52

Environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities on the mineral uptake in Oreochromis mossambicus from Indus River in Pakistan.  

PubMed

We examined the extent of mineral uptake in different tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus from Indus River which is claimed to be polluted by human activities. Samples of water and fish tissues were analysed from two sites (SK = upstream and CH = downstream) of Indus River. Whilst the water quality appeared to be suitable for aquatic life, significant differences between fish tissues and sampling sites were observed for different mineral concentrations. Fins generally had the highest metal load followed by muscles, gills, scales and skin. Na, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations in different fish tissues were greater for CH than SK, whereas K, Ca, Pb, Cu, Fe, Hg and Cr were higher at SK than CH (P < 0.001). This variation in metal profiles of different locations of the Indus River was a reflection of relevant mineral pollutions at these sites. It appeared that the pattern of metal uptake in fish tissues can be utilised as an indicator of environmental contamination of river water systems. These studies may help us plan strategies to alleviate the ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals in freshwaters on fish and human populations. PMID:19533396

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

2010-07-01

53

Climate Change and its Impacts on Water Resources and Management of Tarbela Reservoir under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios in Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources play a vital role in agriculture, energy, industry, households and ecological balance. The main source of water to rivers is the Himalaya-Karakorum-Hindukush (HKH) glaciers and rainfall in Upper Indus Basin (UIB). There is high uncertainty in the availability of water in the rivers due to the variability of the monsoon, Western Disturbances, prolonged droughts and melting of glaciers in the HKH region. Therefore, proper management of water resources is undeniably important. Due to the growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. For the assessment of possible climate change, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation were investigated and evidence was found in favor of climate change in the region. Due to large differences between historical meteorological data and Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulated data, different statistical techniques were used for bias correction in temperature and precipitation. The hydrological model was calibrated for the period of 1995-2004 and validated for the period of 1990-1994 with almost 90 % efficiencies. After the application of bias correction techniques output of RCM, Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS) were used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at Tarbela reservoir on Indus River. For climate change assessment, the results show that the above mentioned variables have greater increasing trend under A2 scenario compared to B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to Tarbela reservoir show that overall 59.42 % and 34.27 % inflow increasing to Tarbela Reservoir during 2040-2069 under A2 and B2 scenarios will occur, respectively. Highest inflow and comparatively more shortage of water is noted in the 2020s under A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climate are investigated on the operation of the Tarbela reservoir. The results show that there will be shortage of water in some months over different years. There are no chances of overtopping of the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under A2 and B2 scenarios. _______________________________________________________________________________KEY WORDS: Climate Model, Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Climate Change Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Inflow, Outflow, Evaporation, Indus River, Calibration, Bias Correction.

Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

2014-05-01

54

Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely Early-Mid Holocene, erosional state, in which the Lesser Himalaya were more important as sediment suppliers. Early-Mid Holocene sands show much less erosion from the Karakoram-Transhimalaya compared to those deposited at the Last Glacial Maximum, or calculated from the modern discharge. We favour variations in summer monsoon intensity as the primary cause of these temporal changes.

Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

2011-03-01

55

Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the principles of low-risk adaptation, participative decision making and local capacity building.

Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

2010-05-01

56

Origin of the dissolved U-Sr fluxes in the Himalayan rivers: cases of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rivers draining the Himalaya are recognised as major contributors to the dissolved riverine flux to the oceans, with a non-negligible effect on the global budget of elements such as Sr and U. The precise characterisation of the different sources contributing to these fluxes is important and has to be done to model correctly the Himalayan river chemical flux variations through time, in response to climatic or tectonic variations and to better constrain the impact of these rivers on the U and Sr oceanic budget. The recent study of the Ganges watershed has shown the potential of the U-Sr combined isotopic analyses to reach this objective (Chabaux et al., 2001). We propose to extend this approach for the two other main Himalayan rivers: the Brahmaputra and the Indus. Our results show that the U and Sr fluxes carried by the Brahmaputra are not only controlled by the Himalayan end-member identified during the study of the Ganges watershed, but also by a chemical flux coming from the Tibetan plateau and another one specific of the plain formations. These two latter fluxes contribute to the U and Sr dissolved budget of the Brahmaputra during the dry season, and at different intensities for these two elements. During the monsoon, their impact seems to be negligible compared to the flux coming from the Himalayan chain. As a first approximation therefore, the annual hydrological cycle of the Brahmaputra river would have a U-Sr systematics very close to that of the Ganges river. By contrast, for the Indus River, in addition to the Himalyan flux, U and Sr dissolved budget is significantly affected by chemical fluxes from the Tibetan plateau, the plain and also from the West Pakistan Fold belt. The input of the Punjab river, the main Indus tributary that strongly influences the U-Sr budgets, on the Indus can be explained in terms of mixing between the Himalayan and the plain end members. These results will be used to constrain the response of U and Sr fluxes of the Himalayan river system to climatic variations and to discuss the impact of these variations on U and Sr oceanic budgets. Chabaux F., Riotte J., Clauer N. and France-Lanord C. (2001) GCA 65(19), 3201-3217

Schmitt, A.; Chabaux, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Singh, S.; Veizer, J.; Karim, A.

2003-12-01

57

Monitoring trace metals in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio from the Indus River in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This replicated 4×2 factorial study investigated the bioaccumulation of selected metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr) in four tissues (gills, liver, muscle and skin) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) domiciled in two sites (upstream and downstream) of Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. The data were statistically compared for the main effects of the site and fish organs and their interaction on the bioaccumulation pattern of these metals in fish organs at P<0.05. It appeared that the fish sampled from downstream had higher trace metals than the fish from upstream. Significant differences between fish organs were observed for these trace metals (P<0.001). The fish showed higher bioaccumulation of vital metals like Zn and lower bioaccumulation for the toxic metals like Pb. The gills had the highest metal load followed by liver, skin and muscles. High concentrations of Mn, Hg and Cr were observed in different fish organs as compared to the WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards for food fish. However, the mean concentration of Pb and Zn were under the permissible limits of food fish. It implies that higher levels of Mn, Hg and Cr in fish muscles would have detrimental effects on the health of fish consumers such as pregnant women, children and elderly people of this study area. PMID:20033282

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

2010-11-01

58

Modeling snowmelt-runoff under climate scenarios in the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Karakoram Range. It is therefore essential to estimate the snowmelt runoff from these catchments (with no or scarce precipitation records) for water resources management. The snowmelt runoff model (SRM) integrated with MODIS remote-sensing snow cover products was selected to simulate the daily discharges and to study the climate change impact on these discharges in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). The results obtained suggest that the SRM can be used efficiently in the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchments of the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The application of the SRM under future climate (mean temperature, precipitation and snow cover) change scenarios indicates a doubling of summer runoff until the middle of this century. This analysis suggests that new reservoirs will be necessary for summer flow storage to meet with the needs of irrigation supply, increasing power generation demand, flood control and water supply.

Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Neppel, Luc; Ahmad, Bashir

2011-10-01

59

Susquehanna River Basin Commission Annual Report, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Susquehanna River Basin Commission's (SRBC's) 2008 Annual Report. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is an agency with a mission - management of the water resources of the basin under comprehensive watershed management and planning princip...

2008-01-01

60

Hydrological cycle over South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the climate models contributing to the PCMDI/CMIP3 dataset describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the 20th, 21st (13 models) and 22nd (10 models) centuries. For the 20th century, some models do not seem to conserve water at the river basin scale up to a good degree of approximation. The simulated precipitation minus evaporation (P - E), total runoff (R) and precipitation (P) quantities are neither consistent with the observations nor among the models themselves. Most of the models underestimate P - E for all four river basins, which is mainly associated with the underestimation of precipitation. This is in agreement with the recent results on the biases of the representation of monsoonal dynamics by GCMs. Overall, a modest inter-model agreement is found only for the evaporation and inter-annual variability of P - E. For the 21st and 22nd centuries, models agree on the negative (positive) changes of P - E for the Indus basin (Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins). Most of the models foresee an increase in the inter-annual variability of P - E for the Ganges and Mekong basins, thus suggesting an increase in large low-frequency dry/wet events. Instead, no considerable future change in the inter-annual variability of P - E is found for the Indus and Brahmaputra basins.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

2013-07-01

61

High-resolution channel widths and erosion along the entire Indus River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous theoretical, numerical modeling, and field studies have focused on understanding the relationship between bedrock channel morphology and landscape evolution metrics in tectonically active orogens. The goal of these studies has been to quantify and establish predictive channel network metrics (channel dimensions and energy slopes) for assessing regional geomorphological and tectonic responses to variations in climate and uplift. However, many of these studies have relied on high resolution but spatially limited, and/or low resolution but spatially extensive datasets to delineate channel dimensions (i.e., width), thereby introducing large uncertainties into the analyses. In this study we build on previous studies of bedrock channel width scalings in tectonically active orogens by utilizing the high resolution imagery available in Google Earth. The goals of this talk are: 1) to show the utility of Google Earth imagery as a high-resolution datasource for tackling problems in tectonic geomorphology(especially in remote regions); 2) to show a simplistic but robust methodology for channel width extraction using a combination of Google Earth, ArcGIS, and Matlab tool sets; and 3) to present observations about how bedrock channel widths respond to variations in climatic and tectonic parameters along the nearly 1000 kilometer mainstem Indus River and its tributaries. To this end we compare our empirical channel width dataset with established width scaling equations as well as physics-based (specific stream power) and geochemical proxies (apatite fission track and cosmogenic radionuclides) of erosion to develop an improved understanding of both the predictive power and adjustment mechanisms associated with channel widths under variable climatic and tectonic forcings.

Fisher, B.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.

2011-12-01

62

Pilcomayo River Basin Institutional Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources of the Pilcomayo River Basin are shared between three countries: Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. It is a transboundary basin. It has several and significant peculiarities from the physical viewpoints (hydrological, sedimentological and geomorphological), as well as from the point of view of its people, cultures, ethnicity, economy, productive activities, and political and institutional organizations. The governments of the

Claudio Laboranti

2011-01-01

63

A Stream Water Availability Model of Upper Indus Basin Based on a Topologic Model and Global Climatic Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated water resources management at river basin scales and evaluation of effects of climate change on regional water\\u000a resources require quantitative estimates of space-time variability of monthly discharges within a river network. This study\\u000a demonstrates that such estimates, which can be called stream water availability, for regional river basins with meager or\\u000a nonexistent gauge data, can be obtained by combining

Biswajit Mukhopadhyay; Aniruddha Dutta

2010-01-01

64

Basin scale natural gas source, migration and trapping traced by noble gases and major elements: the Pakistan Indus basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

He, Ne and Ar concentrations, He and Ar isotopic ratios, carbon isotopic ratios and chemical compositions of hydrocarbon gases were measured in natural gas samples from gas-producing wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan, where no oil has ever been found. 3He/ 4He ratios are in the range 0.01-0.06 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric value of 1.38×10 -6) indicating the absence of mantle-derived helium despite the Trias extension. 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios range from 296 to 800, consistent with variable additions of radiogenic argon to atmospheric, groundwater-derived argon. Rare gas concentrations show large variations, from 6×10 -5 to 1×10 -3 mol/mol for 4He and from 3×10 -7 to 3×10 -5 mol/mol for 36Ar. In general, 36Ar concentrations are high compared to literature data for natural gas. CO 2 and N 2 concentrations are variable, ranging up to 70 and 20%, respectively. Mantle-derived He is not observed, therefore CO 2 and N 2 are not mantle-derived either. Hydrocarbon gas maturity is high, but accumulation efficiency is small, suggesting that early-produced hydrocarbons, including oil, were lost as well as mantle helium. This is consistent with the generally late, Pliocene, trap formation, and explains the high N 2 concentrations, since N 2 is the final species generated at the end of organic matter maturation. Based on ? 13C data, CO 2 originates from carbonate decomposition. Very elevated 20Ne/ 36Ar ratios are found, reaching a maximum of 1.3 (compared to 0.1-0.2 for air-saturated water and 0.5 for air), and these high values are related to the lowest rare gas concentrations. We suggest that this highly fractionated signature is the trace of the past presence of oil in the basin and appeared in groundwater. We propose a model where oil-water contact is followed by gas-water contact, both with Rayleigh distillation for rare gas abundance ratios, thereby generating the fractionated 20Ne/ 36Ar signature in groundwater first and transferring it to gas later. Assuming the gas-water contact occurred shallower than present reservoir depths, this model explains the generally high 36Ar concentrations and low CH 4/ 36Ar ratios compared to other studies on younger basins. It thus provides a historical perspective on fluid transfer in a sedimentary basin, where a gas accumulation may have been buried to greater depth since formation. Rare gas and major element data point to mixing between two gas pulses produced successively. The very CO 2-N 2-rich gases are terminal products of organic matter maturation which have been trapped after important migration. This gas was followed by a more typical thermogenic gas which mixed with it.

Battani, Anne; Sarda, Philippe; Prinzhofer, Alain

2000-08-01

65

Ecological River Basin Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

Smith, Anthony Wayne

66

Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ˜4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers such as the Indus.

Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)

2011-09-01

67

Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 years and climate data (precipitation and temperature) for 10 years from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover) data showed a slight expansion of snow cover in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

Tahir, A. A.; Chevallier, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Ahmad, B.

2011-03-01

68

Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River). A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 yr and climate data (precipitation and temperature) for 10 yr from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover) data during the last decade (2000-2009) suggest a rather slight expansion of cryosphere in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

Tahir, A. A.; Chevallier, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Ahmad, B.

2011-07-01

69

Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin, Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The thematic layers of soils, landuse, hydrology, infrastructure and climate were developed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. Integration of GIS with groundwater modelling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analysing and monitoring groundwater status and its associated land conditions. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater modelling, integration and presentation of image processing and modelling results. The groundwater behaviour of the regional model shows a gradual decline in watertable from year 1999 onward. The persistent dry condition and high withdrawal rates play an influential role in lowering down the groundwater levels. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The results of the study provide useful information regarding the behaviour of aquifer in order to organize management schemes on local and regional basis to monitor future groundwater development in the area.

Ashraf, A.; Ahmad, Z.

2008-04-01

70

Seasonality of the hydrological cycle in major South and Southeast Asian River Basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate how PCMDI/CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs) represent the seasonal properties of the hydrological cycle in four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra and Mekong). First, we examine the skill of GCMs by analysing their simulations for the XX century climate (1961-2000) under present-day forcing, and then we analyse the projected changes for the corresponding XXI and XXII century climates under SRESA1B scenario. CMIP3 GCMs show a varying degree of skill in simulating the basic characteristics of the monsoonal precipitation regimes of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basins, while the representation of the hydrological cycle over the Indus basin is poor in most cases, with few GCMs not capturing the monsoon signal at all. Although the models' outputs feature a remarkable spread for the monsoonal precipitations, a satisfactory representation of the western mid-latitude precipitation regime is instead observed. Similarly, most of the models exhibit a satisfactory agreement for the basin-integrated runoff in winter and spring, while the spread is large for the runoff during the monsoon season. For future climate scenarios, winter (spring) P - E decreases over all four (Indus and Ganges) basins due to decrease in precipitation associated with the western mid-latitude disturbances. Consequently, the spring (winter) runoff drops (rises) for the Indus and Ganges basins. Such changes indicate a shift from rather glacial and nival to more pluvial runoff regimes, particularly for the Indus basin. Furthermore, the rise in the projected runoff along with the increase in precipitations during summer and autumn indicates an intensification of the summer monsoon regime for all study basins.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.; Böhner, J.

2013-07-01

71

Enhancing Data Management for OKACOM (Okavango River Basin Water Commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the USAID-funded Okavango River Basin Project, this assessment identifies data and information needs for the Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM) and other users of information on the Okavango River Basin. The primary result...

2005-01-01

72

18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regional or river basin planning. 725.7 Section 725...Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional...

2014-04-01

73

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

74

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

75

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

76

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

77

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

78

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

79

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

80

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

81

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

82

Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is confined in its valley. Upon entering the sedimentary basin, the Brahmaputra River develops a DFS and becomes broadly braided in form. Distally on the DFS, the braided system bifurcates, leaving relatively large areas where floodplain deposits may be preserved. At the toe of the DFS, the Brahmaputra River becomes the axial system for this portion of the foreland basin. In this axial position, it is held between opposing DFS, thus the channel system migrates back and forth between these DFS and fills this portion of the basin with coarse-grained material. Other large rivers show similar change as they enter a continental sedimentary basin. In areal extent, DFS from smaller rivers occupy more of the modern continental sedimentary basins than the big rivers (either in axial or DFS position), therefore deposits of all rivers in sedimentary basins must be considered in order to fully interpret the rock record.

Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

2010-12-01

83

Conservation in the Delaware River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission's strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service

Jeffrey Featherstone

1996-01-01

84

THE RIVER BASIN APPROACH IN TOURISM PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes advantages and disadvantages in tourism planning, using the river basins as background territory and borders. Tourism development planning is taking place according administrative territorial borders till nowadays in Latvia and in other tourism destinations in abroad. According tourist and visitor needs and environmental friendly approach it is more appropriate to use river basins in tourism planning. Tourists

Agita Slara

2005-01-01

85

INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY FOR RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are adopting water policies and legislative instruments for water management in conformance to the agenda 21. According to this agenda, the use and protection of surface water and groundwater are coordinated at a river basin level. The success of river basin management systems relies upon coordinated actions, including provision of and access to information as well as the

Jackson Roehrig

86

Strontium in rivers of the Baltic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rivers in the Baltic Basin drain a mixture of bedrocks ranging from Mesozoic-Paleozoic sediments in the south to Proterozoic-Archean intrusives in the north. The rivers in the sedimentary basin in the south have high concentrations of Sr, in the interval 100–500 µg l-1 while the87Sr\\/86Sr ratio is close to that of seawater, i.e. 0.71. The northern rivers in the

Runo Löfvendahl; Göran Åberg; P. Joseph Hamilton

1990-01-01

87

Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

2013-10-01

88

Bedrock geology and chemistry of rivers basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth’s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river and ocean chemistry, is striking. While some attempts have been made to quantify the lithologic composition of bedrock in individual river basins (e.g., Reeder et al., 1972; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2002), the geologic age distribution of bedrock in river basins has not been investigated. We have therefore initiated a project aimed at generating a worldwide dataset on the bedrock lithology and age distribution of river basins, using the latest digital geologic maps and modern geographic information system technology. To date we have completed analysis of the digital geologic maps North America. These data have been used in conjunction with digital river basin polygons (Revenga et al., 1998, World Resources Institute) to compute the lithologic composition and geologic age structure of major river basins in North America. The lithologic composition of 14 large river basins range from predominantly igneous rocks dominated (Frazer, Columbia), to those dominated by sedimentary rocks (Brazos, Susquehanna, Mississippi), to basins with an equal mix of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock (Thelon). Subdividing sedimentary rocks into marine and continental rocks reveals that continental sediments account for no more than 25% of sedimentary rocks in these river basins (e.g., Nelson, Colorado, Mississippi). A further subdivision of igneous rocks into intrusive and volcanic rocks reveals the entire range of igneous composition, from basins dominated by intrusive rocks (Hudson, Mackenzie, Nelson) to those dominated by volcanic rocks (Susquehanna, Colorado, Frazer, Columbia). We are currently analyzing the age distribution of major lithologic units in each river basin. In cases where detailed hydrochemical data is available for major tributaries we will expand the analysis to sub-basins (e.g., Frazer, Mississippi). Basins smaller than about 40,000 km^2 will require analysis of higher-resolution digital geologic bedrock maps. In the next project phase we will combine bedrock data for major river basins with hydrochemical data to investigate the influence bedrock exerts on river chemistry, specifically radiogenic isotopes and macronutrients. Combining digital information on bedrock geology with digital maps of precipitation will allow us to use precipitation-weighted bedrock area rather than simple area-lithology relationships. Extending this analysis to pre-Quaternary periods is beyond the current focus of the project, but will be necessary to fully utilize reconstructions of ocean paleochemistry in models of global biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Bluth and Kump, 1991).

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

2003-04-01

89

He Pb double dating of detrital zircons from the Ganges and Indus Rivers: Implication for quantifying sediment recycling and provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

He-Pb double dating of detrital zircons is more reliable than conventional U-Pb dating for tracing the source of detritus in sediments and can be used to constrain the percentage of recycled material in sediments. Conventional U-Pb dating can be used to constrain the provenance of sediments if the U-Pb zircon age pattern for potential source regions is known but can only be used to trace the source of individual zircons if they are first-cycle grains. The advantages of He-Pb double dating are demonstrated using examples from the Indus and Ganges rivers, and previously published data from the Navajo sandstone. Conventional U-Pb dating can unambiguously identify only 2.5% of the Ganges zircons, and 18% of the Indus zircons as coming from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau and only 23% of the Navajo zircons as coming from the Appalachian Mountains. The correct figure, as determined from double dating, is over 95% from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau in the case of the Indus and Ganges rivers and at least 70% from the Appalachian Mountains in the case of the Navajo Sandstone. This result casts doubt on the reliability of the U-Pb method when used in the absence of other techniques, such as He dating, to identify the true provenance of sediments, as opposed to the ultimate source of the zircons. Double dating also shows that at least 60% of the Indus and 70% of the Ganges and Navajo sandstone zircons have been recycled from earlier sediments. Exhumation rates, estimated from the He dates, reveal that ˜ 75% of the Indus and Ganges zircons were derived from areas where the exhumation rate exceeds 1.5 km/Myr. These rates are higher and more varied than those calculated from detrital muscovites. These results imply that ˜ 75% of the eroded material in the Himalayan Mountains is derived from areas of anomalously high erosion where the short-term exhumation rate exceeds the long-term average.

Campbell, Ian H.; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Upadhyay, Rajeev

2005-09-01

90

Ocklawaha River Basin Rainfall Yield Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to report the results of an investigation of the relationship between total annual rainfall and total annual yield of the Ocklawaha River Basin. This investigation was performed to support discussio...

2008-01-01

91

Flood Deposition Patterns and Channel Migration due to a 10-year flood event: the case of the Indus River flood 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluvial geomorphological processes evolve the landscape and are often referred to as processes that act for hundred to thousands of years before making a noticeable change in landforms. For the Indus River, landscape evolution has been intensified due to human interference. Failure in repairing its levees from previous floods led in July 2010 during a not exceptional discharge event (~10 year recurrence interval) to a large avulsion and flooding disaster that caused ~2,000 fatalities. Examining pre- and post flood maps by analyzing MODIS and ASTER-A1 data allowed us to determine the extent of sandy flood deposits and to quantify channel migration patterns. The typical pattern of inner bend deposition (due to helical flow) and outer bend erosion were less pronounced. We hypothesize that when flow exceeds bankfull conditions, deposition is more uniform and no longer constrained by the streambed geometry. We observe that the inner and the outer river bend receive similar amounts of sandy deposits (43% versus 57% respectively). Crevasse splaying was widespread and appeared to occur as a flow stripping process again both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Channel activity (defined as the areal shift of the pre- and post river centerline), sinuosity, slope and lateral sediment deposition were determined for 50km river stretches. Analyzes reveal that flood deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. Furthermore, channel activity correlates negatively with channel sinuosity and lateral distance of sediment deposition and positively with slope. The river channel migrated over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event. Lateral migration averaged ~340m along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River over a period of just 52 days. Although this discharge event was not exceptional, lateral migration was significant and deposition impacts the active river floodplain. Remarkably, most sediments are deposited downstream the large avulsion (85%). No significant amount of sediment reaches the Indus Delta (2%); which was also less significantly affected by channel migration.

Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

2013-12-01

92

Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Michel, R. L.

2004-01-01

93

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

PubMed

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-07-19

94

Global Warming and the Columbia River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbia River Basin was created out of the most powerful geologic and climatic processes on earth. The bedrock of the Basin rose up from the ocean floor and came from half a world away, enormous lava flows lay down basalt thousands of meters thick, wind blew in sediment over the course of millennia, and the main channel of Columbia

Martin Anderson

95

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Connecticut River lowlands and Chicopee River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Connecticut River lowlands and Chicopee River basin in southern Franklin, eastern Hampshire, and western Worcester Counties, Massachusetts , are delineated on 18 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Chicopee River, or 20 square miles along the Connecticut River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

96

Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

1998-01-01

97

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

98

Energy - water - salinity: Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amounts of water that will be needed to develop coal, oil shale, and uranium resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin will alter both the quantity and quality of downstream flows. An evaluation of the water resource impacts from alternative energy developments will assure a continued high level of water use throughout the Colorado River. A mathematical model

M. Flug; W. R. Walker; G. V. Skogerboe

1979-01-01

99

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

100

Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

101

Fishes of the White River basin, Indian  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

Crawford, C. G.; Lydy, M. J.; Frey, J. W.

1996-01-01

102

Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ? 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

2006-07-01

103

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

104

Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems. Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

2013-04-01

105

Determination of mixing characteristics of the river Kabul and the river Indus using physico-chemical and stable isotope parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a comparative study on the usefulness of stable isotope parameters (hydrogen and oxygen) versus the physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, pH value) of water to determine the extent of mixing of the river K...

R. M. Qureshi, Q. M. Hussain, M. I. Sajjad, S. D. Hussain, Z. Latif

1990-01-01

106

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes long-term (1935–99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations\\/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in

Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Douglas L. Kane

2004-01-01

107

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Housatonic River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Housatonic River. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

108

Conservation in the Delaware River Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

Featherstone, J. [Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01

109

GPP estimation over Heihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the sum of carbon absorbed by plant canopy. It is a key measurement of carbon mass flux in carbon cycle studies. Remote sensing based light use efficiency model is a widely used method to estimate regional GPP. In this study, MODIS-PSN was used to estimate GPP in Heihe River Basin. In order to better the model accuracy, maximum light use efficiency (?0) in MODIS-PSN is estimated using local observed carbon flux data and meteorological data. After adjustment of parameter ?0, MODIS-PSN can correctly estimate GPP for major vegetation type in the Heihe River Basin. Then, yearly GPP over Heihe River Basin was estimated. The results indicated that about 1.4*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem through vegetation photosynthesis in the Heihe River Basin one year. In contrast, there is just 5.73*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem according to the standard MODIS GPP product, which is greatly underestimated GPP in the Heihe River Bain.

Wang, Xufeng; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin; Han, Xujun; Ran, Youhua; Huang, Guanghui; Song, Yi; Tan, Junlei

2011-10-01

110

Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

2001-01-01

111

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

112

River basins of the United States: the Hudson  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This leaflet, one of a series on the river basins of the United States, contains information on the Hudson River Basin, including a brief early history, a description of the physical characteristics, and other statistical data. At present, other river basins included in the series are The Colorado, The Columbia, The Delaware, The Potomac, and The Wabash.

U.S. Geological Survey

1981-01-01

113

St. John River Basin Overview: Public Review Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New England River Basins Commission has prepared summary reports on each of the region's major river basins. The most significant issues identified in the St. John River basin center on development and resource allocation in the Upper St. John and Aro...

1981-01-01

114

77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

2012-08-01

115

AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2011-01-01

116

The River Basin Model: Assessment Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The River Basin Model is a man-machine simulation model used to delineate the interactions taking place, within a real or hypothetical area, between the local water system and the economic, social and governmental activities of that area; it is a model of...

1971-01-01

117

Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and operation of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities have contributed to the reduction in diversity and abundance of some native resident fish. To mitigate for effects of hydroelectric development and operations, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) annually funds fisheries research and management efforts. In 2003, the BPA provided $19.2 million for the implementation of 54 resident fish projects that

Neil E. Ward; David L. Ward

2004-01-01

118

Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River, Iowa, and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk - South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as follows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles. The random nature of flood occurrence is illustrated by a graph of annual flood peaks at the gaging station on the Skunk River at Augusta. Maximum recorded flood discharges at gaging stations in the Skunk River basin are tabulated. A complete list of flood peaks for each station is included. (Woodard-USGS)

Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

1978-01-01

119

Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

Gerlak, Andrea K.

2004-08-01

120

Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

1998-01-01

121

Flood tracking chart, Amite River basin, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

Callender, Lawrence; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.

1996-01-01

122

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes long-term (1935-99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in the late melt season. These changes in snowmelt runoff pattern suggest a delay in snowcover melt in the Yenisei basin perhaps associated with cooling trends during the snowmelt months over central Siberia. This study also demonstrates that the reservoir regulation has significantly altered the monthly discharge regimes in northeast and the upper portions of the Yenisei basin. Constructions of four large dams in the northeast Yensiei regions reduced the summer peak flows in the Angara valley by 15-30% and increased the winter low flows by 5-30%. Operations of two large reservoirs in the upper Yenisei regions enhanced the winter flows by 45-85% and reduced the summer flows by 10-50%. These alterations lead to a streamflow regime change toward less seasonal variation over the eastern and lower Yenisei basin. Because of reservoir regulations, discharge records collected at the Yenisei basin outlet do not always represent natural changes and variations, they tend to underestimate the natural streamflow trends in summer and overestimate the trends in winter and fall seasons. Cold season discharge increase over the Yenisei river is not natural-caused, but mainly the effect of reservoir regulations in the Yenisei basin.

Yang, Daqing; Ye, Baisheng; Kane, Douglas L.

2004-08-01

123

Mississippi River, Yazoo Basin, Memphis, TN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the lower Mississippi River (34.0N, 90.0W) known as the Yazoo Basin, is characterized by a wide expanse of rich river bottomland with many oxbow lakes, the remains of the many changes in the riverbed over the course of many thousands of years. This soil is very fertile and productive but the region is prone to flooding. In this view, some of the back areas around the Delta National Forest show the effects of heavy spring rains.

1973-01-01

124

Energy development and the Upper Colorado River Basin Optimization Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the purpose and structure of a computer model currently being used at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This model, known as the Upper Colorado River Basin Optimization Model, integrates major economic, natural resource, and institutional features of the Upper Colorado River Basin to forecast and evaluate the impact of energy development on the Basin. In the report,

1978-01-01

125

Climate change adaptation in European river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies\\u000a in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called\\u000a Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region (including the Alqueva Reservoir) in the Lower Guadiana in Portugal, and Rivierenland\\u000a in the Netherlands. The analysis

Patrick Huntjens; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; John Grin

2010-01-01

126

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

127

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site measures the environmental health of the Danube River Basin and provides information on actions taken to protect the ecosystem. Links to the geography of the basin, the Danube Convention and other publications are also included.

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB); Europe, Regional E.

128

Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

2014-05-01

129

Multiobjective Optimization in River Basin Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiobjective optimization in water resources planning consists in trading off noncommensurable objectives within the framework of a complex and dynamic process. Multiobjective optimization is performed at two levels: first, an engineering level, which may be labeled a decision-making aid phase; and then, a managerial level of acceptance of the solution. The engineering level optimization may be performed by means of a cost-effectiveness approach followed by the application of compromise programing, which consists of choosing a compromise solution located as close as possible to an ideal but non-feasible solution. In this paper this combined method is applied to the design of a water resources system in the Central Tisza River Basin in Hungary. The results obtained by following this approach are compared to those in David and Duckstein (1976) and Keeney and Wood (1977), who used, respectively ELECTRE and multiattribute utility theory instead of compromise programing to study the same basin. The proposed methodology is able to lead to either one of the two different decisions resulting from the other studies. A brief discussion of possible approaches for final choice of alternative system is given. Key words in this paper are multiobjective optimization, decision-making aid, cost-effectiveness approach, compromise programing, and river basin development.

Duckstein, Lucien; Opricovic, Serafim

1980-02-01

130

Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature - 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April), when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence) were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l.), while the low (or null) probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.). Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke) in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l.), moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

Trasmonte, G.; Chavez, R.; Segura, B.; Rosales, J. L.

2008-04-01

131

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2010-04-01

132

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2011-04-01

133

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2012-04-01

134

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2014-04-01

135

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2013-04-01

136

MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF NUTRIENTS AT RIVER BASIN SCALE - THE CASE OF EVROTAS RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitored Natural Attenuation is a technology that until now has been used for the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In this study, is presented the first step for the application of Monitored Natural Attenuation for the whole basin of Evrotas river. The main pollutants that are studied are nutrients. The results of the six field campaign that were conducted

Katerina Valta; Fotini Stamati; Daniel Moraetis; Nikolaos P. Nikolaidisa

2008-01-01

137

Diamondoids and biomarkers: as a tool to better define the effects of thermal cracking and microbial oxidation on oils\\/condensates from reservoirs of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined crude oils and condensates from 12 productive oil field zones present in the Upper Indus Basin,\\u000a Pakistan, located at 33°11?00?N to 33°56?00?N and 73°10?00? to 73°56?00?E. These crude oils and condensates belonged to Eocene,\\u000a Paleocene, and Jurassic ages. GC and GC–MS parameters revealed that these samples were mature and contained marine and algal\\/bacterial\\u000a organic matter sources

Muhammad Irfan Jalees; Thomas S. Bianchi; Roger Sassen; Fazeelat Tahira

2011-01-01

138

AIRS impact on analysis and forecast of an extreme rainfall event (Indus River Valley, Pakistan, 2010) with a global data assimilation and forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments is performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches toward assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. The impact is first assessed globally on a sample of more than forty forecasts per experiment, through the standard 500 hPa anomaly correlation metrics. Next, the focus is on precipitation analysis and precipitation forecast skill relative to one particular event: an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that, in addition to improving the global forecast skill, the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 days is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2012-04-01

139

Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

Karthe, Daniel

2013-04-01

140

Agriculture and Soil Erosion in the Ohio River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of the USDA study, 'Land Use and Sheet and Rill Soil Loss Estimates, Ohio River Basin - 1974, 2000, and 2000P,' December 1979, was to estimate existing and projected soil erosion. Since ninety percent of the Ohio River Basin land is de...

1981-01-01

141

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

142

Water Policy Analysis for the Mekong River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid agricultural and economic development in mainland Southeast Asia during the 1990s has fueled the demand for water resources in the Mekong River Basin. An aggregate, integrated economic-hydrologic model for the basin is developed that allows for the analysis of water allocation and use under alternative policy scenarios. The model describes the water supply situation along the river system and

Claudia Ringler; Joachim von Braun; Mark W. Rosegrant

2004-01-01

143

Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas, Ouachita River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas, determined in accordance with procedure recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology of the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee, are listed for points on streams in the Ouachita River basin in Arkansas. Points on the streams are identified by some topographic feature and by latitude and longitude. (USGS).

Yanchosek, John J.; Hines, Marion S.

1979-01-01

144

Ecology and restoration of the Delaware River basin  

SciTech Connect

This book describes and analyzes the physical, biological and human problems that have evolved over time in the utilizations of water in the Delaware River Basin. It discusses the environmental problems of a major river basin, and provides solutions to these problems.

Majumdar, S.K. (Lafayette College, Easton, PA (US)); Miller, E.W. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geography); Sage, L.E. (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1988-01-01

145

New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

146

Hydraulic Model Studies of Desilting Basins of a Hydro-Electric Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Desilting basins are part of a 290 MW Hydro-electric Project, situated in the Himalayas, Asia, on a tributary of the Indus River. The diversion of flow from the river will be realized with an intake structure upstream of a 70 m high concrete dam. Hydrauli...

R. J. de Jong H. W. R. Perdijk D. Develay J. Gautier J. Binquet

1992-01-01

147

Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, ?, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of ? across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher ? value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted as resulting from a positive feedback between divide migration, which causes topological modifications and area change, on the one hand, and channel slope adjustments, which change the erosion rates on opposing sides of water divides and promote their migration, on the other hand. Furthermore, the constantly shifting drainage area and the changing topology of the drainage network are shown to be a possible source for autogenic sediment flux variations.

Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-05-01

148

[Landscape change in middle Heihe River Basin].  

PubMed

Using GIS and a landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS, this paper dealt with the landscape change in the middle Heihe River Basin during the past 20 years. During the past 20 years, the landscape elements had a complex change of landscape structure and an apparent transition of landscape composition, but the landscape in a whole still displayed a pattern of sharply contrast between oasis landscape and desertification landscape. Human activities significantly changed the distribution and allocation of the limited water resource in the basin, leading to an acute contradiction between desertification and oasisfication. Moreover, the transitional area between desertification and oasisfication was very sensitive to these processes. The decrease of Shannon's diversity index and evenness index manifested the intensive management and reconstruction of landscape by human beings, which improved the socioeconomic benefits of the region on one hand, but decreased the landscape heterogeneity and landscape diversity, leading to the decrease of eco-environmental benefits of some areas in the basin on the other hand. The research method and technology used in this paper were also discussed. PMID:11813437

Lu, L; Cheng, G; Li, X

2001-02-01

149

Tree Rings as Climate Proxies in Susquehanna River Basin Streamflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used throughout the world to reconstruct past climate records. However, no attempt has been made to reconstruct streamflow records for the Susquehanna River Basin. Having previously found a statistical relationship between tree rings and streamflow records in the basin, the researchers have refined this relationship and used it to reconstruct streamflow in the basin back to

M. L. Hutcherson; G. S. Jenkins; R. Najjar

2004-01-01

150

Tree Rings as Climate Proxies in Susquehanna River Basin Streamflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used throughout the world to reconstruct past climate records. However, no attempt has been made to reconstruct streamflow records for the Susquehanna River Basin. Having previously found a statistical relationship between tree rings and streamflow records in the basin, the researchers have refined this relationship and used it to reconstruct streamflow in the basin back to

M. L. Hutcherson; G. S. Jenkins; R. Najjar

2005-01-01

151

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max ?32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max ?46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

152

Hydrologic information extraction for flood disaster risk assessment in Pearl River Basin and Luan River Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood disaster is one of the major natural disasters, the frequency and destructive power of it ranks one of the top disasters in China. In the flood risk assessment, the distribution of drainage network is a very important assessment factor. This study extract the watershed features of Pearl River Basin and Luan River Basin based on the Digital Elevation Model

Jing Zhang; Linrui Song; Fan Feng; Huili Gong

2011-01-01

153

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

154

Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

2004-12-01

155

Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

1991-01-01

156

Environmental geochemistry of Damodar River basin, east coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and bed sediment samples collected from the Damodar River and its tributaries were analysed to study elemental chemistry\\u000a and suspended load characteristics of the river basin. Na and Ca are the dominant cations and HCO3 is the dominant anion. The water chemistry of the Damodar River basin strongly reflects the dominance of continental weathering\\u000a aided by atmospheric and anthropogenic

A. K. Singh; S. I. Hasnain

1999-01-01

157

Fuzzy synthetic model for risk assessment on Haihe River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive indicator model for risk assessment and a multiple-level theoretical indicator system of the water quality–quantity-ecosystem\\u000a (WQQE) for the Haihe River basin were constructed in this research. A fuzzy optimization model was used to assess risks for\\u000a the four water systems of the Haihe River basin, and their risk order from high to lower risk was southern Haihe River

Jingling LiuQiuying ChenYongli Li; Qiuying Chen; Yongli Li; Zhifeng Yang

2011-01-01

158

Climate sensitivity of major river basins in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate the land surface water balance of five major African river basins using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface hydrologic model forced by gridded climate data of precipitation and temperature for the period 1979-1999. The seasonality and inter-annual variability of the water balance terms vary across the continent and at each river basin. The long-term mean vapor flux convergence P-E agrees well with observed runoff for the eastern and north western basins, whereas there is a relatively large imbalance (28%) for the Oranje River basin possibly because of its small size. The Zambezi and Oranje River basins act as a net source of moisture in dry seasons (strong negative P-E). Both the Nile and Zambezi basins have a low runoff efficiency and a high dryness index, indicating a high sensitivity to climate change in the case of the Nile, and moderate sensitivity in the case of the Zambezi. Although the severity of climate change impacts depends primarily on the magnitude of change, the different hydrological sensitivities of the basins are also important. Precipitation elasticities range from 2.2 to 3.1 for 10% increase and -2.1 to -2.7 for 10% decrease in precipitation respectively over the five river basins, whereas the sensitivity of runoff to temperature ranges (absolute value) from a high of -5%/degC for the Niger basin to a low of -1% for the Orange basin.

Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.

2011-12-01

159

The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

Vanham, Davy

2014-05-01

160

Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The

Connie A. Woodhouse; Stephen T. Gray; David M. Meko

2006-01-01

161

Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October–September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The

Connie A. Woodhouse; Stephen T. Gray; David M. Meko

2006-01-01

162

Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

Stephens, Doyle, W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry, B.

1988-01-01

163

Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia River basin area extends across seven states, and winds its way along the current border between Washington and Oregon, before heading into the eastern part of Washington state proper. During the past several centuries, the area has been home to a number of ethnic groups, including African-Americans, Asians, and Hispanics, among others. In a collaborative effort, a number of local and regional institutions (including Washington State University and the Oregon Historical Society) came to share resources to create this digital archive that collects the records, images, remembrances, and artifacts of this particular region. The first part of the site introduces users to a map of the region, and provides information about the project's organization and its partners. The second section allows visitors to browse the database, where they will find various aspects of visual culture, including newspapers and photographs. The third section of the site provides tutorials and lesson plans.

164

Erosion and sediment transport in the Ganges river basin (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on sampling of the entire region of the Ganges basin, chemical and sediment load supplied at various parts of the basin have been computed. Annual flux of materials from sub-basin into the main basin and input to the Hoogly estuary have been calculated and compared to major river systems of the world. The total annual load at Calcutta (mouth of the river) was calculated as 411 · 10 6 t (328 · 10 6 t sediment load + 83 · 10 6 t chemical load). Erosion rate (549 t km -2 yr. -1) is among the highest in this river system and controlling factors on a global scale, such as basin area, are discussed in detail. Annual decrease in basin elevation indicates a rapid process of denudation and such rates have a bearing on rates of shelf sediment accumulation.

Abbas, Nazar; Subramanian, V.

1984-02-01

165

Review of waterpower withdrawals in Weiser River Basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Weiser River basin is primarily agricultural and is supported by extensive irrigation. The Geological Survey has initiated withdrawals, or has made powersite classifications of lands having value for reservoir sites and for waterpower production. These withdrawals have been examined to see if they should continue in force or if it is in the public interest to restore them. The 1960 report, "Upper Snake River Basin," by the U.S. bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included recommendations conooming potential water resource-development sites in Water River basin. That report furnished much of the information for this review.

Colbert, Jesse Lane; Young, Loyd L.

1964-01-01

166

Water Resource Assessment for the Zambezi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zambezi river drains eight riparian countries: Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. The Zambezi river is, therefore, an international river basin. It drains an area of about 1,800,000 square km (Okavango-Chobe system included). The surface water resources of the Zambezi river have been assessed on the basis of average, typical dry, and wet year flow conditions.

Jonathan I. Matondo; Peter Mortensen

1998-01-01

167

Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

2013-09-01

168

77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. The basin conservation program is structured...of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River basin....

2012-03-21

169

ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

170

Values of inland fisheries in the Mekong river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview of the biological, economical, social and cultural values of river fisheries in the Lower Mekong Basin (Yunan, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam). The report also identifies the main impacts of environmental changes on these values.

Eric Baran; Teemu Jantunen; Chiew Kieok Chong

171

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

172

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

173

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

174

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS, VIEW FROM MODEL BED. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

175

Geochemistry of the Big Lost River Drainage Basin, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For this study, water samples were collected from 10 wells in the Big Lost River drainage basin during 1999 and analyzed for selected inorganic constitutents, dissolved organic carbon, stable isotopes, tritium, and selected gross measurements of radioacti...

C. Carkeet J. J. Rosentreter R. C. Bartholomay L. L. Knobel

2001-01-01

176

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

177

Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

McCabe, Gregory, J.

1994-01-01

178

Recent Trends of Hydrological Cycles in Tarim River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tarim river basin (TRB) is the largest inland basin of China, extended for 1.06 million km2. In the past 3 decades, due to exploitation and reclamation, the area of oases water consumption in the oases increased significantly. As a result, the main stream of the Tarim river experienced frequently drying-up. At the same time, a significant increase in temperature and precipitation also detected in the basin; decreasing pan evaporation was detected over the basin. Through a water balance analysis with support by remote sensing data, such as gravity (GRACE) and vegetation (AVHRR) changes, we investigated the changes or trend of the hydrological cycles in Tarim river basin. During past 5 decades, it is suggested that the hydrological cycle in TRB showed an accelerated/enhanced trend. We will present the details of our study in the meeting.

Shen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.

2011-12-01

179

Riparian vegetation assessment of Cauvery River Basin of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cauvery river basin of South India has a large phyto-floristic wealth, rightfully enough to constitute a separate phyto-geographic\\u000a unit. Increase in the anthropogenic pressures within the river basin and surrounding landscapes have persistently stressed\\u000a the riparian ecosystem structure adversely, besides altering its composition. The objective of this study was to examine the\\u000a present status of riparian vegetation along the

C. Sunil; R. K. Somashekar; B. C. Nagaraja

2010-01-01

180

Water available for energy: Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Colorado River Basin has abundant deposits of fossil fuels and minerals; numerous projects are in progress, planned or projected, to extract these resources. The first question that needs to be answered to make it possible for these projects to become reality is the availability of water. The Upper Colorado River Basin states are presently depleting approx 3,650,000 acre-ft

1976-01-01

181

Geochemical record of Holocene to Recent sedimentation on the Western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multiproxy geochemical analysis of two cores recovered from the Indus Shelf spanning the Early Holocene to Recent (<14 ka). Indus-23 is located close to the modern Indus River, while Indus-10 is positioned ˜100 km further west. The Holocene transgression at Indus-10 was over a surface that was strongly weathered during the last glacial sea level lowstand. Lower Holocene sediments at Indus-10 have higher?Ndvalues compared to those at the river mouth indicating some sediment supply from the Makran coast, either during the deposition or via reworking of older sediments outcropping on the shelf. Sediment transport from Makran occurred during transgressive intervals when sea level crossed the mid shelf. The sediment flux from non-Indus sources to Indus-10 peaked between 11 ka and 8 ka. A hiatus at Indus-23 from 8 ka until 1.3 ka indicates non-deposition or erosion of existing Indus Shelf sequences. Higher?Ndvalues seen on the shelf compared to the delta imply reworking of older delta sediments in building Holocene clinoforms. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mg/Al and Sr isotopes are all affected by erosion of detrital carbonate, which reduced through the Holocene. K/Al data suggest that silicate weathering peaked ca. 4-6 ka and was higher at Indus-10 compared to Indus-23. Fine-grained sediments that make up the shelf have geochemical signatures that are different from the coarser grained bulk sediments measured in the delta plain. The Indus Shelf data highlight the complexity of reconstructing records of continental erosion and provenance in marine settings.

Limmer, David R.; BöNing, Philipp; Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; KöHler, Cornelia M.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Tabrez, Ali R.; Clift, Peter D.

2012-01-01

182

Coupled Teleconnections and River Dynamics for Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting in the Upper Colorado River Basin USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy of water supply forecasts has improved for some river basins in the western U.S.A. by integrating knowledge of climate teleconnections, such as El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), into forecasting routines, but in other basins, such as the Colorado River Basin (CRB), forecast accuracy has declined (Pagano et al. 2004). Longer lead time and more accurate seasonal forecasts, particularly during floods

M. A. Matter; L. A. Garcia; D. G. Fontane

2005-01-01

183

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

1982-01-01

184

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for

Maloney

1987-01-01

185

Climate Change and Resource Management in the Columbia River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of global climate change were examined to see what impacts they might have on transboundary water management in the Columbia River basin. Scenario changes in natural streamflow were estimated using a basin hydrology model. These scenarios tended to show earlier seasonal peaks, with possible reductions in total annual flow and lower minimum flows. Impacts and adaptation responses to the

Stewart J. Cohen; Kathleen A. Miller; Alan F. Hamlet; Wendy Avis

2000-01-01

186

Toward Sustainability in Lower Mekong River Basin Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Mekong River Basin of Southeast Asia is at an important juncture in its path of development. The natural resource base upon which future development will depend is being undermined by deforestation. Poverty in many places in the basin provides few options other than continued use of the forests for fuelwood, slash-and burn agriculture, as well as commercial uses.

Jeffrey W. Jacobs

1994-01-01

187

A Catalog of Upper Colorado River Basin Droughts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) has experienced drought conditions since 2000, resulting in below average flows at Lees Ferry in eight of the past eleven years. Droughts have occurred periodically over the interval of the gage record, 1906-2009. An examination of the history of droughts in the basin can provide context for evaluating both the current drought, and an

C. A. Woodhouse; M. F. Glueck

2010-01-01

188

Procedures for Ensuring Community Involvement in Multijurisdictional River Basins: A Comparison of the Murray-Darling and Mekong River Basins 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community involvement is fundamental to the management of multijurisdictional river basins but, in practice, is very difficult\\u000a to achieve. The Murray-Darling basin, in Australia, and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia are both cooperatively managed\\u000a multijurisdictional river basins where the management authorities have expressed an aim of community involvement. In the Murray-Darling\\u000a basin vigorous efforts have promoted a culture

JONATHAN L. CHENOWETH; SARAH A. EWING; JULIET F. BIRD

2002-01-01

189

Savannah River Laboratory seepage basins: Environmental information document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basins are located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Plant in the 700 Area. The four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure. When in operation, the basins received a total of 128,820 m³ of low-level radioactive wastewater from laboratories located in Buildings 735-A and 773-A. Wastewater with radioactivity less than 100 d\\/m\\/mL alpha and\\/or

B. F. Fowler; R. V. Simmons; H. W. Bledsoe; B. B. Looney

1986-01-01

190

An Operational Flood Forecast System for the Indus Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River is central to agriculture, hydroelectric power, and the potable water supply in Pakistan. The ever-present risk of drought - leading to poor soil conditions, conservative dam practices, and higher flood risk - amplifies the consequences of abnormally large precipitation events during the monsoon season. Preparation for the 2010 and 2011 floods could have been improved by coupling quantitative precipitation forecasts to a distributed hydrological model. The nature of slow-rise discharge on the Indus and overtopping of riverbanks in this basin indicate that medium-range (1-10 day) probabilistic weather forecasts can be used to assess flood risk at critical points in the basin. We describe a process for transforming these probabilities into an alert system for supporting flood mitigation and response decisions on a daily basis. We present a fully automated two-dimensional flood forecast methodology based on meteorological variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Variable Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS). Energy and water fluxes are calculated in 25km grid cells using macroscale hydrologic parameterizations from the UW Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. A linear routing model transports grid cell surface runoff and baseflow within each grid cell to the outlet and into the stream network. The overflow points are estimated using flow directions, flow velocities, and maximum discharge thresholds from each grid cell. Flood waves are then deconvolved from the in-channel discharge time series and propagated into adjacent cells until a storage criterion based on average grid cell elevation is met. Floodwaters are drained back into channels as a continuous process, thus simulating spatial extent, depth, and persistence on the plains as the ensemble forecast evolves with time.

Shrestha, K.; Webster, P. J.

2012-12-01

191

Cumulative sediment trapping by reservoirs in large river basins: A case study of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir sedimentation has been a serious problem for reservoir operation and watershed management worldwide, which highlights the importance of accurate estimate of the deposited sediment amount. With reservoir information derived from remote sensing dataset and observed hydrological records of water and sediment, this paper is concerned with the cumulative reservoir sediment trapping in the Yellow River basin. The river basin was divided into 12 sub-basins, upon which the reservoirs' sediment trapping efficiency (TE) and their interception effects on inflowing sediment were estimated with sediment records extracted from 179 field sampling stations. The results show that, with the sediment TE greater than 80% for all the sub-basins, theoretically the basin-wide reservoirs are able to trap most sediment. For the whole river basin, the sediment TE averages 95.2%, which indicates that the reservoirs can collectively make a significant anthropogenic signature on basin-wide sediment delivery. A basin-wide sediment yield map was generated to estimate the reservoir sedimentation amount. During 1950-1970, annually about 2.483 Gt of sediment was transported into channels from sloping lands. Taking into account the actual water storage changes and the reservoir construction history, the actual reservoir sedimentation rate was estimated at 0.59 Gt/yr after corrections, which represents 47.6% of the river basin's total sediment load reduction. Globally, reservoir sedimentation in the Yellow River basin represents about 12-15% of the global mean rate. Up to 2010, approximately 19.32 Gt of sediment has been trapped by Yellow River reservoirs, and totally about 40.32 Gt of sediment has been artificially fixed if silt check dams are also considered. With huge amounts of sediment deposited, these reservoirs have been losing their storage capacity to sedimentation at a rate of 0.6% per year. The magnitude is expected to enhance in future following new reservoir completions. Thus, more efforts are strongly needed to explore the associated responses.

Ran, Lishan; Lu, X. X.; Xin, Zhongbao; Yang, Xiankun

2013-01-01

192

Part I: Integrated water quality management: river basin approach. Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments--river basin view.  

