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Sample records for indus river basin

  1. Water Availability in Indus River at the Upper Indus Basin under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the latter one is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C on May 26, 2010. The changing climate has impact on various areas including agriculture, water, health, among others. There are two main forces which have central role in changing climate: one is natural variability and the other one is human evoked changes, increasing the density of green house gases. The elements in the bunch of Energy-Food-Water are interlinked with one another and among them water plays a crucial role for the existence of the other two parts. This nexus is the central environmental issue around the globe generally, and is of particular importance in the developing countries. The study evaluated the importance and the availability of water in Indus River under different emission scenarios. Four emission scenarios are included, that is, the A2, B2, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. One way coupling of regional climate models (RCMs) and Hydrological model have been implemented in this study. The PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies) and CCAM (Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model) climate models and UBCWM (University of British Columbia Watershed Model) hydrological model are used for this purpose. It is observed that Indus River contributes 80 % of the hydro-power generation and contributes 44 % to available water annually in Pakistan. It is further investigated whether sufficient water will be available in the Indus River under climate change scenarios. Toward this goal, Tarbela Reservoir is used as a measurement tool using the parameters of the reservoir like maximum operating storage, dead level storage, discharge capacity of tunnels and spillways. The results of this study are extremely important for the economy of Pakistan in various key areas like agriculture, energy, industries and ecosystem. The analyses show that there will be much more water available in future under the considered emission scenarios but in some months there will be scarcity of water. However, by proper management and optimum utilization of the available water, the scarcity of water can be minimized considerably. Finally, a meta-analysis has been performed to present a combined picture of all scenarios considered in this study. One way to avoid water scarcity is to upgrade and install new reservoirs and water storage capacities to reserve the extra water during high river flow in Indus River, which will then be utilized during low river flow. __________________________________________________________________________________ KEY WORDS: Agriculture, Climate Change, Hydro-power, Indus River, Tarbela Reservoir, Upper Indus Basin, Meta-analysis, Hydrological model.

  2. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

  3. Two Years in the Life of the Indus River Basin [book chapter

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Reviews the major challenges and current water and agriculture context, plans, and policies following difficult years of drought and catastrophic monsoon flooding in Pakistan's Indus Basin. The years from 2009 through 2011 ...

  4. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

  5. Sea-level responses to erosion and deposition of sediment in the Indus River basin and the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Giosan, Liviu; Clift, Peter D.

    2015-04-01

    Changes in sea level are of wide interest because they shape the sedimentary geologic record, modulate flood-related hazards, and reflect Earth's climate. One driver of sea-level change is the erosion and deposition of sediment, which induces changes in sea level by perturbing Earth's crust, gravity field, and rotation axis. Here we use a gravitationally self-consistent global model to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected sea level during the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle in the northeastern Arabian Sea and the Indus River basin, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. We drive the model with a widely used reconstruction of ice mass variations over the last glacial cycle and a sediment loading history that we constructed from published erosion and deposition rate measurements. Our modeling suggests that sediment fluxes from the Indus River are large enough to produce meter-scale changes in sea level near the Indus delta in as little as a few thousand years. These sea-level perturbations are largest closest to the center of the Indus delta, and they grow larger over time as sediment deposition increases. This implies that the elevation of sea-level markers near the Indus delta will be significantly altered by sediment transfer over millennial timescales, and that such deformation should be accounted for in studies that use paleo-sea-level markers to infer past ice sheet volume or explore local processes such as sediment compaction. Our analysis highlights the role that massive fluvial sediment fluxes play in driving sea-level changes over >1000-yr timescales from the Indus River, and, by implication, from other rivers with large sediment fluxes.

  6. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

  7. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  8. Sensitivity of glacier runoff projections to baseline climate data in the Indus River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Michele; Rupper, Summer; Asay, Maria; Winter-Billington, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to water resources is particularly important in regions such High Mountain Asia, where glaciers provide a large percentage of seasonal river discharge and support large populations downstream. In remote areas, direct field measurements of glacier melt rates are difficult to acquire and rarely observed, so hydro-glaciological modeling and remote sensing approaches are needed. Here we present estimates of glacier melt contribution to the Upper Indus watershed over the last 40 years using a suite of seven reanalysis climate datasets that have previously been used in hydrological models for this region, a temperature-index melt model and > 29,000 km2 of ice cover. In particular, we address the uncertainty in estimates of meltwater flux that is introduced by the baseline climate dataset chosen, by comparing the results derived from each. Mean annual glacier melt contribution varies from 8 km3 yr-1 and 169 km3 yr-1, or between 4-78% of the total annual runoff in the Indus, depending on temperature dataset applied. Under projected scenarios of an additional 2-4°C of regional warming by 2100 AD, we find annual meltwater fluxes vary by >200% depending on the baseline climate dataset used and, importantly, span a range of positive and negative trends. Despite significant differences between climate datasets and the resulting spread in meltwater fluxes, the spatial pattern of melt is highly correlated and statistically robust across all datasets. This allows us to conclude with confidence that fewer than 10% of the >20,000 glaciers in the watershed contribute more than 80% of the total glacier runoff to the Indus. These are primarily large, low elevation glaciers in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush. Additional field observations to ground-truth modeled climate data will go far to reduce the uncertainty highlighted here and we suggest that efforts be focused on those glaciers identified to be most significant to water resources.

  9. An Extended-Range Water Management and Flood Prediction System for the Indus River Basin

    E-print Network

    Webster, Peter J.

    of the nation's agriculture. The Indus and its tributaries are central to commerce, power generation, and water storage, as well as agriculture. Yet flooding during the summer with the delicate balance between withholding water for drought periods and leaving sufficient

  10. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

  11. Future Climate Scenarios for the Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the literature and available data on hydroclimatic variability and change on the Indus Basin plains, comparing historical fluctuations in climatic and hydrologic variables and reviewing scenarios of climate change ...

  12. Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. ); Sutton, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

  13. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ?PBDEs and ?DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  14. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ?39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  15. Impact assessment of hydroclimatic change on water stress in the Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Rasheed, Bilhuda

    2013-01-01

    Ninety percent of Pakistan's agricultural output is produced in fields irrigated by the Indus basin irrigation system, the world's largest network of canals, dams, barrages and tubewells. River flows, primarily fed by snow ...

  16. Clay mineral variations in Holocene terrestrial sediments from the Indus Basin Anwar Alizai a,

    E-print Network

    Clift, Peter

    Clay mineral variations in Holocene terrestrial sediments from the Indus Basin Anwar Alizai a 23 February 2012 Keywords: XRD Clay mineralogy Monsoon Himalaya Indus Delta Floodplain Fluvial processes Large rivers We employed X-ray diffraction methods to quantify clay mineral assemblages

  17. The Geographic, Geological and Oceanographic Setting of the Indus River

    E-print Network

    Clift, Peter

    L1 16 The Geographic, Geological and Oceanographic Setting of the Indus River Asif Inam1 , Peter D Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, Edited by A. Gupta © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 16.1 INTRODUCTION The 3000km long Indus is one of the world's larger rivers that has exerted a long lasting

  18. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ?26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-A?OCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect. PMID:25933089

  19. Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

  20. Five centuries of Upper Indus River flow from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zafar, Muhammad Usama; Wahab, Muhammad; Khan, Nasrullah

    2013-04-01

    SummaryWater wars are a prospect in coming years as nations struggle with the effects of climate change, growing water demand, and declining resources. The Indus River supplies water to the world's largest contiguous irrigation system generating 90% of the food production in Pakistan as well as 13 gigawatts of hydroelectricity. Because any gap between water supply and demand has major and far-reaching ramifications, an understanding of natural flow variability is vital - especially when only 47 years of instrumental record is available. A network of tree-ring sites from the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) was used to reconstruct river discharge levels covering the period AD 1452-2008. Novel methods tree-ring detrending based on the 'signal free' method and estimation of reconstruction uncertainty based on the 'maximum entropy bootstrap' are used. This 557-year record displays strong inter-decadal fluctuations that could not have been deduced from the short gauged record. Recent discharge levels are high but not statistically unprecedented and are likely to be associated with increased meltwater from unusually heavy prior winter snowfall. A period of prolonged below-average discharge is indicated during AD 1572-1683. This unprecedented low-flow period may have been a time of persistently below-average winter snowfall and provides a warning for future water resource planning. Our reconstruction thus helps fill the hydrological information vacuum for modeling the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan region and is useful for planning future development of UIB water resources in an effort to close Pakistan's "water gap". Finally, the river discharge reconstruction provides the basis for comparing past, present, and future hydrologic changes, which will be crucial for detection and attribution of hydroclimate change in the Upper Indus Basin.

  1. Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation

    E-print Network

    Najman, Yani

    Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: Paleoenvironmental interpretation Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phasesDagherFadel, D. Barford, E. Garzanti, and S. Andò (2010), Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks

  2. Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

    Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

  3. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  4. Fluvial-aeolian interactions in sediment routing and sedimentary signal buffering: an example from the Indus Basin and Thar Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Carter, Andrew; Alizai, Anwar; VanLaningham, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Sediment production and its subsequent preservation in the marine stratigraphic record offshore of large rivers are linked by complex sediment-transfer systems. To interpret the stratigraphic record it is critical to understand how environmental signals transfer from sedimentary source regions to depositional sinks, and in particular to understand the role of buffering in obscuring climatic or tectonic signals. In dryland regions, signal buffering can include sediment cycling through linked fluvial and eolian systems. We investigate sediment-routing connectivity between the Indus River and the Thar Desert, where fluvial and eolian systems exchanged sediment over large spatial scales (hundreds of kilometers). Summer monsoon winds recycle sediment from the lower Indus River and delta northeastward, i.e., downwind and upstream, into the desert. Far-field eolian recycling of Indus sediment is important enough to control sediment provenance at the downwind end of the desert substantially, although the proportion of Indus sediment of various ages varies regionally within the desert; dune sands in the northwestern Thar Desert resemble the Late Holocene–Recent Indus delta, requiring short transport and reworking times. On smaller spatial scales (1–10 m) along fluvial channels in the northern Thar Desert, there is also stratigraphic evidence of fluvial and eolian sediment reworking from local rivers. In terms of sediment volume, we estimate that the Thar Desert could be a more substantial sedimentary store than all other known buffer regions in the Indus basin combined. Thus, since the mid-Holocene, when the desert expanded as the summer monsoon rainfall decreased, fluvial-eolian recycling has been an important but little recognized process buffering sediment flux to the ocean. Similar fluvial-eolian connectivity likely also affects sediment routing and signal transfer in other dryland regions globally.

  5. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

  6. Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

  7. Predictable Equilibrium Multichannel Network Characteristizes The Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2015-04-01

    PREDICTABLE EQUILIBRIUM MULTICHANNEL NETWORK CHARACTERIZES THE INDUS RIVER, PAKISTAN Carling, P.A.1, Trieu, H.1, Hornby, D.2, Darby, S.E.1, Sear, D.A.1, Hutton, C.2, Ali, Z.3, Iqbal, I.3 1Geography & Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2GeoData, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 3SUPARCO, Karachi, Pakistan The Indus River in Pakistan between Chasma and Taunsa is a 304 river km reach characterised by islands dividing multiple channels. Previously, the behaviour of such channel networks has been considered unpredictable. Crosato & Mosselman (2009) argue that physics-based predictors of channel splitting developed for braided-river bars apply poorly to island-divided rivers and recommend the application of regime theory (Bettess & White, 1983) to predict the number (n) of channels in rivers such as the Indus. The Indus is characterized by two to 11 channels at each cross section with, on average, about four channels being active during the dry season and five during the monsoon. Thus the expansion of the network during the monsoon is slight and is due to reoccupation of channels that are dry during low flows. The network evolves on an annual basis primarily due to bendway progression, whilst avulsions to form major new channels are relatively rare (one or two in the reach per year) and are matched by a similar number of closures. Thus the network structure, if not its shape, is relatively stable year to year. The standard deviation of channel numbers comparing sections throughout the reach is practically identical at c. two channels and there is no significant variation between years. Theory indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the stability in the number of active channels through the annual monsoon and between years accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network that demonstrates local disequilibrium when 3 > n > 4, being perturbed by the annual monsoon. Application of the Bettess & White regime theory demonstrates that the river channel network does not respond to monsoon floods (which typically peak at 13,200 m3s-1), but rather it maintains a network that is in near-equilibrium with the 20-year mean annual flow (3090 m3s-1) for a narrow range of channel slopes (2.8 - 2.9 10-4) and a narrow range of total sediment load (120 - 180 mg l-1). Given the stability in n and B (channel width), it can be inferred that channel depths (d) also are relatively stable during the monsoon. Thus despite any minor adjustments in B:d during the annual hydrological cycle, the time-scale for adjustment of the physical network is much longer than the time-scale of the monsoon hydrograph, with the annual excess water being stored and transported across neighbouring floodplains, rather than being conveyed in enlarged channels or in new avulsed channels. The analysis explains the lack of significant channel adjustment following the largest recorded flood in 40 years: 27,100 m3s-1 in 2010.

  8. Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

  9. Impact of altitudinal variability on streamflows in mountainous catchments under changing climate (Upper Indus Basin), Himalayas Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Yaseen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pakistan's economy is based on agriculture that is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Various rivers i.e. Chitral, Swat, Kabul, Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar, Shyok & tributaries contribute water to main Indus River. The elevation of UIB ranges from 254 m to 8570 m a.m.s.l. Changes in climate and related hydrological impacts vary in space and time as affected by local climatic and topographic settings. So, the objective of this study was to assess the climate change and related hydrological impacts resulting from altitudinal variability. Trend analyses were performed by applying Mann-Kendall and Sen's method was applied to estimate slope time series that indicates changes in river flows. The results of this study indicate that maximum temperature in annual, winter, spring and autumn seasons has increased with increased in altitude while annual, winter and autumn minimum temperature has decreased with increased in altitude for the period (1961-2011). Moreover, annual, winter, summer and autumn precipitation has been decreased. The impact of altitudinal variability under changing climate yields that annual and seasonal streamflows in River Indus (at Kharmong, Alam Br. and Khairabad), Sawat (at Kalam) and Kabul (at Nowshera) have decreased whereas in River Shoyk (9%), Shigar (7%) and Indus at Kachura (5%) have been increased. However, annual runoff in Gilgit (1%) and Hunza River (18%) has increased by increasing 2 % annual temperature. A seasonal correlation coefficient between temperature and streamflow has the positive correlation in most of the sub-basins of UIB for both spring and summer. With increased 1 oC temperature in spring yields increased streamflow for rives Gilgit, Chitral, Astore, Shoyk, Shigar, Indus at Kachura & Kharmong and Hunza with percentage of 19, 5, 11, 15, 9, 7, 1 and 12 respectively. The prevailing trends and variability, caused by climate change, have an effect on the flows that should be considered by the water managers for better water management in a water scarcity country like Pakistan. On the basis of collected real time data, an awareness regarding present Integrated Water Management (IWM) working with up-to-date techniques is recommended for effective water on-going reform process.

  10. Structural separation of river flow regimes and paleo-landscape decoupling: a case study on the Indus River, northwest Himalayas. 

    E-print Network

    Haworth, Chris

    2012-11-29

    New evidence derived from remotely sensed data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) on the Indus River and its tributaries suggests that structural features of the area’s geology exert a much greater influence than was previously thought. A...

  11. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  12. Influence of mid-latitude circulation on upper Indus basin precipitation: the explicit role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Saeed, Sajjad; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Since much of the flow of the Indus River originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of weather characteristics leading to precipitation over the region is essential for water resources management. This study examines the influence of upper level mid-latitude circulation on the summer precipitation over upper Indus basin (UIB). Using reanalysis data, a geopotential height index (GH) is defined at 200 hPa over central Asia, which has a significant correlation with the precipitation over UIB. GH has also shown significant correlation with the heat low (over Iran and Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan), easterly shear of zonal winds (associated with central Asian high) and evapotranspiration (over UIB). It is argued that the geopotential height index has the potential to serve as a precursor for the precipitation over UIB. In order to assess the influence of irrigation on precipitation over UIB, a simplified irrigation scheme has been developed and applied to the regional climate model REMO. It has been shown that both versions of REMO (with and without irrigation) show significant correlations of GH with easterly wind shear and heat low. However contrary to reanalysis and the REMO version with irrigation, the REMO version without irrigation does not show any correlation between GH index and evapotranspiration as well as between geopotential height and precipitation over UIB, which is further confirmed by the quantitative analysis of extreme precipitation events over UIB. It is concluded that although atmospheric moisture over coastal Arabian sea region, triggered by wind shear and advected northward due to heat low, also contribute to the UIB precipitation. However for the availability of necessary moisture for precipitation over UIB, the major role is played by the evapotranspiration of water from irrigation. From the results it may also be inferred that the representation of irrigated water in climate models is unavoidable for studying the impact of global warming over the region.

  13. Reconciling high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin with glacier mass balances and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wanders, N.; Lutz, A. F.; Shea, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-11-01

    Mountain ranges in Asia are important water suppliers, especially if downstream climates are arid, water demands are high and glaciers are abundant. In such basins, the hydrological cycle depends heavily on high-altitude precipitation. Yet direct observations of high-altitude precipitation are lacking and satellite derived products are of insufficient resolution and quality to capture spatial variation and magnitude of mountain precipitation. Here we use glacier mass balances to inversely infer the high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin and show that the amount of precipitation required to sustain the observed mass balances of large glacier systems is far beyond what is observed at valley stations or estimated by gridded precipitation products. An independent validation with observed river flow confirms that the water balance can indeed only be closed when the high-altitude precipitation on average is more than twice as high and in extreme cases up to a factor of 10 higher than previously thought. We conclude that these findings alter the present understanding of high-altitude hydrology and will have an important bearing on climate change impact studies, planning and design of hydropower plants and irrigation reservoirs as well as the regional geopolitical situation in general.

  14. Reconciling high altitude precipitation in the upper Indus Basin with glacier mass balances and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wanders, N.; Lutz, A. F.; Shea, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-05-01

    Mountain ranges in Asia are important water suppliers, especially if downstream climates are arid, water demands are high and glaciers are abundant. In such basins, the hydrological cycle depends heavily on high altitude precipitation. Yet direct observations of high altitude precipitation are lacking and satellite derived products are of insufficient resolution and quality to capture spatial variation and magnitude of mountain precipitation. Here we use glacier mass balances to inversely infer the high altitude precipitation in the upper Indus Basin and show that the amount of precipitation required to sustain the observed mass balances of the large glacier systems is far beyond what is observed at valley stations or estimated by gridded precipitation products. An independent validation with observed river flow confirms that the water balance can indeed only be closed when the high altitude precipitation is up to a factor ten higher than previously thought. We conclude that these findings alter the present understanding of high altitude hydrology and will have an important bearing on climate change impact studies, planning and design of hydropower plants and irrigation reservoirs and the regional geopolitical situation in general.

  15. Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of extremely high rainfall (point or areal) is one of the major components of design storm derivation. The estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) involves selection of heavy rainstorms and its maximization for the moisture content during the rainstorm period. These heavy rainstorms are nothing but the widespread heavy rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The present study examines the characteristics of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin selected from present climate and future scenarios simulated by the regional climate model. Such information on heavy rainfall forms the basis for the hydrologic design projects and also for the water management of a river basin. Emphasis is given to severe rainstorms of 1-day duration covering an area of at least 40,000 km 2 with spatial average rainfall of at least 5cm. This analysis also provides the information on the temporal changes in the storm factors such as shape, orientation, and movement, and shows that the model can well simulate the rainstorm pattern in terms of its intensity, orientation, and shape of the rainstorm, but overestimates the frequency of such heavy rainstorms. The future scenario indicates increase in rainfall intensity at the center of the rainstorm with decreasing areal spread. Decrease in the frequency of rainstorms is projected under the global warming conditions.

  16. Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network approach and water balance. Also, crop water demands, rainfall, and surface water are calculated to estimate the groundwater abstraction in different districts of Lower Chenb Canal East to understand its usage patterns in year 2008-09. Crop water demand has been estimated using SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm which is based on surface energy balance. Landsat 5 TM satellite images are used to estimate actual crop water demand and the results are compared with Penman Monteith method. The irrigation supplies are calculated from real time data collected by Project Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU), Punjab Irrigation Department. The PMIU envisaged for efficient and optimal canal operations oriented towards equity and transparency. Initial results from nodal network water balance model also provide the spatial variation in crop water demand for each node in LCC East. This work is also aimed at evaluating surface water availability and the assessment of spatial distribution of groundwater abstractions by considering the present crop water demand.

  17. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2011-03-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options.

  18. Constraints to the timing of IndiaEurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the IndusTsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India

    E-print Network

    Najman, Yani

    Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus­Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India Alexandra L. Henderson a , Yani, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks

  19. Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2008-09-01

    Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements. PMID:21396072

  20. Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2012-09-01

    Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in Shyok River at Yogo and a maximum trend in Swat River at Kalam. Long-term recorded data used to estimate flow duration curves have shown a uniform trend and are important for hydropower generation for Pakistan which is seriously facing power crisis in last 5 years. PMID:22109645

  1. Human induced flooding of the Indus River in 2010: How it changed the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Major rivers in densely populated areas are typically heavily engineered to fulfill. water needs and importantly to ensure protection for citizens and structures. The Indus River forms no exception to this. The river has been dammed and engineered for centuries, comprising one of the largest irrigation networks in the world. The engineered river system results in a reduction of its outflow to 10% of its historical value, with commonly no flow at the outlet for several months of the year. During July 2010, extensive flooding occurred causing ~2,000 fatalities and ~20 million people were displaced for weeks to months due to a peak discharge that was not exceptional in any sense (~10 year reoccurrence interval). The northern breach was located near the Sukkur Barrage and likely caused by undercapacity of the engineered channel. We analyzed AMSR-E, ASTER-A1 and MODIS satellite data to map the propagation of the Indus flood wave in the main channel and through the major breaches. The flood wave traveled through the main channel in ~20 days and much slower through newly-formed avulsion pathway onwards from the breach at Sukkur Barrage (~42 days).Analysis of MODIS reflectance changes between pre- and post-flood imagery allowed analysis of the extent of sandy flood deposition as well as quantification of channel migration patterns. The river channel migrates over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event controlled by massive pointbar accretion and river cutbank erosion and slumping. Lateral migration averaged ~340m in just 52 days along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River. Crevasse splaying is widespread and appears to occur as a flow stripping process both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Crevasse deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. The mapped flood deposits are analyzed for different river stretches and quantitatively related to river gradient and sinuosity. The 2010 Indus flood shows an example of a heavily engineered system, it provides us with insights on flood water propagation and sedimentation and river migration in a river system with many dams and stopbanks.

  2. CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

  3. Impact of warming climate on the monsoon and water resources of a western Himalayan watershed in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn J.

    2015-04-01

    This study discusses the impact of a warming climate on the monsoon and on water resources in the Astore watershed, a major tributary of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). It uses precipitation and temperature time series data from climatic stations, European Reanalysis (ERA) interim precipitation data, and monthly river flow data, all for the 1984-2009 period. Monthly average temperature data show statistically significant increasing trends for November-June through this period, while June and July, which experience episodic and intense precipitation, show statistically significant but opposing trends between the first and second halves of the period. To examine precipitation and flow data in more detail, two equal sub-periods were defined; 1984-1996 (T1) and 1997-2009 (T2). Basin-wide average annual precipitation (based on ERA data) declined by ~29% from 1481 mm/yr in T1 to 1148 inT2, whereas during the same periods flows declined by only ~17% (1245 to 1061 mm/yr), suggesting an increase in glacier melt in the T2 period. Spring to early summer flows increased during the T2 period concomitant with shift in the streamflow peak from July to June. Increasing spring discharge, the shift in timing of annual peak discharge, and an increase in the glacial melt component in river flows have been accompanied by a depletion of glacial storage within the Astore watershed, especially in the T2 period. If recent trends in climate and river flow continue in the future, then river flows will eventually decrease more sharply once the glacial reserves can no longer provide sustained nourishment to the river waters. Thus, there is a vital need to prepare and adopt policies for water resource management and reservoir operation that support sustainable development, agricultural expansion, and increased hydro-power generation.

