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1

XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System  

E-print Network

Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

2012-01-01

2

Two Years in the Life of the Indus River Basin [book chapter  

E-print Network

Reviews the major challenges and current water and agriculture context, plans, and policies following difficult years of drought and catastrophic monsoon flooding in Pakistan's Indus Basin. The years from 2009 through 2011 ...

Yu, Winston

3

Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra was dominated by reworking from the Thar Desert, at least prior to around 4 ka. Future work will deconvolve the relative influence of dunes versus fluvial components of the river. High-resolution clay mineralogy from the core sites will be carried out to establish a climate variability proxy. We will reconstruct a quantitative record of Indus Valley geomorphic-climate variability over the Holocene and test the hypothesis that cessation of flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra drove the Harappan people from the Indus valley 4,000 years ago.

Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

2009-12-01

4

Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

2014-10-01

5

Future Climate Scenarios for the Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Examines the literature and available data on hydroclimatic variability and change on the Indus Basin plains, comparing historical fluctuations in climatic and hydrologic variables and reviewing scenarios of climate change ...

Yu, Winston

6

Impact assessment of hydroclimatic change on water stress in the Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Ninety percent of Pakistan's agricultural output is produced in fields irrigated by the Indus basin irrigation system, the world's largest network of canals, dams, barrages and tubewells. River flows, primarily fed by snow ...

Rasheed, Bilhuda

2013-01-01

7

Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin  

E-print Network

Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

Yu, Winston

8

Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan relies on the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, known as the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) for its basic food security and water supply for all sectors of the economy. The basin that supports this irrigation system consists of the Indus River mainsteam and its major tributaries. The integrated systems framework used in this analysis provides a broad and unique approach to estimating the hydrologic and crop impacts of climate change risks, the macro-economic and household-level responses and an effective method for assessing a variety of adaptation investments and policies. In assessing the impacts, several different modeling environments must be integrated to provide a more nuanced and complete picture of how water and agriculture inter-relate. Moreover, such a framework allows for extensive scenario analysis to identify and understand key sensitivities. This is critical to making decisions in a highly uncertain future. Finally, through this integration of multiple disciplines, a richer and more robust set of adaptation investment options and policies for the agriculture and water sectors can be identified and tested. Continued refinements to the assessment approach developed in this volume will further help to sharpen critical policies and interventions by the Pakistan government. Fig 2. Impacts of climate change on GDP, Ag-GDP and Household income in the Indus Basin Fig1. The Indus River Basin

Yang, Y. E.; Brown, C. M.; Yu, W.

2012-12-01

9

Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature data for seven instrumental records in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analyzed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 1961-2000 and compared with neighboring mountain regions and the Indian subcontinent. Strong contrasts are found between the behavior of winter and summer temperatures and between maximum and minimum tempera- tures.

H. J. Fowler; D. R. Archer

2006-01-01

10

Changing Pattern of Heavy Rainstorms in Indus Basin of India Under Global Warming Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern of the hydraulic design engineers is to determine a practical value for the design storm where maximum protection against structural failure is required. Design of such structures is based on the extremely large values such as 'Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP)'. The estimation of PMP involves selection of heavy rainstorm, its areal rainfall distribution and maximization of areal rainfall for moisture content. The study attempts to examine the characteristics of heavy rainstorms of Indus basin located in northern parts of India under changing climate and to provide information on heavy rainfall over a large area which serves as a guide in hydrologic design projects in the basin. The Indus river originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash ranges in the Himalaya and flows through India and Pakistan where it meets Arabian sea. Heavy rainstorms occurred in the Indus basin during 1971-2009 are selected and analyzed. Future scenarios of such heavy rainstorms occurring in this basin are projected using regional climate model, PRECIS (Providing REgional Climate for Impact Studies) scenarios for the period 2071-2100. Baseline simulations (1961-1990) generated by this model used to assess the efficiency of the model to generate widespread heavy rainfall in the basin. Primary emphasis is given on the areal distribution of rainfall during severe rainstorms having durations of 24 hours and producing excessive amount of rainfall over an area of at least 25000 square kilometers with rainfall intensity at the centre of rainstorm more than 30cm. Information is also provided on other important storm factors such as its shape, orientation and movement. Fig.1 shows the spatial patterns of severe-most rainstorms from observational data sets, baseline and future simulated datasets from PRECIS. Table gives the average shape factor (ratio of major to minor axis) and average orientation of these rainstorms. In general it is observed that common shape of the rainstorm occurring in the study basin is elliptical with its orientation in WNW-ESE direction. It has also been observed that model well generates the rainstorm pattern in terms of rainfall intensity and orientation and shape. Future scenario indicates increase in central value of rainfall value with decreasing areal spread.; t;

Deshpande, N. R.; Kulakarni, B. D.

2012-12-01

11

Future hydrological regimes of the upper Indus basin: results from the PAPRIKA project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers in the Karakoram area is also called the "Karakoram anomaly", characterized by substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide, possibly leading to slightly decreasing stream fluxes. Yet, recent major floods occurring in Pakistan and the Karakoram area, may represent an effect of modified climate in the area, carrying heavier precipitation in the Monsoon season. Therefore, and notwithstanding the uncertainty embedded in measuring and modelling the hydrological behaviour of this area, there is a great need for assessment of future water resources and hydrological variability in this area. We present here results obtained at year two of the SHARE-Paprika project of the EvK2CNR Committee of Italy, aiming at evaluating the impact of recent and prospective climate change on the hydrology of the upper Indus river. We focus here on a particular watershed, the Shigar river close to Shigar, with an area of about 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin, and fed by seasonal melt from two major glaciers (Baltoro and Biafo), at the toe of the K2 peak. We illustrate data gathered during three field campaigns during 2011-2012, aimed at investigating ice ablation dynamics, seasonal accumulation, and hydrological fluxes from the Baltoro-Biafo glaciers area and Shigar river. Based upon these data, topographic information, historical climate data and remote sensing data of ice and snow cover, we set up a semi-distributed, altitude belt based hydrological model, providing acceptable depiction of in stream flows, and snow and ice cover dynamics. We then project the future (until 2050) hydrological cycle in the area by feeding the hydrological model with future precipitation and temperature (plus downscaling, whenever necessary) from two climate models, one global (EC-Earth), and one regional (RegCM), the latter specifically set up for SHARE-Paprika project. The projected flow duration curves, some selected flow descriptors, and the significance of modified flow regimes in the Shigar river are then evaluated. We comment upon modified snow cover, ice ablation regime and implications for future water resources and flood regime in the area. The uncertainty of the results is addressed, and future research questions are discussed. Keywords: Upper Indus basin; hydrological models; climate models; future water resources.

Bocchiola, Daniele; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Nana, Ester; Bianchi, Alberto; Rosso, Renzo; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien; Vuillermoz, Elisa

2013-04-01

12

Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network approach and water balance. Also, crop water demands, rainfall, and surface water are calculated to estimate the groundwater abstraction in different districts of Lower Chenb Canal East to understand its usage patterns in year 2008-09. Crop water demand has been estimated using SAM-ET (spatial algorithm for mapping evapotranspiration) algorithm which is based on surface energy balance. Landsat 5 TM satellite images are used to estimate actual crop water demand and the results are compared with Penman Monteith method. The irrigation supplies are calculated from real time data collected by Project Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU), Punjab Irrigation Department. The PMIU envisaged for efficient and optimal canal operations oriented towards equity and transparency. Initial results from nodal network water balance model also provide the spatial variation in crop water demand for each node in LCC East. This work is also aimed at evaluating surface water availability and the assessment of spatial distribution of groundwater abstractions by considering the present crop water demand.

Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

2010-05-01

13

Surging glaciers and glacial floods in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of glacial hazards in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan, has identified 52 catastrophic floods that have occurred between 1826 and 2000 arising from ice dam failures and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Surging glaciers have formed large ice dams, where the rapid glacier advances have blocked the adjacent river, and have failed subsequently releasing up to 3 km^3 of water in less than 48 hrs with peak discharges in excess of 40,000 m^3/s. Such catastrophic floods have had run-out distances in excess of 1,200 km and have caused major damage downstream and resulted in many hundreds of fatalities. Since 1980, 75% of recorded glacier-derived floods have originated from GLOFs with only few ice dam failures associated with surging glaciers. Glacier surges have occurred in clusters with individual glaciers going through phases of active surging and then quiescent periods in from 30 to over 100 years. Previous reviews of surging glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin have identified 20 glaciers that have demonstrated surge-type behaviour with the bulk of glacier surges apparently occurring prior to 1933. However, recent satellite imagery (Landsat-5 from 1998/99) has shown that there are a further 16 glaciers that have surged within this region, with several surging simultaneously and in recent years. At least one glacier has been identified on satellite imagery as going through a surge from 1998 to June 2001 when the resultant ice dam failed producing a locally devastating flood. The study has also demonstrated that there is no obvious link between what triggers an individual glacier to surge and climate change. Furthermore, within this seismically very active area, there is no evidence that earthquakes have triggered either surges, collapses of ice dams, or failures of other glacial lake dams, over the period 1927--2001 for which records are available. Surge behaviour within composite glaciers results in highly complex structural effects especially where tributary glaciers surge into main glaciers downstream. This paper provides examples of different styles of advancing glaciers and of surge-type glaciers and examines their associated glacial hazards.

Reynolds, J. M.

2003-04-01

14

Monitoring trace metals in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio from the Indus River in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This replicated 4×2 factorial study investigated the bioaccumulation of selected metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr) in four tissues\\u000a (gills, liver, muscle and skin) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) domiciled in two sites (upstream and downstream) of Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. The data were statistically\\u000a compared for the main effects of the site and fish organs

Farhat Jabeen; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

2010-01-01

15

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

16

ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

17

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

#12;983 22 ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN system can travel at least 3260km from western Lake Superior the river system draws sustenance from nine states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio to 9000 years the St. Lawrence River­Great Lakes system has played an important role in the lives of many

Thorp, James H.

18

A quantitative assessment of the genetic sources of the hydrologic flow regimes in Upper Indus Basin and its significance in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable quantitative estimates of contributions melt water of different genetic sources make to river flows in Himalayan river basins are largely unknown. Here we provide such estimates for Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Analyses of historical flow records at 11 gauging stations spanning 14-48 years during a period of record from 1962 to 2010 reveal: a uniform character of annual flow distributions at all gauging stations given by a Gaussian function implying a unique glacio-hydrometeorological condition prevailing throughout the basin controlling four hydrologic flow regimes within UIB. Two low flow regimes occur during the months of October to December (L1) and January to March (L2) and two high flow regimes that occur during April-June (H1) and July-September (H2). For all stations, flow magnitudes follow, H2 > H1 > L1 > L2. In the main stem of Upper Indus River, the contributions to total annual flow volumes (m3) during these flow regimes are 53-62% during H2, 24-32% during H1, 8-9% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. In the main tributaries, these ranges are 47-74% during H2, 15-38% during H1, 8-10% during L1, and 4-6% during L2. Separation of annual hydrographs by linear smoothing and recursive digital filtering technique shows that the annual contribution of melt water (M2) from an elevation band 3500-5300 m to total annual flow volume (m3) varies from 41% to 54% along the main stem of Indus, upstream of the Himalayan foothills. Contribution of melt water (M1) from an elevation band 2500-3500 m varies from 16% to 29%. In the tributaries, annual contributions of M2 vary from 37% to as high as 65%. Similarly, annual contributions of M1 in the tributaries vary from as low as 12% to 34%. Thus, the relative importance of melt water originating from high-altitudes far overweighs that originating from mid-altitudes, in river runoff within UIB. The chief component of M1 is seasonal snows whereas M2 is a mixture of glacial melts, seasonal snows falling in winter and spring, and monsoonal snows falling in the summer (July-September). The M2 component contributes to base flows during L1 regime. Base flow recession occurs during L2 regime. During the H2 regime, three watersheds with greatest glaciated surfaces straddling the Karakoram Mountains contribute 48-54% of flows at Shatial Bridge, a point upstream of Tarbela reservoir up to which rainfall contributions to river discharges in UIB are inconsequential. During the H1 regime, these watersheds drained by Shyok, Shigar, and Hunza rivers contribute 20-31% of flows at this point. During L1 and L2 regimes, their contributions are 33-39% and 31-32% respectively. Contributions of glacial melt and snowmelt to annual river flows vary from 18-35% and 38-50% respectively in the major tributaries and the main stem of Upper Indus, depending on the location. Upper Indus River just upstream of Tarbela Reservoir carries annual flows constituted of 70% melt water of which 21% is contributed by glacial melts and 49% by snowmelts. Thus, changes in climatic trends will greatly control the future water availability within UIB. If glacial retreat and reduction of the perennial snow and ice covers are happening in UIB in a changing climate, then there will indeed be long-term reductions in river flows in UIB and hence sustainability of water resources in this basin will potentially be at risk.

Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Khan, Asif

2014-02-01

19

How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when there are areas of internal drainage nearby.

Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

2014-02-01

20

Lower Ipswich River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Ipswich River basin is that part of the Ipswich River drainage basin below the Geological Survey stream-gaging station at South Middleton in northeastern Massachusetts (fig. 1). It includes about 110 square miles between the gaging station at South Middleton and the Atlantic Ocean. This report presents basic data collected as part of an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the lower Ipswich River basin, Massachusetts by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Public Works. The data have been prepared for release in order to make available to the public basic ground-water data that will be useful in the planning of water-resources development. An earlier Basic-Data Report (Baker and Sammel, 1961) presents data pertaining to ground-water conditions in the upper part of the Ipswich River basin (the Wilmington-Reading area).

Sammel, Edward A.; Baker, John A.

1962-01-01

21

A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential implications of the vertical (hypsometric) distribution of these parameters are considered. Interlinkages between observed changes in these parameters and the evolution of large-scale circulation indices (ENSO, NAO, local vorticity) are also investigated. In parallel to these climatological considerations, the study presents the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- including interannual variability as quantified from the available river gauging record. In order to begin to assess potential implications of future climate change on UIB hydrology, key modes of variability in the climate parameters are identified. The study then analyses in detail the corresponding observed anomalies in UIB discharge for years exemplifying these modes. In conclusion, this work postulates potential impacts of changes in the hydrological variability stemming from continuation of estimated present local climatic trends.

Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

2010-05-01

22

Simulating Reservoir Management under the Threat of Sedimentation: The Case of Tarbela Dam on the River Indus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The useful life of Tarbela reservoir, on the River Indus, is threatened by a sediment delta which is approaching the dam'sintake tunnels; these lead to a hydroelectric power station and are used for irrigation releases. This article describes thesimulated system, involving Tarbela Dam, with Ghazi Barotha hydropower scheme downstream, and the planned construction of Basha Dam upstream. This study formed

Emma L. Tate; Frank A. K. Farquharson

2000-01-01

23

Investigation of organochlorine pesticides from the Indus Basin, Pakistan: Sources, air-soil exchange fluxes and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Present study aimed to evaluate the contamination status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their associated potential for air-soil exchange and health risks from ecologically important sites of the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Among different OCPs investigated, ?DDTs and ?HCHs were more prevalent compounds in the agricultural soils and ambient air samples of the study area. The average concentrations for DDTs were found higher at downstream agricultural sites, particularly at Head Panjnad (Soil: 320ng/g; Air: 743pg/m(3)) and acting as an ultimate sink of ?OCP burden in soils. Spatial distribution patterns inferred ubiquitous distribution of ?DDTs in soils and air of the study area. Source diagnostic ratios demonstrated that studied OCPs either are illegally being used in agricultural practices or/and they are residues of past use in the environment. Fugacity fraction model revealed wide variations (ff=0.12-0.94) with 20% of OCPs above equilibrium range and net volatilization of ?-endosulfan, ?-HCH and o,p'-DDD. Assessment of cancer risks for OCPs indicated a higher cancer risk (CR>1×10(-6)) for the residents of the Indus Basin. According to the available soil quality guidelines, DDTs and HCHs were above the permissible limits and pose a threat to natural habitat and biodiversity of the Indus Basin. PMID:25127446

Sultana, Jawairia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Ali, Usman; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

2014-11-01

24

Dynamic reorganization of river basins.  

PubMed

River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology. PMID:24604204

Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-03-01

25

Assessment of petroleum biodegradation using stable hydrogen isotopes of individual saturated hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in oils from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) in eight crude oils of similar source and thermal maturity from the Upper Indus Basin (Pakistan) were measured. The oils are derived from a source rock deposited in a shallow marine environment. The low level of biodegradation under natural reservoir conditions was established on the basis of

Muhammad Asif; Kliti Grice; Tahira Fazeelat

2009-01-01

26

Snow Sublimation in the Upper Colorado River BasinColorado River Basin  

E-print Network

Snow Sublimation in the Upper Colorado River BasinColorado River Basin Morgan Phillips Department of Atmospheric Science C l d St t U i itColorado State University August 8 2013August 8, 2013 #12;Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB)Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Lee's FerryLee s Ferry Average annual Discharge 8

27

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

28

The State of the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

The State of the Columbia River Basin FiSCal YeaR 2010 aNNUal RePORT To Congress and Citizens and fish and wildlife policy in the Columbia River Basin and to inform the public about energy and fish in the Columbia River Basin in Fiscal Year 2010, as well as information about salmon and steelhead returns

29

Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation,  

E-print Network

Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Reporting (MERR) Plan Council document 2010-4 #12;9 March 2010 Draft 2 Executive Summary This Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Reporting of a Strategic Plan, Implementation Framework, and Implementation Strategies for anadromous fish, resident fish

30

Ecosystems of Lake Sevan Basin’s Rivers in Armenia  

E-print Network

Abstract—Taking into account the importance of Lake Sevan and Lake Sevan basin’s rivers for Armenian economy, the main goals of our investigations were the documentation of water quality and the biodiversity of invertebrates developed in Lake Sevan basin’s rivers and selected tributaries. Moderately satisfied ecological condition for the biodiversity of Lake Sevan basin’s rivers has been established, and the changes in species ’ composition of zoobenthos in Lake Sevan were detected. A growing tendency of antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates in water resources has been shown. Keywords—Biodiversity, ecosystem, Lake Sevan, water-quality, zoobenthos.

Eugenie A. Kachvoryan; Astghik Z. Pepoyan; Maria V. Harutyunova; Anahit M. Manvelyan

31

Ecological River Basin Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

Smith, Anthony Wayne

32

River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2014-08-01

33

Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

Fast Facts About the Columbia River Basin Pocket Guide 2013 Edition #12;PAGe 2 > POCKET GUIDE electric Power Planning and conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) #12;Fast Facts Abut the columbia River, and fish and wildlife affected by, the columbia River Basin hydropower dams. the council is a unique

34

Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design  

E-print Network

#12;Fraser River Basin &ssment Program Conceptual Monitoring Design Prepared for Environment Canada. 1993. Fraser River Basin Assessment Program: Conceptual Monitoring Design. Pqared for Conservation the Fraser River Basin Assessment Program (FRBAP), is being designed for implementation starting

35

18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Regional or river basin planning. 725.7 Section 725.7 ...Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning...

2011-04-01

36

18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Regional or river basin planning. 725.7 Section 725.7 ...Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning...

2013-04-01

37

18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Regional or river basin planning. 725.7 Section 725.7 ...Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning...

2012-04-01

38

18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.  

...2014-04-01 false Regional or river basin planning. 725.7 Section 725.7 ...Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning...

2014-04-01

39

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

40

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

41

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

42

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

43

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

44

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

45

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

46

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

47

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

48

Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project  

E-print Network

Neuse River Basin, North Carolina Ecosystem Restoration Project 5 October 2012 ABSTRACT: The study area encompasses the Neuse River Basin, the third-largest river basin in North Carolina. The Basin. The study investigated the quality of the overall Neuse River Basin ecosystem and the level of flood risk

US Army Corps of Engineers

49

The resilience of big river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big river basins are complex systems of people and nature. This article explores the resilience of nine case studies of big river basins. A system description and generic conceptual model suggests that resilience to changes in water quantity is critical. When water becomes limiting, the social-ecological system must adapt rapidly if key elements (for example, communities, biodiversity) are to be

Graeme S. Cumming

2011-01-01

50

Analysis of long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower Indus Basin of Pakistan-A non-parametric statistical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indus basin of Pakistan is vulnerable to climate change which would directly affect the livelihoods of poor people engaged in irrigated agriculture. The situation could be worse in middle and lower part of this basin which occupies 90% of the irrigated area. The objective of this research is to analyze the long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower parts of Indus basin of Pakistan. We used monthly data from 1971 to 2010 and applied non-parametric seasonal Kendal test for trend detection in combination with seasonal Kendall slope estimator to quantify the magnitude of trends. The meteorological parameters considered were mean maximum and mean minimum air temperature, and rainfall from 12 meteorological stations located in the study region. We examined the reliability and spatial integrity of data by mass-curve analysis and spatial correlation matrices, respectively. Analysis was performed for four seasons (spring-March to May, summer-June to August, fall-September to November and winter-December to February). The results show that max. temperature has an average increasing trend of magnitude + 0.16, + 0.03, 0.0 and + 0.04 °C/decade during all the four seasons, respectively. The average trend of min. temperature during the four seasons also increases with magnitude of + 0.29, + 0.12, + 0.36 and + 0.36 °C/decade, respectively. Persistence of the increasing trend is more pronounced in the min. temperature as compared to the max. temperature on annual basis. Analysis of rainfall data has not shown any noteworthy trend during winter, fall and on annual basis. However during spring and summer season, the rainfall trends vary from - 1.15 to + 0.93 and - 3.86 to + 2.46 mm/decade, respectively. It is further revealed that rainfall trends during all seasons are statistically non-significant. Overall the study area is under a significant warming trend with no changes in rainfall.