PubMed

The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments. So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade. In the following overview, special emphasis is given to the utilization of geochemically-based techniques for sediment remediation, which can be applied in different parts of a river basin. The examples presented here are mostly from the Elbe River catchment area. In general, new technical problem solutions need a set of practical process knowledge that uses a wide range of simulation techniques, as well as models in different spatial and temporal scales. The evaluation of recent flood events clearly demonstrates the importance of chemical expertise in the decision-making process for the sustainable development in river basins. PMID:12635960

Förstner, Ulrich

2003-01-01

193

Water Quality Indicators for the La Plata River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected water quality data from La Plata River Basin, shared by 5 South American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), were employed to evaluate advantages and constraints for global water quality indicators development. Water quality state indicators from the UNSD\\/UNEP Questionnaire (2004) were considered at 5 sampling stations located on the Paraná (3), Pilcomayo and La Plata Rivers. Water

Oscar E. Natale

2005-01-01

194

Cooperation and conflict in the Mekong river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the peace following the Indochina Wars, multiple project concepts have been advanced for the economic development of the Mekong River Basin. There are currently six overlapping and uncoordinated frameworks in which project planning is being carried out. The different agendas reflect the different political and economic interests of the riparian states. Three frameworks are particularly important. The Mekong River

Donald E. Weatherbee

1997-01-01

195

Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present major and trace element data on the suspended and dissolved phases of the Amazon River and its main tributaries. The Sr isotopic composition of the dissolved load is also reported. Special attention is paid to the abundances of REE and to their fractionation between the dissolved and suspended phase. The rivers of the Amazon Basin are among the

Jérôme Gaillardet; Bernard Dupre; Claude J. Allegre; Philippe Négrel

1997-01-01

196

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater

Robert H. Meade; José M. Rayol; Sylvio C. Da Conceicão; José R. G. Natividade

1991-01-01

197

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 ± 1 Bq l–1, which is consistent with the data of 1998–99. However, it has been found that there are surface

A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

2003-01-01

198

Hydrological investigations of mercury transport in the Katun` River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of hydrological field investigations in the Katun` River Basin are outlined. Particular attention has been given to the sediment runoff formation and transport of suspended matter in the channels of the main river and its tributaries within a reach of the intended reservoir construction. The results of investigations provided the basis for prognostic assessment of the mercury transport.

V. M. Savkin; Sh. R. Pozdnyakov

1995-01-01

199

Management of shared river basins: the case of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction: the Zambezi River Basin and its hydrology The Zambezi River, lying wholly within the SADC, is the largest watercourse system in the region. Its catchment area is some 1,300,000 square kilometres, occupying the territories of Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Out of these riparian states, Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi have the largest

Zambezi River; Osborne N. Shela

2000-01-01

200

Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

2013-04-01

201

Streamflow and sediment transport in the Quillayute River basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1976 to September 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey made a reconnaissance evaluation of the fluvial-sediment transport and documented the natural streamflow characteristics in the Quillayute River basin in northwestern Washington. Most of the flow originates from the tributaries, the Soleduck, Bogachiel, and Calawah Rivers. Flow in the summer months from the Calawah River is about half that from either the Bogachiel or Soleduck Rivers. In the winter months flow from the Soleduck River is about 1 1/2 times that of the Bogachiel or Calawah Rivers. In general, the highest monthly flows during the winter are about 10 times greater than the lowest monthly flows during the summer except for the Dickey River where winter flows are about 20 times greater. Annual mean discharges may vary greatly from year to year, ranging from about 1/2 to 1 1/2 times the mean annual discharge. For the study period, the observed suspended-sediment concentration ranged from less than 1 to 2 ,150 milligrams per liter. The estimated mean annual suspended-sediment discharges were: Bogachiel River--400,000 tons (includes Calawah River); Calawah River--120,000 tons; Soleduck River--120,000 tons; Dickey River--75,000 tons; and other tributaries--10,000 tons, for a total of 606,000 tons transported annually by the Quillayute River. The estimated annual bedload of 21,000 tons was transported into the Quillayute River by the Soleduck, Bogachiel, and Dickey Rivers. (USGS)

Nelson, L. M.

1982-01-01

202

Water loss in the Potomac River basin during droughts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water loss phenomena in the Washington DC metropoliton area's (WMA) Potomac River water supply basin during droughts was analyzed. Gage errors, permitted withdrawals, evaporation, and transpiration by trees along the river were investigated to account for loss. The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) calculated potential gage error and examined permits to determine permitted levels of consumption withdrawals from the Potomac. The result of a single slug test indicated that the soil transmissivity may not be adequate to allow passage of enough water to account for all of the calculated water loss.

Hagen, E. R.; Kiang, J. E.; Dillow, J. J. A.

2004-01-01

203

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Deerfield and Millers River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in Franklin and northwestern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 16 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Millers and Deerfield Rivers, or 20 square miles along the Connecticut River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

204

Dissolved uranium isotopes in rivers of the Yukon Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium isotopic activity ratios (UARs) of river waters of the Yukon River drainage basin have been measured as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Yukon River Basin Project to examine chemical and isotopic changes in an Arctic watershed responding to global climate change. Results over five yearly sampling seasons show that the Porcupine River, which drains areas of extensive, continuous permafrost terrain, has UAR values consistently higher than those of other major rivers within the basin that drain areas less dominated by permafrost. Additionally, the annual variation in UAR values of the Porcupine River is much greater than for any of the other major rivers. The highest UAR values (up to 2.6) were recorded during the coldest months when all water from the base of the permafrost to the surface is presumably frozen and, therefore, represents base flow reaching the river from beneath the permafrost. Later in each season the UAR of the water in the Porcupine River decreases to values as low as 1.6, perhaps reflecting melting of snow, ice and permafrost. During the five-year sampling period, the range of yearly UAR values increased considerably in the Porcupine River. From June to September 2001, the UAR values ranged between 2.1 and 1.9, whereas from May to August 2005, they ranged from 2.2 to 1.6. The Yukon River shows less variation in UAR values over time than does the Porcupine, but at all three sampling stations (Eagle, Stevens Village, and Pilot Station) some variation was observed. Eagle shows a slight decrease in UAR values from 2001 to 2005, whereas those of Stevens Village and Pilot Station (both below the confluence of the Porcupine River) show a more complicated pattern that included decreases in the last two years (2004 and 2005). The Tanana River shows a possible decrease in UAR values over five years of observation, but the effect is the least pronounced of all the rivers.

Kraemer, T. F.

2006-12-01

205

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked

D. J. Rittersbacher; D. M. Wheeler; J. C. Horne

1986-01-01

206

Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

2006-12-01

207

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson, E. P.; Pringle, C. M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

208

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

209

Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

2014-05-01

210

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R. H.; Rayol, J. M.; Da, Conceicao, S. C.; Natividade, J. R. G.

1991-01-01

211

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Purús rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2 3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300 400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River.

Meade, Robert H.; Rayol, José M.; da Conceicão, Sylvio C.; Natividade, José R. G.

1991-09-01

212

The Geography of Conflict in International River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most transboundary surface water sharing problems, allocation outcomes are not primarily determined by economic considerations but by the distribution of political and bargaining power. For this reason, we present a hydro--political model to formalize the notion that upstream countries are using water to gain more power whereas downstream countries use power to gain more water. The model incorporates hydrological, political and economic asymmetries between basin stakeholders. We show that equilibrium outcomes are biased towards the more powerful riparian coalition and that absolute upstream or downstream basin dominance emerge as limiting case of the general model. In contrast to obvious situations with a dominating riparian country as for the case of the Nile or Euphrates/Tigris rivers, the model is illustrated in an ambiguous hydro--political environment with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin. The model quantifies negative basin welfare outcomes in function of particular upstream/downstream configurations.

Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.

2010-12-01

213

Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

2014-05-01

214

Assessing agriculture–water links at the basin scale: hydrologic and economic models of the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a basin-wide hydrologic model to assess the hydrologic and economic effects of expanding agriculture in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. It then uses a basin-wide economic model of agriculture to examine the effects of implementing water use regulations. Preliminary results suggest that substantially expanding agriculture would put pressure on some of the river's environmental flows. Agricultural

Marco Maneta; Marcelo Torres; Stephen A. Vosti; Wesley W. Wallender; Summer Allen; Luís H. Bassoi; Lisa Bennett; Richard Howitt; Lineu Rodrigues; Julie Young

2009-01-01

215

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using:

Brian J. O. L. McPherson; D. S. Chapman

1996-01-01

216

Impact of GRACE signal leakage over the Congo River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size, and second only to the Amazon River in discharge. The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the region's climate, biogeochemical cycling, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), especially in wetlands, is clearly of great importance. Yet, there is a great lack of published research documenting the Congo Basin terrestrial water balance. This lack of research is related in part to the limited amount of in-situ data; however, the abundance of spaceborne data suggests an opportunity for discovery. The Congo River is the only major river to cross the equator twice. In doing so, the basin lies in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere such that it receives year-round rainfall from the migration of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). After the north has its wet season in the spring and summer, the ITCZ moves south and the remainder of the basin receives large amounts of rain. Consequently, the movement of ITCZ can also be observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) TWS changes over the northern and southern boundaries over the Congo. This spatial pattern of the TWS variations are different from that over the Amazon Basin, where the strongest positive or negative annual water storage anomalies are observed to be centered inside the basin. In this study, we examine individual monthly geographical distribution of GRACE TWS changes from various RL05 products, and determine the leakage-contaminated monthly solutions by comparison with reproduced TWS variations from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in sub-basin scale. We also present a methodology to empirically remove the signal leakage, and consequently improve the GRACE TWS estimates over the entire Congo Basin.

Lee, H.; Beighley, R. E.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Andreadis, K.

2013-05-01

217

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

PubMed

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

2008-01-01

218

Executive Summary and Recommendations: The African Experience with River Basin Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The executive summary reviews and summarizes the record with river basin development in tropical Africa; examines the role of institutions in African river basin development; and proposes environmentally sound strategies for development for the rest of th...

T. Scudder

1988-01-01

219

75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. In consultation with the State, the Yakama...of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River basin....

2010-03-11

220

Capturing the nature of cooperation, unstable cooperation and conflict over international rivers: the story of the Indus, Yarmouk, Euphrates and Tigris rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the existing definitions of conflict and cooperation over international rivers and introduces new definitions to remedy some of the shortcomings. Conflict tends to be defined as militarised confrontation, firing guns, political flare-ups or deterioration in relations. This range of violence is too wide. To remedy this weakness, it is necessary to incorporate the category of unstable cooperation

Neda A. Zawahri

2008-01-01

221

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

222

Powder River basin, Wyoming: structural development, hydrocarbon migration, and accumulation  

SciTech Connect

The geographical location of oil accumulations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, is closely related to present basement structure. About 70% of the basin's cumulative oil production has been obtained from only 12 fields or 23% of the total fields. Each major oil field lies in an area of a pronounced positive Bouguer gravity anomaly and in the path of preferred regional hydrocarbon migration. Powder River basin Bouguer gravity anomalies most likely are caused by a combination of present basement structure and density changes in post-Paleozoic sediments; the latter are the result of synsedimentary basement structure and/or related topographic features influencing post-Paleozoic sediments. Stratigraphic and structural traps occur in close interrelationships across the basin. Published geochemical data in connection with available regional subsurface data permit mapping the preferred migration paths for oil and gas across the basin. Future discoveries of major hydrocarbon fields will be made in these hydrocarbon migration paths and areas in and around regional positive Bouguer gravity anomalies. Powder River oil field distribution follows general rules known from practically all producing basins but rarely used for lack of sufficient integration of geological and geophysical data. Gas field distribution is expected to be similar to oil field distribution.

Pratsch, J.C.

1985-02-01

223

Water quality of streams and springs, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data concerning salinity, phosphorus, and trace elements in streams and springs within the Green River Basin in Wyoming are summarized. Relative contributions of salinity are shown through estimates of annual loads and average concentrations at 11 water quality measurements sites for the 1970-77 water years. A hypothetical diversion of 20 cu ft/sec from the Big Sandy River was found to lower dissolved solids concentration in the Green River at Green River, Wyoming. This effect was greatest during the winter months, lowering dissolved solids concentration as much as 13%. Decrease in dissolved solids concentrations during the remainder of the year was generally less than 2%. Unlike the dilution effect that overland runoff has on perennial streams, runoff in ephemeral and intermittent streams within the basin was found to be enriched by the flushing of salts from normally dry channels and basin surfaces. Relative concentrations of sodium and sulfate in streams within the basin appear to be controlled by solubility. A downstream trend of increasing relative concentrations of sodium, sulfate, or both with increasing dissolved solids concentration was evident in all streams sampled. Estimates of total phosphorus concentration at water quality measurement sites indicate that phosphorus is removed from the Green River water as it passes through Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs. Total phosphorus concentration at some stream sites is directly or inversely related to streamflow, but at most sites a simple relation between concentration and streamflow is not discernable. (USGS)

DeLong, L. L.

1986-01-01

224

Large Scale Hydrological Modeling of Upper Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work involves simulation of river discharge\\/stream-flow for Upper Mississippi River Basin using Variable Infiltration Capacity - Three-Layer (VIC-3L) Macro-scale Hydrologic Model using hydro-meteorological forcings - precipitation, maximum and temperatures and wind data for the years 1950-1999. The model simulated streamflow results under water balance mode at daily time-step were comparable (regression coefficients of around 0.90) with measured USGS stream-gage

R. Srinivasan; V. Lakshmi

2001-01-01

225

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RETIREMENT IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of agricultural land retirement on nutrient concentrations and biological conditions of three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during 2005-2007. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from 52,500 to 96,031 acres, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings, but differ with respect to

Victoria G. Christensen; Kathy E. Lee

226

Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments-river basin view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments.\\u000a So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that\\u000a not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade.\\u000a \\u000a In the following overview, special emphasis

Ulrich Förstner

2003-01-01

227

Nitrogen Removal by Streams and Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

Our study, based on chemistry and channel dimensions data collected at 893 randomly-selected stream and river sites in the Mississippi River basin, demonstrated the interaction of stream chemistry, stream size, and NO3-N uptake metrics across a range of stream sizes and across re...

228

Advection and evolution of river basins in mountain ranges.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluvial networks determine to a large extent the structure and geometry of erosive landscapes in mountain ranges. As a consequence it is fundamental to understand how they develop in order to reconstruct and predict landscape evolution in orogens. A particularly important problem with relevance for our future ability of "inverting" landscapes is the degree to which fluvial networks and basin boundaries evolve and change with time. The key question is: are river valleys and basins largely static in the landscape or are they rather dynamic, changing and reorganizing frequently during orogen evolution? A "dynamic" view has long found support in a variety of observations (wind gaps, hanging valleys, inferred changes of sources of clastics) interpreted as evidences of river captures and drainage network changes, and has been reproduced in certain analogue and numerical models. It also seems intuitively reasonable when considered in parallel with the high magnitude and frequency of cenozoic climatic changes combined with the very high rates of vertical and horizontal movements of rocks in active orogens which suggest that landscapes may have changed congruently. However, support for a "static" view has also long existed based on the ubiquitous observation of antecedent rivers and drainage systems cutting through lithological and geological structures (folds and faults), extending behind the main drainage divide in large mountain ranges, or the preservation of superficial cover rocks adjacent to valleys deeply incised into the basement. Spectacular plane deformation of large river basins in the East Himalayan syntaxis also illustrates the possible difficulty encountered by river systems to reorganize (Hallet and Molnar 2001). In the debate over the mechanisms responsible for the consistent width-to-length aspect of the main transverse river basins observed in linear mountain belts of different ages, width and tectonic and climatic regimes (Hovius, 1996), Castelltort and Simpson (2006) have proposed a mechanism which involves (1) the idea that river networks in the lowland plains are incorporated in the orogen as it widens, and (2) that they do not change after their incorporation, thus "importing" a geometry acquired outside of the range independently of the tectonic and climatic influences acting inside the uplifting zone. This mechanisms implies rather a "static" view of river networks which serves as an alternative to models in which river networks continuously reorganize inside uplifting topography in such a way as to maintain a statistical geometry dictated solely by geomorphic processes. In the present work our approach to this problem is to measure and compare the form of river basins in the lowlands and in the uplands of the Himalayas, New-Zealand, Taiwan, the European Alps, the Pyrenees and the Apennines. We first present the method we employ to measure the shape of river basins and the data used. Second, we analyse and discuss our results which show a correlation between the shape of networks developed in the pro-lowlands of active orogens and their upland counterparts whereas such a correlation does not exist on the retro-side of the considered orogens. Our results thus support (1) the horizontal advection of river basins from the pro-lowlands to the pro-uplands, (2) a certain amount of reorganization by widening of basin boundaries, and (3) the existence of a different mechanism of drainage network evolution in the retro-side of the orogens. Castelltort, S., and Simpson, G., 2006, Basin Research, 18: 267-276. Hallet, B. and Molnar, P., 2001. J. Geophys. Res, 106: 13697-13709. Hovius, N., 1996, Basin Research, 8: 29-44.

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Willett, S.

2009-04-01

229

An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual framework for assessing possible geomorphic and ecological changes in response to river-flow modifications. Suggestions for future biomonitoring and investigations are also provided. This study was one in a series of similar tributary streamflow and geomorphic studies conducted for the Willamette Sustainable Rivers Project. The Sustainable Rivers Project is a national effort by the USACE and The Nature Conservancy to develop environmental flow requirements in regulated river systems.

Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

2012-01-01

230

The 2002 Water Law: its impacts on river basin management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern river basin management techniques are gaining popularity in China to effectively manage increasingly vulnerable water resources. China has several large river basins, with a variety of resource conditions and development challenges. River basins in China are facing aggravated water pollution, and development and management issues. In dealing with these issues, and in line with the evolution of modern concepts

Dajun Shen

231

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

...2014-04-01 false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413...706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the...

2014-04-01

232

Quantifying the Contribution of Ravines to Sediment Loads in the Minnesota River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota River Basin (MRB) generates a disproportionately high amount of total suspended sediments to the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Many reaches in the Minnesota River Basin have impaired water quality due to turbidity. The primary sources of sediment in the MRB include upland erosion from agricultural land, stream bluff slumping, stream bank erosion, and down cutting of ravines. Using

Z. Kunesova; G. Kramer; B. J. Hansen; C. Lenhart; S. Wing; D. Mulla; J. L. Nieber

2008-01-01

233

Effects of livestock wastes on small illinois streams: Lower Kaskaskia river basin and upper little wabash river basins, summer 1991  

SciTech Connect

In early 1991, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) initiated an investigation to evaluate livestock waste runoff in southern Illinois. The primary objectives of this survey were to document stream quality impairments caused by livestock waste runoff, and ultimately, the need for better waste management practices, waste management systems, and funding for such systems. Information provided by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and IEPA Agricultural staff identified an area in Clinton and Bond Counties in the Kaskaskia River basin and several upper Little Wabash River basin tributaries in Effingham and Cumberland Counties as candidate project areas.