  4. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt runoff in a distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework at Upper Indus Basin, Karakoram region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Koike, T.; Xue, Y.; Wang, L.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High mountain river basins in Hindukush Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) regions are considered as 'water towers' of Asia with abundant source of fresh water as snow and glaciers. Upper Indus basin is one of the mega scale river basin in HKH region where snow and glaciermelt runoff is the major contributor to the annual runoff. The hostile climate, remote and extreme rough topography imposes many restraints regarding hydro-meteorological and glaciological observations, leading towards limited understanding of hydrological processes of river basins in this region. It is vital to integrate snow and glacier melt processes in a distributed biosphere hydrological framework to estimate the snow and glacier melt runoff and to quantify the river flow composition (snowmelt, glacier melt and rainfall contribution). An integrated system of distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework with multilayer energy balance based snow and glaciermelt runoff schemes (WEB-DHM-S model) was implemented at Upper Indus basin (207300 km2) with a spatial resolution of 1 km and temporal resolution of an hour. Model input were meteorological forcing from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), APHRODITE precipitation and de-trended gridded air temperature from observations. Simulations were carried out for two hydrological years (2002-2003). Discharge simulation results at multiple gauges showed good agreement with the observed one having Nash efficiency at 0.86. The spatial distribution of snow cover is simulated well as compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived eight-day maximum snow-cover extent data (MOD10A2). Model accuracy, overestimation error and underestimation error in snow cover simulation were obtained at 78%, 7% and 15% respectively. Uncertainty in precipitation was the main reason for the biases in seasonal variation of snow pixel errors. The model demonstrated its sound capability in comprehensive simulation of discharge with its flow composition, spatial distribution of snow cover and net mass balance.

  5. Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

    2010-08-01

    The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers. PMID:20873207

  6. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ˜200 ka and ˜50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ˜30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late- or post-glacial sediment pulse seems a more likely source of this widespread sedimentation that has partly buried the dissected bedrock topography. Overall, the long residence times of fluvial, alluvial and lacustrine deposits in the region (>500 ka) support previous studies, but remain striking given the dominantly steep slopes and deeply carved valleys that characterise this high-altitude mountain desert. Recalculated late Quaternary rates of fluvial bedrock incision in the Indus and Zanskar of 1.5 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 are at odds with the longevity of juxtaposed valley-fill deposits, unless a lack of decisive lateral fluvial erosion helps to preserve these late Pleistocene sedimentary archives. We conclude that alternating, ˜104-yr long, phases of massive infilling and incision have dominated the late Quaternary history of the Indus valley below the western Tibetan Plateau margin.

  7. Sustainability Within the Great Monsoon River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    For over five millenia, the great monsoon river basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus have provided for great and flourishing agrarian civilizations. However, rapid population growth and urbanization have placed stress on the rural sector causing the use of land that is more prone for flood and drought. In addition, increased population and farming have stressed the availability of fresh water both from rivers and aquifers. Additionally, rapid urbanization has severely reduced water quality within the great rivers. Added to these problems is delta subsidence from water withdrawal that, at the moment far surpasses sea level rise from both natural and anthropogenic effects. Finally, there appear to be great plans for river diversion that may reduce fresh water inflow into the Brahmaputra delta. All of these factors fall against a background of climate change, both anthropogenic and natural, of which there is great uncertainty. We an attempt a frank assessment assessment of the sustainability of society in the great basins and make some suggestions of factors that require attention in the short term.

  8. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use planning and soil conservation as well as flood management, with a focus on the reduction of erosion and resulting sedimentation as well as the restoration of ecosystem services like wetlands and natural floodplains. Water demand management options include: (1) the management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; as well as (2) the rehabilitation and modernization of existing infrastructure. Other demand management options are: (3) the increase of water productivity for agriculture; (4) crop planning and diversification including the critical assessment of agricultural export, especially (basmati) rice; (5) economic instruments and (6) changing food demand patterns and limiting post-harvest losses.

  9. Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

    2011-07-01

    In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in fact typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

  10. Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Diolaiuti, G.; Soncini, A.; Mihalcea, C.; D'Agata, C.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Rosso, R.; Smiraglia, C.

    2011-04-01

    In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in facts typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060) hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2), nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated. The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050-2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of the results is then addressed, and use of the model for nearby catchments discussed. The proposed approach is valuable as a tool to investigate the hydrology of poorly gauged high altitude areas, and to project forward their hydrological behavior pending climate change.

  11. Sediment storage and reworkingon the shelf and in the Canyon of the Indus River-Fan Systemsince the

    E-print Network

    Clift, Peter

    , reworking and recycling both on the shelf and within the submarine canyon prior to its deposition, so from source areas. In this study, we have examined the role that the shelf and submarine canyon playSediment storage and reworkingon the shelf and in the Canyon of the Indus River-Fan Systemsince

  12. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Extirpation in Freshwater Ecosystems; Causes of Range Decline of the Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor)

    PubMed Central

    Braulik, Gill T.; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world’s most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world’s most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin’s range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin. PMID:25029270

  13. Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2011-02-01

    The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054

  14. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water Resources and Management of Tarbela Reservoir under IPCC Climate Change Scenarios in Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Water resources play a vital role in agriculture, energy, industry, households and ecological balance. The main source of water to rivers is the Himalaya-Karakorum-Hindukush (HKH) glaciers and rainfall in Upper Indus Basin (UIB). There is high uncertainty in the availability of water in the rivers due to the variability of the monsoon, Western Disturbances, prolonged droughts and melting of glaciers in the HKH region. Therefore, proper management of water resources is undeniably important. Due to the growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. For the assessment of possible climate change, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation were investigated and evidence was found in favor of climate change in the region. Due to large differences between historical meteorological data and Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulated data, different statistical techniques were used for bias correction in temperature and precipitation. The hydrological model was calibrated for the period of 1995-2004 and validated for the period of 1990-1994 with almost 90 % efficiencies. After the application of bias correction techniques output of RCM, Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS) were used as input data to the hydrological model to produce inflow projections at Tarbela reservoir on Indus River. For climate change assessment, the results show that the above mentioned variables have greater increasing trend under A2 scenario compared to B2 scenario. The projections of inflow to Tarbela reservoir show that overall 59.42 % and 34.27 % inflow increasing to Tarbela Reservoir during 2040-2069 under A2 and B2 scenarios will occur, respectively. Highest inflow and comparatively more shortage of water is noted in the 2020s under A2 scenario. Finally, the impacts of changing climate are investigated on the operation of the Tarbela reservoir. The results show that there will be shortage of water in some months over different years. There are no chances of overtopping of the dam during the 2020s and the 2050s under A2 and B2 scenarios. _______________________________________________________________________________KEY WORDS: Climate Model, Climate Change, Hydrological Model, Climate Change Scenarios, Tarbela Reservoir, Inflow, Outflow, Evaporation, Indus River, Calibration, Bias Correction.

  15. Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation,

    E-print Network

    and of the Program. The MERR Plan is intended to adapt over time in concert with the evolving Program. Comment [B1Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Reporting (MERR) Plan Council document Plan (MERR Plan) ensures the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) goals

  16. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the principles of low-risk adaptation, participative decision making and local capacity building.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems and their contribution to environmental change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Mohsin; Goheer, M. Arif

    2008-11-01

    There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHG concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from different agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  18. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-01

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology. PMID:24604204

  19. Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

    2011-03-01

    We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely Early-Mid Holocene, erosional state, in which the Lesser Himalaya were more important as sediment suppliers. Early-Mid Holocene sands show much less erosion from the Karakoram-Transhimalaya compared to those deposited at the Last Glacial Maximum, or calculated from the modern discharge. We favour variations in summer monsoon intensity as the primary cause of these temporal changes.

  20. Atlas of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    #12;Atlas of the Columbia River Basin Oregon State University Computer-Assisted Cartography Course & GEOVISUALIZATION GROUP UNIVERSITY #12;2013 Oregon State University Atlas of the Columbia River Basin FOREWORDAtlas of the Columbia River Basin The Columbia River Basin is the social, ecological, and economic heart of the Pacific

  1. The State of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    .................................................................................................... 21 Snake River sockeyeThe State of the Columbia River Basin Fiscal Year 2014 ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2013 ­ September 30 River Basin and to inform the public about energy and fish and wildlife issues and involve the public

  2. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    The Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif has some of the greatest relief on Earth and highest measured rates of uplift, denudation, and river incision in bedrock. Many studies have sought to understand how its morphology relates to geotectonic evolution and glaciations. However, few catastrophic rock slope failures had been recognised and many of their impacts had been attributed to other processes. Recently more than 150 of these landslides have been found within a 100-km radius of Nanga Parbat (8125 m). New discoveries are reported east, north and west of Nanga Parbat along the Indus streams. Most generated long-run-out rock avalanches that dammed the Indus or its tributaries, some impounding large lakes. They initiated episodes of intermontane sedimentation followed by trenching and removal of sediment. Valley-floor features record a complex interplay of impoundment and sedimentation episodes, superimposition of streams in pre-landslide valley floors, and exhumation of buried features. These findings depart from existing reconstructions of Quaternary events. A number of the rock-avalanche deposits were previously misinterpreted as tills or moraine and their associated lacustrine deposits attributed to glacial lakes. Features up to 1000 m above the Indus, formerly seen as tectonically raised terraces, are depositional features emplaced by landslides, or erosion terraces recording the trenching of valley fill in landslide-interrupted river reaches. Unquestionably, tectonics and glaciation have been important but decisive and misread formative events of the Holocene involve a post-glacial, landslide-fragmented fluvial system. The latter has kept valley developments in a chronic state of disequilibrium with respect to climatic and geotectonic controls. Accepted glacial chronologies are put in doubt, particularly the extent and timing of the last major glaciation. The pace and role processes in the Holocene have been seriously underestimated.

  3. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  4. Basin scale natural gas source, migration and trapping traced by noble gases and major elements: the Pakistan Indus basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battani, Anne; Sarda, Philippe; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2000-08-01

    He, Ne and Ar concentrations, He and Ar isotopic ratios, carbon isotopic ratios and chemical compositions of hydrocarbon gases were measured in natural gas samples from gas-producing wells in the Indus basin, Pakistan, where no oil has ever been found. 3He/ 4He ratios are in the range 0.01-0.06 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric value of 1.38×10 -6) indicating the absence of mantle-derived helium despite the Trias extension. 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios range from 296 to 800, consistent with variable additions of radiogenic argon to atmospheric, groundwater-derived argon. Rare gas concentrations show large variations, from 6×10 -5 to 1×10 -3 mol/mol for 4He and from 3×10 -7 to 3×10 -5 mol/mol for 36Ar. In general, 36Ar concentrations are high compared to literature data for natural gas. CO 2 and N 2 concentrations are variable, ranging up to 70 and 20%, respectively. Mantle-derived He is not observed, therefore CO 2 and N 2 are not mantle-derived either. Hydrocarbon gas maturity is high, but accumulation efficiency is small, suggesting that early-produced hydrocarbons, including oil, were lost as well as mantle helium. This is consistent with the generally late, Pliocene, trap formation, and explains the high N 2 concentrations, since N 2 is the final species generated at the end of organic matter maturation. Based on ? 13C data, CO 2 originates from carbonate decomposition. Very elevated 20Ne/ 36Ar ratios are found, reaching a maximum of 1.3 (compared to 0.1-0.2 for air-saturated water and 0.5 for air), and these high values are related to the lowest rare gas concentrations. We suggest that this highly fractionated signature is the trace of the past presence of oil in the basin and appeared in groundwater. We propose a model where oil-water contact is followed by gas-water contact, both with Rayleigh distillation for rare gas abundance ratios, thereby generating the fractionated 20Ne/ 36Ar signature in groundwater first and transferring it to gas later. Assuming the gas-water contact occurred shallower than present reservoir depths, this model explains the generally high 36Ar concentrations and low CH 4/ 36Ar ratios compared to other studies on younger basins. It thus provides a historical perspective on fluid transfer in a sedimentary basin, where a gas accumulation may have been buried to greater depth since formation. Rare gas and major element data point to mixing between two gas pulses produced successively. The very CO 2-N 2-rich gases are terminal products of organic matter maturation which have been trapped after important migration. This gas was followed by a more typical thermogenic gas which mixed with it.

  5. WATER TEMPERATURES OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    WATER TEMPERATURES OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN 1950 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 69 Interior, Oscar LWATER^ showing location of thermographs ,, . h 2,, Willamette River maximum water temperatures ,,

  6. Fifty-five million years of Tibetan evolution recorded in the Indus Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Shimizu, Nobu; Layne, Graham; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schlter, H.-U.; Clark, Marin; Amjad, Shahid

    Although the Indus Fan is only about one-third of the volume of its giant neighbor in the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the largest sediment bodies in the ocean basins, totaling ˜5×106 km3. Its detrital sedimentary record is an important repository of information on the uplift and erosion of the western Himalaya. New seismic and provenance data from the Pakistan margin now suggest that the Indus River and fan system was initiated shortly after the India-Asia collision at ˜5 Ma. The modern Indus drainage basin is dominated by the high peaks of the Karakoram, Kohistan, and other tectonic units of the Indus Suture Zone rather than the High Himalaya. The Indus River, which rises in western Tibet near Mount Kailas, follows the Indus Suture Zone along strike before cutting orthogonally through the Himalaya to the Arabian Sea. The other tributaries to the Indus, such as the Chenab and Sutlej, do drain the crystalline High Himalayan range, but do so in an area where its topography is much reduced (Figure 1). In contrast, the Bengal Fans main feeder rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, follow the High Himalaya along strike for much of the length of the orogen. In practice, this means that the Bengal Fan is swamped by the large volume of material derived from the rapidly unroofing High Himalaya [France-Lanord et al, 1993], while the Indus Fan is dominated by tectonic units adjacent to the suture zone, including western Tibet. This allows their erosional signal to be more readily isolated in the Indus Fan compared to in the Bengal.

  7. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the Secretary of the Interior,...

  8. Mohawk River Basin Action Agenda 2012 2016

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Mohawk River Basin Action Agenda 2012 ­ 2016 Conserving, preserving, and restoring the environmental quality of the Mohawk River while helping to manage the basin's resources for a sustainable future NYSDEC Mohawk River Basin Program 1130 N. Westcott Road Schenectady, New York 12306 Phone: (518) 357

  9. Separating snow, clean and debris covered ice in the Upper Indus Basin, Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas, using Landsat images between 1998 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Naz, Bibi S.; Bowling, Laura C.

    2015-02-01

    The Hindukush Karakoram Himalayan mountains contain some of the largest glaciers of the world, and supply melt water from perennial snow and glaciers to the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) upstream of Tarbela dam, which constitutes greater than 80% of the annual flows, and caters to the needs of millions of people in the Indus Basin. It is therefore important to study the response of perennial snow and glaciers in the UIB under changing climatic conditions, using improved hydrological modeling, glacier mass balance, and observations of glacier responses. However, the available glacier inventories and datasets only provide total perennial-snow and glacier cover areas, despite the fact that snow, clean ice and debris covered ice have different melt rates and densities. This distinction is vital for improved hydrological modeling and mass balance studies. This study, therefore, presents a separated perennial snow and glacier inventory (perennial snow-cover on steep slopes, perennial snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice) based on a semi-automated method that combines Landsat images and surface slope information in a supervised maximum likelihood classification to map distinct glacier zones, followed by manual post processing. The accuracy of the presented inventory falls well within the accuracy limits of available snow and glacier inventory products. For the entire UIB, estimates of perennial and/or seasonal snow on steep slopes, snow-covered ice, clean and debris covered ice zones are 7238 ± 724, 5226 ± 522, 4695 ± 469 and 2126 ± 212 km2 respectively. Thus total snow and glacier cover is 19,285 ± 1928 km2, out of which 12,075 ± 1207 km2 is glacier cover (excluding steep slope snow-cover). Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) estimates based on the Snow Line Elevation (SLE) in various watersheds range between 4800 and 5500 m, while the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) ranges between 7% and 80%. 0 °C isotherms during peak ablation months (July and August) range between ? 5500 and 6200 m in various watersheds. These outputs can be used as input to hydrological models, to estimate spatially-variable degree day factors for hydrological modeling, to separate glacier and snow-melt contributions in river flows, and to study glacier mass balance, and glacier responses to changing climate.

  10. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  11. Modelling runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, Upper Indus Basin under prevailing and projected climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Lucarini, Valerio

    2015-04-01

    We, analyzing observations from high altitude automated weather stations from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) within upper Indus basin (UIB), assess prevailing state of climatic changes over the UIB and whether such state is consistently represented by the latest generation climate model simulations. We further assess impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of the UIB, and changes in its snow and glacier melt regimes, separately. For this, a semi-distributed watershed model (UBC - University of British Columbia) has been calibrated/validated for UIB at Besham Qila (just above the Tarbela reservoir) using daily historical climate (Tmax, Tmin and Precipitation) and river flow data for the period 1995-2012. Our results show that the UIB stands out the anthropogenic climate change signal, featuring a significant cooling (warming) during the mid-to-late (early) melt season and an enhanced influence of the westerly and monsoonal precipitation regimes. We also show that such phenomena, particularly the summer cooling is largely absent from the latest generation climate model simulations, suggesting their irrelevance for at least near-future assessment of climate change impacts on the hydrology of UIB. Therefore, we construct a hypothetical but more relevant near-future climate change scenario till 2030 based on prevailing state of climate change over UIB. We additionally obtain climate change scenario as projected by five high-resolution CMIP5 climate models under an extreme representative concentration pathway RCP8.5 for the period 2085-2100, assuming that such a scenario may only be realized in the far-future, if at all. Under the hypothetical near-future scenario, our modelling results show that the glacier melt (snowmelt) contribution will decrease (increase) due to cooling (warming) in mid-to-late (early) melt season, though the overall flows will drop. Consequently, the overall hydrological regime will experience an early snow- but a delayed glacier melt, with both the regimes shifting apart. The reduced glacier melt in conjunction with enhanced precipitation regimes, further implies an overall positive mass balance of the UIB glaciers, consistent with recent findings of non-negative geodetic mass balance and related investigations. On the other hand, in case the UIB starts following the global climate change signal, it will result in short-term increase in the water availability mainly due to an increased glacier melt, which will be followed by an abrupt decrease when the glaciers will disappear in the far-future. Based on our results, we caution the impact assessment communities focusing on the water resources of UIB and the policy makers to consider the relevance of the climate change scenarios while planning of the water resources of Pakistan, as it is not clear when the global warming scenario will unfold.

  12. Ecological River Basin Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  13. Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin Pocket Guide 2013 Edition #12;PAGe 2 > POCKET GUIDE electric Power Planning and conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) #12;Fast Facts Abut the columbia River, and fish and wildlife affected by, the columbia River Basin hydropower dams. the council is a unique

  14. Queensland River BasinsQueensland River Basins and Weather Forecast Districtsand Weather Forecast Districts

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Queensland River BasinsQueensland River Basins and Weather Forecast Districtsand Weather Forecast Penninsula (1) Weather forecast district, name and number. #12; Districts Map Produced by Flood Forecasting and Warning Services, Bureau of Meteorology, Brisbane Note

  15. Pb isotopic variability in the modern-Pleistocene Indus River system measured by ion microprobe in detrital K-feldspar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Giosan, Liviu; VanLaningham, Sam; Hinton, Richard; Tabrez, Ali R.; Danish, Muhammad; Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility (EIMF)

    2011-09-01

    The western Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet are known to be heterogeneous with regard to Pb isotope compositions in K-feldspars, which allows this system to be used as a sediment provenance tool. We used secondary ion mass spectrometry to measure the isotopic character of silt and sand-sized grains from the modern Sutlej and Chenab Rivers, together with Thar Desert sands, in order to constrain their origin. The rivers show a clear Himalayan provenance, contrasting with grains from the Indus Suture Zone, but with overlap to known Karakoram compositions. The desert dunes commonly show 207Pb/ 204Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb values that are much higher than those seen in the rivers, most consistent with erosion from Nanga Parbat. This implies at least some origin from the trunk Indus, probably reworked by summer monsoon winds from the SW, a hypothesis supported by bulk Nd and U-Pb zircon dating. Further data collected from Holocene and Pleistocene sands shows that filled and abandoned channels on the western edge of the Thar Desert were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ˜4.5 ka when flow ceased entirely. This may be linked to climatic drying, northward expansion of the Thar Desert, or changes in drainage style including regional capture, channel abandonment, or active local Thar tributaries. Our data further show a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. While this cannot be distinguished from the Indus it is not heavily contaminated by reworking from the desert. The Pb system shows some use as a provenance tool, but is not effective at demonstrating whether these Nara sediments represent a Ghaggar-Hakra stream independent from the Indus. Our study highlights an important role for eolian reworking of floodplain sediments in arid rivers such as the Indus.

  16. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

  17. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  18. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  19. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  20. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

  1. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  3. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

  4. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  5. Surface energy balance and actual evapotranspiration of the transboundary Indus Basin estimated from satellite measurements and the ETLook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Cheema, M. J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Miltenburg, I. J.; Pelgrum, H.

    2012-11-01

    The surface energy fluxes and related evapotranspiration processes across the Indus Basin were estimated for the hydrological year 2007 using satellite measurements. The new ETLook remote sensing model (version 1) infers information on actual Evaporation (E) and actual Transpiration (T) from combined optical and passive microwave sensors, which can observe the land-surface even under persistent overcast conditions. A two-layer Penman-Monteith equation was applied for quantifying soil and canopy evaporation. The novelty of the paper is the computation of E and T across a vast area (116.2 million ha) by using public domain microwave data that can be applied under all weather conditions, and for which no advanced input data are required. The average net radiation for the basin was estimated as being 112 Wm-2. The basin average sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes were estimated to be 80, 32, and 0 Wm-2, respectively. The average evapotranspiration (ET) and evaporative fraction were 1.2 mm d-1 and 0.28, respectively. The basin wide ET was 496 ± 16.8 km3 yr-1. Monte Carlo analysis have indicated 3.4% error at 95% confidence interval for a dominant land use class. Results compared well with previously conducted soil moisture, lysimeter and Bowen ratio measurements at field scale (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.45 mm d-1; RE = -11.5% for annual ET). ET results were also compared against earlier remote sensing and modeling studies for various regions and provinces in Pakistan (R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 0.29 mmd-1; RE = 6.5% for annual ET). The water balance for all irrigated areas together as one total system in Pakistan and India (26.02 million ha) show a total ET value that is congruent with the ET value from the ETLook surface energy balance computations. An unpublished validation of the same ETLook model for 23 jurisdictional areas covering the entire Australian continent showed satisfactory results given the quality of the watershed data and the diverging physiographic and climatic conditions (R2 = 0.70; RMSE = 0.31 mmd-1; RE = -2.8% for annual ET). Eight day values of latent heat fluxes in Heibei (China) showed a good resemblance (R2 = 0.92; RMSE = 0.04 mm d-1; RE = 9.5% for annual ET). It is concluded that ETLook is a novel model that can be operationalized further—especially after improving the preprocessing of spaceborne soil moisture data. This preprocessing includes (1) downscaling of topsoil moisture from 25 to 1 km pixels, and (2) translation of topsoil moisture into subsoil moisture values.