Ahmad, Waqas; Fatima, Aamira; Awan, Usman Khalid; Anwar, Arif

2014-11-01

51

FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE TISZA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tisza River Basin is shared by five nations: Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia-Montenegro. The river itself\\u000a is the frontier along several kilometers between Ukraine and Romania, Ukraine and Hungary and between Slovakia and Hungary.\\u000a All blessings and all disasters a river can bring are also shared by the five nations. For people living close to the river,\\u000a it

ZOLTAN BALINT; SÁNDOR TÓTH

52

Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.  

PubMed

In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers. PMID:23508145

Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan

2013-01-01

53

Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Michel, R.L.

2004-01-01

54

Metabolic principles of river basin organization  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-01-01

55

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

PubMed

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-07-19

56

River Basin Planning: Theory and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River Basin Planning is divided into three major parts and an appendix. Part 1, Theory of River Basin Planning, is led by an introductory chapter from the editors emphasizing the major human component in the complex sociotechnical attributes of river basin development. They present a forceful argument for a truly interdisciplinary approach to river basin planning. (The appendix subsequently suggests curriculum development for courses in river basin planning.)Part 2, River Basin Planning: Environmental Issues, is supported by two chapters: one with a focus on soil conservation, the other on ecosystem protection. The soil conservation chapter by I. Douglas illustrates that slow, inadvertent changes may be more damaging in the long run than immediate, direct effects. It postulates that planning for people perforce will require planning for soil conservation as an ongoing activity. The case for environmental protection is somewhat weak because of the singular example chosen for illustration. The Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak, Malaysia, is in a fragile, humid, tropical forest region where any change per se is interpreted as being detrimental.

Joeres, Erhard F.

57

Climatic variation and river flow in glacierised Himalayan basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal patterns of precipitation vary considerably along the Himalayan arc from substantial summer monsoon maximum in the south-east to winter precipitation maximum with drier summers in the north-west. In the south-east, river flow is reduced during part of the summer seasonal maximum discharge in basins at higher elevations by snowfall raising albedo of glacier surfaces and reducing meltwater production, whereas at lower elevations river flow arising from glacier melt is augmented by monsoon rainfall. In the north-west, glacier ice-melt provides most of the summer seasonal maximum flow. Year-to-year variations in river flow therefore respond to differing climatic signals. Year-to-year variability and long-term trends of the glaciologically-relevant variables winter and summer precipitation and summer air temperature have been examined for stations distributed along the length of the Karakoram-Himalayan ranges. Air temperature trend varied according to location, with increases in the later part of the twentieth century only at stations at higher elevations in the south-east. Total annual precipitation showed large year-to-year fluctuations, but with little trend from the 1900s to the 1990s, though varying from area to area. Discharge data for the Ganges are limited and totally missing for India since the 1970s. For the upper Indus, runoff declined from the 1970s to the 1990s, but the trend of flow in tributaries of the Ganges arising in Nepal is not clear. It is therefore difficult to identify the overall pattern of how runoff trends have responded to changes in monsoon precipitation, air temperature and glacier recession along the Himalayan arc.

Collins, D. N.; Davenport, J.

2011-12-01

58

Analysis of River Widths in the Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers play a central role in the global hydrologic cycle, connecting atmospheric fluxes to soil moisture and groundwater storage through the circulation of water and transport of sediments from upland catchments to coastal settings over the landscape. River form on the regional-scale depends substantially on the variations in climate, drainage basin area, human activity, and substrate. Past studies of river form have focused mainly on small systems or network-form descriptions, rather than examining regional-scale continuous river morphology. This study represents the first-ever observational data set of continuous measurement of river widths in the Amazon River basin that are as wide as 50 meters or more. The widths are calculated using the RivWidth algorithm, which automatically calculates continuous river widths from satellite-derived water masks. We used Landsat TM and ETM+ images due to their long historical record, high spatial resolution, and wide global coverage. A total of 263 satellite images acquired during June to September, whenever possible, were used in creating the mask of Amazon River basin. A frequency analysis of river widths shows the wide variability in the distribution of complex-channels in the Amazon basin. The resulting map of river widths, when linked with Digital Elevation Models, can serve as an important tool in evaluating the basic control mechanisms on river formation and improve understanding of key relationships between width and variables such as basin area, lithology, climate, and human influence. The resulting width dataset will also be a significant contribution to the nascent Global River Width Database (GRWD) in the future.

Kustu, M. D.; Pavelsky, T. M.

2012-12-01

59

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

60

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

61

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

62

Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

63

Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins  

E-print Network

determined by the Spanish government. Keywords: inter- basin water transfer; differential game; NashDynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins Francisco Cabo Katrin regions with interconnected river basins. Precipitation is higher in one river-basin while water

Boyer, Edmond

64

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

65

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes long-term (1935–99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations\\/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in

Daqing Yang; Baisheng Ye; Douglas L. Kane

2004-01-01

66

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

67

Conservation in the Delaware River Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

Featherstone, J. [Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01

68

AIRS Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an Extreme Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2011-01-01

69

River basins of the United States: the Hudson  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This leaflet, one of a series on the river basins of the United States, contains information on the Hudson River Basin, including a brief early history, a description of the physical characteristics, and other statistical data. At present, other river basins included in the series are The Colorado, The Columbia, The Delaware, The Potomac, and The Wabash.

U.S. Geological Survey

1981-01-01

70

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia  

E-print Network

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia 24 September 2013 the Lynnhaven River Basin. The watershed is located within the City of Virginia Beach in Southeastern Virginia is the City of Virginia Beach. The study area consists of the entire Lynnhaven River Basin, a 64-square- mile

US Army Corps of Engineers

71

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

72

Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage by four NWS NEXRAD Doppler radar systems. 9) Long history of national interest and investment including flood control projects, wetland restoration, and dredging by the US Army Corps of Engineers, an intensively instrumented national watershed observatory by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Goodwin Creek, and numerous other projects by over 20 federal and state agencies. 10) Availability of a 2300 square meter research facility within the watershed for housing research and administrative activities.

Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

2004-12-01

73

Appropriate river basin modelling to assess the impact of climate change on river flooding  

E-print Network

Appropriate river basin modelling to assess the impact of climate change on river flooding M the impact of climate change on river flooding for a specific geographical area? The determination for the river Meuse basin in Western Europe to assess the impact of climate change on river flooding

Twente, Universiteit

74

Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

1998-01-01

75

Streamflow changes over Siberian Yenisei River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes long-term (1935-99) monthly discharge data for the major sub-basins within the Yenisei River watershed in order to document significant streamflow changes induced by reservoir regulations and by natural variations/changes. The results show that both the unregulated upper basin and major lower streams of the watershed experienced streamflow decreases in the early melt period and discharge increases in the late melt season. These changes in snowmelt runoff pattern suggest a delay in snowcover melt in the Yenisei basin perhaps associated with cooling trends during the snowmelt months over central Siberia. This study also demonstrates that the reservoir regulation has significantly altered the monthly discharge regimes in northeast and the upper portions of the Yenisei basin. Constructions of four large dams in the northeast Yensiei regions reduced the summer peak flows in the Angara valley by 15-30% and increased the winter low flows by 5-30%. Operations of two large reservoirs in the upper Yenisei regions enhanced the winter flows by 45-85% and reduced the summer flows by 10-50%. These alterations lead to a streamflow regime change toward less seasonal variation over the eastern and lower Yenisei basin. Because of reservoir regulations, discharge records collected at the Yenisei basin outlet do not always represent natural changes and variations, they tend to underestimate the natural streamflow trends in summer and overestimate the trends in winter and fall seasons. Cold season discharge increase over the Yenisei river is not natural-caused, but mainly the effect of reservoir regulations in the Yenisei basin.

Yang, Daqing; Ye, Baisheng; Kane, Douglas L.

2004-08-01

76

Climate change adaptation in European river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies\\u000a in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called\\u000a Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region (including the Alqueva Reservoir) in the Lower Guadiana in Portugal, and Rivierenland\\u000a in the Netherlands. The analysis

Patrick Huntjens; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; John Grin

2010-01-01

77

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

78

American River Watershed, Common Features Project Natomas Basin, CA  

E-print Network

American River Watershed, Common Features Project Natomas Basin, CA 27 September 2010 Abstract Basin in the City of Sacramento. Located in Sacramento and Sutter Counties, the Natomas Basin is home and stability issues could cause a catastrophic failure of the levee system around the Natomas Basin, resulting

US Army Corps of Engineers

79

Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

2005-12-01

80

AIRS impact on analysis and forecast of an extreme rainfall event (Indus River Valley, Pakistan, 2010) with a global data assimilation and forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments is performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches toward assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. The impact is first assessed globally on a sample of more than forty forecasts per experiment, through the standard 500 hPa anomaly correlation metrics. Next, the focus is on precipitation analysis and precipitation forecast skill relative to one particular event: an extreme rainfall episode which occurred in late July 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that, in addition to improving the global forecast skill, the assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 days is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.

Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.

2012-04-01

81

Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

2014-05-01

82

The Corps, the Environment, Upper Mississippi River Basin  

E-print Network

The Corps, the Environment, and the Upper Mississippi River Basin Raymond H. Merritt #12;On The Cover A tow of barges Is pushed along the river through part of the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and urbanization In the late 1800s took their toll on both the falls and the Mississippi River. Minnesota

US Army Corps of Engineers

83

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

2014-04-01

84

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

2013-04-01

85

76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific...Plan into the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program...Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add the...

2011-03-14

86

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

2011-04-01

87

75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific...Plan into the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program...Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add the...

2010-10-20

88

76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY: Pacific...Plan into the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program...Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add the...

2011-03-11

89

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

2012-04-01

90

18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section...413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of...required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin Commissions created by the President...

2010-04-01

91

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2010-04-01

92

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River basin commissions and field committees...Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions and field committees. (a) River basin commissions established...

2012-04-01

93

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend our understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Beryllium-9, the stable isotope, is weathered from mineral lattices before entering the riverine dissolved or exchangeable phase. The cosmogenic radioisotope 10Be ( t 1/2 = 1.5 Myr) is produced primarily in the atmosphere and is brought into riverine systems, via rainfall, in dissolved or exchangeable form; it may be used to examine the processes which affect beryllium partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases. Ancillary data, such as major ion distributions, provide a basis for selecting regions in which riverine chemistry is dominated by a single geochemical process, allowing examination of its effects on Be distributions in isolation. Analyses of 9Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of 9Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of 10Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved 10Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved 10Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to 10Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Thorson Brown, Erik; Edmond, John M.; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Bourlès, Didier L.; Yiou, Françoise; Measures, Christopher I.

1992-04-01

94

Water balance of the Lepenci river basin, Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. Kosova has four water basins, such as the Basin of river Drini i Bardhe, Ibri, Morava e Binqes and Lepenci. The Basin of river Lepenci is located in South-eastern part of Kosova with surface of 650 km2, belongs to Axios river basin discharging into Aegean Sea. The annual rainfall is 670-1.000 mm and specific runoff 8 - 20 l/s/km2. There are also steep mountains in this area. In this case study we have calculate the water balance of the river Lepenc Basin. The Basin of river Lepenc we have divided in to 3 catchments: of Nerodima river, and upper and lower part of river Lepenci. This basin is covered by three municipalities such as municipality of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Shterpc. The data on precipitation are obtained from three metering stations, such as the metering station of Ferizaj, Kaçanik and Jazhnice. The obtained records are elaborated. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. In a basin of river Lepenci we have four stations for measuring the discharges and levels: in Ferizaj, and Kaçanik - Nerodime river and in Hani i Elezit - Lepenc river. The river basin Lepenc has two inflowing points, where are Lepenci river in the border with the FYR of Macedonia and Sazli village near Ferizaj. Key works: precipitation, evaporation, flow, river, discharges,

Osmanaj, L.; Avdullahi, S.

2009-04-01

95

Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

Karthe, Daniel

2013-04-01

96

159. HUDSON RIVER BASIN SHOWING DOCKING FACILITIES AND STORE HOUSES. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

159. HUDSON RIVER BASIN SHOWING DOCKING FACILITIES AND STORE HOUSES. ON OTHER SIDE OF BASIN CAN BE SEEN THE DOCKS OF THE LEHIGH VALLEY. RAILROAD AND THE RIVER TERMINAL FOR THE CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY (HAER No. NJ-27). - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

97

Reservoir sedimentation problems in the Vistula River basin, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing knowledge of the geometric and hydrological characteristics of existing and planned dam reservoirs in the Vistula River basin, Poland, and of the spatial differentiation of suspended sediment and bed load transport in the area provides a basis for proposing appropriate locations for planned reservoirs in the river basin. If the location and the order of building of the planned

ADAM LAJCZAK

98

ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF WATER YIELD OF A RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of water in the river basin determines the design, operation and management of water resources projects, such as water supply, sewage disposal, irrigation and hydropower, in that vicinity. The major hydrological term that can well describe the capacity of a river basin to satisfy these demands is the flow duration curve, which is derived from long-term records of

Solomon Seyoum Demissie

99

[Landscape change in middle Heihe River Basin].  

PubMed

Using GIS and a landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS, this paper dealt with the landscape change in the middle Heihe River Basin during the past 20 years. During the past 20 years, the landscape elements had a complex change of landscape structure and an apparent transition of landscape composition, but the landscape in a whole still displayed a pattern of sharply contrast between oasis landscape and desertification landscape. Human activities significantly changed the distribution and allocation of the limited water resource in the basin, leading to an acute contradiction between desertification and oasisfication. Moreover, the transitional area between desertification and oasisfication was very sensitive to these processes. The decrease of Shannon's diversity index and evenness index manifested the intensive management and reconstruction of landscape by human beings, which improved the socioeconomic benefits of the region on one hand, but decreased the landscape heterogeneity and landscape diversity, leading to the decrease of eco-environmental benefits of some areas in the basin on the other hand. The research method and technology used in this paper were also discussed. PMID:11813437

Lu, L; Cheng, G; Li, X

2001-02-01

100

On the control of climate- and human-modulated fluvial sediment delivery on river delta development: The Indus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltas are particularly vulnerable coasts, affected by changes in both continental and coastal ocean processes. The currently accelerated loss of deltaic lands across the world is primarily due to fluvial sediment starvation following the pandemic construction of river dams and water diversions. However, the influence on deltas of human- or even climate-modulated changes in fluvial sediment discharge has been studied

L. Giosan; P. D. Clift; J. Blusztajn; A. Tabrez; S. Constantinescu; F. Filip

2006-01-01

101

Modelling sediment input in large river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion and sediment redistribution play a pivotal role in the terrestrial ecosystem as they directly influence soil functions and water quality. In particular surface waters are threatened by emissions of nutrients and contaminants via erosion. The sustainable management of sediments is thus a key challenge in river basin management. Beside the planning and implementation of mitigation measures typically focusing on small and mesoscale catchments, the knowledge of sediment emissions and associated substances in large drainage basins is of utmost importance for water quality protection of large rivers and the seas. The objective of this study was thus to quantify the sediment input into the large drainage basins of Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Odra, Weser, Ems, Danube) as a basis for nutrient and contaminant emissions via erosion. The sediment input was quantified for all watersheds of Germany and added up along the flow paths of the river systems. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the watersheds was estimated based on the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and on specific erosion rates for mountainous areas without vegetation cover. To quantify the sediment delivery ratio a model approach was developed using data on calculated sediment production rates and long term sediment loads observed at monitoring stations of 13 watersheds located in different landscape regions of Germany. A variety of morphological parameters and catchment properties such as slope, drainage density, share of morphological sinks, hypsometric integral, flow distance between sediment source areas and the next stream as well as soil and land use properties were tested to explain the variation in the sediment delivery ratios for the 13 watersheds. The sediment input into streams is mainly controlled by the location of sediment source areas and the morphology along the flow pathways to surface waters. Thus, this complex interaction of spatially distributed catchment properties cannot be characterized using only spatially lumped parameters for watersheds located in very different landscape regions. From all parameters tested, the mean slope of the watersheds and the share of arable land located in a distance of 500 m revealed a significant relation to the sediment delivery ratio. Using both parameters the sediment input was quantified for all other watersheds of Germany showing a good agreement with observed long term sediment loads at monitoring stations.

Scherer, U.

2012-04-01

102

Trends of Annual Natural Runoff in the Yellow River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of annual natural runoff, recorded at eight hydrological stations in the Yellow River basin (YRB) and distributed at the main channel and two sub-basins (Weihe basin and Fenhe basin) are studied during the period from 1951 to 1998. The trends and the beginning points (or abrupt changes) of these series are detected with Mann-Kendall test (M-K test) and

Chunhui Li; Zhifeng Yang; Xuan Wang

2004-01-01

103

Floods in the Skagit River basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to Indian tradition, floods of unusually great magnitude harassed the Skagit River basin about 1815 and 1856. The heights of these floods were not recorded at the time; so they are called historical floods. Since the arrival of white men about 1863, a number of large and damaging floods have been witnessed and recorded. Data concerning and verifying the early floods, including those of 1815 and 1856, were collected prior to 1923 by James E. Stewart. He talked with many of the early settlers in the valley who had listened to Indians tell about the terrible floods. Some of these settlers had referenced the maximum stages of floods they had witnessed by cutting notches at or measuring to high-water marks on trees. In order to verify flood stages Stewart spent many weeks finding and levelling to high-water marks such as drift deposits, sand layers in coves, and silt in the bark of certain types of trees. Gaging stations have been in operation at various locations on the Skagit River and its tributaries since 1909, so recorded peak stages are available at certain sites for floods occurring since that date. All peak discharge data available for both historical and recorded floods have been listed in this report. The types of floods as to winter and summer, the duration of peaks, and the effect of reservoirs are discussed. In 1899 Sterling Dam was constructed at the head of Gages Slough near Sedro Woolley. This was the beginning of major diking in the lower reaches of the Skagit River. Maps included in the report show the location of most of the dike failures that have occurred during the last 73 years and the area probably inundated by major floods. The damage resulting from certain floods is briefly discussed. The report is concluded with a brief discussion of the U.S. Geological Survey method of computing flood-frequency curves as applied to the Skagit River basin. The treatment of single-station records and a means of combining these records for expressing regional significance are exemplified. Historical data are used in the development of both the single-station and the regional curves.

Stewart, James E.; Bodhaine, George Lawrence

1961-01-01

104

Paleogeography of Paleocene Wind River basin  

SciTech Connect

The Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin was deposited in response to Laramide deformation between south-verging faults to the north (Owl Creek and Casper thrusts) and south (Wind River and Granite thrusts). Exposures in this asymmetric basin include a lower fluvial member overlain by the Waltman (lacustrine) and time-equivalent Shotgun (fluvial) members in the northeast and a single fluvial unit in the southeast. In the northeast, low sinuosity, ribbon channel sandstones (northwest paleoflow, about 40 m thick) are overlain by sheet-sand deposits interspersed with channel sandstones (southwest paleoflow, about 700 m thick), which are in turn overlain by the Waltman Member. The basal channel sands are wide (about 100 m perpendicular to flow), thick (5 to 10 m), and trough cross-bedded. The sheet-sand deposits consist of upward-fixing cycles 1 to 10 m thick. These facies are interpreted to be the product of longitudinal drainage flowing parallel to the Casper thrust, overlain by fan-delta sediments prograding perpendicular to the thrust. Palynology suggests a nearly complete Paleocene record for this sequence. To the south along the Rattlesnake Hills, trough cross-bedded sheet sandstones and gravel channel deposits (northward, 140 m thick) are overlain by layered mudstones and siltstones (180 m thick). The top of these high-energy braided-stream deposits and overlying low-energy delta-plain sediments are equivalent in age to the Waltman Member. A topographic low paralleled the Casper arch thrust during the earliest Paleocene. Prograding alluvial-fan sedimentation gradually shifted this topographic low away from the Casper thrust. Southern exposures record drainage toward, and ponding in, the topographic low.

Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.

1986-08-01

105

Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

2009-04-01

106

Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

Council Document ISRP 98-1A Review of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for Fiscal ..................................................................................................... 26 COWLITZ RIVER SUBBASIN ............................................................................................... 27 LEWIS RIVER SUBBASIN

107

pecos river basin wpp implementation The Pecos River winds more than 900 miles through semi-  

E-print Network

pecos river basin wpp implementation The Pecos River winds more than 900 miles through semi- arid with abundant water to irrigate crops and water livestock. Today, the river's flow has dwindled to a trickle in many instances, and dissolved oxy- gen (DO) levels in portions of the river do not meet Texas' water

108

Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

1986-05-01

109

Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Coping with changing water resources: The case of the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia A. Sorg governance Transboundary river basin Syr Darya river basin a b s t r a c t This paper discusses how climatic-hydrological and socio-political developments will affect water allocation in the Syr Darya river basin and which

Stoffel, Markus

110

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DATES...the Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study...National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process...the Yakima basin's water supply problems,...