Hite, R.L.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.; Brockamp, D.W.

1992-07-01

234

THE UNSTRUT REGION - AN IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL REGION IN THE ELBE-RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Unstrut River Basin is a part of the Elbe River Basin which is strongly character- ized by agriculture. The soils of the floodplains in the Unstrut Basin are very fertile. Therefor, the area of the Thuringian Basin (Thüringer Becken) is one of the most in- tensively agriculturally used regions in Germany. The intensification of the agriculture is linked

B. Klöcking; U. Maier; S. Knoblauch; B. Pfützner

235

Factors impacting yields in rain-fed paddies of the lower Mekong River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mekong River Basin (MRB) is the biggest basin in Monsoon Asia. About 80% of the agricultural lands, which occupy about 40% of the basin are rain-fed paddy rice area. Therefore, it is assumed that changes in rain-fed paddy rice production affect the total agricultural production to a great degree in the Mekong River Basin. While there are many factors

Katsuyuki Shimizu; Takao Masumoto; Thanh Hai Pham

2006-01-01

236

Monitoring the Water Quality of the Nation's Large Rivers: Columbia River Basin NASQAN Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) Program began monitoring the water quality of the Columbia River Basin, applying a basinwide approach in order to understand water quality on a regional scale. A primary objective of the Columbia NASQAN Program is to provide an ongoing characterization of the concentrations and mass flux (amount of material or load passing a location per unit time, generally expressed as tons per day) of sediment and chemicals at key locations in the basin. These data can then be used to determine regional source areas for these materials, and to assess the effect of human influences on observed concentrations and constituent loads. NASQAN complements the ongoing USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which is performing a detailed assessment in three subbasins of the Columbia River Basin. NASQAN monitors the larger rivers in the basin, downstream of NAWQA study units.

Kelly, Valerie J.; Hooper, Richard P.

1998-01-01

237

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins. Topical report, January 1991July 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins was evaluated in the context of geologic and hydrologic characteristics identified in the San Juan Basin, the nation's leading coalbed methane producing basin. The major comparative criteria were (1) coalbed methane resources, (2) geologic and hydrologic factors that predict areas of high gas producibility and high

R. Tyler; W. A. Ambrose; A. R. Scott; W. R. Kaiser

1991-01-01

238

Predicting local fish species richness in the garonne river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to predict local fish species richness in the Garonne river basin using three environmental variables (distance from the source, elevation and catchment area J. Commonly, patterns of fish species richness have been investigated using simple or multi-linear statistical models. Here, we used backpropagation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to develop stochastic models of local

Sylvain Mastrorillo; Francis Dauba; Thierry Oberdorff; Jean-Francois Guégan; Sovan Lek

1998-01-01

239

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP),

Sergio Eduardo Sarmiento

2010-01-01

240

Water Resources of the Myakka River Basin Area, Southwest Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground water in the Myakka River basin area is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gal/min and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/l e...

B. F. Joyner H. Sutcliffe

1976-01-01

241

The Delaware River basin LANDSAT-data collection system experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

242

Critique of Role of Time Allocation in River Basin Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This critique presents a review of the theory of time use in consumer behavior and applies this review to an evaluation of time and location assignment procedures for population units in the Social Sector of the River Basin Model. Time allocations in this...

P. G. Hammer

1973-01-01

243

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

244

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

245

Environmental fate of Triclosan in the River Aire Basin, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations and removal rate of Triclosan, an antibacterial ingredient in consumer products, were measured at advanced trickling filter (TF) and activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the River Aire basin in the UK in September 2000. Additionally, the in-stream removal of Triclosan was measured directly in Mag Brook, the stream receiving the treated effluent from the TF

Darius Sabaliunas; Simon F. Webb; Armin Hauk; Martin Jacob; William S. Eckhoff

2003-01-01

246

AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

247

Historical Sagebrush Establishment Practices in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River Basin of Wyoming is a semi-arid area dominated by sagebrush grassland vegetation communities. This region includes 15 surface coal mines. Reclamation of mined lands requires re-establishment of native species to meet the post mine land use. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) serves as the regulatory authority for the State's surface coal mines. Wyoming statutes require

Laurel E. Vicklund

248

Mercury in the Tapajós River basin, Brazilian Amazon: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review about mercury contamination and human exposure in the Tapajós River basin (Brazil), one of the major tributaries of the Amazon impacted by traditional gold mining from the mid 1980s. The most recent review in this region was published more than ten years ago and since then many articles about environment and especially human populations have

J. J. Berzas Nevado; R. C. Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios; F. J. Guzmán Bernardo; M. Jiménez Moreno; A. M. Herculano; J. L. M. do Nascimento; M. E. Crespo-López

2010-01-01

249

Overcoming anti-hydro policies in the Ohio River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the need to develop a national energy policy, with hydroelectric power playing a greater role. As an example of the consequences of a lack of a cohesive policy, the authors use the regulatory battles taking place over the development of hydroelectric power in the Ohio River Basin. Sixteen potential plants could provide 1,560 gigawatts of power

P. C. Kissel; A. I. Robbins

1991-01-01

250

Intensive Survey of the DuPage River Basin, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cooperative survey of the aquatic resources of the DuPage River basin was conducted in 1983. Fish, macroinvertebrate, water, sediment, and habitat data were collected as part of the survey. Twenty-one stations were established within the West Branch of ...

1988-01-01

251

Community Development in the Colorado River Basin, Future Choices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some options and criteria of measurement available to Colorado River Basin communities for future development are described. The highly varied urban and rural centers of the Southwest are examined on the basis of data much of which was furnished by the co...

D. E. Mann

1974-01-01

252

Synoptic controls on upper Colorado River basin snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic controls of the Colorado River basin snowfall are determined from 700 mb atmospheric circulation. The 700 mb time series is run through an S-mode Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which creates a synoptic index over the western US region This synoptic index is used as input to a feed-forward backpropagation neural network to develop transfer functions that simulate daily snowfall

David L. McGinnis

2000-01-01

253

FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

254

Water, agriculture and poverty in the Niger River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livelihoods in the Niger River basin rely mainly on rainfed agriculture, except in the dry extreme north. Low yields and water productivity result from low inputs, short growing seasons, dry spells, and excessive water. The overlap of traditional and modern rules impedes secure access to water and investments in agriculture by generating uncertain land tenure. Improved agriculture and water management

Andrew Ogilvie; Gil Mahé; John Ward; Georges Serpantié; Jacques Lemoalle; Pierre Morand; Bruno Barbier; Amadou Tamsir Diop; Armelle Caron; Regassa Namarra; David Kaczan; Anna Lukasiewicz; Jean-Emmanuel Paturel; Gaston Liénou; Jean Charles Clanet

2010-01-01

255

Resource demands for energy development in the Yellowstone River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a mathematical model for forecasting energy development in the Yellowstone study area for the years 1985 and 2000, and determining the associated economic demands for water, land, labor, capital, and mineral resources. The study was prepared for use by the Missouri River Basin Commission in conducting a comprehensive, ''Level B'' planning study of

Jerry W. Knapp; F. Larry Leistritz

1978-01-01

256

Digital Atlas of the Upper Washita River Basin, Southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.

2008-01-01

257

Geochemistry of the Little Lost River Drainage Basin, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the Snake River Plain aqu...

2002-01-01

258

WATERSHED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS BALANCE: THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrogen and phosphorus mass balances were estimated for the portion of the Potomac River basin watershed located above Washington, D.C. he total nitrogen (N) balance included seven input source terms, six sinks, and one "change-in-storage" term, but was simplified to five input ...

259

Flood peaks and discharge summaries in the Delaware River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains streamflow data from 299 continuous and partial-record gaging stations in the Delaware River basin. The location, drainage area, period of record, type of gage, and average flow (discharge) is given for each continuous station. Also included, are annual flood peak discharges and discharges above a selected base, annual and monthly mean discharges, and annual and monthly runoff. (USGS)

Vickers, A. A.; Farsett, Harry A.; Green, J. Wayne

1981-01-01

260

SEASONAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR FLOODPLAINS IN THE DELAWARE RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overland pollutant transport via surface runoff and flooding is a primary concern in the manage- ment of agricultural land resources in the Delaware River Basin. The Catskills is home to multiple water reservoirs that supply the drinking water for New York City. Contamination of this water by pollutants emanating from agricultural sources located in floodplain areas necessitates risk quantification for

Kirk Weiler; M. Todd Walter; Michael F. Walter; Erin S. Brooks; Chris A. Scott

2009-01-01

261

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

262

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: SOCIAL VALUES AND ENERGY POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives of the analysis are to identify American social values and to examine their relationship to ...

263

Summary of Seepage Investigations in the Yakima River Basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Yakama Nation for seepage investigations in the Yakima River basin are made available as downloadable Microsoft Excel files. These data were collected for more than a century at various times for several different studies and are now available in one location to facilitate future analysis by interested parties.

Magirl, C. S.; Julich, R. J.; Welch, W. B.; Curran, C. R.; Mastin, M. C.; Vaccaro, J. J.

2009-01-01

264

Boreal forest anomalies in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forests are being impacted by climate change though productivity declines (browning), increased fire extents, frequencies, and intensities, more abundant insects, a thickening active layer, and projected increases in deciduous forest components. Quantification of the regional boreal forest impacts in the Yukon River Basin was achieved though remote sensing and productivity modeling which separated weather and non-weather interannual variations in

B. K. Wylie; J. A. Rover; K. Murnahan; J. Long; L. L. Tieszen; B. Brisco

2010-01-01

265

Work plan for the Sangamon River basin, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the Illinois Department of Transportation and other State agencies, recognizes the need for basin-type assessments in Illinois. This report describes a plan of study for a water-resource assessment of the Sangamon River basin in central Illinois. The purpose of the study would be to provide information to basin planners and regulators on the quantity, quality, and use of water to guide management decisions regarding basin development. Water quality and quantity problems in the Sangamon River basin are associated primarily with agricultural and urban activities, which have contributed high concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter to the streams. The impact has resulted in eutrophic lakes, diminished capacity of lakes to store water, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and turbid stream and lake waters. The four elements of the plan of study include: (1) determining suspended sediment and nutrient transport, (2) determining the distribution of selected inorganic and organic residues in streambed sediments, (3) determining the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Sangamon River, and (4) applying a hydraulic model to high streamflows. (USGS)

Stamer, J. K.; Mades, Dean M.

1983-01-01

266

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for stratigraphic entrapment. The focus of this paper is on hydrodynamics as an additional control on the localization of hydrocarbons. Specifically, areas of low potential energy with respect to oil and gas can be mapped as a function of the potentiometric surface, fluid density, and aquifer configuration. This study in the Powder River basin defined an area of minimum potential energy with respect to hydrocarbons. Synhydrodynamic and posthydrodynamic hydrocarbon migration syn/post hydrodynamics will result in the majority of hydrocarbons moving toward the area of minimum potential energy. The area encompasses the majority of Minnelusa hydrocarbons discovered to date.

Maloney, W.V.

1987-08-01

267

Hydrology and water resources of the Charles River basin, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Charles River basin encompasses about 300 square miles of gently rolling to hilly terrain, with altitudes ranging from 586 feet in Hopkinton to below 10 feet in Boston, Mass. The area is essentially urban, although the towns in the upper basin still retain some rural character. The population of the middle and upper parts increased 80 percent between 1950 and 1970, while the population in the lower part declined 4 percent. This atlas summarizes the water resources and associated water problems of the area. The investigation upon which the atlas is based was made from 1968 to 1971 and is part of a series covering the major river basins in Massachusetts. The study area includes 251 sq mi of drainage area above the gaging station at Waltham. (Woodard-USGS)

Walker, Eugene H.; Wandle, S. William.; Caswell, William W.

1975-01-01

268

Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

2010-12-01

269

An assessment of the VIC3L hydrological model for the Yangtze River basin based on remote sensing: a case study of the Baohe River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step in our effort to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes for the entire Yangtze River basin, a hydrologically based three-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-3L) land surface model is applied to the Baohe River basin, which has a drainage area of 2500 km2. Water fluxes of the Baohe River basin are simulated using the VIC-3L model at a spatial

Suoquan Zhou; Xu Liang; Jing Chen; Peng Gong

2004-01-01

270

Hydrological modeling of the Mun River basin in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySources of pollution in river basins are increasing due to rapid changes in land uses and excessive nutrient application to crops which lead to degraded instream water quality. In this connection, the Mun River basin, one of the important and largest river basins in Thailand, has been studied. Comparative figures of nutrients in the Mun's water over a decade showed an increased total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) ratio in the Lower Mun region (TN:TP > 14). Laboratory analysis of weekly water samples showed a realistic nutrient response when daily rainfall was compared to the seasonal water quality data collected by the Pollution Control Department (PCD). The Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was calibrated and used to assess the effects of different land uses on river water quality. Model parameters related to hydrology and sediment were calibrated and validated using relevant measurements by the Royal Irrigation Department (RID). With a reasonable and acceptable model performance (r2 = 0.62), the highest simulated runoff was observed in urban areas. The trend of agricultural land (as a percentage of total area) - total nitrogen showed a linear relationship of a good correlation (i.e. r2 = 0.85). Based on the findings, it can be concluded that this model is expected to provide vital information for developing suitable land management policies and strategies to improve river water quality.

Akter, Aysha; Babel, Mukand S.

2012-07-01

271

Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin is believed to be at least partly responsible for the large zone of oxygen-depleted water that develops in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. Historical data show that concentrations of nitrate in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries have increased by factors of 2 to more than 5 since the early 1900s. We have used the historical streamflow and concentration data in regression models to estimate the annual flux of nitrogen (N) to the Gulf of Mexico and to determine where the nitrogen originates within the Mississippi Basin. Results show that for 1980-1996 the mean annual total N flux to the Gulf of Mexico was 1568000 t/year. The flux was approximately 61% nitrate as N, 37% organic N, and 2% ammonium as N. The flux of nitrate to the Gulf has approximately tripled in the last 30 years with most of the increase occurring between 1970 and 1983. The mean annual N flux has changed little since the early 1980s, but large year-to-year variations in N flux occur because of variations in precipitation. During wet years the N flux can increase by 50% or more due to flushing of nitrate that has accumulated in the soils and unsaturated zones in the basin. The principal source areas of N are basins in southern Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio that drain agricultural land. Basins in this region yield 800 to more than 3100 kg total N/km2 per year to streams, several times the N yield of basins outside this region. Assuming conservative transport of N in the Mississippi River, streams draining Iowa and Illinois contribute on average approximately 35% of the total N discharged by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. In years with high precipitation they can contribute a larger percentage. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Goolsby, D. A.; Battaglin, W. A.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Hooper, R. P.

2000-01-01

272

Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin Water Supply & Demand Study (Study), part of the Basin Study Program under the Department of the Interior's WaterSMART Program, is being conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States. The purpose of the Study is to assess future water supply and demand imbalances in the Colorado River Basin over the next 50 years and develop and evaluate options and strategies to resolve those imbalances. The Study is being conducted over the period from January 2010 to September 2012 and contains four major phases: Water Supply Assessment, Water Demand Assessment, System Reliability Analysis, and Development and Evaluation of Opportunities for balancing supply and demand. To address the considerable amount of uncertainty in projecting the future state of the Colorado River system, the Study has adopted a scenario planning approach that has resulted in four water supply scenarios and up to six water demand scenarios. The water supply scenarios consider hydrologic futures derived from the observed historical and paleo-reconstructed records as well as downscaled global climate model (GCM) projections. The water demand scenarios contain differing projections of parameters such as population growth, water use efficiency, irrigated acreage, and water use for energy that result in varying projections of future demand. Demand for outdoor municipal uses as well as agricultural uses were adjusted based on changing rates of evapotranspiration derived from downscaled GCM projections. Water supply and demand scenarios are combined through Reclamation's long-term planning model to project the effects of future supply and demand imbalances on Colorado River Basin resources. These projections lend to an assessment of the effectiveness of a broad range of options and strategies to address future imbalances.

Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.

2012-12-01

273

Landscapes, soils, and mound histories of the Upper Indus Valley, Pakistan: new insights on the Holocene environments near ancient Harappa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site of Harappa in central Pakistan has been the primary source of information on Indus Valley cultural and natural landscapes in the Upper Indus Basin. While the site has been excavated for over 100 years, little was known of the pre-occupation history and environments responsible for the culture's emergence in the third millennium BC. Recent geoarcheological investigations of sites

Joseph Schuldenrein; Rita P. Wright; M. Rafique Mughal; M. Afzal Khan

2004-01-01

274

Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

2013-02-01

275

Modification of climate-river flow associations by basin properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGiven heightened concerns about climate and human impacts upon hydrology, there is a need to quantify temporal and spatial variability in water availability, and to establish climate-flow associations to predict future water stress. In the UK, most previous climate-river flow research: (1) used single sites or a network of basins with restricted geographical coverage and/or sparse density; (2) included river flow records impacted by anthropogenic influences; (3) generally recognised the importance of basin properties but did not advance beyond broad basin characterisation. This paper addresses these research gaps and aims to improve understanding of seasonal hydroclimatological associations across the UK by: (1) characterising spatial patterns in winter, spring, summer and autumn flows; (2) identifying regions for which atmospheric circulation (AC) and regional climate (RC) drivers exert strongest control on seasonal flows; and (3) identifying basin properties that have a significant influence on seasonal flows. 104 gauged basins covering mainland Great Britain and having near-natural flow records were used to derive four seasonal flow indices for 1975-2005. For each calendar season, cluster analysis was performed on these indices to group hydrologically similar basins. For each resultant class, climate-flow associations were assessed as well as the identification of influential basin physical properties. RC variables were found to have stronger association with seasonal flows than AC with the best RC predictors varying with season. Only winter and summer showed significant AC-flow correlations. Composition of seasonal flow classes reflected not only climatic input but also the physical nature of the basins. A given basin property may have influence for one season, but not for another; and many properties have only limited influence on modifying climate inputs. For both winter and summer seasons, it may be concluded generally that the higher elevation and more impermeable a basin, the stronger the RC-flow association. For AC-flow associations, regions of significant winter correlations match regions of stronger RC-flow association; summer correlations show an eastern shift. This paper illustrates the important (but variable) role of basin properties in modifying climate signals in river flow and the need to consider both sets of controls in evaluating hydrological sensitivity to climate change.

Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Hannah, David M.

2010-07-01

276

Policy, politics, and water management in the Guadalquivir River Basin, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among countries with river basin organizations to manage their water resources, Spain's experience is one of the longest. One of the first basin agencies established in Spain was for the Guadalquivir River in the south. A case study of that river basin and its management indicates how basin management is shaped by political economy factors such as the historical path of the agency's evolution, the basin agency's relationships with central government and with regional or local governments, the patterns of water user representation within the agency, and developments in water law and policy external to the basin agency. The case raises questions about whether and how integrated water resources management at the river basin scale is implemented, even in locations where basin agencies already exist. It also suggests that the politics of management at the river basin level will affect the implementation of national water policies intended to promote integrated management.

Bhat, Anjali; Blomquist, William

2004-08-01

277

Characterization of river basins with irrigation diversions using regionalization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Western United States, natural flow regime can be heavily altered by river diversions for irrigation and municipal and industrial water use. The situation is even more complex when the water availability is limited and subject to seasonal variations. River basins with large river diversions need to be characterized differently from watersheds with natural flow only to identify human impacts. This study discusses characterization of the Sevier River Basin, Utah to identify the natural flow regime and the corresponding water availability. A combination of the simplified SNOW17 model for snowmelt and a simplified tank model is developed to predict the hydrologic regime. A parameterized river diversion model from recorded canal flow is used estimate the stream flow alteration in terms of water volume. Optimized parameter sets of the simplified SNOW 17 and the tank model in the gauged watersheds are transferred to ungauged watersheds using the spatial proximity and the physical similarity regionalization methods. The total annual diversion is regionalized by regression using the agricultural area. Using optimized and regionalized parameters, natural stream flow and river diversion for each watershed are generated, and characterized by comparing to physical properties and volumes of natural discharge and diversion between each other. A combination of hydrologic model and parameterized diversion can be a useful tool for forecasting water availability and evaluating human impacts on natural flow regime in the watersheds.

Kim, D.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

2012-12-01

278

Climate of Indus Delta and Its Ongoing Variability Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since last century, one of the upcoming challenges over the globe is the climate change due to external and/or internal forcing systems. Human intervention in Nature is one of them. As the past and present fluvial, deltaic and coastal dynamics are controlled by the large scale hydrological variability particularly due to human intervention, like the case of Indus River System; as such the onset of significant climate change in the area is expected. The results of present study show that the trends of 44-years' annual average temperatures, precipitations and humidity are distinctly changing from 1961 to 2004 and expectedly onward in and around the Indus delta region. The average annual temperature is rising and inverse proportionally the precipitation and humidity are decreasing causing substantial deterioration of the rainfall scenario in and around the Indus delta. It is inferred that the present climate changing trend is further augmenting the adverse impact caused by the critical depletion of the Indus environmental-flow in the Indus delta region.

Mahar, G. A.; Zaigham, N. A.

2011-12-01

279

Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.  

PubMed

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management. PMID:17912585

Hearne, Robert R

2007-12-01

280

Evolving Water Management Institutions in the Red River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve—with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity—new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota’s water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota’s water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management.

Hearne, Robert R.

2007-12-01

281

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

282

Martins Fork Lake, Cumberland River Basin, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dam for Martins Fork Project would be located at mile 15.6 on Martins Fork, a tributary to Clover Fork which, with Poor Fork, forms the beginning of the Cumberland River just below the town of Harlan, Kentucky. The project includes the construction of...

1971-01-01

283

Paleofloods in the Red River Basin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

284

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

285

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

2003-01-01

286

Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

2014-05-01

287

River enhancement in the Upper Mississippi River basin: Approaches based on river uses, alterations, and management agencies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Mississippi River is characterized by a series of locks and dams, shallow impoundments, and thousands of river channelization structures that facilitate commercial navigation between Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Cairo, Illinois. Agriculture and urban development over the past 200 years have degraded water quality and increased the rate of sediment and nutrient delivery to surface waters. River enhancement has become an important management tool employed to address causes and effects of surface water degradation and river modification in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We report information on individual river enhancement projects and contrast project densities, goals, activities, monitoring, and cost between commercially non-navigated and navigated rivers (Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers, respectively). The total number of river enhancement projects collected during this effort was 62,108. Cost of all projects reporting spending between 1972 and 2006 was about US$1.6 billion. Water quality management was the most cited project goal within the basin. Other important goals in Navigated Rivers included in-stream habitat improvement and flow modification. Most projects collected for Non-navigated Rivers and their watersheds originated from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the USDA were important sources for projects in Navigated Rivers. Collaborative efforts between agencies that implement projects in Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers may be needed to more effectively address river impairment. However, the current state of data sources tracking river enhancement projects deters efficient and broad-scale integration. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D. L.

2007-01-01

288

River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

2012-04-01

289

Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

2009-05-01

290

Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

2010-05-01

291

Floods in the English River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An appraisal-level engineering economic cost analysis was performed for two primary types of irrigation systems in a portion of the Columbia Basin Project- a surface-water irrigation system in which water is supplied via canals and laterals, and a system in which surface water is brought to recharging wells and eventually to farms using the transmissive properties of the aquifer and pumping. At 1979 electric power rates, the artificial-recharge irrigation scheme is a viable alternative to surface-distributed irrigation systems, but as electric rates increase, its viability decreases. At three times the 1979 rate, the recharge scheme is uneconomical. (USGS)

Heinitz, A. J.; Riddle, D. E.

1981-01-01

292

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

293

Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

2006-01-01

294

Trends in Streamflow, River Ice, and Snowpack for Coastal River Basins in Maine During the 20th Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trends over the 20th Century were examined in streamflow, river ice, and snowpack for coastal river basins in Maine. Trends over time were tested in the timing and magnitude of seasonal river flows, the occurrence and duration of river ice, and changes in...

R. W. Dudley G. A. Hodgkins

2002-01-01

295

Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

Parker, R. S.; Norris, J. M.

1989-01-01

296

The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)] [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others] [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); and others

1995-11-01

297

Paleotopography and hydrocarbon accumulation: Williston, Powder River, and Denver basins  

SciTech Connect

Recent geomorphic analyses of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps in the three major basins of the northern Great Plains have disclosed a persistent system of basement paleotopographic features that trend north-northeast throughout the region. Superimposed across this system and subtly influenced by it, are the northwesterly trending Laramide structural features. Paleozoic depositional patterns have been strongly influenced by the paleoridge and trough system formed by the north-northeast features. Mesozoic deposition has also been affected by the ancient subsurface system but in a more subtle manner. Many of the Paleozoic and Mezoxoic hydrocarbon locations in the three basins appear to be the results of paleotopographic control on hydrocarbon accumulation sites. This affect ranges from Paleozoic reef sites in the Williston basin through paleotrough localization of Pennsylvanian Minnelusa production in the Powder River basin to fractured Cretaceous Niobrara production at the Silo field in the Denver basin. Basement paleotopography is the underlying factor in all deposition and subsequent hydrocarbon migration in any basin. As such, it should be considered a major factor in the exploration for oil and gas.

Thomas, G.E. (Thomas and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

298

Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

2011-12-01

299

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

300

Flood discharges in the upper Mississippi River basin, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From mid-June through early August 1993, flooding was severe in the upper Mississippi River Basin following a wet-weather pattern that persisted over the area for at least 6 months before the flood. The magnitude and timing of several intense rainstorms in late June and July, combined with wet antecedent climatic conditions, were the principal causes of the flooding. Flood-peak discharges that equaled or exceeded the 10-year recurrence interval were recorded at 154 streamflow-gaging stations in the upper Mississippi River Basin. At 41 streamflow-gaging stations, the peak discharge was greater than the previous maximum known discharge. At 15 additional gaging stations, peak discharges exceeded the previous maximum regulated peak discharge. At 45 gaging stations, peak discharges exceeded 100-year recurrence intervals.

Parrett, Charles; Melcher, Nick B.; James, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

301

International river basin management under the EU water framework directive: an assessment of cooperation and water quality in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin.  

PubMed

We address issues connected with international river basin management and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). By creating a register of River Basin Districts established under the WFD, we show that the number and area of international River Basin Districts are significant. Further, we present an assessment of international cooperation and water quality in 14 international river basins in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin. Our results indicate that the WFD is a push forward for international river basin management in the region. However the WFD in general, and the principle of river basin management in particular, may be hard to implement in river basins shared between EU Member States and countries outside the EU. According to the study, Vistula, Pregola, and Nemunas appear to be the international basins within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin in greatest need of intensified cooperation with regard to the state of the water quality. PMID:17240763

Nilsson, Susanna; Langaas, Sindre

2006-09-01

302

Introduction to special section on River Basin Management: Economics, Management, and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on river basin management is growing with an expanding coverage of issues and basins and an increasing refinement of approaches and methods. Still, many old questions remain unresolved, while new concerns are emerging, especially on the economic, managerial, and policy dimensions of river basin management. This special section brings together a set of papers that addresses some of

R. Maria Saleth

2004-01-01

303

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

304

Evaluation of groundwater resources in wide inundation areas of the Mekong River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe floods can have disastrous impacts and cause wide ranging destruction in the Mekong River basin. At the same time groundwater resources are significantly influenced and extensively recharged by flood water in inundation areas of the basin. This study determines the variation of groundwater resources caused by flooding over inundated areas located in lower part of the Mekong River basin

So Kazama; Terumichi Hagiwara; Priyantha Ranjan; Masaki Sawamoto

2007-01-01

305

Information Technology and Decision Support Tools for Stakeholder-Driven River Basin Salinity Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element

Nigel W. T. Quinn; Daniel B. Cozad; Gene Lee

2010-01-01

306

Availability of ground water, upper Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The upper Pawcatuck River basin is a 70-square-mile area in southcentral Rhode Island consisting of broad, rolling hills and narrow valleys in the north and fiat-floored plains in the south. It is drained by the Pawcatuck River and its two major tributaries, the Usquepaug-Queen River and the Chipuxet River. Analysis of the water budget for the basin shows that approximately 94 mgd (million gallons per day) or about 63 percent of the precipitation flows out of the basin as streamflow. Of this amount, about 66 mgd is from ground-water seepage. Two ground-water reservoirs composed of glacial deposits of sand and gravel and capable of substantial yields are in the basin. The larger reservoir underlies the central part of the Usquepaug-Queen River valley. This reservoir ranges in width from 3,000 to 4,000 feet and is 32,000 feet long. A large part of the reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 100 feet thick, having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of this reservoir is estimated to be about 17 mgd. The smaller ground-water reservoir is in the Chipuxet River valley. It is about 4,000 feet wide and 16,000 feet long. A large part of this reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 150 feet thick having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of the Chipuxet reservoir is estimated to be about 8.6 mgd. Mineral content of water from both of the reservoirs is generally less than 200 parts per million of dissolved solids. However, in the Chipuxet groundwater reservoir the dissolved solids are somewhat higher, and the iron content is a problem. Only about 1.5 mgd of water is used in the basin. Most of it is used for public supplies and is obtained from wells not tapping the Usquepaug-Queen or Chipuxet ground-water reservoirs. Estimates of the 25 mgd of ground water potentially available are believed to be conservative, and substantially larger quantities may actually be available when development takes place.

Allen, William Burrows; Hahn, Glenn Walter; Brackley, Richard A.

1966-01-01

307

Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

1975-01-01

308

Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

Bingham, J. W.; Paine, F. D.; Weiss, L. A.

1980-01-01

309

Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G. E.

1981-01-01

310

Medieval Drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoclimatic records have consistently identified the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), approximately A.D. 900- 1300, as unusual for the incidence of multi-decadal drought in the western United States. Four newly developed tree-ring chronologies derived from living trees, standing dead trees and logs are examined for evidence of a MCA drought signature in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The four chronologies

D. M. Meko; C. A. Woodhouse

2007-01-01

311

Water resource management in Kabul river basin, eastern Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe drinking water shortage affects all resident of the Kabul river basin. Two and a half decades of civil war in Afghanistan\\u000a (it began in late 1978) have resulted in widespread environmental degradation and water resource development throughout the\\u000a country. The war has already finished and, therefore, water resource management for supplying water is one of the most important\\u000a tasks

G. R. Lashkaripour; S. A. Hussaini

2008-01-01

312

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Agency, Environmental P.

313

Hydrogeologic data for the Farmington River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains hydrologic and geologic data collected and compiled as part of a water resources investigation of the Farmington River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report, Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 29 (in preparation), contains the interpretation of ground-water, quality-of-water, and surfacewater data collected for the study.

Hopkins, Herbert T.; Handman, Elinor H.

1975-01-01

314

Point-nonpoint nutrient trading in the Susquehanna River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable interest in the use of pollution trading between point and nonpoint sources to improve the cost-effectiveness of water pollution control but little literature to guide the design of trading systems involving nonpoint sources. Expanding on prior theoretical work, this paper provides empirical evidence about design and performance issues for two types of trading systems that would allow nutrient trading among and between point and nonpoint sources in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania.

Horan, Richard D.; Shortle, James S.; Abler, David G.

2002-05-01

315

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Yukon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monthly water balance (WB) model was developed for the Yukon River Basin (YRB). The WB model was calibrated using mean monthly\\u000a values of precipitation and temperature derived from the Precipitation-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)\\u000a data set and by comparing estimated mean monthly runoff with runoff measured at Pilot Station, Alaska. The calibration procedure\\u000a used the Shuffled Complex

Lauren E. Hay; Gregory J. McCabe

2010-01-01

316

Carbon stocks in the Alaska Yukon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest systems in Alaska maybe vulnerable to long-term ecological changes related to climate change and shifting fire regimes. Future projections of boreal forest carbon stocks are improved with more accurate quantification of current baseline soil carbon stocks. Above ground biomass (R2 = 0.66) and soil organic layer thickness (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) were quantified using field plots parameters estimated with regression tree techniques using 30 m resolution Landsat and ancillary data as inputs within the Yukon Flats ecoregion of Alaska. Soil organic layer thickness was converted to soil carbon stocks with a regression (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01). We extended these Landsat-based regression tree mapping techniques with Fish and Wildlife and Natural Resources Conservation Service collaborators and additional collected field observations, airborne electromagnetic surveys, Landsat Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), and ancillary data to map carbon stocks at a 30 m spatial resolution for the Alaskan portion of the Yukon River basin. The carbon stocks in non-disturbed and previously burned fire scar areas within the boreal forests of this region were then assessed. Future boreal forest above ground biomass for boreal forests through the entire Yukon River basin was mapped for 2070 using the ecosystem performance modeling approach. Undisturbed boreal forest biomass was expected to increase in the south central areas of the Yukon River basin and decline in portions of the eastern extents. Current to 2070 precent difference in biomass for boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin.

Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, L.; Rigge, M. B.; Johnson, K. D.

2012-12-01

317

Basin-Scale Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: An Example Based on the Axios River Basin in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in large river basins in Europe, where high loads of applied herbicides have resulted in the contam- ination of related surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) systems. Therefore, risk assessment of pesticides used on rice should be per- formed at the basin scale. This study reports the development and validation of a basin-scale scenario,

Dimitrios G. Karpouzas; Ettore Capri; Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkidou

2006-01-01

318

Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation guidelines, and climate change scenario assumptions. This potential risk mitigation could be at least partly realized through enhancements to current management practices, possibly in the Gila River, that could improve the water supply reliability for all stakeholders in the Colorado River Basin.

Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

2012-12-01

319

Flood tracking chart for the Illinois River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Flood Tracking Chart for the Illinois River Basin in Illinois can be used to record and compare the predicted or current flood-crest stage to past flood-crest information. This information can then be used by residents and emergency-response personnel to make informed decisions concerning the threat of flooding to life and property. The chart shows a map of the Illinois River Basin (see below), the location of real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the basin, graphs of selected historical recorded flood-crest stages at each of the stations, and sea-level conversion (SLC) factors that allow conversion of the current or predicted flood-crest stage to elevation above sea level. Each graph represents a streamflow-gaging station and has a space to record the most current river stage reported for that station by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The National Weather Service (NWS) predicts flood crests for many of the stations shown on this chart.

Avery, Charles F.; Holmes, Robert R., Jr.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

1998-01-01

320

Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

321

Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

Ackerman, D. J.; Rush, F. E.