  6. Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project 5 October 2012 ABSTRACT: The study area encompasses the Neuse River Basin, the third-largest river basin in North Carolina. The Basin the state. The Neuse River originates at the confluence of the Eno and Flat Rivers in north- central North

  7. GUNNISON RIVER (COLORADO) BASIN SELENIUM TARGETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins Targeting Project will gather water quality data necessary to characterize the selenium loads that are being contributed from within the basins. Evaluation of the variabiliy of selenium loading in the basins will guide the implementation...

  8. Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between India and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stéphane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Métais, Grégoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz H.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen and its role in global climate, oceanic chemistry, and ecological evolution. Despite much active research, the basic pre-collision tectonic configuration and the timing of terminal India-Asia suturing remain debated. For example, debates regarding when and how the intervening Kohistan-Ladakh arc was sutured with India and Asia still remain elusive; some models propose the arc collided with Asia at about 100 Ma, with India-Asia collision at ca. 55 Ma, whilst a newer model proposed the arc's collision with India at 50 Ma and subsequently with Asia at 40 Ma. Another example is the recent proposition that an oceanic Greater India Basin separated the Tethyan Himalaya microcontinent from the remaining Indian plate until 20- 25 Ma with the consumption of this oceanic basin marking the final collision at this time. These controversies relate to whether the commonly documented 50 Ma contact represents the terminal India-Asia suturing or the amalgamation between various arcs or microcontinents with India or Asia. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus basin on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that Greater India was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the present-day Indus and named as the Paleo-Indus, which has been transporting Asian detritus southward across the suture zone and Kohistan-Ladakh arc since 50 Ma, suggesting no other ocean basins intervened between India and Asia after this time in this region. Our data require that in the west the India-Asia collision were accomplished by ?50 Ma.

  9. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: A human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timmer; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-15

    The present study was conducted to reveal the concentrations and patterns of organochlorines [i.e., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] in freshwater fish species collected from four ecologically important sites of the Indus River i.e., Taunsa (TAU), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Guddu (GUD) and Sukkur (SUK). In the fish muscle tissues, concentrations of 15 OCPs (?15OCPs) and 29 PCBs (?29PCBs) varied between 1.93-61.9 and 0.81-44.2ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Overall, the rank order of OCs was DDTs>PCBs>hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)>chlordanes (CHLs). The patterns of PCBs showed maximum contribution of tri-CBs (59%). Ratios of individual HCH and DDT analytes contributing to the summed values indicated both recent and past use of these chemicals in the region, depending upon fish species. To assess the associated health risks, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were calculated through hazard ratios (HRs). For carcinogenic risk, HR was >1 at both 50th and 95th percentile concentrations, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk of 1 in a million. HR for non-cancerous risk was <1 at both the percentiles, signifying no adverse effect by OCs exposure in native population. PMID:26476063

  10. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  11. Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers. PMID:23508145

  12. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  13. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  14. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

  15. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  16. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  18. Columbia River Basin Research Plan Northwest Power and Conservation Council

    E-print Network

    .............................................................................. 24 Appendix B. Implementing the Research Plan in Fiscal Years 2007Columbia River Basin Research Plan By the Northwest Power and Conservation Council February 2006 ......................................................................................................................... 3 Scope and Audience of the Columbia River Basin Research Plan

  19. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

  20. WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRA.Il"5r SEP 2, Coanlssloner WATER QUALITY STUDIBS IH THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN by Robert 0. Sylvester, Project Supervisor--Fisheries No. 239 Washington, D. C. May 1958 #12;#12;WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN TEE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN Robert 0

  1. Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia 24 September 2013 the Lynnhaven River Basin. The watershed is located within the City of Virginia Beach in Southeastern Virginia is the City of Virginia Beach. The study area consists of the entire Lynnhaven River Basin, a 64-square- mile

  2. WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN THE WENATCHEE RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN THE WENATCHEE RIVER BASIN Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, Mft, Commissioner WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN THE WENATCHEE RIVER BASIN by Robert Wendell Seabloom Department of Civil characteristics of water was made in the Wenatchee River Basin during 1954, 1955 and 1956 to provide a basis

  3. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  6. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  8. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  9. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  10. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  11. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  12. Geomorphology and natural hazards of the Samala river basin, Guatemala

    E-print Network

    Geomorphology and natural hazards of the Samala river basin, Guatemala Francisco de la Caridad Viera Cepero March 2003 #12;Geomorphology and natural hazards of the Samala river basin, Guatemala The Samala river basin is one of the areas with a high incidence of natural disasters in Guatemala

  13. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  14. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

  15. GOLF COURSES FRASER RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    : Fraser Pollution Abatement Office Fraser River Action Plan Environment Canada North Vancouver, B judgement in light of the knowledge and information available to UMA at the time of preparation. UMA denies by Environment Canada under the Fraser River Action Plan through the Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. The views

  16. Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

  17. Nutrient levels in the Yazoo River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings to aquatic ecosystems are linked to environmental problems including harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Presented is an assessment of accessible data on nutrient sources, sinks and inputs to streams within the Yazoo River Basin of northern Mississippi. Ac...

  18. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  19. 2010 Expenditures Report Columbia River Basin Fish

    E-print Network

    fish and wildlife affected by hydropower dams in the Columbia River Basin. The Power Act requires. Bonneville is a federal power marketing authority within the U.S. Department of Energy that sells wholesale electricity from 31 federal hydropower dams and one non-federal nuclear power plant in the Pacific Northwest

  20. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  1. SOURCE AREAS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN: ILLS AND CURES IN THE YAZOO RIVER BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi River drains two thirds of the continental United States. This basin contains the largest amount of concentrated livestock and crop agriculture in the United States. Because of size and land use, the river transports enough nutrients produce plankton blooms. The dying plankton neg...

  2. Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

    2004-12-01

    The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage by four NWS NEXRAD Doppler radar systems. 9) Long history of national interest and investment including flood control projects, wetland restoration, and dredging by the US Army Corps of Engineers, an intensively instrumented national watershed observatory by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Goodwin Creek, and numerous other projects by over 20 federal and state agencies. 10) Availability of a 2300 square meter research facility within the watershed for housing research and administrative activities.

  3. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  4. AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

    2011-01-01

    A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

  5. Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design

    E-print Network

    #12;Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design Prepared for Environment Canada. 1993. Fraser River Basin Assessment Program: Conceptual Monitoring Design. Pqared for Conservation Canada has much of the responsibility for the Environmental Quality component of the Fraser River Action

  6. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...showing the exact draft of water at such portions of the...to permit the lock gate behind it to be...

  7. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...showing the exact draft of water at such portions of the...to permit the lock gate behind it to be...

  8. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...showing the exact draft of water at such portions of the...to permit the lock gate behind it to be...

  9. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...showing the exact draft of water at such portions of the...to permit the lock gate behind it to be...

  10. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin...showing the exact draft of water at such portions of the...to permit the lock gate behind it to be...

  11. 15A NCAC 02B .0311 CAPE FEAR RIVER BASIN (a) Effective February 1, 1976, the adopted classifications assigned to the waters within the Cape Fear River Basin

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    DRAFT 15A NCAC 02B .0311 CAPE FEAR RIVER BASIN (a) Effective February 1, 1976, the adopted classifications assigned to the waters within the Cape Fear River Basin are set forth in the Cape Fear River Basin Salisbury Street Raleigh, North Carolina. (b) The Cape Fear River Basin Schedule of Classification and Water

  12. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  13. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  14. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  15. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  16. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

  17. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

  18. Part One: Overview I. The Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Part One: Overview I. The Columbia River Basin The Columbia is one of the great rivers of North America. Beginning at Columbia Lake, British Columbia, the main branch of the river travels over 1, Oregon. Fed mostly by melting snow, the Columbia River drains an area of about 259,000 square miles

  19. Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaçanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

  20. Powder River Basin: new energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.

    1981-02-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming represents a new energy frontier, where traditional ranch styles are giving way to boomtown development around new coal mines. Plans for extensive strip mining, coal trains and pipelines, and synthetic fuels plants will transform a 12,000 square mile area. The environmental and social impacts of trailer villages and the influx of new mores and life styles are already following traditional patterns for newcomers and long-time residents alike. Some local residents, however, are optimistic about the opportunities energy development will have. (DCK)

  1. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  2. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  3. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiquí River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  4. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

  5. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  6. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  7. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  8. Spatial and altitudinal variation of precipitation and the correction of gridded precipitation datasets for the Upper Indus Basin and the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn J.; Duan, Zheng; Naz, Bibi S.; Lee, Junhak; Khan, Mujahid

    2015-04-01

    Precise and accurate precipitation data (of both snow and rain) are a vital input for hydrological modeling, climatic studies and glacier mass balance analysis. This study investigates the accuracy of eight widely used gridded datasets, based on mass balance assessments, for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain region. The eight datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) v 2.2, 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU) v 3.2.2, 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B33 v 7, and 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data. Precipitation derived from these datasets has been compared with the sum of flow, MODIS ETact (Actual Evapo-transpiration), and glacier imbalance contribution to flows. All these datasets significantly underestimate precipitation, being 40-80% less than the measured flows, except for the NCEP/NCAR and ERA interim datasets, which only slightly underestimate precipitation. This is the case for almost all watersheds in the UIB, particularly the Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar and Astore watersheds. To provide alternative, more physically-reasonable precipitation estimates, annual and seasonal (October-May and June-September) precipitation values have been derived for the entire UIB using multiple regressions relating precipitation for 46 climate stations to the local altitude, slope, aspect, latitude and longitude. The results are distributed across the whole basin on a 1km grid, with an estimated uncertainty of 5-10%. The spatial pattern shows good agreement with the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) v 3.2 data, and with previous local studies that have measured and or modelled precipitation for various altitudes and watersheds. For the entire UIB (at Tarbela Dam), the revised annual average precipitation is 794±79 mm/yr compared to the sum of flow and ETact of 877±77 mm/yr, and a glacier melt contribution of about 20-40 mm/yr (6 ± 2% of annual average flows). This provides the best precipitation estimate currently available. This study therefore cautions against use of the gridded data products listed above without substantial effort in bias correction; and argues that previous hydro-climatic studies for the UIB and its region, based on these datasets, need significant re-evaluation,. The precipitation distribution estimated here can, however, be used in the future to correct existing gridded data products and to improve hydro-climatic studies in the Himalayan region.

  9. Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

  10. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  11. Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin

    E-print Network

    #12;Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin DOE FRAP 1996-09 Prepared by;DISCLAIMER This report was funded by Environment Canada under the Fraser River Action Plan through (Pandion haliaetus) as well as the livers of American Mink (Mustela vison) and River Otters (Lontra

  12. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with ?66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays ?66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  13. Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for Fiscal ..................................................................................................... 26 COWLITZ RIVER SUBBASIN ............................................................................................... 27 LEWIS RIVER SUBBASIN

  14. Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia

    E-print Network

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia A. Sorg governance Transboundary river basin Syr Darya river basin a b s t r a c t This paper discusses how climatic-hydrological and socio-political developments will affect water allocation in the Syr Darya river basin and which

  15. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  16. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  17. Paleogene Larger Benthic Foraminiferal Stratigraphy and Facies distribution: implications for tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Kohat Basin, Potwar Basin and the Trans Indus Ranges (TIR) northwest Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2011-11-24

    Thick Paleogene sequences occur in the southern deformed fold and thrust belt of the Himalayas. In this thesis I describe detailed litho- and biostratigraphy from ten key stratigraphic sections in the Kohat Basin, the ...

  18. Paleogeography of Paleocene Wind River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin was deposited in response to Laramide deformation between south-verging faults to the north (Owl Creek and Casper thrusts) and south (Wind River and Granite thrusts). Exposures in this asymmetric basin include a lower fluvial member overlain by the Waltman (lacustrine) and time-equivalent Shotgun (fluvial) members in the northeast and a single fluvial unit in the southeast. In the northeast, low sinuosity, ribbon channel sandstones (northwest paleoflow, about 40 m thick) are overlain by sheet-sand deposits interspersed with channel sandstones (southwest paleoflow, about 700 m thick), which are in turn overlain by the Waltman Member. The basal channel sands are wide (about 100 m perpendicular to flow), thick (5 to 10 m), and trough cross-bedded. The sheet-sand deposits consist of upward-fixing cycles 1 to 10 m thick. These facies are interpreted to be the product of longitudinal drainage flowing parallel to the Casper thrust, overlain by fan-delta sediments prograding perpendicular to the thrust. Palynology suggests a nearly complete Paleocene record for this sequence. To the south along the Rattlesnake Hills, trough cross-bedded sheet sandstones and gravel channel deposits (northward, 140 m thick) are overlain by layered mudstones and siltstones (180 m thick). The top of these high-energy braided-stream deposits and overlying low-energy delta-plain sediments are equivalent in age to the Waltman Member. A topographic low paralleled the Casper arch thrust during the earliest Paleocene. Prograding alluvial-fan sedimentation gradually shifted this topographic low away from the Casper thrust. Southern exposures record drainage toward, and ponding in, the topographic low.

  19. Combination of remote sensing data products to derive spatial climatologies of "degree days" and downscale meteorological reanalyses: application to the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Rutter, N.; Brock, B. W.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of observations for the full range of required variables is a critical reason why many cryosphere-dominated hydrological modelling studies adopt a temperature index (degree day) approach to meltwater simulation rather than resolving the full surface energy balance. Thus spatial observations of "degree days" would be extremely useful in constraining model parameterisations. Even for models implementing a full energy balance, "degree day" observations provide a characterisation of the spatial distribution of climate inputs to the cryosphere-hydrological system. This study derives "degree days" for the Upper Indus Basin by merging remote sensing data products: snow cover duration (SCD), from MOD10A1 and land surface temperature (LST), from MOD11A1 and MYD11A1. Pixel-wise "degree days" are calculated, at imagery-dependent spatial resolution, by multiplying SCD by (above-freezing) daily LST. This is coherent with the snowpack-energy-to-runoff conversion used in temperature index algorithms. This allows assessment of the spatial variability of mass inputs (accumulated snowpack) because in nival regime areas - where complete ablation is regularly achieved - mass is the limiting constraint. The GLIMS Randolph Glacier Inventory is used to compare annual totals and seasonal timings of "degree days" over glaciated and nival zones. Terrain-classified statistics (by elevation and aspect) for the MODIS "degree-day" hybrid product are calculated to characterise of spatial precipitation distribution. While MODIS data products provide detailed spatial resolution relative to tributary catchment areas, the limited instrument record length is inadequate for assessing climatic trends and greatly limits use for hydrological model calibration and validation. While multi-decadal MODIS equivalent data products may be developed in the coming years, at present alternative methods are required for "degree day" trend analysis. This study thus investigates the use of the hybrid MODIS "degree day" product to downscale an ensemble of modern global meteorological reanalyses including ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, NASA MERRA and JRA-55 which overlap MODIS instrument record. This downscaling feasibility assessment is a prerequisite to applying the method to regional climate projections.

  20. Nitrogen contamination in the Yellow River basin of China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Zhou, Jingsong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen contamination is one of the most serious problems in the Yellow River of China. This study was conducted to analyze monitoring data on nitrogen contamination for the Yellow River basin in the years 1980, 1990, 1997, and 1999. Several significant results have arisen from the study. First, in conjunction with an increase in economic indexes from the Yellow River's upper basin to its lower basin, the nitrogen concentration in the tributaries also showed an increasing trend from the upper to the lower basin, which, in turn, led to an increase in the nitrogen concentration of the mainstream from the upper to the lower reaches. Second, nitrogen in the river water in the mainstream and the tributaries of the Yellow River was attributed mainly to point sources. In spite of the fact that the ratio of point to nonpoint sources decreased from 2.7 in 1990 to 1.8 in 1997 for total inorganic nitrogen in river water at the Tongguan Station in the lower basin, point sources increased more than nonpoint sources. Third, the ammonium nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen content of the river water increased significantly in the mainstream and the tributaries during the 1980-1999 period, a change caused by an increase in wastewater discharge and nitrogenous fertilizer application in the Yellow River catchment. PMID:12026096

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

  2. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  3. Negotiating nature : expertise and environment in the Klamath River Basin

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Nicholas Seong Chul

    2010-01-01

    "Negotiating Nature" explores resource management in action and the intertwined roles of law and science in environmental conflicts in the Upper Klamath River Basin in southern Oregon. I follow disputes over the management ...

  4. 19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  5. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

  6. Universal Fractal Scaling of Drainage Areas in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Michioku, K.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we reexamine the Shreve's laws in the link magnitude system and the Horton's laws in the Strahler ordering system for the channel network and river basin descriptions. Analyzed here are 109 large river basins in Japan, which have a wide variety of features in size, geology, climate, and land use. The GIS analysis of DEMs for the 109 river basins shows that the fractal dimension of the link magnitude is estimated to be 1.8, and that the Shreve's magnitude law of drainage areas has a universal scaling property with very high regularity for all 109 river basins with the same constant exponent 1.11. This result indicates that the link magnitude is one of the key quantity for describing the channel network and river basin. Next, an equation for expressing the exceedance probability distributions of drainage areas for river basins is derived by using the magnitude law and the bifurcation structure of the channel network obtained from the Horton's laws. With respect to the area exceedance probability, the previous research in GIS analysis (e.g., Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1992) and theoretical examination (e.g., Takayasu et al., 1988) has shown that the distribution has a power law form with the constant exponent -0.43 for a wide range of logarithmic scales in areas of the lower stream orders. The equation derived here can represent the area exceedance probability in all range of river basins including the portion of the non-power law distribution in the higher stream orders. Because the link magnitude or drainage area could be interpreted as a surrogate of the mean annual discharge, the link magnitude with high universality provides very useful hydrological information for discussing effective water resources management and ecological conservation in river basins.

  7. Pesticides in Surface Water in the Bighorn River and North Platte River Basins, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Woodruff, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, sampled five surface-water sites in Wyoming-three in the Bighorn River Basin (BRB) and two in the North Platte River Basin (NPRB) (fig. 1). The purpose of the sampling was to describe the occurrence of pesticides in these basins during three different times of the year. This fact sheet presents the results of the sampling.

  8. Water resources of Wisconsin, Pecatonica-Sugar River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical environment, availability, characteristics, distribution, movement, and quailty of water in the Pecatonica-Sugar River basin.  In addition, water use and water problems are summarized to give an understanding of man's management of water within the basin.

  9. Chemical character of streams in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; McCarthy, Leo T., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The water chemistry of streams in the Delaware River basin falls into eight general groups, when mapped according to the prevalent dissolved-solids content and the predominant ions normally found in the water. The approximate regions representing each of these iso-chemical quality groups are shown on the accompanying base map of the drainage basin.

  10. Contributions of small river basins to large-scale hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lebing

    2015-04-01

    Data from small river basins can provide useful information to improve our understanding of hydrology of large regions. For instance, climate and hydrology of a large river basin can be well resembled by a number of small river basins. Those small river basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics for the large region. Extrapolation of annual discharge was first tested in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (Gong 2014). Result showed that selected sub-basins that cover 2-4% of the gauged area gave the best resemblance of discharge of the gauged basin area. 200 ensemble estimations from the extrapolation method estimates annual discharge for gauged area consistently well with on average 6% error. Further tests using Mopex dataset in Australia and the U.S., as well as a global-scale application using the GRDC dataset also showed promising results. There are strong correlation of climatic and land surface data between the small basins and large area which share similar discharge dynamic as the small basins. This would help to develop a systematic way to identify those small basins and their link to large-scale hydrological variability. Discharge data all around the world collected from basins of various scales are inter-connected because of the similarities of climate and land surface across scales. This inter-connectivity is evolving over time as a result of the change of climate. Understanding it will not only help with filling data gap in un-gauged regions, but also help to improve our understanding of the change of the hydrological system. Gong, L.: Data-driven scale extrapolation: estimating yearly discharge for a large region by small sub-basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 343-352, doi:10.5194/hess-18-343-2014, 2014.

  11. Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  12. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  13. Cape Fear River Basin Action Plan for Migratory Fish

    E-print Network

    Cape Fear River Basin Action Plan for Migratory Fish C ape Fear Rive r Pa rt n er ship developed with a vision of a healthy Cape Fear River for fish and people. The partnership's mission is to restore and demonstrate the value of robust, productive, and self-sustaining stocks of migratory fish in the Cape Fear

  14. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  15. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  16. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  17. Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River

    E-print Network

    : survival and growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current". - BPA not sole fundingGrowth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Plume and Northern California Current Kym Jacobson, Bill Peterson, Cheryl Morgan, Kurt Fresh and "30 others" 14

  18. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  19. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  20. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  1. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  2. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  3. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  4. Council Document ISRP 98-1 Review of the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Council Document ISRP 98-1 Review of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for Fiscal -------------------------------------------------------------------46 1) Deschutes River ------------------------------------------------------------------46 2) John Day River-------------------------------------------------------------------48 3) Yakima River

  5. On the Cumulative Area Distribution for River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, an equation for describing the cumulative area distribution for river basins is theoretically derived by using a link magnitude law of drainage areas and the bifurcation structure of channel networks obtained from the Horton's laws. Analyzed here are 109 large river basins in Japan, which have a wide variety of features in size, climate and geology. The GIS analysis of DEMs for the 109 river basins shows that the Shreve's link magnitude law of drainage areas has a universal scaling property with very high regularity for all the 109 river basins with the same constant exponent 1.1. This result indicates that the link magnitude is one of the key quantities for describing the cumulative structure of river basins. With respect to the cumulative area distribution, the previous research in GIS analysis (e.g., Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1992) and theoretical examination (e.g., Takayasu et al., 1988) has shown that the distribution indicates a power law form with the constant exponent -0.43 for a wide range of logarithmic scales in areas of lower stream orders. The equation derived in this study can represent the cumulative area distribution over the whole river basin including the portion of the power law distribution as well as that of the non-power law distribution in higher stream orders near the river mouth. Because the drainage area could be interpreted as a surrogate of the mean annual discharge, the equation with high universality provides very useful hydrological information for discussing effective water resources management and ecological conservation in river networks.

  6. Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

  7. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2014-07-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  8. An Operational Flood Forecast System for the Indus Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K.; Webster, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Indus River is central to agriculture, hydroelectric power, and the potable water supply in Pakistan. The ever-present risk of drought - leading to poor soil conditions, conservative dam practices, and higher flood risk - amplifies the consequences of abnormally large precipitation events during the monsoon season. Preparation for the 2010 and 2011 floods could have been improved by coupling quantitative precipitation forecasts to a distributed hydrological model. The nature of slow-rise discharge on the Indus and overtopping of riverbanks in this basin indicate that medium-range (1-10 day) probabilistic weather forecasts can be used to assess flood risk at critical points in the basin. We describe a process for transforming these probabilities into an alert system for supporting flood mitigation and response decisions on a daily basis. We present a fully automated two-dimensional flood forecast methodology based on meteorological variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Variable Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS). Energy and water fluxes are calculated in 25km grid cells using macroscale hydrologic parameterizations from the UW Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. A linear routing model transports grid cell surface runoff and baseflow within each grid cell to the outlet and into the stream network. The overflow points are estimated using flow directions, flow velocities, and maximum discharge thresholds from each grid cell. Flood waves are then deconvolved from the in-channel discharge time series and propagated into adjacent cells until a storage criterion based on average grid cell elevation is met. Floodwaters are drained back into channels as a continuous process, thus simulating spatial extent, depth, and persistence on the plains as the ensemble forecast evolves with time.