2011-04-05

111

River basin ecosystem restoration: A comparison of conservation authority efforts (Ontario)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reviews a series of river basin ecosystem restoration\\/enhancement projects carried out under the direction of three individual southern Ontario conservation authorities in their respective river basins. The three authorities are the Grand River Conservation Authority, the Maitland Valley Conservation Authority, and the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority. A review from the published literature dealing with river basins, ecosystems,

Wilfred Gregory Tschirhart

2002-01-01

112

Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River  

E-print Network

Growth and Survival of Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Plume will affect juvenile salmon growth, survival, and adult returns ­ To inform policy and Columbia Basin of juvenile salmonids with metrics of growth and condition Measure physical and biological conditions (temp

113

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

114

Recent Trends of Hydrological Cycles in Tarim River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tarim river basin (TRB) is the largest inland basin of China, extended for 1.06 million km2. In the past 3 decades, due to exploitation and reclamation, the area of oases water consumption in the oases increased significantly. As a result, the main stream of the Tarim river experienced frequently drying-up. At the same time, a significant increase in temperature and precipitation also detected in the basin; decreasing pan evaporation was detected over the basin. Through a water balance analysis with support by remote sensing data, such as gravity (GRACE) and vegetation (AVHRR) changes, we investigated the changes or trend of the hydrological cycles in Tarim river basin. During past 5 decades, it is suggested that the hydrological cycle in TRB showed an accelerated/enhanced trend. We will present the details of our study in the meeting.

Shen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.

2011-12-01

115

Ohio River Basin Energy Study: Social Values and Energy Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives of the analysis are to identify American social values and to exami...

H. R. Potter, H. J. Norville

1981-01-01

116

Negotiating nature : expertise and environment in the Klamath River Basin  

E-print Network

"Negotiating Nature" explores resource management in action and the intertwined roles of law and science in environmental conflicts in the Upper Klamath River Basin in southern Oregon. I follow disputes over the management ...

Buchanan, Nicholas Seong Chul

2010-01-01

117

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

118

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

119

18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

120

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS, VIEW FROM MODEL BED. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

121

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

122

ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

123

Menomonee River Basin, Wisconsin; Summary Pilot Watershed Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the methodology and reports the conclusions and recommendations for remedial measures resulting from the Menomonee River Basin studies. Pollutant contributions from land use activities to surface and groundwater, inputs from atmosp...

J. G. Konrad, G. Chesters, K. W. Bauer

1978-01-01

124

COMPARATIVE PARASITISM OF THE FISH PLAGIOSCION SQUAMOSISSIMUS IN NATIVE AND INVADED RIVER BASINS  

E-print Network

.e., Solimo~es River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Parana species is native to the Amazonas River basin, including the Tocantins-Araguaia sub-basin, in northern

Poulin, Robert

125

Pocomoke River Basin. Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes existing aquatic resource conditions during 1997 in first, second, and third-order non-tidal streams in the Pocomoke River basin in Maryland. The report also begins to assess water quality and habitat problems in the basin, as well a...

A. Lenert, C. J. Millard, P. F. Kazyak, D. M. Boward

1999-01-01

126

Groundwater issues in the Potomac River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great strides have been made by the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, along with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia, in protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Since these entities joined forces in a renewed effort to protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay area, a number of useful programs have been established and public awareness has been raised.The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers and several regional co-sponsors presented Ground Water Issues and Solutions in the Potomac River Basin/Chesapeake Bay Region Conference March 14 at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., to provide insight into groundwater-related issues. Attendance at the conference included 150 groundwater professionals from state, county and private agencies, along with a significant number of students from area universities. More than 30 papers were presented dealing with research projects and field studies. Topics included geohydrologic relationships, groundwater quality impacts, impact of industrial processes on groundwater quality, saltwater intrusion, groundwater protection in the Chesapeake Bay area, land-use impacts on groundwater quality, groundwater modeling, groundwater withdrawals, and policy issues. In addition to the technical sessions, a debate of “How clean is clean?” was held.

Lehr, Jay

127

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

128

Cumulative sediment trapping by reservoirs in large river basins: A case study of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir sedimentation has been a serious problem for reservoir operation and watershed management worldwide, which highlights the importance of accurate estimate of the deposited sediment amount. With reservoir information derived from remote sensing dataset and observed hydrological records of water and sediment, this paper is concerned with the cumulative reservoir sediment trapping in the Yellow River basin. The river basin was divided into 12 sub-basins, upon which the reservoirs' sediment trapping efficiency (TE) and their interception effects on inflowing sediment were estimated with sediment records extracted from 179 field sampling stations. The results show that, with the sediment TE greater than 80% for all the sub-basins, theoretically the basin-wide reservoirs are able to trap most sediment. For the whole river basin, the sediment TE averages 95.2%, which indicates that the reservoirs can collectively make a significant anthropogenic signature on basin-wide sediment delivery. A basin-wide sediment yield map was generated to estimate the reservoir sedimentation amount. During 1950-1970, annually about 2.483 Gt of sediment was transported into channels from sloping lands. Taking into account the actual water storage changes and the reservoir construction history, the actual reservoir sedimentation rate was estimated at 0.59 Gt/yr after corrections, which represents 47.6% of the river basin's total sediment load reduction. Globally, reservoir sedimentation in the Yellow River basin represents about 12-15% of the global mean rate. Up to 2010, approximately 19.32 Gt of sediment has been trapped by Yellow River reservoirs, and totally about 40.32 Gt of sediment has been artificially fixed if silt check dams are also considered. With huge amounts of sediment deposited, these reservoirs have been losing their storage capacity to sedimentation at a rate of 0.6% per year. The magnitude is expected to enhance in future following new reservoir completions. Thus, more efforts are strongly needed to explore the associated responses.

Ran, Lishan; Lu, X. X.; Xin, Zhongbao; Yang, Xiankun

2013-01-01

129

In cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority  

E-print Network

In cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority Shoals and Valley Plugs in the Hatchie and may mark locations at which valley plugs could block the Hatchie River. · Tributaries blocked by valley plugs do not contribute excess sand, whereas channels restored through valley plugs contribute

Gray, Matthew

130

REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER ISSUES: FROM MEKONG RIVER BASIN PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water plays a very important part in the social, economic and cultural life, and the religious belief of the people of the Mekong region. Challenges faced by Mekong Basin countries in their endeavours for economic development are increasingly related to water. The Mekong River with its length of over 4,800 km is one of the longest and largest rivers in

SOKHEM PECH

131

Chlorinated Compounds in Wildlife from the Fraser River Basin  

E-print Network

dans le foie de visons (Mustela vison) et de loutres de rivi�re (Lontra canadensis) du bassin du Fraser (Pandion haliaetus) as well as the livers of American Mink (Mustela vison) and River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in the Fraser River Basin between 1977 and 1993. The most common chlorinated hydrocarbons

132

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 ± 1 Bq l–1, which is consistent with the data of 1998–99. However, it has been found that there are surface

A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

2003-01-01

133

Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

1982-01-01

134

Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present major and trace element data on the suspended and dissolved phases of the Amazon River and its main tributaries. The Sr isotopic composition of the dissolved load is also reported. Special attention is paid to the abundances of REE and to their fractionation between the dissolved and suspended phase. The rivers of the Amazon Basin are among the

Jérôme Gaillardet; Bernard Dupre; Claude J. Allegre; Philippe Négrel

1997-01-01

135

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater

Robert H. Meade; José M. Rayol; Sylvio C. Da Conceicão; José R. G. Natividade

1991-01-01

136

Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin is believed to be at least partly responsible for the large zone of oxygen-depleted water that develops in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. Historical data show that concentrations of nitrate in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries have increased by factors of 2 to more than 5 since the early 1900s.

Donald A. Goolsby; William A. Battaglin; Brent T. Aulenbach; Richard P. Hooper

2000-01-01

137

Representation by Global Climate Models of the Seasonal Cycle of Precipitation in Major Asian River Basins: Present Climate and Future Climate Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the performance of global climate models in representing the hydrological cycle at basin scale is a crucial aspect of climate models auditing and is a necessary step before attempting any statistical or dynamical downscaling of the models output. For reasons of both basic relevance in hydroclimatological terms and of practical importance in terms of water management and water related-hazards, South and South East Asian river basis represent extremely interesting target areas. We present the results of an extensive investigation of how about 20 state-of-the-art climate models represent the hydrological cycle in the Indus, Gange, Brahmaputra, and Mekong basins for present and future projected climate conditions. We shall focus here on the seasonal cycle of precipitation (and evaporation) and shall present the serious inconsistencies among models in the representation of the phase and intensity of monsoonal precipitation and resulting runoff. The obtained results agree with recent findings obtained when looking at atmospheric indicators of the monsoonal circulation. Moreover, in the especially interesting case of the Indus, we shall also analyze how models represent the secondary precipitation peak corresponding to the winter-spring precipitations resulting from the southern flank of the storm track. We also discuss discrepancies and points of agreements among models in the projected future changes in the seasonal cycle of the precipitation and of other hydrologically-relevant quantities.

Lucarini, Valerio; Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Pascale, Salvatore

2013-04-01

138

Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

1996-01-01

139

Coal stratigraphy of northern and central Powder River basin  

SciTech Connect

Reconstructed stratigraphic frameworks contribute to understanding depositional and structural history of Paleocene rocks in the Powder River basin. By correlating Fort Union Formation coal beds from Foster Creek, Montana, 100 mi southward to near Gillette, Wyoming, they reconstructed the framework from Terret up through Anderson coal beds, about 1700 ft of stratigraphic section. This framework comprises intersecting stratigraphic sections showing distribution of thick coal beds and sandstones across the study area. Coal beds from Terret up through Knobloch are thickest in northern Powder River basin. Stratigraphically above in the Cache through Wall section, the coal beds are thickest farther south in Moorhead and northern Spotted Horse coalfields. Otter through Anderson coal beds are thickest still farther south in central Powder River basin. Principal coal beds had been mapped in individual local coal fields and identified by local names. They have correlated the coal beds and connected these stratigraphic sections (framework) with stratigraphic frameworks from the southern Powder River basin to provide an integrated picture of coal deposition. Large coal swamps existed in Fort Union time, first in northern Powder River basin and successively farther southward. Basin margins were tectonically active during the Paleocene. Clastic sedimentation resulting from this tectonism may have created conditions controlling peat deposition. Intermittently, peat deposition was interrupted across large areas by a great influx of clastic sediments. At other times, peat deposits were cut by narrow channels as drainage systems changed course.

McLellan, M.W.; Biewick, L.H.; Molina, C.L.; Pierce, F.W.

1986-08-01

140

Landscape controls on total and methyl Hg in the upper Hudson River basin, New York, USA  

E-print Network

Landscape controls on total and methyl Hg in the upper Hudson River basin, New York, USA D. A) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in 27 sub-basins across the 493 km2 upper Hudson River basin on total and methyl Hg in the upper Hudson River basin, New York, USA, J. Geophys. Res., 117, G01034, doi

141

Water Allocation Modeling of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Awash River basin is one of the twelve basins of Ethiopia which is highly utilized and the first basin to be introduced to modern agriculture. A study was conducted on water allocation modeling of Awash River basin, Ethiopia using MODSIM, a river basin management decision support system (DSS) designed as a computer-aided tool for developing improved basin wide planning. This study was conducted to analyze the water balance of the Awash basin under different levels of irrigation development and also determine the water allocation in the Upper, Middle and Lower Valleys in the basin. Awash basin includes Koka Dam and two dams under completion: Kessem and Tendaho Reservoirs. Four scenarios were set: Scenario I-present withdrawal rate in the basin; Scenario II-Scenario I plus Downstream Tendaho Dam Operational; Scenario III-Scenario II plus expansion of middle valley farms and Kessem Dam Operational; and Scenario IV-Scenario III plus additional expansion in the middle valley. Analysis of flow records within the basin was done for a period of 1963-2003. Estimation of system losses, runoff from ungauged tributaries, and Gedebessa Swamp model parameters were considered in the flow process study. Simulation was conducted based on four scenarios. Consumptive and non-consumptive uses were considered in allocation modeling. The results of MODSIM model depict that there will be incremental release from Koka Dam from 2.8% to 5.7% in years 2018 and 2038, respectively. Due to increased diversions in Scenario III when compared to scenario I, losses in to Gedebessa Swamp will significantly decrease by an average of 27.6%. In the year 2038, owing to less capacity of upstream reservoirs due to sedimentation, water will be lost in the swamp complex causing slight decrease of inflow to Tendaho Dam. Additional storage at or upstream of Koka Dam will be mandatory in the future. Unaccounted water diversions upstream of Koka and water losses in Gedebessa Swamp should be considered in the basin planning.

Asfaw, D. H.; Berhe, F.; Melesse, A. M.

2012-12-01

142

Integrated river basin management in the Conchos River basin, Mexico: A case study of freshwater climate change adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico, due to reduced and unevenly distributed hydrological resources and incipient water management capabilities, climate change adaptation in the water sector is recognized as an urgent issue. To derive lessons for climate change adaptation, this paper evaluates the results gained after five years of an integrated river basin management (IRBM) programme in the Conchos River in northern Mexico. Autonomous

J. EUGENIO BARRIOS; J. ALFREDO RODRÍGUEZ-Pineda; MAURICIO DE LA MAZA BENIGNOS

2009-01-01

143

Comparison of river basin hydrometeorology in ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalyses with observations  

E-print Network

. For the Mississippi and Mackenzie river basins, the spin-up of precipitation in 24-h forecasts has been greatly in both seasons. For the Mackenzie river basin, similar reflective cloud changes in ERA-Interim improve] of three American river basins, the Amazon, Mississippi and Mackenzie Rivers, was compared against

144

M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

1991-01-01

145

M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

1991-12-31

146

Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

2014-10-01

147

Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

2006-12-01

148

Council Document ISRP 98-1 Review of the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

Council Document ISRP 98-1 Review of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for Fiscal -------------------------------------------------------------------46 1) Deschutes River ------------------------------------------------------------------46 2) John Day River-------------------------------------------------------------------48 3) Yakima River

149

Capturing the nature of cooperation, unstable cooperation and conflict over international rivers: the story of the Indus, Yarmouk, Euphrates and Tigris rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the existing definitions of conflict and cooperation over international rivers and introduces new definitions to remedy some of the shortcomings. Conflict tends to be defined as militarised confrontation, firing guns, political flare-ups or deterioration in relations. This range of violence is too wide. To remedy this weakness, it is necessary to incorporate the category of unstable cooperation

Neda A. Zawahri

2008-01-01

150

Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

2014-05-01

151

Draft Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research  

E-print Network

: Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of RME efforts by facilitating communication and coordination effectiveness and the effectiveness of actions in protecting, mitigating, and enhancing the Basin's fish

152

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Purús rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2 3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300 400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River.

Meade, Robert H.; Rayol, José M.; da Conceicão, Sylvio C.; Natividade, José R. G.

1991-09-01

153

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

1991-01-01

154

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the

S. C. Bechtel; C. J. Mehrtens

1993-01-01

155

Assessing agriculture–water links at the basin scale: hydrologic and economic models of the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a basin-wide hydrologic model to assess the hydrologic and economic effects of expanding agriculture in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. It then uses a basin-wide economic model of agriculture to examine the effects of implementing water use regulations. Preliminary results suggest that substantially expanding agriculture would put pressure on some of the river's environmental flows. Agricultural

Marco Maneta; Marcelo Torres; Stephen A. Vosti; Wesley W. Wallender; Summer Allen; Luís H. Bassoi; Lisa Bennett; Richard Howitt; Lineu Rodrigues; Julie Young

2009-01-01

156

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

PubMed

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

2008-01-01

157

Anacostia River Basin: Large, Medium, and Small Lumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrologic Engineering Center, HEC, is performing a hydrologic analysis of the Anacostia River Basin in support of flood-damage-reduction studies there by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Baltimore District. The main objective is to determine the best estimate of flow-exceedance-probability functions at several flood-damage-index locations in the basin. Thus, a generalized methodology for determining flow-frequency curves anywhere in the

A. D. Feldman; A. Dufour; H. W. Dotson

2001-01-01

158

Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Mathes, M.V.

1977-01-01

159

Impact of GRACE signal leakage over the Congo River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size, and second only to the Amazon River in discharge. The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the region's climate, biogeochemical cycling, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), especially in wetlands, is clearly of great importance. Yet, there is a great lack of published research documenting the Congo Basin terrestrial water balance. This lack of research is related in part to the limited amount of in-situ data; however, the abundance of spaceborne data suggests an opportunity for discovery. The Congo River is the only major river to cross the equator twice. In doing so, the basin lies in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere such that it receives year-round rainfall from the migration of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). After the north has its wet season in the spring and summer, the ITCZ moves south and the remainder of the basin receives large amounts of rain. Consequently, the movement of ITCZ can also be observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) TWS changes over the northern and southern boundaries over the Congo. This spatial pattern of the TWS variations are different from that over the Amazon Basin, where the strongest positive or negative annual water storage anomalies are observed to be centered inside the basin. In this study, we examine individual monthly geographical distribution of GRACE TWS changes from various RL05 products, and determine the leakage-contaminated monthly solutions by comparison with reproduced TWS variations from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in sub-basin scale. We also present a methodology to empirically remove the signal leakage, and consequently improve the GRACE TWS estimates over the entire Congo Basin.

Lee, H.; Beighley, R. E.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Andreadis, K.

2013-05-01

160

Transport of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the application of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin occurs in winter to control wood-boring insects in dormant almond orchards. A federal-state collaborative study found that diazinon accounted for most of the observed toxicity of San Joaquin River water in February 1993. Previous studies focused mainly on west-side inputs to the San Joaquin River. In this 1994 study, the three major east-side tributaries to the San Joaquin River - the Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus rivers - and a downstream site on the San Joaquin River were sampled throughout the hydrographs of a late January and an early February storm. In both storms, the Tuolumne River had the highest concentrations of diazinon and transported the largest load of the three tributaries. The Stanislaus River was a small source in both storms. On the basis of previous storm sampling and estimated travel times, ephemeral west-side creeks probably were the main diazinon source early in the storms, whereas the Tuolumne and Merced rivers and east-side drainages directly to the San Joaquin River were the main sources later. Although 74 percent of diazinon transport in the San Joaquin River during 1991-1993 occurred in January and February, transport during each of the two 1994 storms was only 0.05 percent of the amount applied during preceding dry periods. Nevertheless, some of the diazinon concentrations in the San Joaquin River during the January storm exceeded 0.35 ??g/L, a concentration shown to be acutely toxic to water fleas. On the basis of this study and previous studies, diazinon concentrations and streamflow are highly variable during January and February storms, and frequent sampling is required to evaluate transport in the San Joaquin River Basin.

Kratzer, C.R.

1999-01-01

161

The role of blowing snow in the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin  

E-print Network

The role of blowing snow in the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin by Stephen J. D in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) of Canada, the role of snow in its energy and water budgets are still open

Dery, Stephen

162

Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin  

E-print Network

and economic growth combined with depleting groundwater reserves are resulting in ever-increasing demands on the surface water resources of Texas and the Brazos River Basin. Effective management of the highly stochastic water resources of a river basin requires...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

163

Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study. Technical Report C: Water Demand Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (Study), initiated in January 2010, was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamations (Reclamation) Upper Colorado and Lower Colorado regions, and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States...

2012-01-01

164

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ohio 45202; Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission, P.O. Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office Building, Room 510, Fort Snelling, Twin Cities, Minnesota 55111;...

2013-04-01

165

18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ohio 45202; Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission, P.O. Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office Building, Room 510, Fort Snelling, Twin Cities, Minnesota 55111;...

2011-04-01

166

Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin  

E-print Network

Biophysical and Social Barriers Restrict Water Quality Improvements in the Mississippi River Basin the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Despite twelve years of an action plan calling for reducing the zone to a five

David, Mark B.

167

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

168

N Budgets of the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen budgets and the importance of the principal types of land use and other human activities as sources and sinks of N were determined for a meso-scale river basin (12 400 km2) in one of the most developed and economically important regions of South America. The Piracicaba River basin is located in southeastern Brazil and drains into a tributary of the Parana River. The basin supports about 2% of the population of Brazil with intensive agricultural and industrial activities. During two years from 1995 to 1997, biweekly samples were collected at 10 points along the Piracicaba River and its tributaries for analyses of dissolved and particulate N. The annual flux of N increased by a factor of about 20 times from the headwaters to the lower reaches of the main channel. Mass balances calculated for six linked sectors of the river system and for the entire basin had inputs that were generally slightly lower than outputs. These results are different from those observed in temperate regions, where low outputs in relation to inputs are common.