1984-01-01

322

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF COMBINED FLOOD MITIGATION AND GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN THE CHAO PHRAYA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravitational recharge from flood retention reservoirs in the upper Chao Phraya river basin into the underlying Bangkok aquifers is numerically investigated by coupling the HEC-RAS river model to the MODFLOW groundwater model over the reservoir module RES1. As the Chao Phraya river basin often encounters flood inundation during the long Thai rainy season while, at the same time, the groundwater

Manfred Koch

323

Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers

Bernard Dupré; Jérôme Gaillardet; Dominique Rousseau; Claude J. Allègre

1996-01-01

324

Regulation of Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and Changes of Basin Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivers can be regulated for many purposes (flow regulation, irrigation, navigation, energy generation and ....etc) and this may cause some negative ecological changes in basin of these rivers, one of the clearest examples of this situation, the case in the Euphrates and Tigris basin, where the both rivers are regulated with series of reservoirs and this leads to many ecological

Ahmad Majar; Vladimir Starodubtsev

2010-01-01

325

Sedimentation in three small forested drainage basins in the Alsea River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multidiscipline investigation to determine the effects of logging on the ecology of three small forested tributary basins is a part of an overall study of the Alsea River basin in the Coast Range of Oregon. The investigation of these small basins will be to (1) establish pre-logging conditions, (2) determine the effects of different logging methods, and (3) study the rate of recovery after the timber harvest. This report presents results of sedimentation in the basins, Deer and Flynn Creeks and Needle Branch, for the first 2 years of study (1959 and 1960 water years). Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are seasonal for the Coast Range of western Oregon. About 95 percent of the rainfall and runoff occurs during the period October to May, but nearly 100 percent of the suspended-sediment discharge occurs during the same period. For Deer Creek, in the 1960 water year, 23 percent of the annual suspended-sediment discharge occurred on 1 day, 58 percent during the 10 days of greatest discharge, and 78 percent during the 38 days of greatest discharge. Rainfall is practically equal for all three of the basins. The runoff of the Deer and Flynn Creek basins is about equal, but that of the Needle Branch basin averaged 8 percent less. Sediment yield varies considerably for the three basins. The suspended-sediment yield of the Deer Creek basin is almost twice that of the Needle Branch basin and almost 1? times that of the Flynn Creek basin. Water temperature of the three streams varied only 22?F during the 2 water years. The greatest variation between streams was 3?F in the minimums. Water temperature effect can be neglected in comparing the sediment yields of the basins. The aquifers of the basins have low storage capacities as illustrated by the very low, late summer flow. A study of a midwinter freshet period for the Deer Creek basin showed that virtually all the rainfall left the basin as runoff within 4 days; the period of significant sediment transport was thus very short.

Williams, R. C.

1964-01-01

326

Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 10: Lower Connecticut River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Connecticut River basin study area in south-central Connecticut includes 639 square miles and is drained principally by the Connecticut River and by seven smaller streams that flow directly to Long Island Sound between the West River on the west and the Connecticut River on the east. The population in 1979 was estimated to be 210,380. Much of the industrial development and population centers are in the Mattabesset River basin in the northwestern part, and the largest water use is also in the Mattabesset River basin.

Weiss, Lawrence A.; Bingham, James W.; Thomas, Mendall P.

1982-01-01

327

Water Temperature Dynamics in High Arctic River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the high sensitivity of polar regions to climate change, and the strong influence of temperature upon ecosystem processes, contemporary understanding of water temperature dynamics in Arctic river systems is limited. This research gap is addressed by exploring high-resolution water column thermal regimes for glacier-fed and non-glacial rivers at eight sites across Svalbard during the 2010 melt season. Mean water column temperatures in glacier-fed rivers (0.3 - 3.2 °C) were the lowest and most thermally-stable near the glacier terminus but increased downstream (0.7 - 2.3 °C km-1). Non-glacial rivers, where discharge was sourced primarily from snowmelt, were warmer (mean 2.9 - 5.7 °C) and more variable, indicating increased water residence times in shallow alluvial zones with increased potential for atmospheric influence. Mean summer water temperature and the magnitude of daily thermal variation were similar to those of Alaskan rivers but low at all sites when compared to alpine glacierized environments at lower latitudes. Thermal regimes were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with incoming shortwave radiation, air temperature, and river discharge. Principal drivers of thermal variability were inferred to be: (1) water source (i.e. glacier melt, snowmelt, groundwater); (2) exposure time to the atmosphere; (3) prevailing meteorological conditions; (4) river discharge; and (5) basin-specific geomorphological features (e.g. channel morphology). These results provide insight into the potential changes in high-latitude river systems in the context of projected warming in polar regions. We hypothesise warmer and more variable temperature regimes may prevail in future as the proportion of bulk discharge sourced from glacial meltwater declines and rivers undergo a progressive shift towards snow- and groundwater sources. Importantly, such changes could have implications for species diversity and abundance in benthic communities and influence rates of ecosystem functioning in high-latitude aquatic systems.

Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

2012-04-01

328

Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23-26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22-24. A breach of t...

D. A. Eash

2011-01-01

329

Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

2012-04-01

330

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins. Topical report, January 1991-July 1991  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins was evaluated in the context of geologic and hydrologic characteristics identified in the San Juan Basin, the nation's leading coalbed methane producing basin. The major comparative criteria were (1) coalbed methane resources, (2) geologic and hydrologic factors that predict areas of high gas producibility and high coalbed reservoir permeability, and (3) coalbed thermal maturity. The technical criteria were expanded to include structure, depositional systems, and data base and then combined with economic criteria (production, industry activity, and pipeline availability) to evaluate the coalbed methane potential of the basins. The Greater Green River and Piceance Basins have primary potential to make a significant near-term contribution to the nation's gas supply. These basins have large gas resources, high-rank coals, high gas contents, and established coalbed methane production. The Greater Green River Basin has numerous coalbed methane targets, good coal-seam permeability, and extensive hydrologic areas favorable for production. The Powder River and Raton Basins were judged to have secondary potential. Coal beds in the Powder River Basin are thermally immature and produce large volumes of water; the Raton Basin has a poor data base and has no gas pipeline infrastructure. Low production and minimal industry activity further limit the near-term potential of the Raton Basin. However, if economic criteria are discounted and only major technical criteria are considered, the Greater Green River and Raton Basins are assigned primary potential. The Raton Basin's shallow, thermally mature coal beds of good permeability are attractive coalbed methane targets, but low coal-seam permeability limits the coalbed methane potential of the Piceance Basin.

Tyler, R.; Ambrose, W.A.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.

1991-12-01

331

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

2009-12-03

332

Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.  

PubMed

The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

2013-01-01

333

Radioactivity in Surface Waters of the Columbia River Basin, 1958-1964.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Levels of radioactivity in the surface waters of the Columbia River Basin are reported, with emphasis on the main stem below the AEC's Hanford Works near Pasco, Washington. Natural radioactivity in the Columbia Basin includes alpha activity which varies w...

1965-01-01

334

Large-Scale Conservation Assessment for Neotropical Migratory Land Birds in the Interior Columbia River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status and habitats of Neotropical migratory land birds (NTMB) are evaluated within the interior Columbia River basin (interior basin). Objectives are to examine population trends, estimate NTMB responses to alternative management activities, and prov...

V. A. Saab T. D. Rich

1997-01-01

335

Chesapeake Bay Data Base: Documentation of Historical Data in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to effectively manage the resources of the Chesapeake Bay as well as the implementation of pollution controls in the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) has placed historical water quality data and corresp...

R. E. Edwards

1986-01-01

336

Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M. D.; Amundson, Frank D.

1988-01-01

337

Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-08-01

338

Salinity Trends in Surface Waters of the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved-solids data collected in the Upper Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, Colorado, and in the Gunnison River Basin were analyzed for trends in flow-adjusted dissolved-solids concentra- tions and loads for water years 1970 to 1993, 1980 to 1993, and 1986 to 1993. Trend results for flow-adjusted periodic dissolved-solids con- centrations for the Colorado River Basin upstream from Cameo, CO,

Nancy J. Bauch; Norman E. Spahr

1998-01-01

339

Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.  

PubMed

Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin. PMID:24256030

Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

2013-12-17

340

Near real time water resources data for river basin management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

341

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

342

Phosphorus Loading from the Redwood River Basin: Fractionation of Labile and Refractory Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this demonstration effort was to quantify loading of labile and refractory phosphorus fractions from the agriculturally dominated Redwood River Basin, which drains into the Minnesota River. This information will be important for future cali...

W. F. James J. W. Barko H. L. Eakin

2001-01-01

343

Loading of Biologically Available Constituents from an Agricultural Subwatershed in the Redwood River Basin, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this demonstration effort was to quantify flow and loading of sediment and nutrients from the small, agriculturally dominated Judicial Ditch 31, which drains into the Redwood River of the Minnesota River Basin. This information will be impo...

W. F. James J. W. Barko H. L. Eakin G. W. Eggers

2001-01-01

344

Effects of Water Level Changes on Fishes of the Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of surface water withdrawal on habitat availability and quality were investigated in one lacustrine (Mossy Lake) and various river habitats in the Yazoo River Basin during the summer and fall of 1984 for the following fishes: bigmouth buffalo ...

K. J. Killgore A. C. Miller

1985-01-01

345

Successful Transboundary River Basin and Estuary Cooperation: Benchmarks for the Ural River Basin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s new Water Code means its water resources remain under federal jurisdiction. However, this shouldn’t rule out transboundary\\u000a water cooperation. After acknowledging the current situation regarding water resources management in Russia, this paper presents\\u000a three instances of transboundary cooperation, two case studies concerning nations within the Danube basin: the Sava and Tisza\\u000a sub-basins, and a third concerning the Scheldt Estuary

Jerome Simpson; Stephen Stec; Wim Cofino; Helle Peeters; Bert Hove; Annemiek Verhallen

346

On the geographic range of freshwater fish in river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the observed geographic distribution of freshwater fish species in the Mississippi-Missouri river system, focusing on the size and spatial distribution of geographic ranges. We use a particular metric of geographic distribution known as environmental resistance, a biogeographic index that quantifies the pointwise average spatial loss of community similarity to identify biogeographic regions of the river basin. Empirical patterns are compared with the results of a neutral metacommunity model in which local fish communities are interconnected through the ecological corridors provided by the river networks. Because neutral theory assumes that all individuals across all the species are functionally equivalent, the comparison is aimed to quantify how much of the geographic range patterns are the result of species' similarity rather than species differences, thus searching for an ecological null model for the analysis of biogeographic range. We also analyze how river network topology affects the spatial arrangement of species. Our results suggest that broad patterns of geographic range of freshwater fish in the Mississippi-Missouri can be explained simply by neutral dynamics engaged in river topology and competition for resources among species without invoking mechanisms that involve asymmetric interspecific interactions.

Bertuzzo, E.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Lynch, H. J.; Fagan, W. F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2009-11-01

347

Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre-projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

2010-12-01

348

Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data (%Ro) indicate levels of thermal maturity suitable for generation of hydrocarbons. The genetic potential of the source rocks in these Triassic basins is moderate to high and many source rock sections have at least some potential for hydrocarbon generation. Some data for the Cumnock Formation indicate a considerably higher source rock potential than the basin average, with S1 + S2 data in the mid-20 mg HC/g sample range, and some hydrocarbons have been generated. This implies that the genetic potential for all of these strata may have been higher prior to the igneous activity. However, the intergranular porosity and permeability of the Triassic strata are low, which makes fractured reservoirs more attractive as drilling targets. In some places, gravity and magnetic surveys that are used to locate buried intrusive rock may identify local thermal sources that have facilitated gas generation. Alternatively, awareness of the distribution of large intrusive igneous bodies at depth may direct exploration into other areas, where thermal maturation is less than the limits of hydrocarbon destruction. Areas prospective for natural gas also contain large surficial clay resources and any gas discovered could be used as fuel for local industries that produce clay products (principally brick), as well as fuel for other local industries.

Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

2008-01-01

349

Flood frequency analysis for Germany's Weser River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of flood risk is more challenging outside of the U.S., as other countries typically do not have centralized agencies such as the USGS and FEMA that provide easily-accessible stream gauge data and flood maps. Therefore, modifications to the typical flood frequency methods used in the U.S. (e.g., USGS Bulletin 17b with regional regression, or regional frequency analysis using L-Moments) are often necessary with limited data. For the Weser River Basin in northern Germany, we obtained discharge data from 114 stream gauges, but full records of instantaneous annual maximum discharges were available for only 19 of those gauges. The 19 gauges were located along larger rivers draining areas greater than approximately 2500 sq km. The other 95 gauges draining areas less than 2500 sq km contained only the 10 largest observations (top 10) over the period of record. In order to make use of all available data, we used a hybrid approach, applying 1) regional frequency analysis using L-Moments for the annual maximum data for large (greater than 2000 sq km) watersheds, and 2) regional regression analysis for small (less than 2000 sq km) watersheds using the top 10 data, to estimate flood (i.e., 100-yr and 500-yr) discharges for all river and stream reaches throughout the basin. This presentation highlights the challenges and solutions for using a limited number of gauges and incomplete record lengths to estimate flood discharges for both large and small watersheds.

McCollum, J.; Qu, Y.; Beighley, E.

2013-12-01

350

Sustainable Water Management in the Major Basins of South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Asia is the setting for rapid socioeconomic development, demographic growth and change, policy achievements and failures, and a variable and changing climate. These changes will have major consequences for the management of water resources which consequently affect the lives and livelihoods of over a billion local residents. This study will provide an overview of the water management issues of South Asia through the context of climate change in large river basins. The study reviews recent and ongoing studies of the Indus River Basin and the Ganges River Basin. The analyses employ comprehensive agro-economic & water resources management models. The modeling results reveal the emerging challenges to water management in South Asia and priority concerns to enable sustainable economic growth without environmental degradation. The results are expected to provide policy-related insights for adaptation to change for the major river basins of South Asia.

Yang, Y. E.; Yu, W.; Brown, C. M.; Savitsky, A.

2011-12-01

351

Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Yukon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical question in carbon cycling is how climate change could alter the fate and chemical nature of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from watersheds and transported to rivers, lakes, estuaries and coastal waters. The spatial and temporal variability of DOC in surface waters associated with the Yukon River Basin is being studied to better define the processes controlling DOC in this system. The Yukon River Basin, a large and diverse ecosystem in northwestern Canada and central Alaska, is experiencing increasing temperatures, partial melting of permafrost, drying of upland soils and changing wetland environments. However, little is known about DOC transported in the system. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) measurements, in combination with DOC and DOC fractionation analyses, were used to determine both the amount and nature of DOC in the Yukon River and major tributaries. DOC transported in the Yukon River and its tributaries was seasonally dependent. For example, DOC concentrations in the Yukon River at Steven's Village ranged from 2 to 17 mg C/L during 2003, and SUVA ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 L/mg C m, indicating a large variation in amount and nature of organic matter in the river. Lowest DOC concentrations and SUVA values were observed in winter under low flow conditions. Greatest DOC concentrations were measured on samples collected during the spring on the leading part of the hydrograph. These samples were also found to have the greatest SUVA values indicating that the organic matter transported during this period was more aromatic than DOC transported under low flow conditions. High SUVA values are indicative of greater amounts of organic material originating in soils and wetlands of the watershed. The amount and nature of organic matter transported by the tributaries appeared to be related to relief and wetland contribution to the watershed of the tributary. Based on DOC and SUVA data, the Yukon River tributaries can be classified as dark water (high DOC, high SUVA, large amount of humic material), clearwater (low DOC, low SUVA) and glacial (low DOC, low SUVA, high particulate load).

Aiken, G.; Striegl, R.; Schuster, P.

2003-12-01

352

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

1986-08-01

353

Simulation of daily runoff in the Urumqi River basin with the improved Tank model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Urumqi River Basin of Xinjiang in China, locating in the internal arid area, is a river with multi-water feeds. Ice—snow meltwater feeds the river in a relatively large proportion. Based on the characteristics of Urumqi River Basin, the paper has developed a tank model with glacier and snow components to simulate the daily runoff in YingXiong Qiao hydrometric station

ZHANG GUOWEI

354

[Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].  

PubMed

Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme. PMID:24483070

Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

2013-10-01

355

Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river

Rona Vink; Horst Behrendt

2002-01-01

356

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin  

SciTech Connect

The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4C. A warming of 2 to 4C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from {minus}39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. In this humid temperate climate, where precipitation is evenly distributed over the year, decreases in snow accumulation in the northern part of the basin and increases in evapotranspiration throughout the basin could change the timing of runoff and significantly reduce total annual water availability unless precipitation were to increase concurrently.

McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Ayers, M.A. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States))

1989-12-01

357

Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic imp

Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

2014-05-01

358

Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

2010-05-01

359

Basin-wide distribution of land use and human population: stream order modeling and river basin classification in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis. PMID:21416375

Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

2011-05-01

360

Basin-Wide Distribution of Land Use and Human Population: Stream Order Modeling and River Basin Classification in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type—paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.—and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis.

Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

2011-05-01

361

Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

1981-01-01

362

Modeling runoff in the Truckee River drainage basin  

SciTech Connect

The authors extend an existing climate model by incorporating computation of monthly surface hydrologic elements in a two-dimensional network. They illustrate the calculations for a two-dimensional solution domain which includes those areas draining into Pyramid Lake, NV (Truckee River drainage basin) at a 1 km grid cell spacing. Mean maximum monthly temperature and precipitation values are generated via a canonical correlation in which independent variables are computed from insolation, terrain, wind vectors, and sea surface temperatures. The runoff model computes interception, Hortonian overland flow, saturated overland flow, evapotranspiration, recharge, throughflow, and groundwater storage from temperature and precipitation for each grid point within the solution domain. Starting with an empty groundwater bucket' at each grid point, the model computes the above values for each month of the year and iterates until steady state convergence criteria are met. This model has previously been tested and applied to one-dimensional calculations of natural variation of the stable isotopic composition of surface water in a similar area. The parameter values used here are the same as used in that study. Another model calculates drainage directions and divides from the elevation array and assigns individual basin numbers to those areas which do not drain exterior to the solution domain. The runoff values for the basins which contributed to the Truckee River are summed spatially to give monthly or annual runoff. The model predicts a mean annual flow for the Truckee River of 15.7 m[sup 3]/s (556 cfs), compared to an observed value of 16.7 m[sup 3]/s (589 cfs) measured in Nixon, NV. This is an error of 5.6%.

Orndorff, R.L.; Craig, R.G. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

363

Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both sub-periods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Saá-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.

2012-07-01

364

Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana.  