  9. Interannual variations of river water storage from a multiple satellite approach: A case study for the Rio Negro River basin

    E-print Network

    for the Rio Negro River basin Fre´de´ric Frappart,1,2 Fabrice Papa,3 James S. Famiglietti,1 Catherine Prigent of the Negro River, the largest tributary in terms of discharge to the Amazon River, was selected as a test and groundwater for the Negro River basin. The water volume changes are also evaluated using in situ discharge

  10. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  11. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  12. Digital Earth system based river basin data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Wanqing; Lin, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Digital Earth is an integrated approach to build scientific infrastructure. The Digital Earth systems provide a three-dimensional visualization and integration platform for river basin data which include the management data, in situ observation data, remote sensing observation data and model output data. This paper studies the Digital Earth system based river basin data integration technology. Firstly, the construction of the Digital Earth based three-dimensional river basin data integration environment is discussed. Then the river basin management data integration technology is presented which is realized by general database access interface, web service and ActiveX control. Thirdly, the in situ data stored in database tables as records integration is realized with three-dimensional model of the corresponding observation apparatus display in the Digital Earth system by a same ID code. In the next two parts, the remote sensing data and the model output data integration technologies are discussed in detail. The application in the Digital Zhang River basin System of China shows that the method can effectively improve the using efficiency and visualization effect of the data.

  13. Hydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3

    E-print Network

    Wells, Scott A.

    for deep, long, and narrow waterbodies. The current model, Version 2, has been used in over 200 riverHydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3 Scott A. Wells re-derived so that it could be applied to entire river basins including river-estuary, lake-river

  14. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  15. Assessing the utility of passive microwave data for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimation in the Sutlej River Basin of the northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Bookhagen, B.; Dozier, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1978, space based passive microwave (PM) radiometers have been used to comprehensively measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a global basis. The ability of PM radiometers to directly measure SWE at high temporal frequencies offers some distinct advantages over optical remote sensors. Nevertheless, in mountainous terrain PM radiometers often struggle to accurately measure SWE because of wet snow, saturation in deep snow, forests, depth hoar and stratigraphy, variable relief, and subpixel heterogeneity inherent in large pixel sizes. The Himalaya, because of their high elevation and high relief—much above tree line—offer an opportunity to examine PM products in the mountains without the added complication of trees. The upper Sutlej River basin— the third largest Himalayan catchment—lies in the western Himalaya. The river is a tributary of the Indus River and seasonal snow constitutes a substantial part of the basin's hydrologic budget. The basin has a few surface stations and river gauges, which is unique for the region. As such, the Sutlej River basin is a good location to analyze the accuracy and effectiveness of the current National Snow and Ice Data Center's (NSIDC) standard AMSR-E/Aqua Daily SWE product in mountainous terrain. So far, we have observed that individual pixels can "flicker", i.e. fluctuate from day to day, over large parts of the basin. We consider whether this is an artifact of the algorithm or whether this is embedded in the raw brightness temperatures themselves. In addition, we examine how well the standard product registers winter storms, and how it varies over heavily glaciated pixels. Finally, we use a few common measures of algorithm performance (precision, recall and accuracy) to test how well the standard product detects the presence of snow, using optical imagery for validation. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of PM imagery in the mountains will help to clarify the technology's limits.

  16. Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Despite twelve years of an action plan calling for reducing the zone to a five

  17. Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin, British Columbia,

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin This study characterizes the meteorological parameters influencing glacier runoff and quantifies recent glacier contributions to streamflow in the Illecillewaet River basin, British Columbia. The Illecillewaet

  18. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge exchange and knowledge transfer within the basin to reach the goal of integrated basin management. PMID:26589137

  19. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

  1. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  2. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON SURVIVAL AND STREAMFLOW

    E-print Network

    SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON entitled: Seasonal Stochastic Streamflow Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications for Salmon Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications to Salmon Survival and Streamflow Management Thesis

  4. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada J. Byrne*, S. Kienzle and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity

  5. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees. 701.209 Section 701.209 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin...

  6. SPORT-FISHING USE AND VALUE: SNAKE RIVER BASIN OF CENTRAL IDAHO

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    SPORT-FISHING USE AND VALUE: SNAKE RIVER BASIN OF CENTRAL IDAHO John R. McKean Agricultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Snake River Basin Demand and Spending Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Total Annual Consumers Surplus for Sportfishing in the Snake River Basin . . . . . . . 18 Value

  7. 76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  8. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  9. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  10. Nitrogen Removal by Streams and Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study, based on chemistry and channel dimensions data collected at 893 randomly-selected stream and river sites in the Mississippi River basin, demonstrated the interaction of stream chemistry, stream size, and NO3-N uptake metrics across a range of stream sizes and across re...

  11. Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.

    2013-05-01

    Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300-2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity.

  12. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual framework for assessing possible geomorphic and ecological changes in response to river-flow modifications. Suggestions for future biomonitoring and investigations are also provided. This study was one in a series of similar tributary streamflow and geomorphic studies conducted for the Willamette Sustainable Rivers Project. The Sustainable Rivers Project is a national effort by the USACE and The Nature Conservancy to develop environmental flow requirements in regulated river systems.

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  15. Modelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China

    E-print Network

    Yu, Qian

    Modelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China Hongming He a January 2008 KEYWORDS Flood routing; Backwater flow; The middle Yellow River; River morphology Summary Flood routing processes in the middle Yellow River basin are complex since they consist of three types

  16. Chemical and Strontium, Oxygen, and Carbon Isotopic Compositions of Carbonates from the Lesser Himalaya: Implications to the Strontium Isotope Composition of the Source Waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Pande, K.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1998-03-01

    Samples of Precambrian carbonate (mostly dolomite) outcrops collected across the Lesser Himalaya have been analysed for their mineralogy, chemical composition, and isotope ratios of Sr, O, and C to assess the extent of their preservation and their role in contributing to the high radiogenic strontium isotope composition of the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus. Their Sr concentrations range from 20 to 363 ppm, ? 18O PDB -1.4 to -12.8‰ and Mn 11-2036 ppm. The petrography of the samples, their low Sr concentrations, and wide range of ? 18O values are suggestive of their postdepositional alteration. The 87Sr/ 86Sr of the bulk samples and their carbonate fractions are similar to one another with values ranging from 0.7064 to 0.8935 and are generally more radiogenic than that of contemporaneous seawater. Comparison of the 87Sr/ 86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios among the carbonates and silicates from the Lesser Himalaya and the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus shows that the values for the source waters overlap with those of the silicates but are much higher than those in carbonates. An upper limit of carbonate Sr in the various source waters is calculated to be between 6% and 43%, assuming that all the Ca in the rivers is of carbonate origin. The results show that on the average, weathering of the Precambrian carbonates is unlikely to be a major contributor to the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition of these source waters; however, they can be a dominant supplier of radiogenic Sr to some rivers on a regional scale. The silicate Sr component in some of the source waters of the Ganga (Bhagirathi, Bhilangna, Alaknanda, and Ganga), Ghaghara (Kali and Sarju), and the Indus (Sutlej) was calculated from the Ca/Na, Sr/Na ratios, and strontium isotope compositions of these rivers and the silicate endmember. These calculations suggest that 33-89% of Sr in the Bhagirathi, Bhilangna, Alaknanda, Ganga, and Sarju rivers is of silicate origin, whereas in the Kali and the Sutlej it is much lower, only ˜8%. The remaining Sr to all these waters has to be supplied from other sources such as weathering of carbonates and evaporites. This study underscores the importance of weathering of silicates, carbonates, and evaporites in contributing to the Sr mass balance and 87Sr/ 86Sr of the source waters of the Ganga, Ghaghara, and the Indus. The present day silicate and carbonate Sr contributions to the Sr budget of the rivers vary considerably, but among the major source waters of the Ganga, silicate Sr exerts a more dominant control on their Sr abundance and 87Sr/ 86Sr.

  17. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  18. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

  19. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  20. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    E-print Network

    Jager, Henriette I.

    hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removingSpatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins Henriëtte I. Jager a,n , Rebecca A. Efroymson b , Jeff J. Opperman c , Michael R. Kelly d,1 a Energy Water Resource

  1. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  2. Colorado River Basin Development Its Potential Impact on Tribal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Since no mechanism presently exists for the effective distribution of tribal income to tribal members, the wealth created by development of natural resources on the American Indian reservations of the Colorado River Basin will not substantially alter the quality of Indian life. (JC)

  3. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  4. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: SOCIAL VALUES AND ENERGY POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives of the analysis are to identify American social values and to examine their relationship to ...

  5. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  6. COMMENTS ON THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES) has been conducted by university researchers over a four-year period. During this time an Advisory Committee, which numbered up to 50 members, was active in critiquing and commenting on the research work. The committee included representa...

  7. FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

  8. COAL MINE SITING FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentu...

  9. NonNon--native Species Impacts on Nativenative Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native

    E-print Network

    introductions and current status in theintroductions and current status in the Columbia River Basin River BasinSalmonids in the Columbia River BasinNon-native Species Impacts on Native Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin Including Recommendations for Evaluating the Use of Non-native Species in Resident

  10. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  11. The Columbia River Estuary the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    " fish and wildlife in the Columbia River as affected by development and operation of the hydroelectric River estuary was a high-energy environment dominated by physical forces, with extensive sand modified in terms of physical and biological processes. The development and operation of the hydroelectric

  12. Contaminants in suspended sediment from the Fraser River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sekela, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Moyle, G.; Brewer, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of trace organic contaminants were measured in suspended sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of six pulp mills located in the Fraser River basin. Sampling occurred at three hydrological periods; fall low flow, winter base flow (under ice) and spring freshet. Suspended sediments were analyzed for dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenolics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Initial results indicate that (i) trace organic contaminants are detectable in suspended sediments collected over 265 river kilometers downstream of the nearest pulp mill; (ii) the 1992 to 1994 levels of 2,3,7,8-TCD-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-TCD-furan in Fraser river suspended sediments are lower than the levels measured in 1990; (iii) there is a measurable increase in trace organic contaminant levels in Fraser River suspended sediments associated with the initial rise in the Fraser River hydrograph at freshet.

  13. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  14. Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

  15. Aquatic risk assessment of priority and other river basin specific pesticides in surface waters of Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    To meet good chemical and ecological status, Member States are required to monitor priority substances and chemicals identified as substances of concern at European Union and local/river-basin/national level, respectively, in surface water bodies, and to report exceedances of the environmental quality standards (EQSs). Therefore, standards have to be set at national level for river basin specific pollutants. Pesticides used in dominant crops of several agricultural areas within the catchment of Mediterranean river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo', Portugal) were selected for monitoring, in addition to the pesticides included in priority lists defined in Europe. From the 29 pesticides and metabolites selected for the study, 20 were detected in surface waters of the river basins, seven of which were priority substances: alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, simazine and terbutryn, all of which exceeded their respective EQS values. QSs for other specific pollutants were calculated using different extrapolation techniques (i.e. deterministic or probabilistic) largely based on the method described in view of the Water Framework Directive. Non-acceptable aquatic risks were revealed for molinate, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, propanil, terbuthylazine, and the metabolite desethylatrazine. Implications of these findings for the classification of the ecological status of surface water bodies in Portugal and at the European level are discussed. PMID:26002046

  16. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  17. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  18. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

  1. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  2. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  3. Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

  4. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

  5. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. PMID:25918888

  6. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

  7. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

  8. People and water in the Assabet River basin, eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    An accounting of the inflows, outflows, and uses of water in the rapidly developing Assabet River Basin, along Interstate 495 in eastern Massachusetts, was done to quantify how people's activities alter the hydrologic system. The study identified subbasins and seasons in which outflows resulting from people's activities were relatively large percentages of total flows, and quantified the fraction of streamflow in the Assabet River that is treated wastewater. Computer models of ground-water flow were also used to test how the components of the hydrologic system, particularly streamflow, would change with future development and increased water use. Computer simulations showed that, when water use was increased to currently permitted levels, streamflows in tributaries would decrease, particularly during the low-flow period. In the Assabet River, increased wastewater discharges resulted in a slight increase in total streamflow and an increase in the fraction of streamflow in the river that is wastewater, relative to existing conditions.

  9. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Gray, Stephen T.; Meko, David M.

    2006-05-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past.

  10. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

  11. Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

    2009-05-01

    Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

  12. River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  13. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

  14. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromrivers impacted by industrial discharges. Among the rivers directly flowing into the sea, Brenta, Po and Arno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  15. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  16. Characterization of Stream Morphology and Sediment Yield for the Big Black and Tombigbee River Basins, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three segments within the Big Black River Basin, and nine within the Tombigbee River Basin are on the Mississippi 303d list of water bodies as having impaired conditions for aquatic life due to sediment. An additional 56 reaches of channel are listed for biologic impairment between the two basins. ...

  17. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  18. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  19. Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

    2011-12-01

    The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

  20. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    An appraisal-level engineering economic cost analysis was performed for two primary types of irrigation systems in a portion of the Columbia Basin Project- a surface-water irrigation system in which water is supplied via canals and laterals, and a system in which surface water is brought to recharging wells and eventually to farms using the transmissive properties of the aquifer and pumping. At 1979 electric power rates, the artificial-recharge irrigation scheme is a viable alternative to surface-distributed irrigation systems, but as electric rates increase, its viability decreases. At three times the 1979 rate, the recharge scheme is uneconomical. (USGS)

  1. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 200880000 ISRP FAN1B

    E-print Network

    habitat losses (Northwest Power and Conservation Council 2004). The current #12;Columbia River BasinColumbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 200880000 ISRP FAN1B Preamble habitats within the Swan River Valley Short Description MFWP will acquire fee ownership on spawning

  2. Survey of Contaminants in Suspended Sediment and Water in the Fraser River Basin

    E-print Network

    #12;Survey of Contaminants in Suspended Sediment and Water in the Fraser River Basin - ­ -- -- ­ -- - 7 The Fraser River Basin M. Sekela, R Brewer, C. Baldazzi, G. Moyle and T. Tuominen Science Division River and supporting the field operations. We are greatly indebted to C. MacDonal~ G. McGdlivary, I

  3. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  5. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  6. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  7. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  8. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation guidelines, and climate change scenario assumptions. This potential risk mitigation could be at least partly realized through enhancements to current management practices, possibly in the Gila River, that could improve the water supply reliability for all stakeholders in the Colorado River Basin.

  9. Flood tracking chart for the Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles F.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Tracking Chart for the Illinois River Basin in Illinois can be used to record and compare the predicted or current flood-crest stage to past flood-crest information. This information can then be used by residents and emergency-response personnel to make informed decisions concerning the threat of flooding to life and property. The chart shows a map of the Illinois River Basin (see below), the location of real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the basin, graphs of selected historical recorded flood-crest stages at each of the stations, and sea-level conversion (SLC) factors that allow conversion of the current or predicted flood-crest stage to elevation above sea level. Each graph represents a streamflow-gaging station and has a space to record the most current river stage reported for that station by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The National Weather Service (NWS) predicts flood crests for many of the stations shown on this chart.

  10. [Comprehensive assessment on environmental quality in vulnerable ecotone of Tarim River Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Song, Y; Fan, Z; You, X

    2001-03-01

    Tarim River Basin (TRB) is one of ecological environment vulnerable areas. Due to the matching of material and energy existed in some problems, the different fragility characteristics occurred obviously. According to related principles of ecological environment quality assessment, combined with ecological environment situation of Tarim River Basin, 20 indexes were selected, and the indicator system for synthetically ecological environment assessment was built. Moreover, ecological fragility index was set up, which can be used to indicate the degree of ecological environment quality in Tarim River Basin. The results were as follows: Aksu River Basin belongs to improved area. Yerkart River Basin and the upper reaches of TRB belongs to balance areas and Hetian River Basin and the middle reaches of TRB belongs to maladjustment areas. The lower reaches of TRB belongs to severe damage area. The assessment results are consonant with actual situation, which play an important function in ecological environment construction. PMID:11432072

  11. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  12. The use of turbulent jets to destratify the Charles River Basin

    E-print Network

    Church, Jeffrey H. (Jeffrey Harrison)

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using turbulent jets to destratify the Lower Charles River Basin between the Longfellow and Craigie Bridges between Boston and Cambridge. The basin is currently filled with salt water ...

  13. Screening model optimization for Panay River Basin planning in the Philippines

    E-print Network

    Millspaugh, John Henry

    2010-01-01

    The state of the water resources of the Panay River Basin have motivated studies and initial basin planning to mitigate flood damages, to produce hydroelectricity, and to increase irrigated rice areas. The goal of this ...

  14. Assessment of Hydroclimatic Trends Over the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies by a broad range of governmental agencies, universities, and experts in the scientific community have begun to acknowledge and address issues regarding climate change and trends. Most of these studies have focused on global scale trends in hydroclimatic variables and long-term impacts of climate change. The impacts of climate change are particularly important in the Colorado River Basin to resource managers, and water users who depend upon the Colorado River to provide water for flood control, consumptive use, irrigation, environmental, recreational, and energy demands. In this study, trends in hydroclimatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, streamflow and snowpack over the Colorado River Basin are considered and their interdependency discussed. Impacts of observed trends on the operation of the Colorado River and affects on water users are assessed. In this study, early peak runoff corresponds to persistent increasing trends in temperature. Observed monthly streamflow rates are consistently decreasing between April and July, traditionally when peak flow is observed. The potential for incorporation of hydroclimatic trends into the improvement of forecasts is explored.

  15. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  16. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  18. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  19. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  20. Episodic Emplacement of Sediment + Carbon within Large Tropical River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R.; Aufdenkampe, A.

    2012-04-01

    Application of advanced methods for imaging (sub-bottom sonar and ERGI), dating (high resolution 210-Pb and 14-C from deep cores), and biogeochemical analysis have facilitated the characterization and inter-comparison of floodplain sedimentation rates, styles, and carbon loading across disparate large river basins. Two examples explored here are the near-pristine 72,000 km2 Beni River basin in northern Bolivia and the similarly natural 36,000 km2 Strickland River basin in Papua New Guinea - that are located on either side of the Equatorial Pacific warm pool that drives the ENSO phenomenon. Our published research suggests that large, rapid-rise, cold-phase ENSO floods account for the preponderance of sediment accumulation within these two tropical systems. New results to be presented at EGU further clarify the extent of modern deposits (~100 yrs) within both systems and add a deeper perspective into how these extensive floodplains developed over the Holocene, both in response to external forcing (climate and base level) and internal system morphodynamics. The vast scale of these temporally discrete deposits (typically 100s of millions of tonnes over relatively short time periods) involved equate to high burial rates, which in turn support the high carbon loadings sequestered within the resulting sedimentary deposits. We have identified the principal source of this carbon and sedimentary material to be extensive landslides throughout the high-relief headwaters - failures that deliver huge charges of pulverized rock and soil directly into canyons (in both the Bolivian Andes and the PNG Highlands), where raging floodwaters provide efficient transport to lowland depocentres. We present recent results from our research in these basins, providing insight into the details of such enormous mass budgets that result in a signicant carbon sink within the floodplains. Processes, timing, and rates are compared between the two systems, providing insight into the nature of geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling within tropical dispersal systems.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3ngL(-1) in Ebro and 742.9ngL(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3ngg(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8ngg(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2ngg(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8ngg(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  2. Fish passage and protective facilities, Yakima River basin, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), propose to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at 20 existing irrigation and/or hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River basin, Washington, for the improvement of anadromous fish populations. This action would implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for natural propagation activities to mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the Yakima basin and to provide offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River basin. The Yakima River basin is located in south-central Washington (see frontispiece map) and drains an area of about 6000 square miles. The basin centers around the city of Yakima and includes most of Yakima, Kittitas, and Benton Counties. The Yakima River heads near the eastern crest of the Cascade Range and flows generally southeastward for over 200 miles to its confluence with the Columbia River near Richland. Major tributaries include the Kachess, Cle Elum, and Teanaway Rivers and the Naches River, which has several major tributaries of its own--the Bumping, American, and Tieton Rivers. Ahtanum, Toppenish, and Satus Creeks join the Yakima River in the lower part of the basin. Natural runoff for the basin above Parker (Sunnyside Diversion Dam) averaged about 3.5 million acre-feet annually for the period 1940-1976. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin 

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

    1993-01-01

    is groundwater emissions in an area of the upper basin consisting of the Salt Fork Brazos River watershed and portions of the adjacent Double Mountain Fork Brazos River and North Croton Creek watersheds. High salt concentrations significantly affect water...

  4. Inventing the Charles River Basin : urban images and civic discourse in Boston, 1844-1994

    E-print Network

    Haglund, Karl T

    1997-01-01

    The Charles River Basin, extending from the foot of Beacon Hill upstream past Harvard's Soldiers Field, has been called Boston's "Central Park." The river looks to all appearances tranquil and unchanging, one of the most ...

  5. Summary of the river-quality assessment of the upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, R.N.; Faye, R.E.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The river-quality assessment of the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin included studies of (1) the impact of heat loads on river quality, (2) sediment transport and deposition, (3) magnitude and nature of point and nonpoint discharges, and (4) phytoplankton growth in the river and reservoirs. The combined thermal effects of flow regulation and powerplants effluents resulted in mean daily river temperature downstream of the powerplants about equal to or less than computed natural temperatures. The average annual river temperature in 1976 was 14.0 ? Celsius just upstream of the Atkinson-McDonough thermoelectric powerplants and 16.0 ? Celsius just downstream from the powerplants. During a low-flow period in June 1977 the heat load from the two powerplants caused an increase in river temperatures of about 7 ? Celsius and a subsequent decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration of about 0.2 milligrams per liter. During the June low-flow period, point sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand and 97 percent of ammonium as nitrogen at the Franklin station. Oxidation of ultimate biochemical demand and ammonium caused dissolved-oxygen concentrations to decrease from about 8.0 milligrams per liter at river mile 299 to about 4.5 milligrams per liter at river mile 271. Dissolved orthophosphate is the nutrient presently limiting phytoplankton growth in the West Point Lake when water temperatures are greater than about 26 ? Celsius.

  6. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  7. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  8. Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre-projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

  9. Abundance of the Louisiana Black Bear in the Upper Atchafalaya River Basin

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    125 PSB Arkansas Background/Justification the `Delta' · Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Mississippi River Atchafalaya River ~27,000 ha total Study Area #12;4/25/2009 4 Study Area Private land4/25/2009 1 Abundance of the Louisiana Black Bear in the Upper Atchafalaya River Basin Carrie Lowe

  10. Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

  11. Flood frequency analysis for Germany's Weser River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, J.; Qu, Y.; Beighley, E.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of flood risk is more challenging outside of the U.S., as other countries typically do not have centralized agencies such as the USGS and FEMA that provide easily-accessible stream gauge data and flood maps. Therefore, modifications to the typical flood frequency methods used in the U.S. (e.g., USGS Bulletin 17b with regional regression, or regional frequency analysis using L-Moments) are often necessary with limited data. For the Weser River Basin in northern Germany, we obtained discharge data from 114 stream gauges, but full records of instantaneous annual maximum discharges were available for only 19 of those gauges. The 19 gauges were located along larger rivers draining areas greater than approximately 2500 sq km. The other 95 gauges draining areas less than 2500 sq km contained only the 10 largest observations (top 10) over the period of record. In order to make use of all available data, we used a hybrid approach, applying 1) regional frequency analysis using L-Moments for the annual maximum data for large (greater than 2000 sq km) watersheds, and 2) regional regression analysis for small (less than 2000 sq km) watersheds using the top 10 data, to estimate flood (i.e., 100-yr and 500-yr) discharges for all river and stream reaches throughout the basin. This presentation highlights the challenges and solutions for using a limited number of gauges and incomplete record lengths to estimate flood discharges for both large and small watersheds.