Filoso, S.; Williams, M.; Martinelli, L.

2001-05-01

169

Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments-river basin view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments.\\u000a So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that\\u000a not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade.\\u000a \\u000a In the following overview, special emphasis

Ulrich Förstner

2003-01-01

170

Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

E-print Network

Since 1982: Improved more than 2,400 river miles of habitat Contributed to rebuilding Snake River scientific research #12;Program Vision The Vision for this program is an ecosystem that sustains an abundant. #12;Key Program Elements Improve fish survival at dams (flow, passage) Improve ecosystem function

171

An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual framework for assessing possible geomorphic and ecological changes in response to river-flow modifications. Suggestions for future biomonitoring and investigations are also provided. This study was one in a series of similar tributary streamflow and geomorphic studies conducted for the Willamette Sustainable Rivers Project. The Sustainable Rivers Project is a national effort by the USACE and The Nature Conservancy to develop environmental flow requirements in regulated river systems.

Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

2012-01-01

172

Ecosystem performance assessment for grasslands in the Greater Platte River Basin: implications for cellulosic biofuel development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies lands suitable for cellulosic biofuel (e.g., switchgrass) development across the Northern Great Plains, with an initial emphasis on the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. Our approach is based on previous successful ecosystem performance (EP) studies in the Yukon River Basin and the Upper Colorado River Basin. We hypothesize that

Y. Gu; S. P. Boyte; B. K. Wylie; L. L. Tieszen

2010-01-01

173

Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife .................................................................................................5 A. The Northwest Power and Conservation Council and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife.................................................................................9 A. Vision for the Columbia River Basin

174

Patterns of Intra-and Interspecies Genetic Diversity in Klamath River Basin Suckers  

E-print Network

Patterns of Intra- and Interspecies Genetic Diversity in Klamath River Basin Suckers GREGORY J Abstract.--The Klamath River basin, Oregon, is home to four catostomid species: the Klamath smallscale variation in Klamath River basin suckers by examining 15 microsatellite loci. Over 300 suckers were sampled

May, Bernie

175

SEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON SURVIVAL AND STREAMFLOW  

E-print Network

the issue of salmon survival in the Columbia River Basin that prompted this choice of a research topicSEASONAL STOCHASTIC STREAMFLOW FORECASTS FOR THE YAKIMA RIVER BASIN AND IMPLICATIONS TO SALMON entitled: Seasonal Stochastic Streamflow Forecasts for the Yakima River Basin and Implications for Salmon

176

Effects of livestock wastes on small illinois streams: Lower Kaskaskia river basin and upper little wabash river basins, summer 1991  

SciTech Connect

In early 1991, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) initiated an investigation to evaluate livestock waste runoff in southern Illinois. The primary objectives of this survey were to document stream quality impairments caused by livestock waste runoff, and ultimately, the need for better waste management practices, waste management systems, and funding for such systems. Information provided by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and IEPA Agricultural staff identified an area in Clinton and Bond Counties in the Kaskaskia River basin and several upper Little Wabash River basin tributaries in Effingham and Cumberland Counties as candidate project areas.

Hite, R.L.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.; Brockamp, D.W.

1992-07-01

177

Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and mature topography with high homogenous erosion. Hydrological system of the study region is complex. Analysis of the Morphometric parameter provides adequate information of both terrain characteristics and hydrological behavior of the catchment and also it is observed that the drainage density of the river is very low which indicates the basin is highly permeable subsoil with dense vegetation cover. Analysis based on circularity ratio, form factor and elongation ratio showed that basin shape of the river is close to circular. The study have significant role to understand landform processes and erosional characteristics of a high altitudinal landform. Present study infers that the integration of morphometrical analysis along with the conventional watershed assessment methods would have a beneficial effect on judicious watershed management of the river Basin. It also included the decrease land resources, soil erosion, and shift runoff of the river basin. Attempt had been made to understand the impact of the river ecosystem of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve especially the upper region of river.

Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

2011-12-01

178

Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

2010-05-01

179

The distribution of organic carbon in the Brazos River basin  

E-print Network

was found to be significantly influenced by man's activities. The DOC concentration in the Brazos River ranged from 2. 8 mgC/1 to 7. 0 mgC/1. The POC con- centration ranged from 1. 0 mgC/1 to 16 mgC/1. The DOC values were found to be the best indication... more independent of flow- rate than the POC concentrations. The POC concentrations were directly related to river discharge. The DOC/POC ratio of the Brazos River ranged from 0. 24 to 6. 0. The high values were found in the middle basin where...

Brooks, James Mark

2012-06-07

180

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

Chapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

181

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

182

Digital Atlas of the Upper Washita River Basin, Southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.

2008-01-01

183

The sublimation of falling snow over the Mackenzie River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublimation of falling snow may be an important component of the atmospheric water budget of the Mackenzie River Basin and many parts of the Arctic. To investigate this issue, a simple sublimation model is used along with surface precipitation observations and sonde data obtained during the autumn 1994 Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (BASE). Model results are then compared

Jason E. Burford; Ronald E. Stewart

1998-01-01

184

Enhancing Sustainability in River Basin Management through Conflict  

E-print Network

Analysis from the u.s. and South Korea* Young-Doo Wang,! William James Smith, Jr.,2 John Byrne,! Michael; and Murphy and Sabadell 1986). This chapter provides a comparative analysis of river basins that are situated of socio-political equity (E), ecological viability (E) and economic development (E), or WE3. LITERATURE

Delaware, University of

185

Coherence between atmospheric teleconnections and Mackenzie River Basin lake levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Athabasca (LA), Great Slave Lake (GSL) and Great Bear Lake (GBL) lie within the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB), with GBL and GSL being the ninth and tenth largest lakes in the world by volume. How these lake levels fluctuate in time is important in management of the Peace-Athabasca delta, the ecology of these lakes, and for estimating sediment flux.

Sergio Sarmiento; Akilan Palanisami

186

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP),

Sergio Eduardo Sarmiento

2010-01-01

187

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

188

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

189

BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

190

25 February 2010 Draft 1 Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

#12;25 February 2010 Draft 1 Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Reporting-xx #12;25 February 2010 Draft 2 Executive Summary This Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Reporting of a Strategic Plan, Implementation Framework, and Implementation Strategies for anadromous fish, resident fish

191

WATERSHED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS BALANCE: THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrogen and phosphorus mass balances were estimated for the portion of the Potomac River basin watershed located above Washington, D.C. he total nitrogen (N) balance included seven input source terms, six sinks, and one "change-in-storage" term, but was simplified to five input ...

192

Flood peaks and discharge summaries in the Delaware River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains streamflow data from 299 continuous and partial-record gaging stations in the Delaware River basin. The location, drainage area, period of record, type of gage, and average flow (discharge) is given for each continuous station. Also included, are annual flood peak discharges and discharges above a selected base, annual and monthly mean discharges, and annual and monthly runoff. (USGS)

Vickers, A.A.; Farsett, Harry A.; Green, J. Wayne

1981-01-01

193

Synoptic controls on upper Colorado River basin snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic controls of the Colorado River basin snowfall are determined from 700 mb atmospheric circulation. The 700 mb time series is run through an S-mode Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which creates a synoptic index over the western US region This synoptic index is used as input to a feed-forward backpropagation neural network to develop transfer functions that simulate daily snowfall

David L. McGinnis

2000-01-01

194

Christina River Basin CZO Spatial and temporal integration  

E-print Network

Personnel #12;Christina River Basin (CRB) · Piedmont & Atlantic Coastal Plain · Human Landuse for centuries carbon sink (or source) due to mineral production, weathering, erosion and deposition;CRB-CZO Objectives 1. Properties of Carbon-Mineral Complexes 2. Weathering and Erosion Controls

Sparks, Donald L.

195

Scientific Review of Subbasin Plans Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

, Columbia River Basin Indian Tribes, and NOAA Fisheries Subbasin Plan Reviewers Joint ISRP and ISAB Members, Tennessee, Past President of the American Fisheries Society, with expertise in fish-habitat relationships. Daniel Goodman, Ph.D., Professor of statistics at Montana State University, an expert in ecological risk

196

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: LAND USE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It represents the final technical report summarizing land use and terrestrial ecology data and analyses conducted for the study. The ORBES region consists of...

197

AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

198

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for stratigraphic entrapment. The focus of this paper is on hydrodynamics as an additional control on the localization of hydrocarbons. Specifically, areas of low potential energy with respect to oil and gas can be mapped as a function of the potentiometric surface, fluid density, and aquifer configuration. This study in the Powder River basin defined an area of minimum potential energy with respect to hydrocarbons. Synhydrodynamic and posthydrodynamic hydrocarbon migration syn/post hydrodynamics will result in the majority of hydrocarbons moving toward the area of minimum potential energy. The area encompasses the majority of Minnelusa hydrocarbons discovered to date.

Maloney, W.V.

1987-08-01

199

Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.  

PubMed

One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons. PMID:25299076

Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

2014-12-01

200

Dissolved and bioavailable contaminants in the Seine river basin.  

PubMed

Diffusive Gradient in Thin Films (DGT) and Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) were deployed in the Seine river basin in order to assess labile metals and truly dissolved Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. We show that the tools are reliable in aquatic environments to assess the speciation of dissolved contaminants and hence provide a good insight into the potential bioavailability of contaminants. The deployment of the DGT and SPMDs in contrasting environments in the Seine river basin allowed distinction to be made of availability of contaminants between headwater streams and much more impacted river reaches and an assessment of bioavailability. At the stations under urban influence, the impact of dissolved organic matter on both copper and PAHs bioavailability is less pronounced than at upstream stations, where humic substances dominate. PMID:17276495

Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Gourlay, Catherine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Buzier, Rémy; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

2007-04-01

201

Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

1995-01-01

202

Draft Columbia River Basin Monitoring, Evaluation, Research  

E-print Network

will assist the Council and other partners in the Basin with: o Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of RME efforts by facilitating communication and coordination among project proponents and funding and reporting on project effectiveness and the effectiveness of actions in protecting, mitigating, and enhancing

203

3, 37273770, 2006 Colorado River basin  

E-print Network

. These hydrological changes were reflected in reservoir system performance. Average total basin reservoir storage and Environmental Engineering Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA Received: 16 November 2006 ­ Accepted: 28 November 2006 ­ Published: 13 December 2006 Correspondence to: D. Lettenmaier (dennis@u.washington

Boyer, Edmond

204

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

205

Modification of climate-river flow associations by basin properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGiven heightened concerns about climate and human impacts upon hydrology, there is a need to quantify temporal and spatial variability in water availability, and to establish climate-flow associations to predict future water stress. In the UK, most previous climate-river flow research: (1) used single sites or a network of basins with restricted geographical coverage and/or sparse density; (2) included river flow records impacted by anthropogenic influences; (3) generally recognised the importance of basin properties but did not advance beyond broad basin characterisation. This paper addresses these research gaps and aims to improve understanding of seasonal hydroclimatological associations across the UK by: (1) characterising spatial patterns in winter, spring, summer and autumn flows; (2) identifying regions for which atmospheric circulation (AC) and regional climate (RC) drivers exert strongest control on seasonal flows; and (3) identifying basin properties that have a significant influence on seasonal flows. 104 gauged basins covering mainland Great Britain and having near-natural flow records were used to derive four seasonal flow indices for 1975-2005. For each calendar season, cluster analysis was performed on these indices to group hydrologically similar basins. For each resultant class, climate-flow associations were assessed as well as the identification of influential basin physical properties. RC variables were found to have stronger association with seasonal flows than AC with the best RC predictors varying with season. Only winter and summer showed significant AC-flow correlations. Composition of seasonal flow classes reflected not only climatic input but also the physical nature of the basins. A given basin property may have influence for one season, but not for another; and many properties have only limited influence on modifying climate inputs. For both winter and summer seasons, it may be concluded generally that the higher elevation and more impermeable a basin, the stronger the RC-flow association. For AC-flow associations, regions of significant winter correlations match regions of stronger RC-flow association; summer correlations show an eastern shift. This paper illustrates the important (but variable) role of basin properties in modifying climate signals in river flow and the need to consider both sets of controls in evaluating hydrological sensitivity to climate change.

Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Hannah, David M.

2010-07-01

206

Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

1979-01-01

207

Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

1978-01-01

208

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Striking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin  

E-print Network

in the Columbia River Basin Agreement Between BPA And Oregon Finalizes Mitigation For Wildlife Impacts Of Willamette River Basin Dams Volume Nine, Number Four Fall 2010 (Continued on page 2) Notes From the Chair River Basin. Projects will be implemented through the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife

209

Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

Choudhury, B. J.

1998-01-01

210

Forecasting Severe Floods for the Meghna River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate prediction of extreme floods in Bangladesh is vital for the agricultural practices and planning in the region, and to provide warnings for evacuation in case of flooding. Hopson and Webster (2010) developed and implemented a short-term flood forecasting scheme in Bangladesh for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins that performs significantly better than the climatological and persistence forecasts at all lead times. Probabilistic forecast of river discharge at two entry points into Bangladesh of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers was developed using a hydrologic multimodel initialized by NASA and NOAA rainfall products, whose fluxes were forecasted forward using calibrated ECMWF ensemble prediction system products. We investigate whether extreme floods in the Bangladesh for the Meghna river basin are equally predictable on a 1-15 day time scale. The Hopson and Webster meteorological-hydrological forecast model developed for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins is calibrated and adapted for the Meghna basin at Bhairab Bazar. It is found that, on 1-15 day time scales, the floods for the summers of 2007-2010 are well predicted.

Toma, V. E.; Jian, J.; Hopson, T. M.; Webster, P. J.

2010-12-01

211

Tritium in surface waters of the Yenisei River basin.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4 +/- 1 Bq l(-1), which is consistent with the data of 1998-99. However, it has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. For instance, in the Ploskii Stream and the Shumikha River the maximum tritium concentrations amount to 168 and 81 Bq l(-1), respectively. The source of tritium in these surface waters is the last operating reactor at the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. In water and sediment samples of the Bolshaya Tel River (a tributary of the Yenisei River) the tritium content turned out to be at least 10 times higher than the background values for the Yenisei River. The measurements conducted at the RPA RADON (Moscow) revealed not only tritium but also the artificial radionuclide (14)C in the Bolshaya Tel samples. The data obtained suggest that the Bolshaya Tel River receives the major part of tritium from sediments rather than from the water catchment area. This allows the conclusion that there is water exchange between the surface waters and the radioactively contaminated underground horizons of the "Severny" testing site. PMID:12600760

Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Bondareva, L G

2003-01-01

212

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

213

Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (1 sample), pH (1 sample), sodium (9 samples), chloride (1 sample), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (7 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (8 samples), manganese (6 samples), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). Fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were each detected in one sample. Concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, and uranium, and gross alpha activities, did not exceed existing drinking-water standards in any of the samples collected. Methane concentrations in two samples were greater than 28 milligrams per liter, and the maximum measured concentration was 44.3 milligrams per liter.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

2013-01-01

214

Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

2010-05-01

215

Mg isotopes geochemistry in the Han River basin, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Han River basin is the largest river system in South Korea, consisting of two major branches: the North Han River (NHR) and South Han River (SHR). Distinct differences in the lithology between the NHR and SHR (silicates vs. carbonates) allow us to constrain the behavior of Mg isotopes during chemical weathering. We collected water samples as well as rock samples in summer 2011. The lithological difference between the NHR and SHR is reflected in major ions and dissolved Sr isotope compositions; lower major ion concentrations and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the NHR but higher major ion concentrations and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the SHR. Dissolved Mg in the NHR yielded heavier Mg isotope compositions, ranging from -1.14 to -0.67‰ of ?26MgDSM3 with an average of -0.85‰ (n=6), than that in the SHR, ranging from -1.34 to -0.74‰ of ?26MgDSM3 with an average of -1.15‰ (n=6). The river waters draining only carbonates have much lower ?26MgDSM3 values (-1.34 to -1.27‰, n=3), similar to other rivers draining carbonates. This implies that biological fractionation such as plant uptake would be limited because a geographical environment in the Han River basin is almost same. Mineral saturation indices indicate that the river waters are undersaturated with respect to primary and secondary minerals such as smectite but waters draining the carbonates are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Hence, the lower ?26MgDSM3 values in the NHR relative to source rocks could be mainly attributed to the fractionation during silicate mineral dissolution. Contrary to the NHR, ?26MgDSM3 values in the SHR indistinguishable from those of the carbonates imply that carbonates dissolution/precipitation would not fractionate Mg isotopes. This study indicates that Mg isotopes could be used to constrain riverine Mg sources.

Ryu, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, K.; Shin, H.

2012-12-01

216

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

217

Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

2011-12-01

218

The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)] [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others] [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); and others

1995-11-01

219

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

220

A Gis-Based Decision Support System for Water Trade Management of River Basin Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth and formation of the river basin for several thousand years, a series of cities were formed along water basin. The activities arising from the upstream and downstream cities such as water intake and wastewater discharge significantly affect the nature of the river. These cities are called “The Basin City”. A GIS-based decision support system (DSS) was developed

G. Z. Zhang; W. N. Zhao; H. Liu

2010-01-01

221

Introduction to special section on River Basin Management: Economics, Management, and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on river basin management is growing with an expanding coverage of issues and basins and an increasing refinement of approaches and methods. Still, many old questions remain unresolved, while new concerns are emerging, especially on the economic, managerial, and policy dimensions of river basin management. This special section brings together a set of papers that addresses some of

R. Maria Saleth

2004-01-01

222

Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 200852400 CRITFC Lamprey Passage Design  

E-print Network

Columbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 200852400 CRITFC Lamprey Passage Design FY Restoration Plan for the Columbia River Basin (CRITFC 2008). Province(s) Intermountain and Lower Columbia throughout the basin considerably impact upstream production. Considering dam count data, adult and juvenile

223

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

224

Hydrogeologic data for the Farmington River basin, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains hydrologic and geologic data collected and compiled as part of a water resources investigation of the Farmington River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report, Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 29 (in preparation), contains the interpretation of ground-water, quality-of-water, and surfacewater data collected for the study.

Hopkins, Herbert T.; Handman, Elinor H.

1975-01-01

225

Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G. E.

1981-01-01

226

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Agency, Environmental P.

227

Deforestation within the Higher Paraguay River Basin -- Brazilian Pantanal Wetland --  

E-print Network

this article, representing the decade of the 70s. Being this, the first of a series of three evaluations, that will include the decades of the 80s and the 90s. In this context, the objective of this research is to map and quantify deforested areas in the Higher Paraguay river Basin (HPB), providing the resuls per State (MT and MS), Pantanal, plateau, sub-regions and counties

unknown authors

228

Carbon stocks in the Alaska Yukon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest systems in Alaska maybe vulnerable to long-term ecological changes related to climate change and shifting fire regimes. Future projections of boreal forest carbon stocks are improved with more accurate quantification of current baseline soil carbon stocks. Above ground biomass (R2 = 0.66) and soil organic layer thickness (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) were quantified using field plots parameters estimated with regression tree techniques using 30 m resolution Landsat and ancillary data as inputs within the Yukon Flats ecoregion of Alaska. Soil organic layer thickness was converted to soil carbon stocks with a regression (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01). We extended these Landsat-based regression tree mapping techniques with Fish and Wildlife and Natural Resources Conservation Service collaborators and additional collected field observations, airborne electromagnetic surveys, Landsat Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), and ancillary data to map carbon stocks at a 30 m spatial resolution for the Alaskan portion of the Yukon River basin. The carbon stocks in non-disturbed and previously burned fire scar areas within the boreal forests of this region were then assessed. Future boreal forest above ground biomass for boreal forests through the entire Yukon River basin was mapped for 2070 using the ecosystem performance modeling approach. Undisturbed boreal forest biomass was expected to increase in the south central areas of the Yukon River basin and decline in portions of the eastern extents. Current to 2070 precent difference in biomass for boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin.

Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, L.; Rigge, M. B.; Johnson, K. D.

2012-12-01

229

Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

230

Suspended sediment dynamics in the Mississippi River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated sediment trends in a heavily managed basin influenced by substantial human impacts. Spatial and temporal patterns of suspended sediment dynamics were examined in the Mississippi River basin by utilizing all available USGS suspended-sediment data with a minimum of 30 matching samples of suspended-sediment concentration and water discharge. These spatial trends were related to the land use change which has occurred over the last century and this includes dams, soil conservation measures and channelization. Sediment sources and sinks along the main stem of the Mississippi River and its main tributaries were identified and mapped. Three main trends were identified. 1) Sediment yields decreasing with increasing drainage area imply systematically increasing sediment storage downstream the landscape. 2) Sediment yields increasing with drainage area indicate net recruitment of sediment along the main valleys from banks and floodplain erosion. 3) Sediment yields showing no relationship with drainage area are attributed to the complexity arising from diverse climate, geology and land use of the basin. Based on the results, regional scale sediment yield maps were prepared and linked to the land use and the history of the basin.