PubMed

Nitrogen has been implicated as a major cause of hypoxia in shallow water along the Louisiana/Texas, USA coasts. Excess nitrogen (mainly nitrate) from Mississippi and Atchafalaya River drainage basins may drive the onset and duration of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoring and enhancing denitrification have been proposed to reduce and control coastal hypoxia and improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. Sediments were collected from six baldcypress restoration sites within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USA. The acetylene blockage technique was used to measure background and potential sediment denitrification rates. Denitrification fluxes were measured before nitrate addition (background rates) and after nitrate addition of 100mgNl(-1) (potential denitrification) at three seasonal temperatures. Background denitrification was low across all cypress swamp sites ranging from 0.9 to 8.8, 0.6 to 28.5 and 8.8 to 47.5g N evolved ha(-1)d(-1) at water/sediment column temperatures of 8, 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. After nitrate addition, temperature had a significant effect on sediment denitrification potential. Maximum rates measured at 8, 22 and 30 degrees C were approximately 250-260, 550 and 970gNha(-1)d(-1), respectively. Most of the added nitrate in water columns, incubated at 8 degrees C, was removed after 65d compared to 32d and 17d at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate cypress swamps have the potential to assimilate and process elevated levels of floodwater nitrate with denitrification being a major removal mechanism. PMID:17707455

Lindau, C W; Delaune, R D; Scaroni, A E; Nyman, J A

2008-01-01

365

The cost of noncooperation in international river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

2012-01-01

366

Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

1985-01-01

367

Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the fitted regression lines ranged from 0.95 to 1.01 (correlation coefficient > 0.96) for the basins studied. Values for the residence time of waters within the basins and average relative contributions of the within-year and long-term reservoirs to outflow were obtained. Values for river basin residence times ranged from 2 years for the Kissimmee River basin to 20 years for the Potomac River basin. The residence times indicate the time scale in which the basin responds to anthropogenic inputs. The modeled tritium concentrations for the basins also furnish input data for urban and agricultural settings where these river waters are used. ?? 1992.

Michel, R. L.

1992-01-01

368

Characterization of Rhizobium loti strains from the Salado River Basin.  

PubMed

Thirty indigenous rhizobia strains, isolated from Lotus tenuis in the area of Chascomús and other regions of the Salado River Basin (Argentina), were characterized based on generation time, acid production, carbon utilization, protein profile, and molecular characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that native rhizobia isolates from the Chascomús area are predominantly fast and intermediate-growers. The unclassified rhizobia examined by PCR-RFLP were found to be closely related to the reference strains of validly described Rhizobium species. PMID:11519997

Fulchieri, M M; Estrella, M J; Iglesias, A A

2001-06-01

369

Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2013-04-01

370

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Compiled by Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J. Edited by Martin, Cathy R.

2007-01-01

371

Overcoming anti-hydro policies in the Ohio River Basin  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the need to develop a national energy policy, with hydroelectric power playing a greater role. As an example of the consequences of a lack of a cohesive policy, the authors use the regulatory battles taking place over the development of hydroelectric power in the Ohio River Basin. Sixteen potential plants could provide 1,560 gigawatts of power and have been granted licenses, but the Department of the Interior appealed the license authorization. A slew of demands by other regulatory agencies are also hampering development.

Kissel, P.C.; Robbins, A.I. (Baller Hammett, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-02-01

372

Rare earth elements in river waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

1988-01-01

373

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

374

Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

375

Wetlands Response to Climate Change across Susquehanna River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) lies in the northeastern United States and contains a mosaic of wetlands that range from permanently wet to temporary embedded in a landscape matrix of natural deciduous forest and agriculture. This study explores the prospects for SRB wetlands under modified hydrologic processes induced due to climatic change. Five mesoscale watersheds: Little Juniata River (560 sq. km.), Mahantango Creek (420 sq. km.), Young Womans Creek (120 sq. km.), Muddy Creek (344 sq. km.), and Lackawanna River (860 sq. km.) were selected as representative watersheds to include variability in climate, topography, soil, geomorphology, and land cover across SRB. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across these watersheds between climate and wetland health using groundwater predictions from Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling System (PIHM) -- a spatially distributed fully-coupled physics-based model. Near present (2004-2010) hourly climate data (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, wind velocity and solar radiation) were obtained from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), climate reanalysis product. The predicted wetland locations were validated against the National Wetland Inventory. We analyzed the effect of spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic states such as streams, groundwater, and evaporative and hydrologic fluxes on the wetland hydrology. To predict the impacts of climate change on the health of the wetland, meteorological data for two 20 year climate periods (History: 1979-1998 and Scenario: 2046-2065) from Meteorological Research Institute's GCM were used as model forcing. The scenarios output showed different responses across the wetlands in the river basin. The key to this study is that a high resolution spatial and temporal model can resolve the coupled effects of wetlands in the context of complete mesoscale watershed simulations.

Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; Bhatt, G.; Kumar, M.

2011-12-01

376

Range Maps of Terrestrial Species in the Interior Columbia River Basin and Northern Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basi...

B. C. Wales B. G. Marcot R. Demmer

2003-01-01

377

Mercury in the Carson and Truckee River basins of Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upstream from major pre-1900 ore milling in the Carson and Truckee River basins, "background" concentrations of total mercury in the upper 1 to 3 inches of sand- to clay-sized stream-bottom sediment are less than 0.1 ug/g (microgram per gram). Downstream, measured concentrations were as much as 200 times the background level. Greatest concentrations were encountered in the Carson River basin within and immediately upstream from Lahontan Reservoir. Data from for the Carson River near Fort Churchill suggest that most of the mercury in the sampled bottom sediment may be present as mercuric sulfide or as a component of one of more non-methyl organic compounds or complexes, rather than existing in the metallic state. Regardless of state, this reservoir of mercury is of concern because of its possible availability to the aquatic food chain and, ultimately, to man. Among 48 samples of surface water from 29 sites in the two basins, the maximum measured total-mercury concentration was 6.3 ug/1 (micrograms per liter), for a sample from the Carson River near Fort Churchill. Except downstream from Lahontan Reservoir, most other measured values were less than 1 ug/1. (The U.S> Environmental Protection Agency interim limit for drinking water is 5 ug/1.) The total-mercury content of stream water is related to the mercury content of bottom sediments and the rate of streamflow, because the latter affects the suspended-sediment transporting capability of the stream,. Near Fort Churchill, total-mercury concentrations that might be expected at streamflows greater than those of 1971-72 are: as much as 10-15 ug/1 or more at 2,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), and as much as 10-20 ug/1 or more at 3,000 cfs. Elsewhere, expectable concentrations are much less because the bottom sediment contains much less mercury. The mercury contents of water samples from 36 wells in the Carson and Truckee basins were all less than 1 ug/1, indicating that mercury is not a problem in ground water, even adjacent to areas where stream-bottom sediment is enriched in mercury. Limited data indicate that the Carson River above Lahontan Reservoir and the reservoir itself contain only trace amounts of dissolved arsenic, cyanide, selenium, and silver. Among 17 additional trace metals analysed for on four unfiltered samples from the river above the reservoir, only six of the metals were consistently present in concentrations exceeding detection limits. Maximum measured concentrations for the six metals were: aluminum, >670 ug/1; iron, 2,500 ug/1; manganese, 1,100 ug/1; molybdenum, 15 ug/1; titanium, 110 ug/1; and vanadium, 15 ug/1. Presumably, the detected metals were associated largely or almost entirely with the suspended-sediment phase of the water samples. Selenium and silver concentrations in sampled well waters from the Carson and Truckee basins were uniformly low, with one exception--as elenium concentration of 18 ug/1 for the water of a shallow well southwest of Fallon (Public Health Service limit, 10 ug/1). The arsenic content of 15 sampled well waters ranged from 0 to 1,500 ug/1 (0 to 1.5 ppm), with seven of the values greater than 50 ug/1 (the Public Health Service limit).

Van Denburgh, A. S.

1973-01-01

378

[Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].  

PubMed

By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation. PMID:24483090

Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

2013-10-01

379

RADAR ALTIMETRY FOR STUDIES OF LARGE RIVER BASINS: HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE EUPHRATES-TIGRIS RIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of analysis of hydrological regime of the Euphrates-Tigris river basin using a satellite radar altimetry. We use the data from several radar altimetry missions: TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) (1992-2002), Geosat Follow-On (GFO) (since January 2000) and ENVISAT (since November 2002) satellites. We analyze the variability of water level for large reservoirs for the Tigris and Euphrates, as well

Elena A. Zakharova; Alexei V. Kouraev; Jean-François Crétaux; Faiza Al-Yamani; Igor Polikarpov

2007-01-01

380

Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

2014-05-01

381

Effects of Water Use and Land Use on Streamflow and Aquatic Habitat in the Sudbury and Assabet River Basins, Massachusetts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water withdrawals from surface-water reservoirs and groundwater have affected streamflow in the Sudbury and Assabet River Basins. These effects are particularly evident in the upper Sudbury River Basin, which prompted the need to improve the understanding...

C. S. Carlson D. S. Armstrong G. W. Parker P. J. Zarriello

2010-01-01

382

Assessment of Interstate Streams in the Susquehanna River Basin Monitoring Report No. 23, January 1-December 31, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) reviews projects that may have interstate impacts on water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin. SRBC established a monitoring program in 1986 to collect data that were not available from monitoring progra...

M. K. Shank

2010-01-01

383

Two Alternative Juvenile Life History Types for Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however,

William P. Connor; John G. Sneva; Kenneth F. Tiffan; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Doug Ross

2005-01-01

384

Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon, 1992-96.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the USGC measurements of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) in the Tualatin River Basin. Specifically, this investigation of SOD in the Tualatin River Basin was designed to: determine the magnitude of the SOD rate in the main stem and the t...

S. A. Rounds M. C. Doyle

1997-01-01

385

The freshwater habitats, fishes, and fisheries of the Orinoco River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orinoco River of Venezuela and Colombia is one of the great rivers of the world, ranking third by discharge after the Amazon and the Congo. In the Orinoco basin, riverine and floodplain habitats, including riparian forests, play key roles in the conservation of biodiversity and support commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. The basin's three major floodplains regulate the amplitude

Marco A. Rodríguez; Kirk O. Winemiller; William M. Lewis Jr; Donald C. Taphorn Baechle

2007-01-01

386

Water Budgets for Selected Watersheds in the Delaware River Basin, Eastern Pennsylvania and Western New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pilot study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission, developed annual water budgets using available data for five watersheds in the Delaware River Basin with different degrees of urbanization and di...

R. A. Sloto D. E. Buxton

2005-01-01

387

Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

Veitzer, S. A.; Troutman, B. M.; Gupta, V. K.

2003-01-01

388

Drainage basin weathering and major element transport of two large Chinese rivers (Huanghe and Changjiang)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term records show high concentrations of dissolved major elements in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) and the Huanghe (Yellow River). The Huanghe drainage basin is characterized by intense weathering and erosion of carbonates and evaporites, while weathering and erosion of carbonates and silicates over the drainage basin is the main source of major elements in the Changjiang. The rock\\/soil composition and

Jing Zhang; Wei Wen Huang; Min Guang Liu; Qing Zhou

1990-01-01

389

Use of Rhodamine B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the Susquehanna River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper relates the experiences of the Susquehanna Field Station-Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basins Project--in the use of Rhodamine B dye techniques in the stream environments of the Susquehanna River Basin. Particular problems encountered in the...

Goldberg O'Donnell

1964-01-01

390

Microbial Diversity in Soil Cores From the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the microbial environment in permafrost areas is important for understanding processes that release carbon and other nutrients from soils as a result of permafrost melting. Soils were collected in August 2005 from two sites in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, and examined for microbial diversity as part of a larger project to investigate carbon cycling within the river basin.

M. Baedecker; J. D. Kirshtein; K. P. Wickland; D. W. Metge; P. F. Schuster; M. A. Voytek

2006-01-01

391

Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study, Little Blue River Basin, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the need for and value of storage for municipal and industrial water supply and water quality control in the Little Blue River Basin. The Little Blue River Basin drains an area of 225 square miles in Jackson and C...

1966-01-01

392

Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

393

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

PubMed

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2013-09-01

394

National Water-Quality Assessment Program: The Sacramento River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to identify the major natural and human factors that affect the quality of those resources. In addressing these goals, the program will provide a wealth of water- quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major asset of the NAWQA program is that it will allow for the integration of water-quality information collected at several scales. A major component of the program is the study-unit investigation-the foundation of national- level assessment. The 60 study units of the NAWQA program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems of the conterminous United States. These study units cover areas of 1,000 to more than 60,000 square miles and represent 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supplies. Investigations of the first 20 study units began in 1991. In 1994, the Sacramento River Basin was among the second set of 20 NAWQA study units selected for investigation.

Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.

1994-01-01

395

Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

396

FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

397

[Spatiotemporal characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in inland river basins of Hexi region].  

PubMed

Based on the 1961-2008 daily observation data from 17 meteorological stations in the inland river basins in Hexi region, the daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in the basins was computed by Penman-Monteith equation, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal and annual ET0 were studied by GIS and IDW inverse-distance spatial interpolation. In 1961-2008, the mean annual ET0 (700-1330 mm) increased gradually from southeast to northwest across the basins. The high value of mean annual ET0 in Shule River basin and Heihe River basin declined significantly (P < 0.05), with the climatic trend rate ranged from -53 to -10 mm (10 a)(-1), while the low value of mean annual ET0 in Shiyang River basin ascended slightly. The ET0 in the basins had a significant annual fluctuation, which centralized in Linze and decreased toward northwest and southeast. The ET0 in summer and autumn contributed most of a year, and the highest value of ET0 all the year round always appeared in Shule River basin. The climatic trend rate was in the order of summer > spring > autumn > winter. Wind speed and maximum temperature were the primary factors affecting the ET0 in the basins. Furthermore, wind speed was the predominant factor of downward trend of ET0 in Shule and Heihe basins, while maximum temperature and sunshine hours played an important role in the upward trend of ET0 in Shiyang basin. PMID:21443004

Lü, Xiao-Dong; Wang, He-ling; Ma, Zhong-ming

2010-12-01

398

Hydrometeorology Testbed in the American River Basin of Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, most precipitation occurs in the winter, as a mixture of rain at lower elevations and snow in the higher mountains. Storms from the Pacific carry large amounts of moisture, and put people and property at risk from flooding because of the vast urban development and infrastructure in low-lying areas of the central valley of California. Improved flood prediction at finer spatial and temporal resolutions can help minimize these risks. The first step is to accurately measure and predict spatially-distributed precipitation. This is particularly true for river basins with complex orography where the processes that lead to the development of precipitation and determine its distribution and fate on the ground are not well understood. To make progress in this important area, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is leading a Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) effort designed to accelerate the testing and infusion of new technologies, models, and scientific results from the research community into daily forecasting operations. HMT is a national effort (http://hmt.noaa.gov) that will be implemented in different regions of the U.S. over the next decade. In each region, the focus will be on individual experimental test basins. The first full-scale implementation of HMT, called HMT-West, targets northern California's flood-vulnerable American River Basin (4740 km2) on the west slopes of the Sierra Nevada between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. The deployment strategy is focused on the North Fork of the basin (875 km2), which is the least- controlled portion of the entire catchment. This basin was selected as a test basin because it has reliable streamflow records dating back to 1941 and has been well characterized by prior field studies (e.g. the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project) and modeling efforts, focusing on both short-term operations and long-term climate scenarios. Intensive field activities in the North Fork of the American River started in 2005 and will occur over the next 2-3 winter seasons, with less intensive long-term monitoring continuing thereafter. This paper focuses on activities that occurred during the 2005-2006 winter season (http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2006/hmt/). Several research observing systems from NOAA were deployed to the region to focus on spatially-distributed precipitation. Transportable and mobile scanning precipitation radars (polarimetric and Doppler) were deployed to complement and fill gaps in the operational radar network. Additional remote sensors that were deployed include wind-profiling radars, precipitation-profiling radars, and GPS sensors for measuring precipitable water vapor. Also, radiosondes were released serially upwind of the area during storm episodes. Precipitation gauges, raindrop disdrometers, surface meteorological stations, soil moisture/temperature probes and stream level loggers were operating within the coverage areas of the scanning radars. These will help determine the fate of the precipitation on the ground and through the river network.

Kingsmill, D.; Lundquist, J.; Jorgensen, D.; McGinley, J.; Werner, K.

2006-12-01

399

Simulation of the effects of the alteration of the river basin land use on river water temperature using the multi-layer mesh-typed runoff model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model displaying river water temperatures was established, and applied to a small river basin. Based on the results, the effects of the alteration of the river basin on the budget and river water temperature were discussed. The model was a multi-layer mesh-typed runoff model, and the behavior of water and heat transference was depicted. Also, in order to verify

Noriatsu Ozaki; Takehiko Fukushima; Toshiharu Kojiri

2008-01-01

400

Tree Rings as Climate Proxies in Susquehanna River Basin Streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings have been used throughout the world to reconstruct past climate records. However, no attempt has been made to reconstruct streamflow records for the Susquehanna River Basin. Having previously found a statistical relationship between tree rings and streamflow records in the basin, the researchers have refined this relationship and used it to reconstruct streamflow in the basin back to 1700. Tree ring chronologies were obtained from NOAA's Paleoclimatic International Tree Ring Data Bank for the period 1700 to 1981. Streamflow records were obtained from the USGS website for Harrisburg, PA for the period 1891 - 1981. Six tree ring sites (Figure 1) were used to determine the significance using time series and regression analyses. The highest significance was found among the r-values for tree ring located in Salt Springs Park (.587) and from the combination of all six sites (.584). The tree ring sites were lagged so that the streamflow of year 1 produced the tree rings of year 2. Figure 3 shows the correlation between Salt Springs and Harrisburg streamflow using z-scores as the time series. Figure 4 gives the calibration period of the streamflow data. Figure 5 gives the actual reconstruction of the streamflow records. On the graph there are major peaks and valleys indicating major historical events such as floods and droughts. There is also some decadal variabi