  12. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data (%Ro) indicate levels of thermal maturity suitable for generation of hydrocarbons. The genetic potential of the source rocks in these Triassic basins is moderate to high and many source rock sections have at least some potential for hydrocarbon generation. Some data for the Cumnock Formation indicate a considerably higher source rock potential than the basin average, with S1 + S2 data in the mid-20 mg HC/g sample range, and some hydrocarbons have been generated. This implies that the genetic potential for all of these strata may have been higher prior to the igneous activity. However, the intergranular porosity and permeability of the Triassic strata are low, which makes fractured reservoirs more attractive as drilling targets. In some places, gravity and magnetic surveys that are used to locate buried intrusive rock may identify local thermal sources that have facilitated gas generation. Alternatively, awareness of the distribution of large intrusive igneous bodies at depth may direct exploration into other areas, where thermal maturation is less than the limits of hydrocarbon destruction. Areas prospective for natural gas also contain large surficial clay resources and any gas discovered could be used as fuel for local industries that produce clay products (principally brick), as well as fuel for other local industries.

  13. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  14. Hydroclimatological Aspects of the Extreme 2011 Assiniboine River Basin Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimelow, J.; Szeto, K.; Bonsal, B. R.; Hanesiak, J.; Kochtubajda, B.; Stewart, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring and early summer of 2011, the Assiniboine River Basin in Canada experienced an extreme flood that was unprecedented in terms of duration and volume of water. The flood had significant socioeconomic impacts and caused over one billion dollars in damage. Contrary to what one might expect for such an extreme flood, individual precipitation events before and during the 2011 flood were not extreme; instead, it was the cumulative impact and timing of precipitation events going back to the summer of 2010 that played a key role in the 2011 flood. The summer and fall of 2010 were exceptionally wet, resulting in soil moisture levels being much above normal at the time of freeze up. This was followed by above-average precipitation during the winter of 2010-2011, and record-breaking basin-averaged snow-water equivalent values in March and April 2011. Abnormally cold temperatures in March delayed the spring melt by about two weeks, with the result that the above-average seasonal melt freshet occurred close to the onset of abnormally heavy rains in May and June. The large-scale atmospheric flow during May and June 2011 favoured increased cyclone activity over the central and northern U.S., which produced an anomalously large number of heavy rainfall events over the basin. All of these factors combined to generate extreme surface runoff and flooding. We used JRA-55 reanalysis data to quantify the relative importance of snowmelt, soil moisture and spring precipitation in contributing to the unprecedented flood and to demonstrate how the 2011 flood was unique compared to previous floods in the basin. Data and research from this study can be used to validate and improve flood forecasting techniques over this important basin; our findings also raise important questions regarding the impact of climate change on basins that experience pluvial and nival flooding.

  15. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  16. Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, David M.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Baisan, Christopher A.; Knight, Troy; Lukas, Jeffrey J.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Salzer, Matthew W.

    2007-05-01

    New tree-ring records of ring-width from remnant preserved wood are analyzed to extend the record of reconstructed annual flows of the Colorado River at Lee Ferry into the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when epic droughts are hypothesized from other paleoclimatic evidence to have affected various parts of western North America. The most extreme low-frequency feature of the new reconstruction, covering A.D. 762-2005, is a hydrologic drought in the mid-1100s. The drought is characterized by a decrease of more than 15% in mean annual flow averaged over 25 years, and by the absence of high annual flows over a longer period of about six decades. The drought is consistent in timing with dry conditions inferred from tree-ring data in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau, but regional differences in intensity emphasize the importance of basin-specific paleoclimatic data in quantifying likely effects of drought on water supply.

  17. Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

    1981-01-01

    Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

  18. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic imp

  19. Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi River: A Comparison of Approaches

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi understanding of the relationship between terres- Nitrate N flux from the Mississippi River basin (MRB)trial N to be a primary River basin (MRB) with measured nitrate flux in the lower Mississippi cause of hypoxia in the Gulf

  20. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  1. Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lindau, C W; Delaune, R D; Scaroni, A E; Nyman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen has been implicated as a major cause of hypoxia in shallow water along the Louisiana/Texas, USA coasts. Excess nitrogen (mainly nitrate) from Mississippi and Atchafalaya River drainage basins may drive the onset and duration of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoring and enhancing denitrification have been proposed to reduce and control coastal hypoxia and improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. Sediments were collected from six baldcypress restoration sites within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USA. The acetylene blockage technique was used to measure background and potential sediment denitrification rates. Denitrification fluxes were measured before nitrate addition (background rates) and after nitrate addition of 100mgNl(-1) (potential denitrification) at three seasonal temperatures. Background denitrification was low across all cypress swamp sites ranging from 0.9 to 8.8, 0.6 to 28.5 and 8.8 to 47.5g N evolved ha(-1)d(-1) at water/sediment column temperatures of 8, 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. After nitrate addition, temperature had a significant effect on sediment denitrification potential. Maximum rates measured at 8, 22 and 30 degrees C were approximately 250-260, 550 and 970gNha(-1)d(-1), respectively. Most of the added nitrate in water columns, incubated at 8 degrees C, was removed after 65d compared to 32d and 17d at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate cypress swamps have the potential to assimilate and process elevated levels of floodwater nitrate with denitrification being a major removal mechanism. PMID:17707455

  2. Modeling runoff in the Truckee River drainage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, R.L.; Craig, R.G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The authors extend an existing climate model by incorporating computation of monthly surface hydrologic elements in a two-dimensional network. They illustrate the calculations for a two-dimensional solution domain which includes those areas draining into Pyramid Lake, NV (Truckee River drainage basin) at a 1 km grid cell spacing. Mean maximum monthly temperature and precipitation values are generated via a canonical correlation in which independent variables are computed from insolation, terrain, wind vectors, and sea surface temperatures. The runoff model computes interception, Hortonian overland flow, saturated overland flow, evapotranspiration, recharge, throughflow, and groundwater storage from temperature and precipitation for each grid point within the solution domain. Starting with an empty groundwater bucket' at each grid point, the model computes the above values for each month of the year and iterates until steady state convergence criteria are met. This model has previously been tested and applied to one-dimensional calculations of natural variation of the stable isotopic composition of surface water in a similar area. The parameter values used here are the same as used in that study. Another model calculates drainage directions and divides from the elevation array and assigns individual basin numbers to those areas which do not drain exterior to the solution domain. The runoff values for the basins which contributed to the Truckee River are summed spatially to give monthly or annual runoff. The model predicts a mean annual flow for the Truckee River of 15.7 m[sup 3]/s (556 cfs), compared to an observed value of 16.7 m[sup 3]/s (589 cfs) measured in Nixon, NV. This is an error of 5.6%.

  3. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

  4. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (?5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (?40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (?1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  5. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10? km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10? km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (?5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (?40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (?1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  6. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  7. Simulation of upper Kuantan River basin streamflow using SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Mohd Syazwan Faisal; Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin; Rahman, Nor Faiza Abd; Khalid, Khairi; Haron, Siti Humaira

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the capabilities of Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) in simulating streamflow in a tropical watershed - upper Kuantan river basin. Two statistical metrics were used for model evaluation; i) coefficient of determination (R2) and ii) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSI). The calibration result shows that there is a good agreement between the observed and simulated monthly streamflow with R2=0.84 and NSI=0.82. For validation the result is acceptable which the value of R2=0.59 and NSI=0.57. The results suggest that SWAT model is able to simulate the hydrologic characteristics of the tropical watershed well.

  8. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  9. Hack's relation and optimal channel networks: The elongation of river basins as a consequence of energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    1993-08-01

    As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.

  10. Application of a spatially referenced water quality model to predict E. coli flux in two Texas river basins 

    E-print Network

    , Deepti

    2009-05-15

    the fate and transport of contaminants in river basins. In this research SPARROW was applied to the Guadalupe and San Antonio River Basins of Texas to assess E. coli contamination. Since SPARROW relies on the measured records of concentrations...

  11. CONFLICT AND COOPERATION WITHIN INTERNATIONAL RIVER BASINS: THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    and nurturing the development of both existing and future international river basin institutions will be a keyCONFLICT AND COOPERATION WITHIN INTERNATIONAL RIVER BASINS: THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONAL University, Corvallis, Oregon INTRODUCTION There are 263 watersheds that cross the political boundaries

  12. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  13. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Skagit River Basin Flood Risk Management

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Final Independent External Peer Review Report Skagit River Basin Flood Risk Management General of the Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise Baltimore District Independent External Peer Review Report Skagit River Basin Flood Risk Management General Investigation, Skagit

  14. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  15. Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife .................................................................................................5 A. The Northwest Power and Conservation Council and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife ................................................................................................. 35 5. Hydrosystem Passage and Operations Strategies

  16. RELATIONSHIPS OF LAND USE AND STREAM SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE IPSWICH RIVER BASIN,

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    solute concentrations in stream water were investigated for the Ipswich River basin (404 km2 al., Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 161: 55­74, 2005. C 2005 Springer. Printed in the NetherlandsRELATIONSHIPS OF LAND USE AND STREAM SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE IPSWICH RIVER BASIN, NORTHEASTERN

  17. Appendix A -1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Appendix A - 1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program The 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program is the fifth revision of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program since the NPCC principles. The 2000 NPCC Fish and Wildlife Program marks a significant departure from past versions, which

  18. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    The Farmington River basin covers 435 square miles in north-central Connecticut upstream from Tariffville and downstream of the Massachusetts state line. Most water in the basin is derived from precipitation, which averages 48 inches (366 billion gallons) per year. An additional 67 billion gallons of water per year enters the basin from Massachusetts in the West Branch of the Farmington River, Hubbard River, Valley Brook and some smaller streams. Of the total 433 billion gallons, 174 billion gallons returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. 239 billion gallons flows out of the study area in the Farmington River at Tariffville, and 20 billion gallons is diverted for Hartford water supply. Variations in streamflow at 23 continuous-record gaging stations are summarized in standardized graphs and tables that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics at other sites. For example, mean flow and low-flow characteristics such as the 7-day annual minimum flow for 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals, have been determined for many partial-record stations from the data for the 23 continuous-record stations. Of the 31 principal lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the basin, eight have usable storage capacities of more than 1 billion gallons. Two of the largest, Colebrook River Lake and Barkhamsted Reservoir, have more than 30 billion gallons usable storage. Floods have occurred in the area in every month of the year. The greatest known flood on the Farmington River was in August 1955, which had a peak flow of 140,000 cubic feet per second at Collinsville. Since then, three major floodcontrol reservoirs have been constructed to reduce the hazards of high streamflow. The major aquifers underlying the basin are composed of unconsolidated materials (stratified drift and till) and bedrock (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic). Stratified drift overlies till and bedrock in valleys and lowlands; it averages about 90 feet in thickness, and is capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Based on hydrologic characteristics and available recharge, sixteen stratified-drift areas are selected as the most favorable for large-scale development. Potential yields can be estimated by several methods. Small water supplies can be obtained from all aquifers. Wells in bedrock yield at least one to two gallons per minute at most sites. The probability of adequate yields for domestic supply is greater from sedimentary than from crystalline bedrock and is also greater from stratified-drift overburden than from till. The quality of water from all sources in the basin is good except where adversely affected by swamp drainage, aquifer composition or human activities. The water is generally low in dissolved-solids concentration and is soft to moderately hard. Surface water is less mineralized than ground water, especially during high-flow conditions when it is primarily direct runoff. Samples of water collected from 20 streams during high flow had 34 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 16 mg/L median hardness. Samples collected from the same sites at low flow had 52 mg/L median dissolved solids and 28 mg/L median hardness. In contrast, water from wells had 112 mg/L median dissolved-solids concentration and 60 mg/L median hardness. Iron and manganese occur in objectionable concentrations ~n a few parts of the basin where streams drain swamps and aquifers are rich in iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. Five percent of streams at high flow, 21 percent at low flow, and 7 percent of ground-water samples contained iron in sufficient concentration to cause stains on plumbing fixtures and laundry. Human activities have modified the quality of water in parts of the basin. The high bacterial content of the Pequabuck River. and the high nitrate and chloride concentrations in some ground-water samples, are evidence of man’s influence. The quantity and quality of water in the basin’s streams and aquifers are satisfactory for a wide variety of uses. and, with suitable treatment, may be used for most

  19. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-09-01

    Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

  1. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  2. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-11-01

    Total nitrogen (TN), which consists of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), is transported with not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals. In general, TPN export from an entire river basin to the ocean is larger than TDN in a mountainous region. Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are hypothesized to be mainly transported as suspended matters from the ground surface, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated TN export from an entire river basin, and also we estimated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen input across a river basin. The maximum potential contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was found to be 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin. The contribution of particulate nitrogen based on suspended sediment from the ocean to the river basin soils was 22.9 % with SD of 3.6 % by using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (?15N).

  3. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

  4. Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.

  5. Climatic Variation and River Flows in Himalayan Basins Upstream of Large Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D.; Collins, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    High specific discharges from Himalayan headwater basins feed major reservoirs generating hydropower and supplying water to irrigation schemes across the Punjab plains of north-west India and Pakistan. Flow arises from seasonal winter snow cover, summer monsoon precipitation and melting glacier ice in varying proportions and differing absolute quantities along west -east axes of the Karakoram and western Himalaya. Discharge records for stations above Tarbela (Indus), Mangla (Jhelum), Marala (Chenab) and Bhakra (Sutlej) dams have been examined for periods between 1920 and 2009, together with precipitation and air temperature data for stations with long records (within the period 1893 to 2013) at elevations between 234 and 3015 m a.s.l. Ice-cover age in the basins above the dams was between 1 and 12 %. Flows in the Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum reached maxima in the 1950s before declining to the 1970s. Flow in the Chenab and Jhelum increased to 1950s levels in the 1990s, before falling steeply into the 2000s mimicking variations in winter and monsoon precipitation. Discharge in the Indus at Tarbela increased from the 1970s, reaching a maximum in the late 1980s/early 1990s, before declining back to 1970s levels in the 2000s, flow being influenced not only by precipitation fluctuations but also by changes in air temperature affecting glacier melt in headwater basins. Runoff at Bhakra was augmented by flow from the Beas-Sutlej link canal after 1977, but natural flow in the Sutlej above Luhri reduced considerably from the 1990s influenced by declining flows in the relatively dry but large Tibetan portion of the basin area. Large year-to-year fluctuations of reservoir inflows are nonetheless based on significant sustained underlying discharge levels at all four reservoirs.

  6. ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS THROUGH FOOD CHAIN IN RIVER BASIN UNDER CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Atsunori; Kojiri, Toshiharu

    Since the traditional river basin assessment has not been employed from the ecological viewpoint, the sound river basin management was not completed. In this paper, introducing the concepts of food chain, benthic organisms, and fishes for ecological system, the river basin simulation model based on physical dynamics of discharge and toxic-chemical is proposed. The sustainability of aquatic organisms and the accumulation impacts of toxic-chemicals in fish bodies are considered through CASM and PBPK. Finally, the Kamo River in Kyoto, Japan, is applied for verification.

  7. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  8. An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin

    E-print Network

    Allan, David

    An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin David Allan and Leon Hinz With: Edward of this project is to investigate the concept of the flow regime as applied at the scale of the Great Lakes basin of the Great Lakes basin? (2) have flow regimes changed over time, specifically between early and late

  9. Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI, AND KEVIN E. TRENBERTH

    E-print Network

    Dai, Aiguo

    Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI components in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004 are investigated using a combination that evapotranspiration has in- creased in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004. Sensitivity experiments show

  10. 552003 Mainstem Amendments to the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Findings on the Recommendations for Mainstem Plan Amendments

    E-print Network

    to the Council's 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program concerning the mainstem Columbia and Snake552003 Mainstem Amendments to the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Findings on the Recommendations for Mainstem Plan Amendments to the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program appendix B

  11. Calibration and application of TRMM precipitation data in Irrawaddy River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W.; Lu, J. X.; Zhang, T. T.; Tan, Y. N.; Song, W. L.; Pang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite rainfall data were assessed and calibrated using limited ground meteorological and hydrological data in Irrawaddy River basin, a watershed with complex terrain conditions but lack of data. A correction factor was determined to adjust TRMM data, taking basin water balance and terrain slopes into consideration. A distributed hydrological model SWAT was established and used to simulate the basin rainfall-runoff processes from 2001 to 2011, driven by the calibrated TRMM rainfall data series. Results show that, in a data scarce basin like Irrawaddy River basin, such a water balanced based TRMM data calibration method is suitable and reliable.

  12. The future of species invasions in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin Katie S. Pagnucco a,1

    E-print Network

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    The future of species invasions in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin Katie S. Pagnucco a,1 as the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin. Over 180 non-native species have become established in the basin extent. Most notably, the continued warming of surface waters of the Great Lakes basin will lift thermal

  13. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  14. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  15. Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

  16. A large-scale model for simulating the fate & transport of organic contaminants in river basins.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; van Gils, J; Cousins, I T

    2016-02-01

    We present STREAM-EU (Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for EUropean basins), a novel dynamic mass balance model for predicting the environmental fate of organic contaminants in river basins. STREAM-EU goes beyond the current state-of-the-science in that it can simulate spatially and temporally-resolved contaminant concentrations in all relevant environmental media (surface water, groundwater, snow, soil and sediments) at the river basin scale. The model can currently be applied to multiple organic contaminants in any river basin in Europe, but the model framework is adaptable to any river basin in any continent. We simulate the environmental fate of perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the Danube River basin and compare model predictions to recent monitoring data. The model predicts PFOS and PFOA concentrations that agree well with measured concentrations for large stretches of the river. Disagreements between the model predictions and measurements in some river sections are shown to be useful indicators of unknown contamination sources to the river basin. PMID:26414740

  17. Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S

    2004-01-01

    The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan. PMID:15195438

  18. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids discharged from the Yodo River Basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Niisoe, Tamon; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Oshima, Masayo; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 7-14 carbon atoms (C7-C14) in the Yodo River system in 2013. C7-C11 were detected at most sampling sites. The range and median of total PFCAs (?PFCAs) concentrations were 1.0-89.7 and 11.2 ng L(-1), respectively. The dominant component was C8 (average for all samples=53.3±8.8%), followed by C7 (19.2±6.7%) and C9 (17.6±7.1%). The levels of C8 were confirmed to decrease greatly over the last 10 years. We assessed the fluxes in C7-C11 discharged from the basin based on the concentrations in river water and river flow rate. The flux of discharged ?PFCAs was 237.0 g d(-1) at the most downriver point of the assessment areas. Considering the variability in flow rate due to precipitation, the annual ?PFCAs flux was estimated to be 86.5-173.4 kg y(-1). Identification and quantification of PFCAs sources is difficult because the strength of the sources changes with time, and available information is quite limited. Further monitoring and investigation are necessary to understand sources of PFCAs, as well as their potential for human exposure. PMID:26037820

  19. Streamflow analysis of the Apalachicola, Pearl, Trinity, and Nueces River basins, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, K.E.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Annual mean and annual minimum and maximum daily mean streamflow were compared with associated annual index precipitation for sites on the main channel and tributaries of the Apalachicola, Pearl, Trinity, and Nueces Rivers in the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Precipitation and annual minimum streamflow at the downstream station on each river increased over the available periods of record. No long-term changes were identified in mean and maximum streamflow to the Gulf from the Apalachicola River Basin. Annual mean and maximum streamflow to the Gulf increased with time from the Pearl River Basin and decreased from the Trinity River Basin. Annual mean streamflow showed varied trends and annual maximum streamflow decreased for the Nueces River Basin. Short-term trends in streamflow and precipitation generally corresponded at most stations. Total reported surface-water withdrawals from the Trinity River Basin increased more than fourfold since 1940 and currently represent about one-fourth of the mean streamflow near the mouth of the river. Total reported withdrawals from the Nueces River Basin increased more than eightfold since 1940 and currently represent about one-third of the annual mean streamflow near the mouth. Predicted peak streamflow into the Gulf from the Apalachicola River was 23 percent less for the 50-year peak streamflow after reservoirs were constructed. Annual mean streamflow to the Gulf was reduced following construction of the downstream reservoirs on the Apalachicola and Trinity Rivers. Peak streamflows from the Pearl and Trinity Rivers have not been affected. The annual mean streamflow from the Nueces River was reduced by about 24 percent as a result of filling and evaporation at Choke Canyon Reservoir.

  20. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  1. WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    #12;WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME #2 Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 Prepared by: IRC INTEGRATED RESOURCE CONSULTANTS INC. 160 - 14480 River Road LOADING STATISTICS (1990-1993) 4. QUESNEL RIVER PULP LOADING STATISTICS (1990-1993) 5. FMC LOADING

  2. Striking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin Sockeye surprise

    E-print Network

    in the Columbia and Snake rivers this year has fishers and fish biolo- gists jubilant but also curious counting began. Returns in the Snake River are on a similar track. At Lower Granite Dam, the last damStriking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin Sockeye surprise

  3. Areal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in

    E-print Network

    hatchery areas: in the case of the Snake River hatch- ery area, for example, the proportion of marked 1970. December 1981. 43(12) HATCHERY FACILITIES Snake River 1 Decker Flat5 2 Pahsimeroi 3 Hayden Creek 4 RapidAreal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in Fisheries

  4. Increases in River Runoff Projected for High Mountain Asia's River Basins during the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W.; Lutz, A.; Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Shrestha, A. B.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers originating in the high mountains of Asia are among the most melt water dependent river systems on Earth, yet large human populations depend on their resources downstream. Across High Asia's river basins, there is large variation in the contribution of glacier and snow melt to total runoff, which is poorly quantified. The lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of High Asia's rivers is one of the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change. In this study we typify contrasting hydrological regimes at two different scales in contrasting climates in Asia: small scale high altitude glacierized catchments and large scale upstream basins. Subsequently we analyze the hydrological impact of climate change using the latest climate model output at both spatial scales. Conceptually different glacio-hydrological models are used at catchment and basin scale. The largest difference is the spatial resolution (90 m versus 1 km) and the fact that at the catchment scale we explicitly include glacier dynamics whereas at the large scale we parameterize future retreat. Despite the conceptual differences the conclusions are remarkably similar. The average annual runoff will increase or remain stable in the coming decades as a result of projected increases in precipitation in combination with sustained higher glacier melt, e.g. the glacier retreat is counterbalanced by an increase in melt rate per unit area for years to come. We conclude that the challenge for the future is coping with intra-annual shifts in the water balance and a possible increase of extreme events.

  5. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  6. Development of river ecosystem models for Flemish watercourses: case studies in the Zwalm river basin.