Ali, K.; Cullis, J. D.; Xu, X.; More, M.; Hassan, M. A.; Simon, A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

2010-12-01

231

Understanding Controls on Historical River Discharge in the World's Largest Drainage Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term (20 yr) river discharge records from 30 of the world's largest river basins have been used to characterize surface hydrologic flows in relation to net precipitation inputs, ocean climate teleconnections, and human land\\/water use patterns. This groundwork study is presented as a precedent to distributed simulation modeling of surface hydrologic flows in large river basins. Correlation analysis is used

Christopher Potter

2003-01-01

232

Regulation of Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and Changes of Basin Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivers can be regulated for many purposes (flow regulation, irrigation, navigation, energy generation and ....etc) and this may cause some negative ecological changes in basin of these rivers, one of the clearest examples of this situation, the case in the Euphrates and Tigris basin, where the both rivers are regulated with series of reservoirs and this leads to many ecological

Ahmad Majar; Vladimir Starodubtsev

2010-01-01

233

Sediment Dynamics of a High Gradient Stream in the Oi River Basin of Japan1  

E-print Network

Sediment Dynamics of a High Gradient Stream in the Oi River Basin of Japan1 Hideji Maita2 Abstract. With this in mind we selected the Higashigochi basin of a small tributary of the Oi river as our study area. During area of about 28 km2, is a small tributary of the Oi river system emptying into the Pacific side

Standiford, Richard B.

234

16.-THE SALMON FISHERIES OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN. By MARSHALL McDONALD,  

E-print Network

#12;16.-THE SALMON FISHERIES OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN. By MARSHALL McDONALD, U/titd States, of investigations in the Columbia River Basin. The -first of the provision!'! above referred to authorized be necessary, "In examining the Clarke's Fork of the Columbia River, with the view to ascertain

235

Going with the flow: River basins as the natural units for water management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article engages with the currently hegemonic status of a triad of water policy prescriptions: multi-stakeholder platforms, integrated water resources management, and river basin management. A more reflective approach that opens up the choices underlying these concepts, and their limits, is needed. The choice to manage water on the basis of river basins is a political choice, and thus river

Jeroen Warner; Philippus Wester; J. A. Bolding

2008-01-01

236

Hydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3  

E-print Network

of the Lower Snake River in the Northwestern USA; the Bull Run River basin composed of 3 water supply structures and a fresh-water tidal region. 1 Introduction CE-QUAL-W2 is a two-dimensional water qualityHydrodynamic and water quality river basin modeling using CE-QUAL-W2 version 3 Scott A. Wells

Wells, Scott A.

237

The Potomac River Basin and Western Shore Chesapeake Bay Drainage as a Proposed CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term hydrologic observatory is proposed for an area encompassing the Potomac River Basin and the basins that form the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay from the Gunpowder River on the north to the Rappahannock River on the south. The area is approximately 52,000 sq km and spans five physiographic provinces, with total relief of about 1200 m, and

A. J. Miller; J. A. Smith; C. Welty; K. N. Eshleman; M. Piasecki; K. L. Prestegaard; K. L. Brubaker; M. A. Palmer; P. T. Imhoff; P. R. Wilcock; T. M. Scanlon; G. T. Fisher; R. J. Shedlock; A. C. Gellis; P. M. Groffman; K. Belt; L. Toran; R. Traver; T. Jordan

2004-01-01

238

Trends and persistence in precipitation in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basins occupy about 1.75 x 10 6 km2 of the Himalayan region. More than half a billion people in Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh are directly or indirectly dependent on the water resources of the GBM rivers. These river basins are characterized by diversified climatic patterns. Analyses of trends and persistence in precipitation

M. Q. MIRZA; R. A. WARRICK; N. J. ERICKSEN; G. J. KENNY

1999-01-01

239

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local  

E-print Network

931 Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia quality. A Spatial Analysis of Phosphorus in the Mississippi River Basin Linda M. Jacobson, Mark B. David,* and Laurie E. Drinkwater Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) have been

David, Mark B.

240

Climate Oscillations and the Hydroclimatology of the Fraser River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fraser River is by volume the largest Canadian waterway flowing to the Pacific Ocean and remains largely unaffected by flow regulation. The Fraser River Basin (FRB) spans across 234,000 square kilometers or one quarter of British Columbia, Canada and bears a magnificent amount of natural and human heritage and the cultural and linguistic diversity of this region encompasses various First Nations peoples who use the Fraser River and its tributaries as waterways and for sustenance. This presentation will focus on the role of climate oscillations on the 1910-2009 variability and trends in annual streamflow at 141 sites across the FRB of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Our analyses reveal high runoff rates and low interannual variability in alpine and coastal rivers and low runoff rates and high interannual variability in streams on BC's interior plateau. Large-scale climate teleconnections such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), in conjunction with retreating glaciers, may be contributing to the greater range in annual streamflow fluctuations across the basin. This poses significant challenges for water resource managers and also has implications on ecological processes such as migrating salmon that are especially important to First Nations communities. As the climate continues to warm, greater variability in annual streamflow, and hence in hydrological extremes, may arise across the FRB in the 21st century.

Dery, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M.; Owens, P. N.; Parkes, M.; Petticrew, E. L.

2011-12-01

241

Participatory river basin management in the São João River, Brazil: A basis for climate change adaptation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an empirical case study of enhanced water management in the São João River basin on the southeast coast of Brazil between 1999 and 2008. The autonomous adaptation measures applied are assessed to derive lessons for more effective climate change adaptation. In response to severe eutrophication of their coastal lakes, effective, local multi-stakeholder institutions were established under the

LUIZ FIRMINO MARTINS PEREIRA; SAMUEL BARRETO; JAMIE PITTOCK

2009-01-01

242

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

2009-12-03

243

A Basin-Wide Integrated Analysis of Human Impacts on River Basins Using Horton-Strahler Stream Ordering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human impacts, such as land use change and human population distributed within a river basin, may affect the balance of water resources utilization and the ecological condition on the river basin environment. In this study, we proposed a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler’s stream order to analyze basin-wide distributions of the human activity impacts across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assumed that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type, such as paddy fields, farmlands, forests, cites, etc., and the human population formed a geometric sequence, which was the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton’s laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implied basically fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 river basins of Japan were used to verify the model. Then, we quantitatively compared the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics and classified these river basins into four categories through principal component analysis (PCA). The four categories could be labeled by the two PCA axes, i.e., the forested/urbanized and the cultivated /waters. Furthermore, GIS datasets of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and gross domestic product (GDP) with the basin classification obtained were used to evaluate the human activity influence on both the water quality (BOD) and the economic condition (GDP) in the 109 river basins of Japan and discussed their relationships through the framework of the Horton-type stream order model for land use and human settlement.

Miyamoto, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Michioku, K.

2010-12-01

244

Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

2013-12-01

245

[Comprehensive assessment on environmental quality in vulnerable ecotone of Tarim River Basin].  

PubMed

Tarim River Basin (TRB) is one of ecological environment vulnerable areas. Due to the matching of material and energy existed in some problems, the different fragility characteristics occurred obviously. According to related principles of ecological environment quality assessment, combined with ecological environment situation of Tarim River Basin, 20 indexes were selected, and the indicator system for synthetically ecological environment assessment was built. Moreover, ecological fragility index was set up, which can be used to indicate the degree of ecological environment quality in Tarim River Basin. The results were as follows: Aksu River Basin belongs to improved area. Yerkart River Basin and the upper reaches of TRB belongs to balance areas and Hetian River Basin and the middle reaches of TRB belongs to maladjustment areas. The lower reaches of TRB belongs to severe damage area. The assessment results are consonant with actual situation, which play an important function in ecological environment construction. PMID:11432072

Wang, R; Song, Y; Fan, Z; You, X

2001-03-01

246

Screening model optimization for Panay River Basin planning in the Philippines  

E-print Network

The state of the water resources of the Panay River Basin have motivated studies and initial basin planning to mitigate flood damages, to produce hydroelectricity, and to increase irrigated rice areas. The goal of this ...

Millspaugh, John Henry

2010-01-01

247

The use of turbulent jets to destratify the Charles River Basin  

E-print Network

This study examines the feasibility of using turbulent jets to destratify the Lower Charles River Basin between the Longfellow and Craigie Bridges between Boston and Cambridge. The basin is currently filled with salt water ...

Church, Jeffrey H. (Jeffrey Harrison)

2012-01-01

248

Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-08-01

249

Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.  

PubMed

The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

2013-01-01

250

Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to manifest the ecological status of the total river basin ecosystem.

Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-03-01

251

Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations alone. Verification of these results by local, in-situ measurements can increase our confidence in these methods. However, this work demonstrates the ability to establish a starting point for water resources planners in southern Africa and other regions with intermittent or sparse streamflow observations.

Minihane, M.

2011-12-01

252

Effects of river regulation on riparian box elder ( Acer Negundo ) forests in Canyons of the upper Colorado River Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canyon riparian zone vegetation is vulnerable to effects of upstream river regulation. We studied box elder (Acer negundo) dominated canyon riparian forests intensively on the Green and Yampa rivers in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado, and\\u000a extensively in four other major rivers of the upper Colorado River Basin to determine the effects of river regulation on riparian\\u000a tree establishment patterns. We:

John M. DeWine; David J. Cooper

2007-01-01

253

59 FR- Power Plan Amendments: Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Power Plan Amendments: Columbia River Basin Fish and...30, 1994. AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council...

1994-10-13

254

Successful Transboundary River Basin and Estuary Cooperation: Benchmarks for the Ural River Basin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s new Water Code means its water resources remain under federal jurisdiction. However, this shouldn’t rule out transboundary\\u000a water cooperation. After acknowledging the current situation regarding water resources management in Russia, this paper presents\\u000a three instances of transboundary cooperation, two case studies concerning nations within the Danube basin: the Sava and Tisza\\u000a sub-basins, and a third concerning the Scheldt Estuary

Jerome Simpson; Stephen Stec; Wim Cofino; Helle Peeters; Bert Hove; Annemiek Verhallen

255

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

256

Water resources of the Ipswich River basin, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources of the Ipswich River basin are at resent {1960) used principally for municipal supply to about 379,000 person's in 16 towns and cities in or near the river basin. By the year 2000 municipal use of water in this region will probably be more than twice the current use, and subsidiary uses of water, especially for recreation, also will have increased greatly. To meet the projected needs, annual pumpage of water from the Ipswich River could be increased from current maximums of about 12 mgd (million galleons a day) to about 45 mgd without reducing average base flows in the river, provided that the increased withdrawals would be restricted to periods of high streamflow. In addition, considerably more pumpage could be derived from streamflow by utilizing base-flow discharge; however, the magnitude of such use could be determined only in relation to factors such as concurrent ground-water use, the disposal of waste water, and the amount of streamflow required to dilute the pollution load to acceptable levels. Under present conditions, little or no increase in diversion of streamflow would be warranted in the upstream rafts of the basin during the summer and early fall of each year, and only a moderate increase could be made in the lower reaches of the stream during the same period. Annual rainfall in the basin averages about 42.5 inches, and represents the water initially available for use. Of this amount, an average of about 20.5 inches is returned to the a.tmosphere by evapotranspiration. The remainder, about 22 inches, runs off as streamflow in the Ipswich River or is diverted from the basin by pumpage. The average annual stream runoff, amounting to about 47 billion gallons, is a measure of the water actually available for man's use. The amounts of water used by municipalities in recent years are less than 10 percent of the available supply. Large supplies of ground water may be obtained under water-table conditions from the stratified glacial drift that forms .the principal ground-water reservoir of the basin. Stratified drift deposits fill valleys in about 31 percent of the basin. Thicknesses of the deposits are generally less than 50 feet, but at places may be as great as 200 feet. Between 1931 and 1960 recoverable annual recharge to stratified drift aquifers averaged about 10 inches, equal to 42 mgd. The least possible recharge during any of these years was probably more than 41inches, or 25 mgd. Therefore, ground-water withdrawals from the basin could be sustained at a rate at least five times greater than the 1960 rate of 4.9 mgd. In the lower Ipswich basin. withdrawal of ground water could be sustained at a rate eight or nine times greater than the 1960 rate of 1.86 mgd. There are 1 or more favorable sites for further exploration for ground water in each of the 10 communities that occupy the major part of the river ,basin. Small but reliable supplies of ground water for domestic use may be withdrawn from bedrock almost anywhere it. the basin. Ground-water levels show no long-term trend since 1939, and although large fluctuations in water levels occur during each year, the ground-water reservoir at most places in the Ipswich River basin is replenished annually to its full capacity. During parts of most years potential recharge is unable to enter the already-saturated ground-water reservoirs, and most of this 'rejected recharge' enters streams as surface runoff. The chemical quality of both ground and surface water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although excessive concentrations of iron and manganese occur locally, and at places the hardness of the water is objectionable. The surface- and ground-water resources of the basin are closely related. Because most areas favorable for further development of ground water are adjacent to stream channels, large increases in the withdrawal of ground water during low-flow periods will result in reductions of streamflow. The magnitude of t

Sammel, Edward A.; Baker, John Augustus; Brackley, Richard A.

1966-01-01

257

Inventing the Charles River Basin : urban images and civic discourse in Boston, 1844-1994  

E-print Network

The Charles River Basin, extending from the foot of Beacon Hill upstream past Harvard's Soldiers Field, has been called Boston's "Central Park." The river looks to all appearances tranquil and unchanging, one of the most ...

Haglund, Karl T

1997-01-01

258

Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

2008-12-01

259

Flood frequency analysis for Germany's Weser River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of flood risk is more challenging outside of the U.S., as other countries typically do not have centralized agencies such as the USGS and FEMA that provide easily-accessible stream gauge data and flood maps. Therefore, modifications to the typical flood frequency methods used in the U.S. (e.g., USGS Bulletin 17b with regional regression, or regional frequency analysis using L-Moments) are often necessary with limited data. For the Weser River Basin in northern Germany, we obtained discharge data from 114 stream gauges, but full records of instantaneous annual maximum discharges were available for only 19 of those gauges. The 19 gauges were located along larger rivers draining areas greater than approximately 2500 sq km. The other 95 gauges draining areas less than 2500 sq km contained only the 10 largest observations (top 10) over the period of record. In order to make use of all available data, we used a hybrid approach, applying 1) regional frequency analysis using L-Moments for the annual maximum data for large (greater than 2000 sq km) watersheds, and 2) regional regression analysis for small (less than 2000 sq km) watersheds using the top 10 data, to estimate flood (i.e., 100-yr and 500-yr) discharges for all river and stream reaches throughout the basin. This presentation highlights the challenges and solutions for using a limited number of gauges and incomplete record lengths to estimate flood discharges for both large and small watersheds.

McCollum, J.; Qu, Y.; Beighley, E.

2013-12-01

260

Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.

2009-01-01

261

Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

2009-12-01

262

Sustainable Water Management in the Major Basins of South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Asia is the setting for rapid socioeconomic development, demographic growth and change, policy achievements and failures, and a variable and changing climate. These changes will have major consequences for the management of water resources which consequently affect the lives and livelihoods of over a billion local residents. This study will provide an overview of the water management issues of South Asia through the context of climate change in large river basins. The study reviews recent and ongoing studies of the Indus River Basin and the Ganges River Basin. The analyses employ comprehensive agro-economic & water resources management models. The modeling results reveal the emerging challenges to water management in South Asia and priority concerns to enable sustainable economic growth without environmental degradation. The results are expected to provide policy-related insights for adaptation to change for the major river basins of South Asia.

Yang, Y. E.; Yu, W.; Brown, C. M.; Savitsky, A.

2011-12-01

263

Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

1981-01-01

264

Areal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in  

E-print Network

.S.S.R. to the Amur River, in- cluding rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, east and west coastsAreal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in Fisheries of spring chinook salmon of the 1970 and 1971 broods. Anadyr River south along the east coast of the U

265

Hydrological effects of hypothetical climate change in the East River basin, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, the US Geological Survey began a study of the effects of potential climate change on the water resources of the Gunnison River basin. The Gunnison River, in southwestern Colorado, is an important tributary of the Colorado River, contributing approximately 40% of the flow of the Colorado River at the Colorado\\/Utah stateline. As part of the study, the sensitivity

GREGORY J. McCABE Jr; LAUREN E. HAY

1995-01-01

266

Assessing the resilience of a river management regime: informal learning in a shadow network in the Tisza river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin (HTRB). Extreme events punctuate

Jan Sendzimir; Piotr Magnuszewski; Zsuzsanna Flachner; Peter Balogh

267

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Compiled by Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J. Edited by Martin, Cathy R.

2007-01-01

268

Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2013-04-01

269

Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the fitted regression lines ranged from 0.95 to 1.01 (correlation coefficient > 0.96) for the basins studied. Values for the residence time of waters within the basins and average relative contributions of the within-year and long-term reservoirs to outflow were obtained. Values for river basin residence times ranged from 2 years for the Kissimmee River basin to 20 years for the Potomac River basin. The residence times indicate the time scale in which the basin responds to anthropogenic inputs. The modeled tritium concentrations for the basins also furnish input data for urban and agricultural settings where these river waters are used. ?? 1992.

Michel, R.L.

1992-01-01

270

Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Rivers 2012 international conference (http://www.crearamazonia.org/tropicalrivers2012/) was part of the International Geoscience Programme 582 project of The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's International Union for Geological Sciences (UNESCO-IUGS). The aim of the IGCP 582 is to provide an integrated assessment of long-term direct effects of climate variability and human-induced change and management of tropical river basins. This assessment is to be achieved by identification, quantification, and modeling of key hydro-geomorphologic indicators during the past and present times, and assessment of the potential influences of global change on fluvial systems and the socio-economic implications of these changes.

Abad, Jorge D.; Montoro, Hugo; Latrubesse, Edgardo

2013-01-01

271

Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

272

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1991, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. 1991 was the final year of this five year project. Work started in May 1 and ended on November 31. Preconstruction activity consisted of final layout and design of the project, movement of approximately 600 cubic yards of large boulders and 12 log trucks loads of woody material to the construction site. A total of five rock weirs, five rock deflectors, 20 woody debris placements and 79 individual boulder placements were constructed in the South Fork and the main stem of the Umatilla River. A total of twelve log weirs, four rock weirs, two rock deflectors, and ten woody debris placements were placed in Meacham Creek. In addition, 47 weirs in Thomas Creek and the upper portion of the South Fork of the Umatilla River were repaired. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the Umatilla River construction project area, and mapping and photographing all structures.

Northrop, Michael

1992-01-01

273

[Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].  

PubMed

By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation. PMID:24483090

Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

2013-10-01

274

The Pine-Popple River basin--Hydrology of a wild river area, northeastern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pine and Popple Rivers, virtually unaltered by man, flow through a semiprimitive area of forests, lakes, and glacial hills. White-water streams, natural lakes, fish and animal life, and abundant vegetation contribute to the unique recreational and aesthetic characteristics of the area. Resource planning or development should recognize the interrelationships within the hydrologic system and the possible effects of water and land-use changes upon the wild nature of the area. The basin covers about 563 square miles in northeastern Wisconsin. Swamps and wetlands cover nearly 110 square miles, and the 70 lakes cover about 11 square miles. The undulating topography is formed by glacial deposits overlying an irregular, resistant surface of bedrock. An annual average of 30 inches of precipitation, highest from late spring to early autumn, falls on the basin. Of this amount, evapotranspiration, highest in mid summer and late summer, averages 19 inches; the remaining 11 inches is runoff, which is highest in spring and early summer. Ground water from the glacial drift is the source of water for the minor withdrawal use in the basin. Ground-water movement is to streams and lakes and regionally follows the slope of topography and the bedrock surface, which is generally west to east. Ground water is of good quality, although locally high in iron. The major uses of water are for recreation and power generation. Domestic use is slight. No water is withdrawn from lakes or streams, and no sewage or industrial wastes are added to lakes or streams. Most of the flow of the Pine River is used for power generation. The main stems of the Pine and Popple Rivers contain 114 canoeable miles, of which 95 percent is without such major obstructions as falls or large rapids. In general streams support cold-water fish, and lakes support warm-water fish. Trout is the principal stream and game fish in the basin. The basin has no significant water problems. Future development between the Pine River power plant and the mouth of the Pine River should have little effect on the western two-thirds of the basin, already largely protected by public ownership or development planning agreements.

Oakes, Edward L.; Field, Stephen J.; Seeger, Lawrence P.

1973-01-01

275

RADAR ALTIMETRY FOR STUDIES OF LARGE RIVER BASINS: HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE EUPHRATES-TIGRIS RIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of analysis of hydrological regime of the Euphrates-Tigris river basin using a satellite radar altimetry. We use the data from several radar altimetry missions: TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) (1992-2002), Geosat Follow-On (GFO) (since January 2000) and ENVISAT (since November 2002) satellites. We analyze the variability of water level for large reservoirs for the Tigris and Euphrates, as well

Elena A. Zakharova; Alexei V. Kouraev; Jean-François Crétaux; Faiza Al-Yamani; Igor Polikarpov

2007-01-01

276

The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

2013-12-01

277

Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.; Kurath, G.

2003-01-01

278

Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.  