    PubMed

    Goethals, P; Dedecker, A; Raes, N; Adriaenssens, V; Gabriels, W; De Pauw, N

    2001-01-01

    Only recently, modelling has been accepted as an interesting and powerful tool to support river quality assessment and management. The 'River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System' (RIVPACS), based on statistical modelling, was one of the first and best known systems in this context. RIVPACS was developed to classify macroinvertebrate community types and to predict the fauna expected to occur in different types of watercourses, based on a small number of environmental variables. The prediction is essentially a static 'target' of the fauna to be expected at a site with stated environmental features, in the absence of environmental stress. Therefore this system is rather limited to apply in river assessment and management. Models that offer a prediction of faunal responses to changes in environmental features (e.g. changes in discharge regime, dissolved oxygen level, ...) would be of considerable value for river management. In this context, models based on classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic were developed and applied to predict macro-invertebrate communities in the Zwalm river basin located in Flanders, Belgium. Structural characteristics (meandering, substrate type, flow velocity, ...) and physical-chemical variables (dissolved oxygen, pH, ...) were used as inputs to predict the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa in the headwaters and brooks of the Zwalm river basin. In total, data from 60 measurement sites were available. Reliability and particular strengths and weaknesses of these techniques were compared and evaluated. Classification trees performed in general well to predict the absence or presence of the different macroinvertebrate taxa and allowed also to deduct general relations from the dataset. Models based on artificial neural networks (ANNS) were also good in predicting the macroinvertebrate communities at the different sites. Sensitivity analyses related to ANNs allowed to study the impact of the input variables on the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa and to determine the major variables that affect the ecosystem quality and should be taken under direct consideration in the management of river basins. Performance of the fuzzy logic models was significantly related to the methods that were used to set up the membership functions and the reliability of the information that was available. Fuzzy logic did not perform as well as the other two techniques with regard to short term predictions. Fuzzy logic appeared to be better and more robust for long term predictions, because of the easy and pragmatic integration of general expert knowledge and data derived rules in the transparent inference engine. The overall conclusion of our study is that all three techniques, classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic appeared to be reliable to predict macroinvertebrate communities in polluted streams. PMID:15952431

  7. Seasonal cycle of Precipitation over Major River Basins in South and Southeast Asia: A Review of the CMIP5 climate models data for present climate and future climate projections

    E-print Network

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Böhner, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We review the skill of thirty coupled climate models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 in terms of reproducing properties of the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the major river basins of South and Southeast Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for historical period (1961-2000). We also present projected changes by these models by end of century (2061-2100) under extreme scenario RCP8.5. First, we assess their ability to reproduce observed timings of the monsoon onset and the rate of rapid fractional accumulation (RFA slope) - a measure of seasonality within active monsoon period. Secondly, we apply a threshold-independent seasonality index (SI) - a multiplicative measure of precipitation and extent of its concentration relative to the uniform distribution (relative entropy - RE). We apply SI distinctly for monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR), westerly precipitation regime (WPR) and annual precipitation regime. For present climate, neither any single model nor the multi-mod...

  8. Climatology of extreme rainfall and flooding from orographic thunderstorm systems in the upper Arkansas River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier, Julie Rose N.; Smith, James A.; England, John; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Steiner, Matthias; Ntelekos, Alexandros A.

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the spatial and temporal distribution of extreme rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Pueblo, Colorado, are based on volume scan reflectivity observations from the Pueblo WSR-88D radar during the period 1995-2003. A storm catalog of 66 rainfall events during the 9-year period has been developed. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall are carried out both from an Eulerian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall at fixed locations are examined, and from a Lagrangian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall are based on storm-tracking algorithms. Of particular interest is the spatial heterogeneity of extreme rainfall in the complex terrain of the upper Arkansas River basin. Lagrangian analyses are used to characterize the spatially varying distribution of storm initiation, storm motion, and storm structure. Climatological analyses indicate that convective rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Canon City (drainage area of 8070 km2) does not contribute to the extreme flood response of the Arkansas River at Pueblo (drainage area of 12,140 km2). There is pronounced diurnal variation in warm season rainfall in the Arkansas River basin, and this feature of extreme rainfall is a key element of flood response in the upper Arkansas River basin. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall in the upper Arkansas River basin are examined relative to the spatial and temporal properties of rainfall for extreme flood events that have occurred in the basin, including major flood episodes in June 1921 and June 1965.

  9. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, E.; Fan, M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial basin systems provide important information on paleoclimatic, paleoecological, and paleoenvironmental factors and how they control and respond to global changes and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Examining these dynamics is crucial for times of major global change like the broad-scale climatic trends (warm/wet/high-CO2 conditions) of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). As most climatic records of such events are derived from global marine datasets, regional terrestrial studies such as these provide a better model for understanding ecological responses and the localized effects of events like the EECO. The formation of the Wind River Basin (northwestern Wyoming) has been studied for decades, but its regional climatic, environmental, and ecological dynamics have been largely overlooked. Recent work in other contemporaneous sites in the Green River Basin has suggested that the dynamics and rapidity of climate change in terrestrial interiors during the EECO may have been significantly different than what is indicated by the marine record, so to address these issues on a more regional scale we examined paleosols preserved in the fluvial, basin-margin Wind River Formation preserved near Dubois, Wyoming. Field identification of the paleosols indicated a suite that includes primarily Inceptisols and Alfisols; most exhibited significant redoximorphic features and Bg horizons that indicate a ponded floodplain paleoenvironment, while others contained deep Bk horizons (>100 cm) consistent with more well-drained, but still sub-humid to humid conditions. Based on the identification of these well-developed soil features, along with distinct horizonation and root development, paleosols were robustly correlated and sampled throughout the Formation, and environmental descriptors were assigned. To further examine the question of regional terrestrial climate/environmental change, whole rock geochemistry (XRF) samples from paleosol depth profiles were analyzed for use in quantitative paleoclimatic proxies (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, ?W). Samples were also collected for occluded carbon and phytolith (taxonomically diagnostic plant silica bodies) extractions, for the purpose of detailing local vegetation change throughout the EECO event. By combining these botanical and climatic proxies, we will reconstruct an integrated environmental history of the Early Eocene in the Wind River Basin that can be compared both to other regional paleoenvironmental records and to global paleoclimatic trends.

  10. Water quality assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Knifong, Donna L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Majewski, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the environmental setting and investigative activities of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is one of 60 study units located throughout the United States that has been scheduled for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is the most important source of freshwater in California. Water quality studies in the Sacramento River Basin study unit focus on the Sacramento Valley because it is here that the principal uses of water and potential impacts on water quality occur. Investigative activities include a network of surface water sites, where water chemistry and aquatic biological sampling are done, and a variety of ground water studies. In addition, investigations of the cycling and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the urban environment and the distribution of total and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River and tributaries will be completed.

  11. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a lead for the qualitative approximation of the amount of bed load transported along the river reach and thus hydropower project sites.

  12. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-04-01

    Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are transported not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen (TN) input across a river basin using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (?15N). The contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin, providing a first estimate of MDN export for a river basin. The contribution of nitrogen from the ocean to the river basin soils was between 22.9 and 23.8 %. Furthermore, SIA showed that the transport of oceanic TN by sea eagles (Haliaeetus spp.) was greater than that by bears (Ursus arctos), which had previously been that bears are thought to be the major animal transporter of nutrients in the northern part of Japan.

  13. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  14. THE EFFECT OF VARYING ELECTROFISHING DESIGN ON BIOASSESSMENT RESULTS OF FOUR LARGE RIVERS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, the effect of electrofishing design (single bank or paired banks) and sampling distance on bioassessment results was studied in four boatable rivers in the Ohio River basin. The relationship between the number of species collected and the total distance electrofished wa...

  15. A Synoptic Survey of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Tributary Streams and Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combined stream chemistry and hydrology data from surveys of 467 tributary stream sites and 447 great river sites in the Upper Mississippi River basin to provide a regional snapshot of baseflow total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and to investigate th...

  16. Application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in river basin management.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Mynett, A E

    2006-01-01

    Considering uncertainty in the decision-making process in river basin management is important because uncertainty is regarded as one of the main obstacles to sound decision-making. In case of high uncertainty, the risks of making a wrong decision could be quite high, which may have severe consequences. This paper applies a screening sensitivity analysis method, the Morris method, to investigate the propagation of uncertainty from factors in a flood damage model into the model outputs and explores the importance of factors based on the sensitivity analysis. Uncertainty reduction in the most influential factors identified by the Morris method is proposed as a means to reduce the uncertainty in model outputs. In this way the risks of making a wrong decision could be reduced. The results in this paper show that the Morris method is an efficient approach to help reduce the uncertainty in model outputs. PMID:16532734

  17. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of drought in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level ? = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.

  19. Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  20. Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

  1. A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Spencer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

  2. Trends in Extremes Rainfall over the São Francisco River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, M. C.; Marengo, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The present study aims to analyze trends in rainfall extreme over the basin São Francisco (SF) using climate extreme indices (CEI). Also, it was analyzed the relationship between CEI and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). São Francisco River system is one of Brazil's most significant water bodies; it is the fourth largest river system of the continent, one of the two main plateau rivers, and the largest river wholly within Brazil. Inside it are installed a series of hydroelectric dams and irrigation projects that sustain the energy and economy in the Northeast region of Brazil. In order to facilitate the spatial analysis of the trends São Francisco basin was divided in four sectors, called geo-morphological regions. From upstream to downstream, the sectors are: Upper (USF), Middle (MSF), Sub-Middle (SSF) and Lower São Francisco (LSF). The CEI were derived from daily precipitation of Climatic Prediction Center (CPCp) for period of 1979-2005, and from a set of 10 stations' records of daily precipitations within the period 1960-1999. Most of the CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R50mm) and flood events (RX5day, RX1day and R95p). Droughts (CDDd) are identified by means of two indicators: the longest dry period (CDD) and the cycle annual. Additionally, it was used the ETA_HadCM3 model in order to simulate the present climate (1961-1990) and future projections (2011- 2099) of climate extremes in the basin. The results showed a high interannual variability of the indices and a good relationship between the CEI and SOI. Drought (CDDd), and short period of rainfall (RX1day, RX5day and R30mm) occurred with more frequency and intensity in the El Niño events. This would suggest that extreme rainfall events in short periods of time (RX1day and RX5day) can occur in very rainy or dry years, the difference could be assessed in terms of their impacts. In wet years, with the highest frequency of days with rain and with a moist soil, an extreme event could cause flooding or landslides. Already, an extreme event in a dry year could compensate the deficit of water that the soil of that region can be suffering, not disregarding the possibility of severe impacts due to urbanization problems on river slopes. The spatial distribution of trends showed increase of CDD in Upper SF. R95p showed opposite tends in Upper SF (increase) and Lower SF (decrease). Increasing trend of RX5day was observed in Lower and Lower-Middle SF. Extreme events obtained from model ETA_HadCM3 for the period 1979-1990 are compared with the same obtained from the CPCp. It was showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, suggesting dry periods with greater magnitude and short-term precipitation more intense. In future scenarios, dry periods are projected to increase in length and frequency until 2071-2099, while RX1day will be more intense. It is suggested that model outputs are needed to be calibrated with the observed datasets in daily-scale, especially in obtaining rainfall extremes.

  3. Nutrient mass balance and trends, Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.; Atkins, J.B.; Harvill, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    A nutrient mass balance - accounting for nutrient inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, crop nitrogen fixation, and point source effluents; and nutrient outputs, including crop harvest and storage - was calculated for 18 subbasins in the Mobile River Basin, and trends (1970 to 1997) were evaluated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Agricultural nonpoint nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban nonpoint nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in this system. More than 30 percent of nitrogen yield in two basins and phosphorus yield in eight basins can be attributed to urban point source nutrient inputs. The total nitrogen yield (1.3 tons per square mile per year) for the Tombigbee River, which drains a greater percentage of agricultural (row crop) land use, was larger than the total nitrogen yield (0.99 tons per square mile per year) for the Alabama River. Decreasing trends of total nitrogen concentrations in the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers indicate that a reduction occurred from 1975 to 1997 in the nitrogen contributions to Mobile Bay from the Mobile River. Nitrogen concentrations also decreased (1980 to 1995) in the Black Warrior River, one of the major tributaries to the Tombigbee River. Total phosphorus concentrations increased from 1970 to 1996 at three urban influenced sites on the Etowah River in Georgia. Multiple regression analysis indicates a distinct association between water quality in the streams of the Mobile River drainage basin and agricultural activities in the basin.

  4. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; Connecticut River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Connecticut River basin study area includes streams draining the Ashuelot River (6.6 square miles), Millers River (389 square miles), Deerfield River (663 square miles), Chicopee River (727 square miles), Westfield River (517 square miles), Farmington River (158 square miles), and Connecticut River lowlands (656 square miles) basin in western Massachusetts, northern Connecticut, southern Vermont, and southern New Hampshire. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were re-computed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 45 gaging stations, representing statistics were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 118 partial-record sites, and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 54 sites in the Connecticut River basin. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  5. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  6. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  7. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  8. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  9. Observed low flow trends in major US river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournasiri Poshtiri, M.; Pal, I.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global climate would likely be associated with impacts on regional hydrological cycle, such as changes in variability of precipitation and stream flow. Hence, to formulate and implement climate risk management strategies, it is essential to detect where and when hydrological extremes have been changing and to what extent. This scientific research presents where and how low flow characteristics, particularly the occurrence, intensity and severity of hydrological extremes, have been changing in fourteen major river basins within the continental U.S. Of particular interest is to detect if monotonic trends in low flow characteristics shifted with decades, reflecting the known climatic shifts, particularly before and after 1980. Persistent low flow conditions in a river can directly influence water supply for domestic, agricultural, industrial, ecological, and other needs; and a monotonic trend in such persistent low flow condition can lead to chronic water scarcity—a main driver of societal and cross-boundary conflicts around the world. Thus, outcomes from this research are instrumental for the water managers to develop suitable adaptive management measures at the locations and times of need.

  10. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  11. Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  12. Arsenic mobility in sediments from Paracatu River Basin, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Costa, Letícia Malta; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2015-04-01

    Paracatu River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, houses long areas of irrigated agriculture and gold-, lead-, and zinc-mining activities. This region has a prevalence of sulfide minerals and a natural occurrence of high levels of arsenopyrite. In this work, surface water, groundwater, sediments and local vegetable samples were collected in October 2010 and November 2011 and were analyzed to evaluate arsenic (As) distribution, mobility, and transport in these environmental compartments. All sediment samples (738-2,750 mg kg(-1)) and 37 % of the water samples [less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 110 µg L(-1)] from the rivers and streams of Paracatu had As concentrations greater than the quality standards established by national and international environmental organizations (5.9 mg kg(-1) for sediments and 10 µg L(-1) for water). Most vegetable samples had As concentrations within the normal range for plants (lower than the LOD to 120 mg kg(-1)). A correlation among As concentrations in water, sediment, and vegetable samples was verified. PMID:25672271

  13. Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    and dependent tribal and non tribal economies. In passing the Act, Congress declared that the salmon crisis Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program By Ed Chaney, Director, Northwest Columbia/Snake Rivers elements of the Council's 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

  14. A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins 

    E-print Network

    Cook, John Henry

    1967-01-01

    This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

  15. Analysis of fixed-station water-quality data in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    An appraisal of surface water quality in the Umpqua River basin was made using existing monthly data collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Douglas County Water Resources Survey. This appraisal was limited to interpretation of instantaneous monthly water quality data collected in the Umpqua River basin from water years 1974 to 1983. These data were used to compare water quality conditions throughout the basin and to determine if data collected from the NASQAN (National Stream Quality Accounting network) station are representative of upstream basin conditions. In general, data collected at the NASQAN station represent a composite of water quality from the North and South Umpqua Rivers. These river basins account for 82 % of the NASQAN station drainage. Water quality concentrations, loads, yields, and trends were statistically described and related to point source effluent loads and basin characteristics including geohydrology, hydrology, population, land use, and water use. Available point-and nonpoint-source data provided minimal information for determining cause-effect relations and for explaining observed trends in water quality; however, the data did indicate that the largest effluent discharges are located in the South Umpqua River basin in the Roseburg-Winston area. Instantaneous and annual flow weighted levels of specific conductance, phosphorus, organic plus ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate, and fecal coliform bacteria are generally highest in the South Umpqua River near Roseburg. These high levels generally occur during the summer months when river flow is extremely low relative to flow in the North Umpqua River. The North Umpqua River has among the lowest constituent concentrations observed in the basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Thermal Profiles for Selected River Reaches in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Keys, M.E.; Julich, R.J.; Welch, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal profiles (data sets of longitudinal near-streambed temperature) that provide information on areas of potential ground-water discharge and salmonid habitat for 11 river reaches in the Yakima River basin, Washington, are available as Microsoft Excel? files that can be downloaded from the Internet. Two reaches were profiled twice resulting in 13 profiles. Data were collected for all but one thermal profile during 2001. Data consist of date and time (Pacific Daylight), near-streambed water temperature, and latitude and longitude collected concurrently using a temperature probe and a Global Positioning System. The data were collected from a watercraft towing the probe with an internal datalogger while moving downstream in a Lagrangian framework.

  17. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  18. An entropy-based morphological analysis of river basin networks 

    E-print Network

    Fiorentino, Mauro; Claps, Pierluigi; Singh, Vijay P.

    1993-01-01

    Under the assumption that the only information available on a drainage basin is its mean elevation, the connection between entropy and potential energy is explored to analyze drainage basins morphological characteristics. The mean basin elevation...

  19. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  20. DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

  1. A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

  2. Why states cooperate over shared water: The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    ............................................................................87 3.6 International water law perspectives .............3 Why states cooperate over shared water: The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin Anders and Society, Technol- ogy and Social Change, and Water and Environmental Studies. Jointly they publish

  3. HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

  4. Precipitation analysis for a flood early warning system in the Manafwa River Basin, Uganda

    E-print Network

    Cecinati, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The communities living in the Manafwa River Basin experience frequent floods threatening their lives and property. Climate change and anthropogenic perturbations to the natural environment increase flooding frequency. This ...

  5. Effects of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena on precipitation and flooding in the Manafwa River Basin

    E-print Network

    Finney, William W., III (William Warner)

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the relationship between certain oceanic and atmospheric phenomena and the precipitation patterns in the Manafwa River Basin of eastern Uganda. Such phenomena are the El Niño ...

  6. 75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...delivery and use will result in improved streamflows for fish and wildlife and improve the reliability of water supplies for irrigation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Dawn Wiedmeier, Deputy Area Manager, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement...

  7. 77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...delivery and use will result in improved streamflows for fish and wildlife and improve the reliability of water supplies for irrigation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Timothy McCoy, Manager, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project,...

  8. Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin: A Map Series 

    E-print Network

    Leigh, Eric; Fipps, G.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this map series is Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin. The series consists of nine (9) maps showing the boundaries of legislative districts and 32 water districts that ...

  9. Fish-performance ecoassay of urbanizing streams in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Fontaine, Lance Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus, a sunfish species) were used to perform an ecological assay of stream health in urbanizing watersheds of the upper San Antonio River Basin, Texas. Ecoassays were conducted during summer 1999 ...

  10. Water quality modelling for recreational use in the Kallang River Basin, Singapore

    E-print Network

    Angeles, Justin Victor V. (Justin Victor Velayo)

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Active, Beautiful, and Clean Waters Programme (ABC) aims to provide functional use of its water bodies to the public. The Kallang River Basin, being part of the ABC Programme, will be used for recreational ...

  11. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...Enhancement Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the...uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Storage...

  12. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  13. Laramide basin subsidence and fluvial architecture of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the southern greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The late Paleocene Fort Union Formation and early Eocene Wasatch Formation exposed around the Rock Springs uplift demonstrate subsidence variations in the southern greater Green River basin. Total unit thickness and distribution of channel sandstones within overbank deposits record differences in subsidence rate across the basin. On the west flank of the Rock springs uplift, west of the bounding fault, channels have close spacing and thickness is low. On the south flank within the uplift, the thickness values are intermediary but channels are very closely spaced. Away from the uplift on the southeast flank, the thickness is greatest and channels are very widely spaced. Paleocurrents indicate that rivers flowed southward across the central basin to an eastward-flowing axis trunk river at the southern end of the basin. Both the south and southeast flank area were within the basin axis, but the west flank areas was within the central basin. Thickness trends represent subsidence variations across the basin. Subsidence was slowest at the west flank area. On the south flank, subsidence was greater, and the highest subsidence rate was on the southeast flank. Generally, thickness indicates increasing subsidence toward the Uinta uplift, but the south flank area is an exception. Basin subsidence occurred by flexure of the lithosphere under a tectonic load from the Uinta uplift to the south. Thickened lithosphere at the Rock springs uplift bounding fault was resistant to flexure. Thus, on the south flank near the fault, subsidence was slower than on the southeast flank where the lithosphere was not thickened. The closely spaced fluvial architecture on the south flank resulted from a narrow basin axis flood plain. A narrow flood plain possibly resulted from the subsidence resistance of thickened lithosphere at the Rock Springs uplift bounding fault or from topographic expression of the uplift itself.

  14. 2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models J extreme drought event in the Amazon river basin, regarded as the worst in over a century. GRACE measures a significant decrease in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the central Amazon basin in the summer of 2005

  15. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  16. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  17. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  18. Sediment supply as a driver of river evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Joshua; Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon represents the only large river basin in the world where there is a sufficient range of sediment supplies and a lack of engineering controls to assess how sediment supply drives the evolution of meandering rivers. Despite recent analytical advances (Asahi et al., 2013; Pittaluga and Seminara, 2011), modern theory does not yet identify or explain the effects of externally imposed sediment supplies, a fundamental river characteristic, on meandering river evolution. These sediment supplies would be radically reduced by the construction of large dams proposed for the Amazon Basin (Finer and Jenkins, 2012). Here, we demonstrate that the sediment loads imposed by their respective drainage basins determine planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon. Our analysis, based on Landsat image sequences, indicates that rivers with high sediment loads draining the Andes and associated foreland basin experience annual migration rates that are on average four times faster than rivers with lower sediment loads draining the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Incidents of meander cutoff also occur more frequently along the rivers of the Andes and foreland basin, where the number of oxbows in the floodplains is more than twice that observed in the floodplains of the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Our results, which cannot be explained by differences in channel slope or hydrology, highlight the importance of sediment supply in modulating the ability of meandering alluvial rivers to reshape the floodplain environment through river migration. Asahi, K., Shimizu, Y., Nelson, J., Parker, G., 2013. Numerical simulation of river meandering with self-evolving banks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 118(4), 2013JF002752. Finer, M., Jenkins, C.N., 2012. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity. PLOS One, 7(4), e35126. Pittaluga, M.B., Seminara, G., 2011. Nonlinearity and unsteadiness in river meandering: a review of progress in theory and modelling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 36(1), 20-38.

  19. Framework design for remote sensing monitoring and data service system of regional river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun'e.; Lu, Jingxuan; Pang, Zhiguo

    2015-08-01

    Regional river basins, transboundary rivers in particular, are shared water resources among multiple users. The tempo-spatial distribution and utilization potentials of water resources in these river basins have a great influence on the economic layout and the social development of all the interested parties in these basins. However, due to the characteristics of cross borders and multi-users in these regions, especially across border regions, basic data is relatively scarce and inconsistent, which bring difficulties in basin water resources management. Facing the basic data requirements in regional river management, the overall technical framework for remote sensing monitoring and data service system in China's regional river basins was designed in the paper, with a remote sensing driven distributed basin hydrologic model developed and integrated within the frame. This prototype system is able to extract most of the model required land surface data by multi-sources and multi-temporal remote sensing images, to run a distributed basin hydrological simulation model, to carry out various scenario analysis, and to provide data services to decision makers.

  20. Causes of Variations in Water Quality and Aquatic Ecology in Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and aquatic biological conditions differ among the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (the St. Croix and Minnesota Rivers) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The quality of surface water and the ecological condition of rivers affect the ways in which we use them. The St. Croix River is used for recreation; the Mississippi River is used for recreation and is a corridor for commerce; and the Minnesota River primarily drains agricultural lands. Analysis of the environmental framework of the basins and water-quality and ecological information by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program shows that the conditions of the rivers are a product of a combination of factors including climate, hydrology, geology, soils, land use, land cover, water management, and water use.

  1. EVALUATING POINT-NONPOINT SOURCE WATER QUALITY TRADING IN A RARITAN RIVER BASIN SUB-WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses water quality issues in the Raritan River Basin of New Jersey. It will build upon an existing study that determined the technical feasibility of implementing a point-nonpoint source water quality trading program in the Basin. Water quality trading is ...

  2. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

    2007-10-01

    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  3. SIMULATION MODELING OF LIMITED IRRIGATION CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTH PLATTE RIVER BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South Platte River Basin is located primarily in Northeastern Colorado, with lesser parts in Nebraska and Wyoming. Agriculture is the predominant water user in the basin and demand frequently exceeds supply, particularly in times of drought. Further exacerbating the problem is water demand from ...

  4. Patterning ecological risk of pesticide contamination at the river basin scale Leslie Faggiano a,

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Patterning ecological risk of pesticide contamination at the river basin scale Leslie Faggiano a Ecological risk assessment was conducted to determine the risk posed by pesticide mixtures to the Adour of this basin with regard to pesticide contamination using a risk assessment procedure and to detect patterns

  5. Snow modeling in the Klamath River Basin: understanding the factors controlling snow distribution and melt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Point and spatially distributed models have been applied to the 4053 km2 Sprague River Basin which is one of three main tributaries to the Upper Klamath Basin in Southern Oregon, USA. The simulations cover entire water years to understand the physics controlling snow distribution during the accumul...

  6. An Ecologic Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Humboldt River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Humboldt River Basin covers a large part of northern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The people living in this area depend on clean water. Not knowing about water quality is a concern because people will need to manage the negative...

  7. The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) River Basin Component Methods and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Glennie, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) was initiated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to create the first baseline assessment of all of the planet's transboundary water resources. The TWAP River Basin component consists of a baseline comparative assessment of 270 transboundary river basins, including all but the smallest basins, to enable the identification of priority issues and hotspots at risk from a variety of stressors. The assessment is indicator based and it is intended to provide a relative analysis of basins based on risks to societies and ecosystems. Models and observational data have been used to create 14 indicators covering environmental, human and agricultural water stress; nutrient and wastewater pollution; extinction risk; governance and institutions; economic dependence on water resources; societal wellbeing at sub-basin scales; and societal risks from climate extremes. The methodology is not limited to transboundary basins, but can be applied to all river basins. This presentation will provide a summary of the methods and results of the TWAP River Basin component. It will also briefly discuss preliminary results of the TWAP lakes and aquifer components.

  8. MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE GENERATION FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of backcast and forecast land use maps of the Ohio River Basin (ORB) was developed that could be used to assess the spatial-temporal patterns of land use/land cover (LULC) change in this important basin. This approach was taken to facilitate assessment of integrated sustain...

  9. CLIMATE CHANGE INDUCED STREAMFLOW IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN Manoj Jha*, Zaitao Pan, Eugene Takle, and Roy Gu

    E-print Network

    Takle, Eugene S.

    P2.19 CLIMATE CHANGE INDUCED STREAMFLOW IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN Manoj Jha*, Zaitao Pan Assessment Tool), over the entire UMRB (Upper Mississippi River Basin). The objective of the study quality, in rivers and lakes are sensitive to climate changes. Past studies on climate change effects

  10. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 FY 2008-2009 F&W Program Accords (MOA) Proposal Review

    E-print Network

    Columbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 FY 2008-2009 F&W Program Accords (MOA of lamprey, at a variety of life stages, in the Fifteenmile Creek and Hood River basins. Project funds to restore lamprey populations. Province(s) Columbia Gorge Subbasin(s) Fifteenmile Creek and Hood River

  11. [McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    [McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

  12. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  13. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  14. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  15. Patterns in Water Quality at Selected Stations in the Fraser River Basin (1985-1991)

    E-print Network

    #12;Patterns in Water Quality at Selected Stations in the Fraser River Basin (1985-1991) by D.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (BC MoELP), have monitored water quality at sites on the Fraser of upstream-downstream values of water quality variables on the mainstem Fraser River demonstrated

  16. The Impacts of Pulsed Reintroduction of River Water on a Mississippi Delta Coastal Basin

    E-print Network

    The Impacts of Pulsed Reintroduction of River Water on a Mississippi Delta Coastal Basin J.W. Day.R., and WISSEL, B., 2009. The impacts of pulsed reintroduction of river water on a Mississippi delta coastal the twentieth century about 25% of the wetlands of the Mississippi delta was lost, partially a result

  17. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  18. BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

  19. Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 200852400 CRITFC Lamprey Passage Design

    E-print Network

    of the Northwest Power Planning Council (ISAB) advocated for creating a "biodiversity standard" of which passageColumbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 200852400 CRITFC Lamprey Passage Design FY 2008-524-00 Title Pacific Lamprey Passage Design Proposer Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

  20. Metaphor in Natural Resource Gaming: Insights from the RIVER BASIN GAME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankford, Bruce; Watson, Drennan

    2007-01-01

    The RIVER BASIN GAME is a dialogue tool for decision makers and water users tested in Tanzania and Nigeria. It comprises a physical representation of a river catchment. A central channel flows between an upper watershed and a downstream wetland and has on it several intakes into irrigation systems. Glass marbles, representing water, roll down the…

  1. AN APPLICATION OF GIS BASED NONPOINT SOURCE MODELING TO LITTLE MIAMI RIVER BASIN: PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE USING BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality has improved significantly in the Little Miami River Basin, OH, over the past few decades because of improvements in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. However, water quality modeling is necessary to assess the relative impacts of point and nonpoint s...

  2. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

  3. Irrigation and streamflow depletion in Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Wilbur Douglas

    1953-01-01

    The Columbia River is the largest stream in western United States. Above The Dalles, Oregon, it drains an area of 237,000 square miles, of which 39,000 square miles is in Canada. This area is largely mountainous and lies between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Range. The Kootenai, Pend Oreille, and Snake Rivers are the principal tributaries. Precipitation varies from 7 inches near Kennewick, Wash. to over 100 inches in some of the mountainous regions. Most of the runoff occurs in the spring and summer months as a result of melting snow. Precipitation is generally light during the summer months, and irrigation is necessary for sustained crop production. Historical data indicate that irrigation in the Columbia River basin began prior to 1840 at the site of missions established near Walla Walla, Wash. and Lewiston, Idaho. During the next half century the increase in irrigated area was slow and by 1890 included only 506,000 acres. The period 1890 to 1910 was marked by phenomenal increase to a total of 2,276,000 acres in 1910. Since that time there has been more gradual addition to a total of 4,004,S00 acres of irrigated land in 1946 in the Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oreg. Of this total 918,000 acres were located in the Columbia Basin above the mouth of the Snake River; 2,830,000 acres in the Snake River basin, and the balance, 256,000 acres below the mouth of the Snake River. Values of net consumptive use were determined or estimated for various tributary basins of the Columbia River basin and compared to available experimental data. These values were then used to compute the average depletion which could be directly attributed to irrigation. The yield of a drainage basin was considered to be the rum of the ob- served runoff and the estimated depletion. For purposes of comparison, the depletion was expressed both in terms of acre-feet and as a percentage of the yield of the basin. This percentage depletion varied from less than 1 percent for many tributary basins to 53 percent for the portion of the Snake River basin between Heise and King Hill, Idaho. For the Columbia River near The Dalles, Oreg., the average depletion during the period 1921 through 1945, amounted to 4,7 percent of the yield and the depletion represented by the 1946 stage of irrigation development amounted to 5.3 percent of the long-term yield.

  4. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Basin (Venezuela) V. Bout-Roumazeilles,1 A. Riboulleau,1 E. Armynot du Châtelet,1 L. Lorenzoni,3 N for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10

  5. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  6. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alvaro H D; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-09-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p<0.001) and was significantly longer in patients treated with combined antibiotic therapy than in those treated with single antibiotics (HR=0.523, 95% CI 0.296-0.926, p=0.026). Further studies to determine the best antibiotic therapy modality for the treatment of pyomyositis are required. PMID:22819770

  7. Biodegradation of carbofuran in soils within Nzoia River Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onunga, Daniel O; Kowino, Isaac O; Ngigi, Anastasiah N; Osogo, Aggrey; Orata, Francis; Getenga, Zachary M; Were, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) has been used within the Nzoia River Basin (NRB), especially in Bunyala Rice Irrigation Schemes, in Kenya for the control of pests. In this study, the capacity of native bacteria to degrade carbofuran in soils from NRB was investigated. A gram positive, rod-shaped bacteria capable of degrading carbofuran was isolated through liquid cultures with carbofuran as the only carbon and nitrogen source. The isolate degraded 98% of 100-?g mL(-1) carbofuran within 10 days with the formation of carbofuran phenol as the only detectable metabolite. The degradation of carbofuran was followed by measuring its residues in liquid cultures using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical and morphological characteristics as well as molecular characterization confirmed the bacterial isolate to be a member of Bacillus species. The results indicate that this strain of Bacillus sp. could be considered as Bacillus cereus or Bacillus thuringiensis with a bootstrap value of 100% similar to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The biodegradation capability of the native strains in this study indicates that they have great potential for application in bioremediation of carbofuran-contaminated soil sites. PMID:25844859

  8. Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Upper Wapsipinicon River, Upper Cedar River, Shell Rock River and Winnebago River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Upper Wapsipinicon River, Upper Cedar River, Shell Rock River, and Winnebago River Basins, located in southern Minnesota and northern Iowa are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and marsh, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  9. Exploration of drought evolution using numerical simulations over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun

    2015-07-01

    The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.

  10. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCON) should be established in the next future, Zambia recently refused to sign and ratify the ZAMCON Protocol and the road toward a fully cooperative framework is still long. Results show that increasing levels of information exchange can help in mitigating the conflict generated by a non-cooperative setting as it allows the downstream agents, i.e. Mozambique country, to better adapt to the upstream management strategies. Furthermore, the role of information exchange depends on the considered objectives and it is particularly relevant for environmental interests.

  11. An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

  12. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples.

  13. [Effect of environmental factors on macroinvertebrate community structure in the Huntai River basin in the Huntai River basin].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species (70.83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13.89%) were mollusks, 7 species (9.72%) were annelids, and 4 species (5.56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics (EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/ Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon% , tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index.) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72.23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures (48.9%) and to physiographic variables (11.8%), anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35.3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3.6%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 0.9%, 0.9% and 0.9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the relationships of land use at catchment and riparian scales and water quality factors, hydrological indicators, habitat, substrate types were analyzed. This study supports the idea that human pressures effects on river macroinvertebrate communities are linked at spatial scales and must be considered jointly. PMID:25898652

  14. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  15. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites where the annual maximum temperature typically occurred in September or October. Without-dam temperatures also tended to have more daily variation than with-dam temperatures. Examination of the without-dam temperature estimates indicated that dam sites could be grouped according to the amount of streamflow derived from high-elevation, spring-fed, and snowmelt-driven areas high in the Cascade Mountains (Cougar, Big Cliff/Detroit, River Mill, and Hills Creek Dams: Group A), as opposed to flow primarily derived from lower-elevation rainfall-driven drainages (Group B). Annual maximum temperatures for Group A ranged from 15 to 20 degree(s)C, expressed as the 7-day average of the daily maximum (7dADM), whereas annual maximum 7dADM temperatures for Group B ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C. Because summertime stream temperature is at least somewhat dependent on the upstream water source, it was important when estimating without-dam temperatures to use correlations to sites with similar upstream characteristics. For that reason, it also is important to maintain long-term, year-round temperature measurement stations at representative sites in each of the Willamette River basin's physiographic regions. Streamflow and temperature estimates downstream of the major dam sites and throughout the Willamette River were generated using existing CE-QUAL-W2 flow and temperature models. These models, originally developed for the Willamette River water-temperature Total Maximum Daily Load process, required only a few modifications to allow them to run under the greatly reduced without-dam flow conditions. Model scenarios both with and without upstream dams were run. Results showed that Willamette River streamflow without upstream dams was reduced to levels much closer to historical pre-dam conditions, with annual minimum streamflows approximately one-half or less of dam-augmented levels. Thermal effects of the dams varied according to the time of year, from cooling in mid-summer to warm

  16. Climatic Variation And Runoff From Himalayan Mountain Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, L.; Collins, D. N.; Davenport, J.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Both precipitation and runoff usually increase with elevation in high mountain basins but Himalayan tributaries of both Indus and Ganges often rise in relatively dry interior areas, before flow downstream is modified on passing through areas receiving winter snowfall and summer monsoon snow and rain. Through time variations in tributary contributions to the major rivers, the upper Indus, Jhelum, Sutlej and Ganges therefore respond to differing climatic signals. Long term measurements of discharge upstream of large dams are available for the Jhelum and Sutlej since the 1920s, but show differing patterns of variation. Runoff in the Jhelum declined to the 1960s before recovering whereas flow in the Sutlej continued to decline. Highly glacierised areas south-east of Nanga Parbat receive considerable amounts of precipitation distributed throughout the year whereas other Jhelum headwaters and those of the Sutlej are summer monsoon dominated. Precipitation measurements exist for dry areas of the upper Indus basin since the early 1900s, but other measurements in the Kaghan valley and upstream of the Mangla dam only start in the 1960s. Correlation between year-to-year variations in precipitation across these headwater regions and between precipitation and runoff in headwater and main-stem basins suggest that runoff declines with summer snowfall on glaciers in areas of the Upper Indus where valleys at elevations below glaciers are dry, but runoff increases with summer precipitation south of the main Himalaya range in the Jhelum and Sutlej. Considerable differences arise therefore in water resources availability from year to year in the various basins downstream.

  17. Soil erosion assessment of a Himalayan river basin using TRMM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Mishra, S. K.; Gautam, A. K.; Kumar, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the soil erosion of a Himalayan river basin, the Karnali basin, Nepal, using rainfall erosivity (R-factor) derived from satellite-based rainfall estimates (TRMM-3B42 V7). Average annual sediment yield was estimated using the well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The eight-year annual average rainfall erosivity factor (R) for the Karnali River basin was found to be 2620.84 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. Using intensity-erosivity relationships and eight years of the TRMM daily rainfall dataset (1998-2005), average annual soil erosion was also estimated for Karnali River basin. The minimum and maximum values of the rainfall erosivity factor were 1108.7 and 4868.49 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively, during the assessment period. The average annual soil loss of the Karnali River basin was found to be 38.17 t ha-1 year-1. Finally, the basin area was categorized according to the following scale of erosion severity classes: Slight (0 to 5 t ha-1 year-1), Moderate (5 to 10 t ha-1 year-1), High (10 to 20 t ha-1 year-1), Very High (20 to 40 t ha-1 year-1), Severe (40 to 80 t ha-1 year-1) and Very Severe (>80 t ha-1 year-1). About 30.86% of the river basin area was found to be in the slight erosion class. The areas covered by the moderate, high, very high, severe and very severe erosion potential zones were 13.09%, 6.36%, 11.09%, 22.02% and 16.64% respectively. The study revealed that approximately 69% of the Karnali River basin needs immediate attention from a soil conservation point of view.

  18. Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per liter in November 1999. Montrose Arroyo was the largest selenium source to Cedar Creek. On an annual basis, about 20 percent of the selenium load in Cedar Creek originates in the basin upstream from Miguel Road. Selenium concentrations in Loutzenhizer Arroyo ranged from 157 to 347 micrograms per liter in February 2000. A significant increase in selenium concentrations occurred in the stream reach between the Selig Canal and Falcon Road (LZU7). Although selenium concentrations in the west tributary of Loutzenhizer Arroyo were lower than in the main stem, the west tributary contributed about 41 percent of the selenium load. Downstream from the confluence with the west tributary to the mouth, selenium concentrations in the arroyo gradually decreased, and the increase in selenium load in the lower reach was small.

  19. Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yapeng; Liu, Yongbo; Li, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed. PMID:22392285

  20. Simulated effects of climatic change on runoff and drought in the Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, Mark A.; Tasker, Gary D.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.

    1990-01-01

    Various projection of climatic change were applied to watershed models of the Delaware River basin. Simulations indicate that a warming could reduce annual runoff by as much as 25 percent if current precipitation patterns continue. Simulations indicate that the largest changes in basin drought are in response to relatively small changes in precipitation. Basin drought was less sensitive to increases in temperature, reservoir capacity, ground-water pumpage during drought, and consumptive water use--in that order of importance. The effects of global warming on basin runoff and drought cannot be determined precisely, as yet, principally because of the unreliability of precipitation projections.

  1. Watershed scale response to climate change--Feather River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen basins for which the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System has been calibrated and evaluated were selected as study sites. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed parameter watershed model developed to evaluate the effects of various combinations of precipitation, temperature, and land use on streamflow and general basin hydrology. Output from five General Circulation Model simulations and four emission scenarios were used to develop an ensemble of climate-change scenarios for each basin. These ensembles were simulated with the corresponding Precipitation Runoff Modeling System model. This fact sheet summarizes the hydrologic effect and sensitivity of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System simulations to climate change for the Feather River Basin, California.

  2. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  3. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  4. Quantitative predictions of streamflow variability in the Susquehanna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Leonard, L. N.; Duffy, C.; Schwarz, G. E.; Smith, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic researchers and water managers have increasingly sought an improved understanding of the major processes that control fluxes of water and solutes across diverse environmental settings and large spatial scales. Regional analyses of observed streamflow data have led to advances in our knowledge of relations among land use, climate, and streamflow, with methodologies ranging from statistical assessments of multiple monitoring sites to the regionalization of the parameters of catchment-scale mechanistic simulation models. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the best ways to transfer the knowledge of hydrologic response and governing processes among locations, including methods for regionalizing streamflow measurements and model predictions. We developed an approach to predict variations in streamflow using the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling infrastructure, with mechanistic functions, mass conservation constraints, and statistical estimation of regional and sub-regional parameters. We used the model to predict discharge in the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) under varying hydrological regimes that are representative of contemporary flow conditions. The resulting basin-scale water balance describes mean monthly flows in stream reaches throughout the entire SRB (represented at a 1:100,000 scale using the National Hydrologic Data network), with water supply and demand components that are inclusive of a range of hydrologic, climatic, and cultural properties (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil and groundwater storage, runoff, baseflow, water use). We compare alternative models of varying complexity that reflect differences in the number and types of explanatory variables and functional expressions as well as spatial and temporal variability in the model parameters. Statistical estimation of the models reveals the levels of complexity that can be uniquely identified, subject to the information content and uncertainties of the hydrologic and climate measurements. Assessment of spatial variations in the model parameters and predictions provides an improved understanding of how much of the hydrologic response to land use, climate, and other properties is unique to specific locations versus more universally observed across catchments of the SRB. This approach advances understanding of water cycle variability at any location throughout the stream network, as a function of both landscape characteristics (e.g., soils, vegetation, land use) and external forcings (e.g., precipitation quantity and frequency). These improvements in predictions of streamflow dynamics will advance the ability to predict spatial and temporal variability in key solutes, such as nutrients, and their delivery to the Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.

    2004-12-01

    We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a context frames the current and further observations and assists with translating measured changes into links with the varied HO ecosystems.

  6. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  7. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.

  8. Evaluation of metal content in perch of the Ob River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, N. A.; Stepanova, K. D.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The geochemical features of river perch in the River Ob basin have been studied (the upper and middle reaches of the Ob River and the lower reach of the Tom River). The contents of Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, W, Zn, Hg in perch's soft tissue are defined by the methods of ICP AES and stripping voltammetry, that of mercury in bones - by the atomic absorption method using mercury analyzer PA-915+. The distribution series of metal absolute concentrations in perch's soft tissue from the Ob River basin are plotted: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn, typical for uncontaminated or slightly metal contaminated water bodies. In soft tissue of the studied samples the metal content does not exceed the permissible values. The mercury content in bones of studied samples is in the range 0,036-0,556 mg/kg. The mercury concentration is higher in bones in comparison with soft tissue in all samples.

  9. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  10. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-06-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.

  11. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-01-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between ?28.1‰ and ?5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

  12. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin).

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V

    2014-01-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

  13. Water demand management: A case study of the Heihe River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Dunqiang; Sun, Yangbo; Liu, Xinai; Wang, Nianzhong; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    The study investigates the water supply and demand situation in the Heihe River Basin, China, and formulates a demand oriented water management approach in the irrigated agricultural sector in response to the increasing water shortage due to population growth and local economic development. This approach requires institutional reinforcement, water pricing reform and agricultural sector adjustment based on a virtual water trade analysis. It is also proposed to use a river basin water balance model for the water management authority to support decision-making. The paper reviews both technical and non-technical measures proposed for the Heihe River Basin management and concludes that with the growing water demand, the water authority can’t continue to supply the water without trying to actually influence the demand. Besides technical measures, e.g., through water saving measures and reservoir building, demand management has to come into force as an important part of integrated river basin management, so as to ensure the sustainable development of the Heihe River Basin.

  14. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  15. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  16. Sediment supply as a driver of river meandering and floodplain evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Ahmed, Joshua; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2014-12-01

    The role of externally imposed sediment supplies on the evolution of meandering rivers and their floodplains is poorly understood, despite analytical advances in our physical understanding of river meandering. The Amazon river basin hosts tributaries that are largely unaffected by engineering controls and hold a range of sediment loads, allowing us to explore the influence that sediment supply has on river evolution. Here we calculate average annual rates of meander migration within 20 reaches in the Amazon Basin from Landsat imagery spanning 1985-2013. We find that rivers with high sediment loads experience annual migration rates that are higher than those of rivers with lower sediment loads. Meander cutoff also occurs more frequently along rivers with higher sediment loads. Differences in meander migration and cutoff rates between the study reaches are not explained by differences in channel slope or river discharge. Because faster meander migration and higher cutoff rates lead to increased sediment-storage space in the resulting oxbows, we suggest that sediment supply modulates the reshaping of floodplain environments by meandering rivers. We conclude that imposed sediment loads influence planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon.

  17. History of suspended-sediment data collection and inventory of available data for the Tennessee and Cumberland River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, William P.; Brown, Russell T.; Chatham, Carrie G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1934 and 1935, the Tennessee Valley Authority established 51 daily record suspended-sediment stations on the Tennessee River and its major tributaries. Most of these stations were operated for 8 years. From 1962 to 1965, the Tennessee Valley Authority again collected daily sediment record at 10 of the original 49 stations. In addition to the data sets collected on the major rivers, the Tennessee Valley Authority has conducted several intensive studies of small watersheds throughout the Tennessee River basin. In the Cumberland River basin, daily sediment records have been collected primarily by the Survey. Daily stations have been operated for various periods on 17 basins ranging in size from 0.67 to 1,977 sq mi, with the earliest data of daily record being October 1953. All of these daily stations are located in the upper Cumberland River basin upstream of any major impoundments. Periodic sediment data have been collected by the Survey at 194 stations in the Tennessee River basin and at 106 stations in the Cumberland River basin, however; the number of samples/station is quite low. 86% of the periodic stations in the Tennessee River basin and 91% of the periodic stations in the Cumberland River basin have 30 samples or less. (USGS)

  18. A study on the role and importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management.

    PubMed

    Koç, Cengiz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and the importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management during arid and semi-arid conditions. The study has been conducted at Büyük Menderes Basin which is located in southwest of Turkey and where different sectors (irrigation, drinking and using, industry, tourism, ecology) related to the use and distribution of water sources compete with each other and also where the water demands for important ecological considerations is evaluated and where the river pollution has reached important magnitudes. Since, approximately 73% of the water resources of the basin are utilized for irrigation; as a result, irrigation management becomes important for basin management. Irrigation operations have an effect on basin soil resources, water users, and environmental and ecological conditions. Thus, the determination of the role and importance of irrigation management require an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In the studies conducted in Turkey, usually the environmental reactions have been analyzed in the basin studies and so the other topics related to integrated river basin management have not been taken into account. Therefore, this study also is to address these existing gaps in the literature and practice. PMID:26148688

  19. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one sub-basin of the Lower Mekong River Basin.