PubMed

As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate. PMID:21922685

Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

2011-01-01

279

Two Alternative Juvenile Life History Types for Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however,

William P. Connor; John G. Sneva; Kenneth F. Tiffan; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Doug Ross

2005-01-01

280

Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

1978-01-01

281

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001 Open by Paul F. Schuster, 2003. #12;WATER AND SEDIMENT QUALITY IN THE YUKON RIVER BASIN, ALASKA, DURING WATER............................................................................................................ 3 CHAPTER 3 - Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Characterization................................ 23

282

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002 Open at Eagle, Alaska. #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2002................................................................................................ 4 CHAPTER 3 - Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Characterization

283

Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin  

E-print Network

Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin Gregory J. Mc (2007), Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin, Geophys. Res; published 27 November 2007. [1] The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999

284

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects

R. Todd Shaw; Amy D. Sexton

2003-01-01

285

Plans for Meeting Water Requirements in the Kaskaskia River Basin, 1970-2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Plans for Meeting Water Requirements in the Kaskaskia River Basin, 1970-2020. Abstract: Two alternative economical plans are indicated by this systems study of avail­ able groundwater and surface water sources to provide an adequate and economical water supply for each town in the Kaskaskia River Basin through the year 2020. Plan 1 in­ cludes 6 reservoirs (excludes Carlyle and

K. P. SINGH; A. P. VISOCKY; C. G. LONNQUIST

286

Fluid flow and deformation at an active continental margin: The Eel River Basin, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses how active fluid flow and recent deformation are related to submarine morphology in the offshore Eel River basin along the northern California continental margin. The Eel River basin is an ideal location to study fluid flow and deformation because it is tectonically active, generates hydrocarbons at depth, and experiences rapid sediment loading. Five seismic reflection surveys of

Janet Wai Ngan Yun

2000-01-01

287

The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Centralised versus Decentralised River Basin Management1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore two different approaches to river basin management. One is a mainstream, normative integrated river basin management (IRBM) model that is predominantly hierarchical and sophisticated in institutional design culminating in an apex 'regulatory authority', that seeks comprehensive hydrometric networks for data collection and analysis to use in computer decision-support models for water allocation and setting discharge

Bruce Lankford; Nick Hepworth

288

Trends of major hydroclimatic variables in the Tarim River basin during the past 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonparametric Mann–Kendall test was used to detect the trends of major hydroclimatic variables in the Tarim River Basin, the largest inland river basin in China for the period of 1960–2007. Results showed that both mean annual air temperature and precipitation experienced an increasing trend, while annual streamflow demonstrated a mixed trend of decreasing and increasing: The mountainous region upstream

Zongxue Xu; Zhaofei Liu; Guobin Fu; Yaning Chen

2010-01-01

289

BIBLIOGRAPHY Abernethy, C.L. 2001. Financing River Basin Organizations. In Abernethy, C.L. (Ed.)  

E-print Network

317 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abernethy, C.L. 2001. Financing River Basin Organizations. In Abernethy, C.L. (Ed.) Intersectoral Management of River Basins. Colombo: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Africa. 1984 Model: Assessing Environmental Threats to Food and Water Security in Russia. Environmental Change

Wolf, Aaron

290

Appendix A -1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife  

E-print Network

Appendix A - 1 Appendix A: The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program The 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program is the fifth revision of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program since the NPCC principles. The 2000 NPCC Fish and Wildlife Program marks a significant departure from past versions, which

291

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho  

E-print Network

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to temperature increases in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho Chunling in the Salmon River Basin (SRB) of Idaho and are anticipated to contin- ue increasing in the future, leading and ecological processes. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Climate changes have occurred in the Salmon

Crosby, Benjamin T.

292

Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

2003-01-01

293

Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to

B. Chen; G. Q. Chen

2009-01-01

294

Regional estimation of base flow and groundwater recharge in the Upper Mississippi river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge and discharge (base flow) estimates from two methods were compared in the Upper Mississippi River basin (USGS hydrologic cataloging unit 07). The Upper Mississippi basin drains 491,700km2 in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and outlets in the Mississippi River north of Cairo, Illinois. The first method uses the water balance components from the soil and water assessment

J. G. Arnold; R. S. Muttiah; R. Srinivasan; P. M. Allen

2000-01-01

295

FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

296

Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

297

[Spatiotemporal characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in inland river basins of Hexi region].  

PubMed

Based on the 1961-2008 daily observation data from 17 meteorological stations in the inland river basins in Hexi region, the daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in the basins was computed by Penman-Monteith equation, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal and annual ET0 were studied by GIS and IDW inverse-distance spatial interpolation. In 1961-2008, the mean annual ET0 (700-1330 mm) increased gradually from southeast to northwest across the basins. The high value of mean annual ET0 in Shule River basin and Heihe River basin declined significantly (P < 0.05), with the climatic trend rate ranged from -53 to -10 mm (10 a)(-1), while the low value of mean annual ET0 in Shiyang River basin ascended slightly. The ET0 in the basins had a significant annual fluctuation, which centralized in Linze and decreased toward northwest and southeast. The ET0 in summer and autumn contributed most of a year, and the highest value of ET0 all the year round always appeared in Shule River basin. The climatic trend rate was in the order of summer > spring > autumn > winter. Wind speed and maximum temperature were the primary factors affecting the ET0 in the basins. Furthermore, wind speed was the predominant factor of downward trend of ET0 in Shule and Heihe basins, while maximum temperature and sunshine hours played an important role in the upward trend of ET0 in Shiyang basin. PMID:21443004

Lü, Xiao-Dong; Wang, He-ling; Ma, Zhong-ming

2010-12-01

298

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

2002-01-01

299

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

300

Carbonate facies patterns and oil shale genesis in Eocene Green River Formation, Fossil basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facies patterns and associated vertical sequences of kerogenous carbonates (oil shales) of the Green River Formation in Fossil basin, Wyoming, provide new insights into the deposition of oil shale. Unique to Fossil basin is a facies pattern consisting of kerogen-rich calcimicrite at the basin's depocenter succeeded laterally by laminated calcimicrite, bioturbated calcimicrite, and finally calcareous siliciclastics. This same pattern occurs

H. Paul Buchheim

1983-01-01

301

International river basin development and climatic change: The Lower Mekong of Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's most important effort in international river basin planning has been carried out in the Lower Mekong Basin of Southeast Asia. Coordinated planning of water resource development in the basin has been the responsibility of the United Nations-sponsored Mekong Committee, established in 1957. Original member nations of the Committee were Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Committee has made

1992-01-01

302

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR INFORMATION EXTRACTION OF FARM FIELD IN TARIM RIVER BASIN USING MODIS DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spatial resolution remote sensing data are expensive and hard to cover the whole basin at the same time in Tarim river basin, while, the low spatial resolution data, such as MODIS, which spatial resolution of first (red) and second (infrared) band are 250 m, may cover the whole basin in same day. In this paper, based on previous models

Shudong Wang; Suhong Liu; Xiaohua Wang; Jianxia Guo; Yanmin Shuai; Ni Hu

303

Multiphase CO 2 flow, transport and sequestration in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequestration of anthropogenic “greenhouse gases” such as CO2 is proposed as a means of reducing global warming. We tested the possibility of sequestering CO2 in regional-scale aquifers in sedimentary basins, including residence time in possible aquifer storage sites and migration rates away from such sites. The example basin studied is the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. We calibrated regional scale rock

B. J. O. L McPherson; B. S Cole

2000-01-01

304

Hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment of Heihe River Basin, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heihe River Basin is a typical arid inland river basin for examining stress on groundwater resources in northwest China.\\u000a The basin is composed of large volumes of unconsolidated Quaternary sediments of widely differing grain size, and during the\\u000a past half century, rapid socio-economic development has created an increased demand for groundwater resources. Understanding\\u000a the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater and

Zhu Gaofeng; Su Yonghong; Huang Chunlin; Feng Qi; Liu Zhiguang

2010-01-01

305

Potential impact of climate change on the water availability of South Saskatchewan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential hydrologic impact of climatic change on three sub-basins of the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) within\\u000a Alberta, namely, Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River basins was investigated using the Modified Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere\\u000a (MISBA) land surface scheme of Kerkhoven and Gan (Advances in Water Resources 29:808–826 2006). The European Centre for Mid-range Weather Forecasts global re-analysis (ERA-40) climate data,

Shoma Tanzeeba; Thian Yew Gan

2012-01-01

306

Impact of horizontal resolution on the regional climate simulations of the summer 1998 extreme rainfall along the Yangtze River Basin  

E-print Network

of the summer 1998 extreme rainfall along the Yangtze River Basin Hongbo Liu,1 DaLin Zhang,2 and Bin Wang1 of the summer 1998 extreme rainfall events along the middle to lower reaches of the YangtzeRiver Basin (YRBML of the summer 1998 extreme rainfall along the Yangtze River Basin, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D12115, doi:10

Zhang, Da-Lin

307

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department) on their geologic maps of the Wind River Basin and Wyoming, respectively. #12;[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin and Christiansen (1985) mapped in the area north of Wilderness and southeast and northwest of Horse Creek (shown

Lee Jr., Richard E.

308

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

2010-07-01

309

33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

2010-07-01

310

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

2011-07-01

311

33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

2012-07-01

312

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

2012-07-01

313

33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

2013-07-01

314

33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area...within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of Severn River inclosed...

2011-07-01

315

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn River...

2013-07-01

316

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models  

E-print Network

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models J extreme drought event in the Amazon river basin, regarded as the worst in over a century. GRACE measures. Yang, and G. Y. Niu (2009), 2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE

Yang, Zong-Liang

317

Dividing the waters: The case for hydrologic separation of the North American Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins  

E-print Network

and Mississippi River Basins Jerry L. Rasmussen a,1 , Henry A. Regier b,2 , Richard E. Sparks c, , William W American Great Lakes Mississippi River Basin Biodiversity threats Risk assessment Legislation Legislation nuisance species between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins. Hydrologic separation is the only

318

Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI, AND KEVIN E. TRENBERTH  

E-print Network

Hydroclimatic Trends in the Mississippi River Basin from 1948 to 2004 TAOTAO QIAN, AIGUO DAI components in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004 are investigated using a combination that evapotranspiration has in- creased in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004. Sensitivity experiments show

Dai, Aiguo

319

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5/1/90 and ended 10/30/90. A total of five large log weirs, eight large rock weirs, 17 associated weir structures, 19 small to medium rock deflectors, four bank and island reinforcements, three rock flow controls, 19 woody debris placements, and 85 individual boulders were constructed in the South Fork of the Umatilla River. In addition, one large rock weir was constructed at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Umatilla River, and repair work was completed on 33 structures in Thomas Creek. Also, 300 cubic yards of rock and some logs and woody material were moved on site for use in 1991. Preconstruction activity consisted of moving approximately 1,500 cubic yards of large boulders, and dive log truck loads of woody material to the construction site. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the project area and, mapping and photographing and structures. 7 figs.

Northrop, Michael

1990-01-01

320

Framework to Calculate TMDL of Acid Mine Drainage For Cheat River Basin in West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF) was enhanced to calculate the total maximum daily load (TMDL) of acid mine drainage for the Cheat River Basin in West Virginia. The framework divides the river basin into catchments, river segments, and lake layers. Some catchments have deep mines and\\/or surface mines. These catchments have a soil layer that contains pyrite (FeS2),

Carl W. Chen; Joel Herr; H. Z. Weintraub; Robert A. Goldstein; Rick Herd; J. M. Brown

321

A Water Balance Derived Drought Index for Pinios River Basin, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates hydrological drought characteristics using a water balance derived drought index in Pinios river basin,\\u000a Thessaly, Greece. The concept of hydrological management at subwatershed scale has been adopted because it encompasses the\\u000a areal extent of a drought event. Fourteen (14) sub-watersheds of Pinios river basin were delineated according to the major\\u000a tributaries of Pinios river using GIS. For

Lampros Vasiliades; Athanasios Loukas; Nikos Liberis

2011-01-01

322

Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful implementation. However, critical conceptual and design requirements have to be met in order to realise futures research potentials. Since the beginning of the 1990s futures studies are becoming (again) more and more widespread in many different domains (technology, education, urban development, agriculture, environment, etc.). Recently, experiences have been launched and are currently being launched in the water sector (of which the World Water Vision is a well -known - but not necessarily the most representative - example). Although futures studies on a river basin level are still scarce, they will offer already sufficient material for empirical analysis. The research, effectuated within a larger framework study on the implications of futures studies for environmental research, offers at this stage initially a conceptual understanding.

van der Helm, R.

323

Regional-scale permeability by heat flow calibration in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward modeling of coupled fluid and heat flow in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, is used to explain anomalously high heat flow values observed in the southern portion of the basin. Effective basin-scale permeabilities of selected Powder River basin aquifers and aquitards were calibrated by matching surface heat flow measurements to simulation results. Fractures associated with a large anticline in the southwestern part of the basin were found to play a major role in the basin's thermal regime. While the model results are non-unique, they demonstrate that regional structural features play an important role in a basin's overall energy budget and fluid flow regime. With the results of the basin-scale model it is possible to evaluate regional-scale flow and transport processes.

McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Forster, Craig B.; Cole, Barret S.

324

3.-NOTES ON FISHES FROM THE BASIN OF THE MACKENZIE RIVER IN BRITISH AMERICA.  

E-print Network

3.-NOTES ON FISHES FROM THE BASIN OF THE MACKENZIE RIVER IN BRITISH AMERICA. By CHARLES H. GILBERT collection of fishes from the Mackenzie. River, British America, recently presented by Miss Elizabeth Taylor is a skin in good condition, from the Delta of the Mackenzie River (No. 808, L. S. Jr. Univ. Museum). Length

325

Recent Studies on the Climatology and Modeling of Blowing Snow in the Mackenzie River Basin  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Recent Studies on the Climatology and Modeling of Blowing Snow in the Mackenzie River of the contribution of blow- ing snow to the hydrometeorology of the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB). A cli- matology not fully understood. One region in Canada subject to much ongoing in- vestigation is the Mackenzie River

Dery, Stephen

326

An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin  

E-print Network

An Assessment of Flows for Rivers of the Great Lakes Basin David Allan and Leon Hinz With: Edward for analytic advice. #12;1 Executive Summary River flows, typically measured in cubic meters or cubic feet per) depicts these changes visually. Variation in river flow can be quantified using a variety of statistical

Allan, David

327

78 FR 72860 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White River National Forest; Summit County...A-Basin) has submitted a proposal to the White River National Forest (WRNF) to pursue...Forest Supervisor, c/Joe Foreman, White River National Forest, PO Box 620,...

2013-12-04

328

The trend of base flow in Wei River Basin based on R\\/S and Mann-Kendall method  

Microsoft Academic Search

River base flow is defined of the amount of groundwater recharging river runoff. Base flow index is the ratio of base flow and runoff. in Wei River Basin, the annual average base flow index was 0.475. We can see that the base flow plays an important role in the runoff formation, maintenance and regeneration process .Studying Wei River Basin base

Zheng Aiqin; Wang Wenke; Duan Lei; Jia Jia; Zheng Xiaoyan; Duan Peng; Yang Feng

2011-01-01

329

Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

Eash, David A.

2006-01-01

330

Effects of reservoirs on flood discharges in the Kansas and the Missouri River basins, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The floods of 1993 were of historic magnitude as water in the Missouri and the Mississippi Rivers reached levels that exceeded many of the previous observed maximums. Although large parts of the flood plains of both rivers upstream from St. Louis, Missouri, were inundated, water levels would have been even higher had it not been for the large volume of runoff retained in flood-control reservoirs. Most of the total flood-control storage available upstream from St. Louis is located along the main stem and tributaries of the Missouri River; the largest concentration of reservoirs is located within the Kansas River Basin. The Kansas River Basin accounts for about l0 percent (60,000 square miles) of the drainage area of the Missouri River Basin, and reservoirs control streamflow from 85 percent (50,840 square miles) of the drainage area of the Kansas River Basin. Analyses of flood discharges in the Kansas River indicate that reservoirs reduced flooding along the Kansas and the lower Missouri Rivers. Results of analyses of the 1993 flooding, which include total basin rainfall, peak discharge, and total flood volume on the Kansas River, are compared with analyses of the 1951 flood, which had a similar total volume but a substantially larger peak discharge.

Perry, Charles A.

1994-01-01

331

Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

332

Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis of WF changes from the perspective of the river basin is more scientific. To address this perspective, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model and the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) model for WF could be implemented in a river basin by computing IO data for the river basin with the Generating Regional IO Tables (GRIT) method. This framework is illustrated in the Haihe River Basin (HRB), which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1% to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF; however, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy making in other water-limited river basins.

Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

2013-12-01

333

Factors affecting pesticide occurrence and transport in a large Midwestern River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several factors affect the occurrence and transport of pesticides in surface waters of the 29,400 km2 White River Basin in Indiana. A relationship was found between pesticide use and the average annual concentration of that pesticide in the White River, although this relationship varies for different classes of pesticides. About one percent of the mass applied of each of the commonly used agricultural herbicides was transported from the basin via the White River. Peak pesticide concentrations were typically highest in late spring or early summer and were associated with periods of runoff following application. Concentrations of diazinon were higher in an urban basin than in two agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas. Concentrations of atrazine, a corn herbicide widely used in the White River Basin, were higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, well-drained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Although use of butylate and cyanazine was comparable in the White River Basin between 1992 and 1994, concentrations in the White River of butylate, which is incorporated into soil, were substantially less than for cyanazine, which is typically applied to the soil surface.

Crawford, C.G.

2001-01-01

334

Future high flows in Jinhua River Basin, east China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme high flows in Jinhua River basin under the impact of climate change for the future period 2011-2040 is analyzed in this study. The future projections are obtained through the PRECIS model with a resolution of 50km×50km under emission scenario A1B. The daily precipitation from the regional climate model PRECIS is bias corrected by distribution based scaling method. Afterwards, three lumped hydrological models (GR4J, HBV and Xinanjiang) are used to simulate the daily discharge, driven with both bias corrected and raw precipitation from the PRECIS model for 2011-2040. It is found that for the three hydrological models, the simulated annual maximum discharges are higher by using the raw precipitation from PRECIS than by bias corrected precipitation at any return period. The largest difference reaches 8000 m3/s. Meanwhile, there are differences in the annual maximum discharge derived from hydrological models (see Figure 1). The largest difference between three models is about 3200 m3/s. In most of the time, the GR4J model predicts the highest annual maximum discharge; the lowest is for Xinanjiang and HBV is in between. Compared to date, the flood risk in the future under scenario A1B tends to be larger estimated by GR4J and smaller by Xinanjiang. The HBV model predicts petty much similar results as the present. With different models, the changing range of design discharge for 100 years return period is six times as much as that for 3 years return period, indicating large uncertainty from hydrological models. design discharge versus return periods from the observation, the GR4J model, the HBV model and the Xinanjiang model for the Jinhua River Basin

Xu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, X.

2012-12-01

335

Estimates of sublimation in the Upper Colorado River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowpack stored in mountain environments is the primary source of water for the population of much of the western United States, and the loss of water through direct evaporation (sublimation) is a significant factor in the amount of runoff realized from snow melt. A land surface modeling study was carried out in order to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of sublimation over the Upper Colorado River basin through the use of a spatially distributed snow-evolution model known as SnowModel. Simulations relied on forcing from high resolution atmospheric analysis data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). These data were used to simulate snow sublimation for several years over a 400 by 400 km domain in the Upper Colorado River Basin at a horizontal resolution of 250 m and hourly time-steps. Results show that total volume of sublimated water from snow varies 68% or between 0.95 x 107 acre feet in WY 2002 to the maximum of 1.37 x 107 acre feet in WY 2005 within the ten years of the study period. On daily timescales sublimation was found to be episodic in nature, with short periods of enhanced sublimation followed by several days of relatively low snowpack water loss. The greatest sublimation rates of approximately 3 mm/day were found to occur in high elevation regions generally above tree line in conjunction with frequent windblown snow, while considerable contributions from canopy sublimation occurred at mid-elevations. Additional sensitivity runs accounting for reduced canopy leaf area index as a result of western pine beetle induced tree mortality were also carried out to test the models sensitivity to land surface characteristics. Results from this comparison show a near linear decrease in domain total sublimation with reduced LAI. Model performance was somewhat satisfactory, with simulations underestimating precipitation and accumulated SWE, most likely due to biases in the precipitation forcing and errors in determining precipitation phase.

Phillips, Morgan

336

Trends in Extremes Rainfall over the São Francisco River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to analyze trends in rainfall extreme over the basin São Francisco (SF) using climate extreme indices (CEI). Also, it was analyzed the relationship between CEI and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). São Francisco River system is one of Brazil's most significant water bodies; it is the fourth largest river system of the continent, one of the two main plateau rivers, and the largest river wholly within Brazil. Inside it are installed a series of hydroelectric dams and irrigation projects that sustain the energy and economy in the Northeast region of Brazil. In order to facilitate the spatial analysis of the trends São Francisco basin was divided in four sectors, called geo-morphological regions. From upstream to downstream, the sectors are: Upper (USF), Middle (MSF), Sub-Middle (SSF) and Lower São Francisco (LSF). The CEI were derived from daily precipitation of Climatic Prediction Center (CPCp) for period of 1979-2005, and from a set of 10 stations' records of daily precipitations within the period 1960-1999. Most of the CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R50mm) and flood events (RX5day, RX1day and R95p). Droughts (CDDd) are identified by means of two indicators: the longest dry period (CDD) and the cycle annual. Additionally, it was used the ETA_HadCM3 model in order to simulate the present climate (1961-1990) and future projections (2011- 2099) of climate extremes in the basin. The results showed a high interannual variability of the indices and a good relationship between the CEI and SOI. Drought (CDDd), and short period of rainfall (RX1day, RX5day and R30mm) occurred with more frequency and intensity in the El Niño events. This would suggest that extreme rainfall events in short periods of time (RX1day and RX5day) can occur in very rainy or dry years, the difference could be assessed in terms of their impacts. In wet years, with the highest frequency of days with rain and with a moist soil, an extreme event could cause flooding or landslides. Already, an extreme event in a dry year could compensate the deficit of water that the soil of that region can be suffering, not disregarding the possibility of severe impacts due to urbanization problems on river slopes. The spatial distribution of trends showed increase of CDD in Upper SF. R95p showed opposite tends in Upper SF (increase) and Lower SF (decrease). Increasing trend of RX5day was observed in Lower and Lower-Middle SF. Extreme events obtained from model ETA_HadCM3 for the period 1979-1990 are compared with the same obtained from the CPCp. It was showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, suggesting dry periods with greater magnitude and short-term precipitation more intense. In future scenarios, dry periods are projected to increase in length and frequency until 2071-2099, while RX1day will be more intense. It is suggested that model outputs are needed to be calibrated with the observed datasets in daily-scale, especially in obtaining rainfall extremes.

Valverde, M. C.; Marengo, J. A.

2013-05-01

337

Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

2013-12-01

338

THE EFFECT OF VARYING ELECTROFISHING DESIGN ON BIOASSESSMENT RESULTS OF FOUR LARGE RIVERS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1999, the effect of electrofishing design (single bank or paired banks) and sampling distance on bioassessment results was studied in four boatable rivers in the Ohio River basin. The relationship between the number of species collected and the total distance electrofished wa...

339

Determination of perfluorinated compounds in the upper Mississippi river basin.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing efforts to develop robust analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in surface water, comparatively little has been published on method performance, and the environmental distribution of these materials remains poorly described worldwide. In this study, an existing method was improved and applied in a large-scale evaluation of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, one of the largest watersheds in the world. Samples were collected in 2008 in an effort that involved multiple sample sites and collection teams, long-range transport, and storage of up to 4 weeks before analysis. Ninety-four percent of the resulting 177 samples had quantifiable PFC concentrations, with 80% of the individual target compounds below 10 ng/L. The most abundant PFCs were perfluorobutanoic acid (C4; 77% above the limit of quantitation, LOQ), perfluorooctanoic acid (C8; 73%), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; 71%), perfluorohexanoic acid (C6; 70%), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (C7; 69%), with the remaining target compounds occurring above the LOQ in less than 50% of the samples. The highest concentrations recorded include C4 at 458 ng/L, PFOS at 245 ng/L, and C8 at 125 ng/L, suggesting various point source inputs within the Basin. PMID:20441143

Nakayama, Shoji F; Strynar, Mark J; Reiner, Jessica L; Delinsky, Amy D; Lindstrom, Andrew B

2010-06-01

340

Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

Snell, Leonard J.

1979-01-01

341

Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

Glass, G.B. (ed.)

1980-01-01

342

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

343

Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

2005-01-01

344

A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

Benson, L. V.; Spencer, R. J.

1983-01-01

345

Nutrient mass balance and trends, Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nutrient mass balance - accounting for nutrient inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, crop nitrogen fixation, and point source effluents; and nutrient outputs, including crop harvest and storage - was calculated for 18 subbasins in the Mobile River Basin, and trends (1970 to 1997) were evaluated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Agricultural nonpoint nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban nonpoint nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in this system. More than 30 percent of nitrogen yield in two basins and phosphorus yield in eight basins can be attributed to urban point source nutrient inputs. The total nitrogen yield (1.3 tons per square mile per year) for the Tombigbee River, which drains a greater percentage of agricultural (row crop) land use, was larger than the total nitrogen yield (0.99 tons per square mile per year) for the Alabama River. Decreasing trends of total nitrogen concentrations in the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers indicate that a reduction occurred from 1975 to 1997 in the nitrogen contributions to Mobile Bay from the Mobile River. Nitrogen concentrations also decreased (1980 to 1995) in the Black Warrior River, one of the major tributaries to the Tombigbee River. Total phosphorus concentrations increased from 1970 to 1996 at three urban influenced sites on the Etowah River in Georgia. Multiple regression analysis indicates a distinct association between water quality in the streams of the Mobile River drainage basin and agricultural activities in the basin.

Harned, D.A.; Atkins, J.B.; Harvill, J.S.

2004-01-01

346

Nutrient Mass Balance and Trends, Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nutrient mass balance -- accounting for nutrient inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, crop nitrogen fixation, and point source effluents; and nutrient outputs, including crop harvest and storage -- was calculated for 18 subbasins in the Mobile River Basin, and trends (1970 to 1997) were evaluated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Agricultural nonpoint nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban nonpoint nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in this system. More than 30 percent of nitrogen yield in two basins and phosphorus yield in eight basins can be attributed to urban point source nutrient inputs. The total nitrogen yield (1.3 tons per square mile per year) for the Tombigbee River, which drains a greater percentage of agricultural (row crop) land use, was larger than the total nitrogen yield (0.99 tons per square mile per year) for the Alabama River. Decreasing trends of total nitrogen concentrations in the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers indicate that a reduction occurred from 1975 to 1997 in the nitrogen contributions to Mobile Bay from the Mobile River. Nitrogen concentrations also decreased (1980 to 1995) in the Black Warrior River, one of the major tributaries to the Tombigbee River. Total phosphorus concentrations increased from 1970 to 1996 at three urban influenced sites on the Etowah River in Georgia. Multiple regression analysis indicates a distinct association between water quality in the streams of the Mobile River drainage basin and agricultural activities in the basin.

Harned, Douglas A.; Atkins, J. Brian; Harvill, John S.

2004-06-01

347

Floods in the Nueces, Guadalupe, Lavaca and Mission river basins: magnitude and frequency  

E-print Network

with the use of river basin models. They have had good results in flood routing but as yet have not 23 studied flood prediction in great detail, It is also very expensive to reproduce drainage basins and streams so this will be a very serious limitation... with the use of river basin models. They have had good results in flood routing but as yet have not 23 studied flood prediction in great detail, It is also very expensive to reproduce drainage basins and streams so this will be a very serious limitation...

Caffey, James Enoch

2012-06-07

348

An entropy-based morphological analysis of river basin networks  

E-print Network

Under the assumption that the only information available on a drainage basin is its mean elevation, the connection between entropy and potential energy is explored to analyze drainage basins morphological characteristics. The mean basin elevation...

Fiorentino, Mauro; Claps, Pierluigi; Singh, Vijay P.

349

Nutrient limitation of a thermokarst lake and large river ecosystem in the Kolyma River basin (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Productivity (autotrophic phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria) are important food web components that govern the carbon cycling dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. Productivity is often regulated by macro- and micro micronutrient availability which can vary across the globe (polar, temperate, tropical, continents, latitude, etc.) and ecosystem (lake, river, estuary). Until recentely, very little research has been conducted in Polar aquatic ecosystems, particularly continuous permafrost regions, to understand nutrient limitation of lake productivity even though large scale disturbances from permafrost thaw may be changing the nutrient availability to these ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient limitation to surface productivity of a river and lake in the Kolyma River Basin, an area where observed methane and dissolved organic carbon transport from upland sources to the ocean has been observed. After 4 days and elevating nutrients to 10 times the background concentrations in a 75 L volume mesocosms, we determined autochthonous production in the Panteleja river was colimited by nitrogen and phosphorus before and during an algal bloom. In contrast, Suchi Lake, a thermokarst ecosystem, exhibited no response to nutrient additions indicating that other factors may limit production.

Chandra, S.; Heslop, J.; Sobczak, W. V.; Schade, J. D.; Spektor, V.; Holmes, R. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Bulygina, E. B.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Frey, K. E.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2010-12-01

350

Analysis of fixed-station water-quality data in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An appraisal of surface water quality in the Umpqua River basin was made using existing monthly data collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Douglas County Water Resources Survey. This appraisal was limited to interpretation of instantaneous monthly water quality data collected in the Umpqua River basin from water years 1974 to 1983. These data were used to compare water quality conditions throughout the basin and to determine if data collected from the NASQAN (National Stream Quality Accounting network) station are representative of upstream basin conditions. In general, data collected at the NASQAN station represent a composite of water quality from the North and South Umpqua Rivers. These river basins account for 82 % of the NASQAN station drainage. Water quality concentrations, loads, yields, and trends were statistically described and related to point source effluent loads and basin characteristics including geohydrology, hydrology, population, land use, and water use. Available point-and nonpoint-source data provided minimal information for determining cause-effect relations and for explaining observed trends in water quality; however, the data did indicate that the largest effluent discharges are located in the South Umpqua River basin in the Roseburg-Winston area. Instantaneous and annual flow weighted levels of specific conductance, phosphorus, organic plus ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate, and fecal coliform bacteria are generally highest in the South Umpqua River near Roseburg. These high levels generally occur during the summer months when river flow is extremely low relative to flow in the North Umpqua River. The North Umpqua River has among the lowest constituent concentrations observed in the basin. (Lantz-PTT)

Rinella, J. F.

1986-01-01

351

Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M., III

1971-01-01

352

A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins  

E-print Network

This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

Cook, John Henry

353

Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi River: A Comparison of Approaches  

E-print Network

Relating Net Nitrogen Input in the Mississippi River Basin to Nitrate Flux in the Lower Mississippi understanding of the relationship between terres- Nitrate N flux from the Mississippi River basin (MRB)trial N Committee on Envi-flux in the lower Mississippi River, from 1960 to 1998, but tended to ronment and Natural

David, Mark B.

354

Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological variation between the two basins. The weathering process is largely controlled by the higher run-off accompanied by warm temperature in the Swarna river basin. The intense silicate weathering is also supported by the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) ranging between 0.7195 and 0.7304 in the Swarna river water. The average 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7249 in the river water is found to be higher than the global river average. Keywords: Major ion, Radiogenic strontium isotope, Silicate weathering rate, Carbon-dioxide consumption rate, Tropical river, Southwestern India. Reference: Gurumurthy GP, Balakrishna K, Riotte J, Braun J-J, Audry S, Udayashankar HN, Manjunatha BR (2012), Controls on intense silicate weathering in a tropical river, southwestern India. Chemical Geology, 300-301, 61-69.

Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

2013-12-01

355

Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

2012-11-01

356

Planning Investments in Water Resources by Mixed-Integer Programming: The Vardar-Axios River Basin  

E-print Network

A mixed integer programming model for planning water resources investments is presented. The model is a sequencing model applied to the Vardar-Axios river basin in Yugoslavia and Greece. The structure of the model is ...

Elliot, Dorothy P.

357

Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin: A Map Series  

E-print Network

The title of this map series is Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin. The series consists of nine (9) maps showing the boundaries of legislative districts and 32 water districts that deliver irrigation water...

Leigh, Eric; Fipps, G.

358

Geology and ground-water resources of the Walla Walla River basin Washington-Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Walla Walla River, whose drainage basin of about 1,330 square miles lies astride the Washington-Oregon boundary, drains westward to empty into the Columbia River. The basin slopes from the 5,000-foot crest of the Blue Mountains through a structural and topographic basin to the terraced lands adjoining the Columbia River at an altitude of about 340 feet. The main unit of the topographic basin is the valley plain, commonly called the Walla Walla Valley, which descends from about 1,500 feet at the foot of the mountain slopes to about 500 feet in altitude where the river cuts through the bedrock ridge near Divide. In the Blue Mountains the streams flow in rockbound canyons. Beyond the canyons, near Milton-Freewater and Walla Walla, they pass onto the broad alluvial fans and the terrace lands of the valley.

Newcomb, R.C.

1965-01-01

359

A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

Clark, T. W.

1998-01-01

360

Appraisal Report: Water Resources Appraisal for Hydroelectric Licensing, Skagit River Basin, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on the Skagit River basin, Washington was prepared primarily to provide information which the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) may use when considering matters related to hydroelectric licensing, relicensing, or recommendations for ...

1980-01-01

361

Intensive Survey of the Big Muddy River Basin, Summer 2000: Data Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000 the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) cooperatively conducted an intensive survey of the Big Muddy River Basin. Stream conditions were evaluated by collection of water c...

S. P. Shasteen, M. R. Matson, M. M. King, J. M. Levesque, G. L. Minton

2003-01-01

362

Effects of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena on precipitation and flooding in the Manafwa River Basin  

E-print Network

An investigation was performed to determine the relationship between certain oceanic and atmospheric phenomena and the precipitation patterns in the Manafwa River Basin of eastern Uganda. Such phenomena are the El Niño ...

Finney, William W., III (William Warner)

2014-01-01

363

Late-Quaternary Stratigraphy and Geoarchaeology of the Upper Neosho River Basin, East-Central Kansas  

E-print Network

In this study, a geoarchaeological approach was used to assess the potential for buried and surficial prehistoric cultural resources in the upper Neosho River basin of east-central Kansas. Specifically, lithostratigraphy ...

Gottsfield, Andrew Stefan

2009-12-17

364

Linking Water Conservation and Natural Resource Stewardship in the Trinity River Basin  

E-print Network

Water conservation is a critical issue in Texas today. This publication explores the relationship between ecosystem health and land stewardship in the Trinity River Basin. It also describes how responsible land stewardship can be applied in urban...

Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Feldpausch, A.M.; Parker, I.D.; Frentress, C.; Whiteside, J.; Mason, C.; Wagner, M.

2007-09-04

365

RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

366

Water quality modelling for recreational use in the Kallang River Basin, Singapore  

E-print Network

Singapore's Active, Beautiful, and Clean Waters Programme (ABC) aims to provide functional use of its water bodies to the public. The Kallang River Basin, being part of the ABC Programme, will be used for recreational ...

Angeles, Justin Victor V. (Justin Victor Velayo)

2014-01-01

367

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

368

The future of the Salton Sea under proposed lower Colorado River basin water management scenarios  

E-print Network

The Salton Sea, situated in the Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB), is under duress due to, among other things, increased water demands of cities like San Diego, California and Mexicali, Mexico. This research developed a tool to investigate...

Kjelland, Michael Edward

2009-05-15

369

Economic Impacts of Alternative Water Allocation Institutions in the Colorado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colorado River water is the dominant water supply for much of the southwestern United States, satisfying agricultural, municipal, and industrial needs. Basin water is now fully utilized, and increasing off-stream demands, particularly in rapidly growing A...

J. F. Booker, R. A. Young

1991-01-01

370

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

371

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY SECTOR IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The potential effects of these different pricing mechanisms on capacity requirements, load factors, and ...

372

Fish-performance ecoassay of urbanizing streams in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas  

E-print Network

Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus, a sunfish species) were used to perform an ecological assay of stream health in urbanizing watersheds of the upper San Antonio River Basin, Texas. Ecoassays were conducted during summer 1999 and 2000, and during...

Fontaine, Lance Pierre

2012-06-07

373

Predicting historic riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a GIS data set that depicts pre-settlement riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin to guide stream restoration for endangered salmon. To do this, we first created a data layer of historic riparian vegetation information from survey notes that were taken mid 19th to early 20th century during the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) conducted by General Land Office (GLO). Our reconstructed riparian vegetation data include randomly sampled basin-wide data (drainage area >200,000 km2), as well as intensively reconstructed watershed-level data (>3,000 km2). Second, based on the reconstructed riparian vegetation points, which are arrayed along a 1-mile (1600 m) grid, we are developing statistical models to estimate potential historic riparian vegetation types (conifer, hardwood, willow-shrub, grass, sage) as well as the probability of occurrence of individual species at stream reach level (~ 200 m) in the basin. We examined environmental variables, such as mean annual precipitation, average minimum and maximum temperature, channel gradient, channel bankfull width, floodplain width, and fine sediment supply potential, against five vegetation types and found that precipitation and temperature discriminate vegetation groups. We also developed vegetation response curves against each variable using kernel density estimates to describe the probability of each vegetation type occurring across the range of each environmental variable. Using a decision tree, we found that reaches greater than 8 m bankfull width (bfw) tended to develop riparian vegetation that is distinctly different from upland vegetation, whereas in small streams the riparian and upland vegetation were similar. Therefore, we analyzed the two channel size classes separately. It is notable that this 8-m threshold is identical to the threshold of channel migration in the study area, which was identified in a previous study (Hall et al. 2007). We adopted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) to predict riparian vegetation types. Overall accuracy of models for large reaches was 68.3% (LDA), 73.0% (SVM), 71.4 (RF), and 68.3% (KNN), and 59.3%, 66.3%, 51.2%, and 47.7% for small reaches. We tested each model against data points outside of the training set, and found that overall accuracies were 47% to 48% for the large streams and 43% (all models) for small reaches. Even though overall accuracies were relatively low, we recognized that structure of error matrices reflected vegetation responses against environment variables. We are currently developing species occurrence models. We believe that, using the predicted vegetation group and species occurrence map along with vegetation response curves, we can reasonably estimate reference riparian condition in the Columbia River basin and our approach can be applicable to other areas in the US.

Imaki, H.; Beechie, T. J.

2009-12-01

374

Spatial and Temporal Structure of Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport in the Mackenzie River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of water vapor through the Mackenzie River basin, a typical high-latitude river basin, is examined for the period from August to October 1994. The spatial and temporal variability in the transport is considered with both objectively analyzed fields and radiosonde data.Previous studies of the high-latitude water vapor have made use of radiosonde data and have been able to

Vladimir V. Smirnov; G. W. K. Moore

1999-01-01

375

Calculating soil moisture by remote sensing and analyzing hydrologic cycle process in the Yellow River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the AVHRR pathfinder remote sensing data, soil moisture, precipitation and evaporation during the period of 1982–1998,\\u000a soil moisture of all layers of soil-profile (0–1 m) in the Yellow River basin over the 17 years are calculated by the remote\\u000a sensing model of calculating soil water. The Yellow River basin is divided into seven subcatchments as control sections at

Shengtian Yang; Changming Liu

2004-01-01

376

Variability of Water Resource in the Yellow River Basin of Past 50 Years, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Mann–Kendall trend test and Lepage method to study spatial and temporal variations of the streamflow series over the\\u000a past 50 years based on daily hydrologic data from six gauging stations in the Yellow River basin. Research results indicate\\u000a that: (1) The streamflow of the Yellow River basin is decreasing and water resource deficit tends to be more serious from

Qiang Zhang; Chong-Yu Xu; Tao Yang

2009-01-01

377

Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

Larberg, Gregory Martin

2012-06-07

378

The utilization of water resources and its variation tendency in Tarim River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources efficient utilization is the key to ecological improvement and economic development in Tarim River Basin.\\u000a It is necessary to analyze the water resources utilization and its variation tendency in the whole river basin. Based on the\\u000a monitored data and formation at eight meteorological stations and fifteen hydrological stations, the method of time series,\\u000a regression analysis are applied to

Mao Ye; Hailiang Xu; Yudong Song

2006-01-01

379

Soil Moisture and Drought Variability in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the interannual variability of soil moisture as related to large-scale climate variability. In addition, a study of the spatial and temporal soil moisture in the Upper Colorado River Basin is presented. A three layer hydrological model VIC-3L (Variable Infiltration Capacity Model C 3 layers) was used in the Upper Colorado River Basin over a 50-year period. Model

C. Tang; T. Piechota

2006-01-01

380

Hydrogeologic framework of the Deccan terrain of the Koyna River basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The Koyna River basin in India drew the attention of geoscientists after an earthquake (magnitude 7) in 1967. Since then,\\u000a detailed geological, tectonic, and seismic investigations of this river basin have been carried out by several workers. However,\\u000a very little study has been done on its hydrogeological framework. The present work aims at filling this gap. Basalts, laterites,\\u000a alluvium,

Pradeep K. Naik; Arun K. Awasthi; A. Anand; Prakash C. Mohan

2001-01-01

381

Climate change effects on the hydrologic regime within the Churchill-Nelson River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the possible effects of climate change on four hydrologic variables pertaining to the magnitude and timing of hydrologic events within the Churchill-Nelson River Basin in west-central Canada. By using the Mann-Kendall trend test, and a regionalization procedure, the severity of climatic effects within the river basin may be quantified and used to increase awareness of future consequences

Jason R Westmacott; Donald H Burn

1997-01-01

382

Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin R.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. GoodrichR.C. Balling, Jr. and G.B. Goodrich  

E-print Network

Drought Determinants for the Colorado River BasinDrought Determinants for the Colorado River Basin CityDecision Center for a Desert City IntroductionIntroduction Ongoing drought in the Colorado River in drought in this region. We use principal components analysis to independently assess the influence

Hall, Sharon J.