  20. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. PMID:25619963

  1. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  2. Floodplain biogeochemical processing of floodwaters in the Atchafalaya River Basin during the Mississippi River flood of 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Durelle T.; Keim, Richard F.; Edwards, Brandon L.; Jones, C. Nathan; Kroes, Daniel E.

    2014-04-01

    The 2011 flood in the Lower Mississippi resulted in the second highest recorded river flow diverted into the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). The higher water levels during the flood peak resulted in high hydrologic connectivity between the Atchafalaya River and floodplain, with up to 50% of the Atchafalaya River water moving off channel. Water quality samples were collected throughout the ARB over the course of the flood event. Significant nitrate (NO3-) reduction (75%) occurred within the floodplain, resulting in a total NO3- reduction of 16.6% over the flood. The floodplain was a small but measurable source of dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium (NH4+). Collectively, these results from this large flood event suggest that enhancing river-floodplain connectivity through freshwater diversions will reduce NO3- loads to the Gulf of Mexico during large annual floods.

  3. Floodplain biogeochemical processing of floodwaters in the Atchafalaya River Basin during the Mississippi River flood of 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Durelle T.; Keim, Richard F.; Edwards, Brandon L.; Jones, C. Nathan; Kroes, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 flood in the Lower Mississippi resulted in the second highest recorded river flow diverted into the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). The higher water levels during the flood peak resulted in high hydrologic connectivity between the Atchafalaya River and floodplain, with up to 50% of the Atchafalaya River water moving off channel. Water quality samples were collected throughout the ARB over the course of the flood event. Significant nitrate (NO3-) reduction (75%) occurred within the floodplain, resulting in a total NO3- reduction of 16.6% over the flood. The floodplain was a small but measurable source of dissolved reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonium (NH4+). Collectively, these results from this large flood event suggest that enhancing river-floodplain connectivity through freshwater diversions will reduce NO3- loads to the Gulf of Mexico during large annual floods.

  4. Export of Nitrogen From the Yukon River Basin to the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornblaser, M. M.; Striegl, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    The US Geological Survey measured nitrogen export from the 831,400 km2 Yukon River basin during 2001-04 as part of a five year water quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries. Concentrations of NO2+NO3, NH4+DON, and particulate N were measured ~6 times annually during open water and once under ice cover at three locations on the Yukon River, and on the Porcupine and Tanana Rivers. Concentration and continuous flow data were used to generate daily and annual loads of N species. NH4 concentration was generally negligible when compared to DON concentration, allowing for comparison of the relative importance of DIN vs. DON export at various watershed scales. NO2 concentration was also small compared to NO3. At Pilot Station, the last site on the Yukon before it flows into the Yukon Delta and the Bering Sea, DIN, DON, and particulate N loads averaged 19.3 × 106 kg/yr, 52.6 × 106 kg/yr, and 39.1 × 106 kg/yr, respectively. Normalized for the watershed area at Pilot Station, corresponding N yields were 1.65, 4.52, and 3.35 mmol/m2/yr. DIN yield for the Yukon at Pilot Station is substantially less than the NO3 flux reported for tropical/temperate rivers such as the Amazon, the Yangtze, and the Mississippi. DIN yield in the upper Yukon River basin is similar to that of the Mackenzie and other arctic rivers, but increases substantially downstream. This is likely due to development around Fairbanks in the Tanana River basin. When compared to other headwater basins in the upper Yukon, the Tanana basin yields about four times more DIN and two times more particulate N, while DON yields are only slightly elevated.

  5. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  6. Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

    2014-05-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni-Madeira River. This river has a larger difference in the Sr isotopic composition between the diluted and solid phases, which has been assigned to the high level of weathering of its sediment source area. In the Beni-Madeira River sub-basin dominates weathering of silicate rocks, while in the Marañón-Solimões River sub-basin there also weathering of carbonate and evaporitic rocks.

  7. Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

  8. UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER BASIN STATUS REPORT, 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) begins with relatively high water quality, with nutrient levels below those considered potentially causative to algal activity. Below Heise, nutrient concentrations rise and the quality of the river is degraded. Phosphorus enters the S...

  9. Heavy metal transport in the hindon river basin, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Sharma, M K

    2006-01-01

    Total mass transfers of heavy metal in dissolved and particulate form has been determined in the downstream section of river Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna (India). The contribution of different point sources to the river Hindon has also been assessed. The river Kali has the largest contribution to the river Hindon. The highest metal loads were related to the highest flow of the river and thereby increased both by surface runoff and sediment resuspension. The contribution of monsoon months to the total transported load was also calculated and it was observed that monsoon months contributes more than 40% of total loading annually for all the metals. The metal fluxes from the river Hindon were compared with other rivers of Indian sub-continent. PMID:16404544

  10. Free-Living and Particle-Associated Bacterioplankton in Large Rivers of the Mississippi River Basin Demonstrate Biogeographic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Colin R; Millar, Justin J; Payne, Jason T; Ochs, Clifford A

    2014-12-01

    The different drainage basins of large rivers such as the Mississippi River represent interesting systems in which to study patterns in freshwater microbial biogeography. Spatial variability in bacterioplankton communities in six major rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin was characterized using Ion Torrent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. When all systems were combined, particle-associated (>3 ?m) bacterial assemblages were found to be different from free-living bacterioplankton in terms of overall community structure, partly because of differences in the proportional abundance of sequences affiliated with major bacterial lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes). Both particle-associated and free-living communities ordinated by river system, a pattern that was apparent even after rare sequences or those affiliated with Cyanobacteria were removed from the analyses. Ordination of samples by river system correlated with environmental characteristics of each river, such as nutrient status and turbidity. Communities in the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri and in the Ohio and the Tennessee, pairs of rivers that join each other, contained similar taxa in terms of presence-absence data but differed in the proportional abundance of major lineages. The most common sequence types detected in particle-associated communities were picocyanobacteria in the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus/Cyanobium (Syn/Pro) clade, while free-living communities also contained a high proportion of LD12 (SAR11/Pelagibacter)-like Alphaproteobacteria. This research shows that while different tributaries of large river systems such as the Mississippi River harbor distinct bacterioplankton communities, there is also microhabitat variation such as that between free-living and particle-associated assemblages. PMID:25217018

  11. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale. PMID:26544070

  12. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale. PMID:26544070

  13. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  14. Analysing the influence of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Qiang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Changing runoff patterns can have profound effects on the economic development of river basins. To assess the impact of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a set of 17 widely used indicators of economic development to construct general combined indicators reflecting different types of human activity. Grey relational analysis suggested that the combined indicator associated with agricultural activity was most likely to have influenced the changes in runoff observed within the river basin during 1994-2011. Curve fitting was then performed to characterize the relationship between the general agricultural indicator and the measured runoff, revealing a reasonably high correlation (R2 = 0.393) and an exponential relationship. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the 17 individual indicators on the measured runoff, confirming that indicators associated with agricultural activity had profound effects whereas those associated with urbanization had relatively little impact.

  15. Climate change and the origin and development of rice cultivation in the Yangtze River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yoshinori

    2008-11-01

    The forest hunter-gatherers of the middle Yangtze River basin, who were the first to invent pottery and led a sedentary lifestyle, may have begun to cultivate rice during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial global warming period. The earliest rice cultivation may have dated back to 14,000 calibrated (cal.) years before present (YBP). The global warming at 9000 cal. YBP in the early Holocene brought the development of the rice cultivation to the middle Yangtze River basin. On the other hand, ancient rice-cultivating and piscatorial society met a crisis at 4200-4000 cal. YBP that was characterized by a significant cooling of the climate. This climate deterioration led the northern wheat/barley-cultivating pastoral people to migrate to the south and invade, ultimately bringing about the collapse of the rice-cultivating and piscatorial society in the Yangtze River basin. PMID:19205127

  16. Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  17. Ensemble streamflow forecasting experiments in a tropical basin: The São Francisco river case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando Mainardi; Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Botelho, Luiz César Mendes

    2014-11-01

    The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system.

  18. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  19. Cytogenetic description of Ancistrus abilhoai (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Iguaçu River basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M O; Noleto, R B; Lorscheider, C A; Porto, F E; Prizon, A C; Zawadzki, C H; Oliveira, L C; Portela Castro, A L B

    2015-01-01

    The Iguaçu River basin is a tributary to the upper Paraná River in southern Brazil, and is considered an important aquatic ecoregion that, although having few species of fish, 51-71% of these are apparently endemic. Ancistrus abilhoai is one of three recently described species for this basin and is currently considered endemic to the basin. In this study, we present the chromosomal structure of two populations of Ancistrus abilhoai one collected in the Iguaçu River, in Paraná State, and another collected in the Timbó River, a tributary of the Iguaçu River, in the State of Santa Catarina. Karyotype analyzes were performed in 11 specimens from the Iguaçu River (four females and seven males) and 12 specimens (all males) from Timbó River, revealing 2n = 48 chromosomes with a karyotype formula of 22m + 14sm + 6st + 6a in both populations. Analysis of active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probes revealed the submetacentric pair 13 bearing marks at terminal positions on the short arms. Considered as plesiomorphic chromosomal markers in Loricariidae, asynteny 18S and 5S rDNA, and small amounts of heterochromatin were observed. In this study, the first chromosomal data of A. abilhoai are presented with comments on karyotypic characteristics of the genus. PMID:25966177

  20. Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin - The importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, R.A.; Coupe, R.H.; Thurman, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates, specifically the ethane sulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OA) acids, averaged 70% of the total herbicide concentration in samples from the Upper Mississippi River. In samples from the Missouri River and the Ohio River, the proportion of chloroacetanilide degradates in the total herbicide concentration was much less, 24% and 41%, respectively. The amount of tile drainage throughout the Mississippi River Basin appeared to be related to the occurrence and distribution of chloroacetanilide degradates in water samples. Pesticide concentrations in streams of the Mississippi River Basin have been well characterized. However, recent research demonstrates that in order to more fully understand the fate and transport of pesticides, the major pesticide degradates need to be included in the analysis. From March 1999 through May 2001, water samples from four major junctures of the Mississippi River Basin were collected and analyzed for a suite of herbicides and their degradate compounds. Each sampling site was selected to represent a major part of the Mississippi River: upper and lower Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. Each basin has unique landscape variables, geology, hydrology, precipitation, and land use, which is reflected in the pesticide content at the most downstream sample site near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide (detected in 97% of the samples), followed by metolachlor (60%), and acetochlor (31%). The most frequently detected degradates were metolachlor ESA (69%), followed by deethylatrazine (62%), metolachlor OA (37%), and alachlor ESA (37%). Metolachlor ESA was detected more frequently than its parent compound (69 vs. 60%), as was alachlor ESA (37 vs. 9%). After an improvement was made in the analytical method, metolachlor ESA was detected in every sample, metolachlor OA in 89% of the samples, alachlor ESA in 84%, acetochlor ESA in 71%, and acetochlor OA in 66%. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of stream discharge and transport of nitrate and selected herbicides in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Clark, G.M.; Jobson, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Stream discharge and the transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor in the Mississippi River Basin were simulated using the DAFLOW/BLTM hydrologic model. The simulated domain for stream discharge included river reaches downstream from the following stations in the National Stream Quality Accounting Network: Mississippi River at Clinton, IA; Missouri River at Hermann, MO: Ohio River at Grand Chain, IL: And Arkansas River at Little Rock, AR. Coefficients of hydraulic geometry were calibrated using data from water year 1996; the model was validated by favourable simulation of observed discharges in water years 1992-1994. The transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor was simulated downstream from the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL, and the Ohio River at Grand Chain. Simulated concentrations compared favourably with observed concentrations at Baton Rouge, LA. Development of this model is a preliminary step in gaining a more quantitative understanding of the sources and fate of nutrients and pesticides delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A. ); Frest, T.J. )

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  3. Z .The Science of the Total Environment 00 2000 00 00 z /Is the Negro River Basin Amazon impacted by

    E-print Network

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    2000 00 00 z /Is the Negro River Basin Amazon impacted by naturally occurring mercury? P.S. Fadinia to investigate the major sources and cycling of mercury in the Negro River Basin Amazon , total metal reserved. Keywords: Amazon; Mercury; Cycling; Soil; Water 1. Introduction Mercury contamination

  4. Tracing Sources of Nitrate and Organic Matter in the Willamette River Basin during Summer Baseflow Conditions using Isotopic Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of land use on water quality at the large river basin scale is poorly understood. In particular, quantifying the sources of water, nutrients, and organic matter to the river and linking these sources to specific land uses and point-sources of pollution is problematic in large basins. The ...

  5. Long-term suspended sediment transport in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed and Salt River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1992, efforts have been conducted in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed to assess sediment transport from this 72-km2 Missouri watershed located in the Salt River Basin, the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research site in the Central Mississippi River Basin. This effort was complemented by field...

  6. A LAND USE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND POTENTIAL COAL SURFACE MINING AREAS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It reports on the land use changes resulting from the surface mining of coal in the Ohio River Basin, which...

  7. 1994 COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM TOC-1 December 14, 1994

    E-print Network

    INTRODUCTION: COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN FISH AND WILDLIFE AND THE NORTHWEST POWER ACT.....................1-1 1.1 The Northwest Power Act and the Region's Fish and Wildlife........ 1-1 1.2 Historical Perspective........................................2-2 2.2D Avoid Passage at Natural Barriers.......2-2 2.2E Columbia River Basin Reservoir Operation

  8. Bridging river basin scales and processes to assess human-climate impacts and the terrestrial hydrologic system

    E-print Network

    Wagener, Thorsten

    Bridging river basin scales and processes to assess human-climate impacts and the terrestrial addresses the human-climate-terrestrial interactions impacting our watersheds and river basins. Initially-documented history of resource use, land development, economic challenges and evolving population patterns [Stranahan

  9. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST. Because the focus of this investigation was on scaling up the models from McTier Creek, water-quality concentrations that were previously collected in the McTier Creek basin were used in the water-quality load models.

  10. 8 River Basin Closure and Institutional Change in Mexico's LermaChapala Basin

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    . Moreover, water pollution is serious, with significant wastewater reuse for irrigation within the basin, total water depletion in this basin exceeds supply by 9% on average. Groundwater is being mined water body of the basin, is drying up. In early 2001, the volume of water stored in the Lake was around

  11. Modeling and management of water in the Klamath River Basin: overcoming politics and conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, Marshall; Scott, John F.

    1998-01-01

    The network flow model MODSIM, which was designed as a water quantity mass balance model for evaluating and selecting water management alternatives, has been applied to the Klamath River basin. A background of conflicting issues in the basin is presented. The complexity of water quantity model development, while satisfying the many stakeholders and involved special interest groups is discussed, as well as the efforts taken to have the technical model accepted and used, and overcome stakeholder criticism, skepticism, and mistrust of the government.

  12. Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H., Jr.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the observations and findings of a team of four specialists from the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to Pakistan under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development during May to August 1972 for a hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects in the Indus Plain Individual members of the team undertook comprehensive studies related to climatology, surface-water hydrology, and the canal system; streamflow and sediment yields of the rivers; computer applications to hydrologic data; aquifer characteristics; hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs); tubewell performance; hydrology of shallow versus deep tubewells; well and well-screen design in the Indus Plain; evaluation of observed and anticipated trends in both private and public tubewell development; evaluation of water-quality programs, data analysis, and records, and computer coding of special water-quality data; and evaluation of water-level data, well discharge and specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests. The reclamation program, by pumping from tubewells, has been notably successful in lowering the water table, in providing supplemental water for irrigation and for leaching of salinized soils, and in improving crop production. Some changes in water quality have been observed in SCARP-I and the Mona Scheme of SCARP-II, but these have not as yet (1972) significantly affected the utility of the water for irrigation. Problems associated with reclamation include control of deterioration in performance of tubewells and their rehabilitation, local brackish or saline-water encroachment, and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the ground-water system. Rapid and as yet (1972) unregulated growth of shallow private tubewell development in the past decade has introduced complicating factors to the reclamation planning of the early 1960's which had emphasized public tubewell development through the SCARP program. In comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.

  13. Temporal and spatial variations of precipitation in the Jinsha River basin during 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Zhao, N.; Sun, H.; Ye, L.; Zhai, J.

    2015-05-01

    Knowing the variations of precipitation at the basin scale is very important to study the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydrological processes. To achieve the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation on long time scales and some extreme indicators in the Jinsha River basin, some typical precipitation indices were analysed based on daily precipitation data for 1961-2010 for the research area. The results showed that AP had a certain increasing tendency without passing the significance test, while AP in the lower reach of the basin decreased slightly. PFS had no obvious changes, while MP through a year (except rainfall in September and December) had a slight increasing tendency. In addition, AP and PFS showed obvious spatial differences, and the higher rainfall area was located in the lower basin especially in the Hengduan Mountain area. LRD and MRD increased slightly in the upper and middle regions, while they decreased slightly in the lower basin. HRD increased over most of the whole basin, but it had a decreasing tendency in the headwater region and around Dege station but did not pass the significance test. DD and CDD in one year showed similar spatial change patterns and had an obvious decreasing tendency in the upper and middle basin, while they had an obvious increasing tendency in the lower basin. CWD almost decreased over the whole basin, and decreased significantly in a small part of the lower basin. The temporal changes of the typical precipitation indices may confirm the possible increasing tendency for occurrence of drier climate and even drought events in the downstream of Jinsha River basin.

  14. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from < 0.02 to 20.2 mg L(-1), < 0.01 to 6.66 mg L(-1), and 0.10 to 262 microg L(-1), respectively. Overall, the 25th percentiles of TN data specific to the Red River Basin were generally similar to the USEPA-recommended ecoregion nutrient criteria of 0.31 to 0.88 mg L(-1), whereas median TP and chl-a data specific to the Red River Basin showed 25th percentiles higher than the USEPA-recommended criteria (0.010-0.067 mg TP L(-1); 0.93-3.00 microg chl-a L(-1)). The unique location of the Red River Basin in the south-central United States places it near the boundaries of several aggregate ecoregions; therefore, the development of ecoregion nutrient criteria likely requires using data specific to the Red River Basin, as shown in these analyses. This study provided basin-specific frequency distribution of median concentrations of water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin. PMID:21284293

  15. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for seven coal beds with a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 50 billion short tons of recoverable coal was calculated. Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic evaluation. With a discounted cash flow at 8 percent rate of return, the coal reserves estimate for the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area is 1.5 billion short tons of coal (1 percent of the original resource total) for the seven coal beds evaluated.

  16. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  17. Distribution of extreme rainfall events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Valencia, Jose Luis; Gascó, Jose Maria

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on statistical tools from a Spanish region. We want to quantify the effect of the climate change to verify the rapidity of its evolution across the variation of the probability distributions. Our conclusions have special interest for the agrarian insurances, which may make estimates of costs more realistically. In this work, the analysis mainly focuses on: The distribution of consecutive days without rain for each gauge stations and season. We estimate density Kernel functions and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) for a network of station from the Ebro River basin until a threshold value u. We can establish a relation between distributional parameters and regional characteristics. Moreover we analyze especially the tail of the probability distribution. These tails are governed by law of power means that the number of events n can be expressed as the power of another quantity x : n(x) = x? . ? can be estimated as the slope of log-log plot the number of events and the size. The most convenient way to analyze n(x) is using the empirical probability distribution. Pr(X > x) ? x-?. The distribution of rainfall over percentile of order 0.95 from wet days at the seasonal scale and in a yearly scale with the same treatment of tails than in the previous section. The evolution of the distribution in the second XXth century and the impact on the extreme values model. After realized the analyses it does not appreciate difference in the distribution throughout the time which suggests that this region does not appreciate increase of the extreme values both for the number of dry consecutive days and for the value of the rainfall References: Coles, Stuart (2001). An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values,. Springer-Verlag Krishnamoorthy K. (2006), Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC. Bodini A., Cossu A. (2010). Vulnerability assessment of Central-East Sardinia (Italy) to extreme rainfall events. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 61-72

  18. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial to understanding how heavy metals move through wetlands environments. These data, coupled with plume characterization data, indicate that Bayou Trepagnier is a model system for understanding how wetlands populations of fish, amphibians, and plants respond to long-term hydrocarbon and metals contamination. The CBR has fifteen years of experience in developing model aquatic ecosystems for evaluating environmental problems relevant to DOE cleanup activities. Using biotechnology screens and biomarkers of exposure, this project supports other CBR research demonstrating that chemicals in the environment can signal/alter the development of species in aquatic ecosystems, and show detrimental impacts on community, population, and the ecosystem, including human health. CBR studies funded through this grant have resulted in private sector investments, international collaborations, development of new technologies, and substantial new knowledge concerning the effects of hazardous materials on human and ecosystem health. Through the CBR, Tulane and Xavier Universities partnered with DOE-EM to lay groundwork for an effective research agenda that has become part of the DOE long term stewardship science and technology program and institutional management of the DOE complex.

  19. Using river discharge to access the quality of different precipitation datasets over large-scale basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Florian Pappenberger, ,; Yamazaki, Dai

    2015-04-01

    River discharge is a natural integrator of meteorological variables. The integration is made over a spatial domain (catchment) which is geophysically appropriate, and over time. It takes into account the correlations and covariances between several meteorological variables in a meaningful way, integrating information from a multidimensional variable space. Furthermore, river discharge observations are available and generally reliable. Therefore, river discharge is an important variable to consider in when evaluating the water balance of large-scale basins. In this study we evaluate different precipitation corrections applied to the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis in terms of long-term means and variability of river discharge over several large-scale basins. We compare the original ERA-Interim dataset, the precipitation correction used in the production of the ERA-Interim/Land dataset (adjusted using GPCP) and the WFDEI dataset (adjusted using CRU). Global simulations with the ECMWF land surface model HTESSEL were performed with the different datasets and the simulated runoff routed using the river-floodplain model CaMa-Flood. Preliminary results highlight the deficiencies of ERA-Interim in several tropical basins (e.g. Congo) while the precipitation adjustments in ERA-Interim/Land and in WFDEI degrade the simulations in several northern hemisphere basins dominated by cold processes (e.g. Mackenzie).

  20. Shelf to basin transition of Silurian-Devonian rocks, Porcupine River area, east-central Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Colean, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    Exposures of Silurian to lowermost Devonian strata in the Porcupine River region consist of an unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation. Petrographic studies indicate that these rocks display facies representative of five depositional environments: basin, open sea shelf, deep shelf margin, open platform, and restricted shelf. The unnamed carbonate unit, exposed in the Linear Ridge area, is 390 ft (126 m) thick and records a history of restricted shelf to basinal sedimentation. Stratigraphic relations and paleontological studies suggest a Middle to Late Silurian (Ludlovian) age for this unit. The Road River Formation is Late Silurian (Ludlovian) to Early Devonian (Lochkovian) in age and is exposed near the confluence of the Porcupine-Salmontrout Rivers and downstream along the Lower Ramparts. It consists of 30-190 ft (10-61 m) of graptolitic shale with interbeds of siliceous limestone. Petrographic studies of the shales are interpreted to reflect deposition in a basinal setting, whereas the siliceous limestones represent deep shelf-margin debris flows derived from nearby, coeval shallow-water shelf environments. Together, the unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation represent a shelf to basin transition on a carbonate ramp that transcends the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Petrographic examination of these rocks reveals that they are susceptible to a wide range of diagenetic processes, including (1) micritition, (2) neomorphism, (3) syntaxial overgrowths, (4) pressure solution (stylolitization), (5) trapping of dried hydrocarbons, (6) tensional stress (calcite veining), and (7) silicification.