383

Study of water stress and droughts with indicators using daily data on the Bani River (Niger basin,  

E-print Network

Study of water stress and droughts with indicators using daily data on the Bani River (Niger basin, the Bani basin (Niger River, Mali) is threatened by climate changes. This study focuses on droughts hazard-2000), in order to examine the Bani basin vulnerability to water stress. In this study, water deficit (drought

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin  

E-print Network

Effect of Scale on the Modeling of Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change on the Niger River Basin Amherst, ***University of Massachusetts Amherst Abstract - The Niger River Basin of West Africa comprises parts of nine nations and is home to about 200 million people. The basin has $9 billion of planned

Mountziaris, T. J.

385

Glacier retreat as a result of climate warming and increased precipitation in the Tarim river basin, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tarim river basin, a river system formed by the convergence of nine tributaries, is the most heavily glacierized watershed in arid northwest China. In the basin, there are 11 665 glaciers with a total area of 19 878 km2 and a volume of 2313 km3. Glaciers in the basin play a significant role in the water resource system. It

Shiyin Liu; Yongjian Ding; Donghui Shangguan; Yong Zhang; Jing Li; Haidong Han; Jian Wang; Changwei Xie

2006-01-01

386

Geological remote sensing of Palaeogene rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies of Palaeogene sediments in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) were used for mapping stratigraphic units, sedimentary features and facies, and structural patterns. Thematic Mapper principal component images for the central and eastern Wind River Basin along with geological investigations and spectral analyses allowed: mapping of the Fort Union, Wind River, and Wagon Bed formations (Fm) and their subunits; recognition of two subunits in the Wind River Fm, one of which can be traced for 75 km; determination of sediment source and depositional environment of units within the Wind River Fm; correlation of the Wagon Bed Fm across the basin; and apparent confirmation of different sources of volcanic debris in the western and southeastern exposures of the Wagon Bed Fm.

Krishtalka, L.; Stucky, R. K.; Redline, A. D.

1988-01-01

387

HAZARD MITIGATION RELATED TO WATER AND SEDIMENT FLUXES IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN, CHINA, BASED ON COMPARABLE BASINS OF THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River, north-central China, and comparative rivers of the western United States, the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, derive much of their flows from melting snow at high elevations, but derive most of their sediment loads from semiarid central parts of the basins. The three rivers are regulated by large reservoirs that store water and sediment, causing downstream

W. R. Osterkamp; J. R. Gray

2003-01-01

388

Soil water behaviors and their effects on river runoffs: The Saromabetsu River basin, Hokkaido  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil water behaviors during rainfall or snowmelt events were explored by monitoring the soil moisture on the slope of forest and grassland in the Saromabetsu river basin, Hokkaido, in the summer season of 2008 and the snowmelt season of 2009. The river basin is covered mostly by forest (75.2% in area) and farmland (21.5 % in area; mainly grassland, wheat field and corn field). The soil layer, common to the slope of forest and grassland, consisted of porous organic layer (A layer) less than 0.3 m thick and organic/inorganic (B layer) about 10 m or more thick. The B layer is silty clay with low hydraulic conductivity of 10-4 cm/s order. The 4-channel profilers ( 8cm, 18cm, 28cm and 38cm in soil depth) for measurements of volumetric water content (cm3/cm3 ) indicated that, common to rainfall and snowmelt events, the 8-28 cm layer at forest stores infiltrated water for a few days after events, and then returns to the previous moisture level by gradual drainage. At grassland, the drainage after events was slight except for 8 cm depth. At a rainfall of more than 20 mm/h, the saturated zone appeared at 38 cm depth in forest and at depths of more than cm in grassland. Hence, in the events, the percolation and subsurface flow are judged to be active. The percolation at cm depth of forest and grassland was calculated for rainfall and snowmelt events. Meanwhile, runoff analyses by the tank model revealed that surface and intermediate runoffs occupy more 70% of rainfall or snowmelt runoffs in the Saromabetsu River. As a result, there existed the linear relationship between the total percolation and surface and intermediate runoffs for the runoff events. Hence, it is suggested that the surface and intermediate runoffs from runoff analyses occur as the percolation and subsequent subsurface flow below the soil surface layer.

Islam, Mohammad; Chikita, Kazuhisa; Wada, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Takuma

389

Fish communities and river alteration in the Seine Basin and nearby coastal streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variation of quality of fish communities in the whole Seine basin and nearby coastal streams were examined by the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). The relationship between quality of fish communities and river alteration was also studied. A trend of fish community degradation was found from the periphery to the centre of the basin and from upstream to downstream.

Jérôme Belliard; Romuald Berrebi dit Thomas; David Monnier

1999-01-01

390

Evaluation of the ERA40 Surface Water Budget and Surface Temperature for the Mackenzie River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the systematic biases in temp erature and precipitation, and the surface water budget of ERA-40 for the Mackenzie River basin by comparing monthly averages from ERA-40 with basin averages of surface observations of temperature, precipitation, evaporation and streamflow from the Mackenzie GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Study (MAGS). The bias and spinup of precipitation in ERA-40

Alan K. Betts; John H. Ball; Pedro Viterbo

2003-01-01

391

UNCERTAINTY OF THE WATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

For assessing the water resources variability under long-term changes of climate and land cover, a distributed, physically based hydrological model is necessary since it can represent the spatial distribution of related river basin properties and can examine the impact of local land cover change on the basin hydrological cycle. Before the quantitative assessment of water resources, it is important to

DAWEN YANG; CHONG LI; GUANGHENG NI; HEPING HU

392

Relation of Waterfowl Poisoning to Sediment Lead Concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the

W. Nelson Beyer; Daniel J. Audet; Gary H. Heinz; David J. Hoffman; Daniel Day

2000-01-01

393

Interaction of Groundwater and Surface Water in the Williston and Powder River Structural Basins  

E-print Network

, Rapid City, SD 57702, email: jbednar@usgs.gov Groundwater availability in the Lower Tertiary and UpperInteraction of Groundwater and Surface Water in the Williston and Powder River Structural Basins by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Williston basin is located in parts of North Dakota, South Dakota

Torgersen, Christian

394

Water resources appraisal for hydroelectric licensing: upper James River Basin, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The water resources of the upper James River Basin which covers 3330 sq. mi. in Virginia and West Virginia are evaluated. Data are presented on the physiography and economy of the Basin, its existing and potential water resource development, existing hydroelectric projects, projected water requireements, flood control, and cooling water requirements for thermal power plants. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-09-01

395

Patterning ecological risk of pesticide contamination at the river basin scale Leslie Faggiano a,  

E-print Network

Patterning ecological risk of pesticide contamination at the river basin scale Leslie Faggiano a Ecological risk assessment was conducted to determine the risk posed by pesticide mixtures to the Adour of this basin with regard to pesticide contamination using a risk assessment procedure and to detect patterns

García-Berthou, Emili

396

Subsidence of a volcanic basin by flexure and crustal flow: The eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a linear volcanic basin interpreted by many workers to reflect late Cenozoic migration of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot. Thermal subsidence of this volcanic province with respect to Yellowstone has been documented by several workers, but no one has characterized subsidence with respect to the adjacent Basin and Range Province. This paper

Nadine McQuarrie I; David W. Rodgers

397

Field surveys in the Willapa River basin, Washington State, indicate that the drainage  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Field surveys in the Willapa River basin, Washington State, indicate that the drainage, but that the pro- portion of forced alluvial channels varies from 0% to 84%. Using the drainage area be considered at two different scales. At the scale of entire drainage basins, bedrock channels are mountain

Montgomery, David R.

398

EVALUATING POINT-NONPOINT SOURCE WATER QUALITY TRADING IN A RARITAN RIVER BASIN SUB-WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

This project addresses water quality issues in the Raritan River Basin of New Jersey. It will build upon an existing study that determined the technical feasibility of implementing a point-nonpoint source water quality trading program in the Basin. Water quality trading is ...

399

Water demand and flows in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) with increased irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most activities that support economic growth in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) need water. Allocation of the water resources to each competing use needs quantification in order to develop an integrated water management plan. Irrigation agriculture is the largest water consuming activity in the basin. It has produced large economic and social advancements in the region and has potential

M. P. Maneta; M. Torres; W. W. Wallender; S. Vosti; M. Kirby; L. H. Bassoi; L. N. Rodrigues

2009-01-01

400

A water balance model for Sorachi river basin using distributed tank models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to construct a monthly water balance model using a tank distributed to each grid in a drainage basin. The study area is the Sorachi river basin (2531 km2) in Hokkaido. The grid size is 1km × 1km, which is common to the monthly climate grid data (Japan Meteorological Agency). The grid tank model is

Haruki Numajiri

2009-01-01

401

Groundwater Quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water samples were collected from 20 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, N.Y.) in New York in August 2012 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and process...

E. A. Nystrom, T. M. Scott

2014-01-01

402

Reconnaissance of the quality of surface water in the Weber River basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This reconnaissance of the quality of surface water in the Weber River basin encompassed an area of 2,080 square miles (5,390 square kilometers). Elevations in the basin range from 4,210 to 11,708 feet (1,280 to 3,568 meters). Data were obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey one or more times at 107 sites in the basin from July 1979 to August 1980.

Thompson, Kendall R.

1983-01-01

403

Nitrate-nitrogen retention in wetlands in the Mississippi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate-nitrogen retention as a result of river water diversions is compared in experimental wetland basins in Ohio for 18 wetland-years (9 years×2 wetland basins) and a large wetland complex in Louisiana (1 wetland basin×4 years). The Ohio wetlands had an average nitrate-nitrogen retention of 39g-Nm?2year?1, while the Louisiana wetland had a slightly higher retention of 46g-Nm?2year?1 for a similar loading

William J. Mitsch; John W. Day; Li Zhang

2005-01-01

404

Columbia River Basin Accords -Narrative Proposal Form 1 FY 2008-2009 F&W Program Accords (MOA) Proposal Review  

E-print Network

Columbia River Basin Accords - Narrative Proposal Form 1 FY 2008-2009 F&W Program Accords (MOA of lamprey, at a variety of life stages, in the Fifteenmile Creek and Hood River basins. Project funds to restore lamprey populations. Province(s) Columbia Gorge Subbasin(s) Fifteenmile Creek and Hood River

405

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-01-01

406

Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

Rinella, F. A.; McKenzie, S. W.; Wille, S. A.

1981-01-01

407

Pesticides in the Hudson River Basin, 1994-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence, distribution, and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations were studied in the Hudson River Basin during 1994 - 96. This article presents the results of three separate pesticide studies conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Pesticides were found in all three studies, but rarely at concentrations exceeding any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The highest concentrations were detected during and immediately after the first runoff following pesticide applications in the late spring and early summer. The herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides and were present in nearly every sample collected from streams draining agricultural areas; they also were detected in many streams draining areas with other land uses. Herbicides were most often detected, and had the highest concentrations, in samples from streams draining agricultural areas, whereas insecticides such as diazinon were most commonly detected, and had the highest concentrations, in samples from streams draining urban areas.

Wall, G. R.; Phillips, P. J.

1998-01-01

408

Adaptive Governance and Resilience: the Columbia River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecologists have made progress in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. Expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the identification of institutional changes to the social system necessary to foster ecological resilience including the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. But the changes in governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Increased flexibility by resource management agencies in the form of adaptive management must be exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. In addition, any change in governance must begin with the current complexities in which jurisdictional boundaries do not mimic those of ecosystems, and economic dependency on development imposes risk on any management change. We use the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across existing geographic and subject matter jurisdictional boundaries. In application to the Columbia River Basin shared by the US and Canada, we explore the concept of resilience in a complex multi-jurisdictional watershed, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.

Cosens, B.; Boll, J.; Fremier, A. K.

2012-12-01

409

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2004-05-01

410

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters in Trancão River Basin (Portugal).  

PubMed

It is important to assess the toxicity of complex effluents, since chemical evaluation alone is insufficient to protect the environment. Direct Toxicity Assessment is valuable in the decision process regarding the final disposal of complex wastewaters as it measures the total effects of the discharge, because of its known and unknown chemicals, additionally having some degree of ecological relevance. In Portugal, ecotoxicity tests are not used on a regular basis to control wastewaters. So, an integrated ecotoxicological, physical, and chemical study of wastewaters from 17 industries, in the Trancão River Basin, was carried out viewing proposing a test battery to be used in wastewater evaluation. An approach which does not include an ecotoxicological characterization may not properly evaluate the potential risks of effluent discharges, especially when they are complex. From the study carried out the use of a battery of assays to apply in the monitoring of complex wastewaters was proposed, including Microtox test, Daphnia test, and an algal test. Moreover, the added value of the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters was demonstrated and could support the implementation of EU Directives (e.g. IPPC, WFD) within the Portuguese situation. PMID:18214883

Picado, Ana; Mendonça, Elsa; Silva, Luís; Paixão, Susana M; Brito, Fátima; Cunha, Maria Ana; Leitão, Sara; Moura, Isabel; Hernan, Robert

2008-08-01

411

Integrated river basin management, ICT and DSS: Challenges and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River basin management is a complex task. Therefore, instruments that help to assess the present situation and assist in the development and evaluation of solutions may be important. Since several decades and after the implementation of the first compulsory legal environments and institutional organizations for IWRM and IRBM, the need for an efficient support in the different decision-making processes has emerged. After several experiences, the demonstration of the interest of ICT and DSS systems is obvious in the water resources management domain. However and until now, most of the efforts have been focused on the theoretical aspects with very few integrations into operational approaches. The implementation of the new European water framework directive (2000) represents today one key example from which some lessons can be learned in the way of definition and use of ICT and DSS systems for IWRM and IRBM. The paper presents the concepts available through ICT and DSS. The example of the WFD is used to underline the challenges and the difficulties for the elaboration of new tools - DSSs - which could be able to answer of the challenges of IWRM and IRBM.

Gourbesville, Philippe

412

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

2006-01-01

413

Physicochemical Effects of the Flood Pulse on Fishes in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships between physicochemistry and the distribution and abundance of fishes at 36 sites in the lower Atchafalaya River basin (ARB), Louisiana, a bottomland hardwood swamp fed by waters (distributaries) of the Mississippi and Red rivers. We used principal components analysis (PCA) of the 29 most common ARB fishes to examine fish assemblage structure and then related the

D. Allen Rutherford; Kevin R. Gelwicks; William E. Kelso

2001-01-01

414

Late Pleistocene and early Holocene rivers and wetlands in the Bonneville basin of western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations at Dugway Proving Ground in western Utah have produced new data on the chronology and human occupation of late Pleistocene and early Holocene lakes, rivers, and wetlands in the Lake Bonneville basin. We have classified paleo-river channels of these ages as “gravel channels” and “sand channels.” Gravel channels are straight to curved, digitate, and have abrupt bulbous ends.

Charles G. Oviatt; David B. Madsen; Dave N. Schmittc

2003-01-01

415

Beyond Cross Sections; LiDAR in Support of Sprague River geomorphology Studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiDAR terrain data was collected in November 2004 for 750 square kilometers of the Sprague River valley, Oregon, by Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract with the Klamath Tribes. This coverage, obtained to support multiple ecologic analysis and restoration activities in the Klamath Basin, encompasses about 90 km of valley- bottom corridor for the main Sprague River as well as downstream

J. E. O'Connor; P. F. McDowell; P. Lind; T. Haluska; K. Jackson

2007-01-01

416

Hydrological Risk Assessment in the Euphrates-tigris River Basin: A Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impacts of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkey) on the hydrological regime of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Southeastern Anatolia Project, commonly called GAP, is a Turkish multi-dimensional development project involving primarily irrigation and hydropower generation in the Euphrates and Tigris river basins. For the last two decades, the GAP has been a source of tension

A. Tilmant; J. Lettany; R. Kelman

2007-01-01

417

Water Quality Trends in the Fraser River Basin, 1985-1995  

E-print Network

Water Quality Trends in the Fraser River Basin, 1985-1995 Robin Regnier Central Limit Statistical FRAP 1998 - 39 #12;#12;Abstract: Water quality data have been collected at nine river sites, dissolved ions, dissolved nutrients, microbials, total metals and, at a few localities, adsorbable

418

BASIC STAGES AND TENDENCIES OF THE LAND USE DEVELOPMENT IN THE AMUR RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amur River basin is the great region occupying about 1800 thousands km2, with wide diversity of natural systems and natural resources. Here, there are considerable reserves of petroleum, coal, non-ferrous metals including gold, platinum, silver, forest and land resources, water storage including hydropower, fish resources (in the lakes, rivers, storage ponds), construction materials. The various recreation resources are also

BAKLANOV P. YA

419

Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical discussion of recent studies that analysed the effects of climate change on the water resources of the River Nile Basin (RNB) is presented. First, current water-related issues on the RNB showing the particular vulnerability to environmental changes of this large territory are described. Second, observed trends in hydrological data (such as temperature, precipitation, river discharge) as described in

Giuliano Di Baldassarre; Mohamed Elshamy; Ann van Griensven; Eman Soliman; Max Kigobe; Preksedis Ndomba; Joseph Mutemi; Francis Mutua; Semu Moges; Yunqing Xuan; Dimitri Solomatine; Stefan Uhlenbrook

2011-01-01

420

Patterns of Habitat Use among Vegetation-Dwelling Littoral Fishes in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information regarding the relative value of different aquatic macrophytes as fish habitat is lacking for large floodplain river systems, such as the Atchafalaya River basin in south-central Louisiana. We made seasonal comparisons of fish (total length, <100 mm) density, diversity, and biomass and physicochemistry among submersed hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata, emergent bulltongue Sagittaria lancifolia, and floating water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. In

John P. Troutman; D. Allen Rutherford; W. E. Kelso

2007-01-01

421

Evaluation of water-quality data from hydrologic accounting unit 051100, Green River basin, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streamflow and water quality data collected by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet from 37 sites in the Green River basin were compared to data from the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) Station, Green River near Beech Grove, Kentucky. This comparison was used to determine variability of water quality data

Leist

1986-01-01

422

BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

423

Potential of coal strip-mine spoils as aquifers in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tongue River Formation contains most of the strippable coal deposits in the Powder River Basin. Flat lying low sulfur coal beds up to 200 ft. thick are typically overlain by semiconsolidated shale and sandstone. Typical overburden to coal thickness ratios in working mines are 2:1. The overburden is generally dragline or scraper-dumped into the excavated pit. Pump tests were

Rahn

1976-01-01

424

Metaphor in Natural Resource Gaming: Insights from the RIVER BASIN GAME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The RIVER BASIN GAME is a dialogue tool for decision makers and water users tested in Tanzania and Nigeria. It comprises a physical representation of a river catchment. A central channel flows between an upper watershed and a downstream wetland and has on it several intakes into irrigation systems. Glass marbles, representing water, roll down the…

Lankford, Bruce; Watson, Drennan

2007-01-01

425

Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

1999-12-01

426

On evaluating the spatial-temporal variation of soil moisture in the Susquehanna River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrologic Model System (HMS), a physically based distributed model, was used to simulate the soil moisture variation during a storm event in the Upper West Branch, a subbasin of the Susquehanna River Basin. The model was calibrated by comparing the simulated temporal daily variation in soil moisture with field data. Data from the Mahantango Watershed within the Susquehanna River

Zhongbo Yu; T. N. Carlson; E. J. Barron; F. W. Schwartz

2001-01-01

427

Cultural Resources Literature Search and Records Review - Upper Mississippi River Basin. Volume 4. Pool 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This literature search and records review of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (River Mile 857.6, above St. Anthony Falls, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Minnesota to Lock & Dam 10, (Guttenberg, Iowa) was authorized by the St. Paul District Corps of Engineers as ...

D. F. Overstreet, R. P. Fay, C. I. Mason, R. F. Boszhardt

1983-01-01

428

Late Quaternary Basin-Range faulting north of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade since the Borah Peak earthquake, paleoseismic studies have elucidated details of the late Quaternary histories of the Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead faults of eastern Idaho, which comprise part of the northward continuation of the Basin-Range province across the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The faults are segmented but have temporally and\\/or spatially clustered paleoseismic activity. Each

Knuepfer

1993-01-01

429

What happens to nutrients in offstream reservoirs in the lower South Platte River Basin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of storing South Platte River water in offstream reservoirs reduces nutrient concentrations but also contributes to the growth of algae, which may adversely affect the recreational use of the reservoirs. Results of a study of fi ve offstream reservoirs in the lower South Platte River Basin during the 1995 irriga- tion season showed that the reservoirs trapped 20

L. A. Sprague; R. A. Kimbrough; A. J. Ranalli

430

Relations between pesticide use and riverine flux in the Mississippi River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an intensive subcontinental study of pesticides in surface waters of the United States, concentrations of 26 high-use pesticides were measured at nine sites in the Mississippi River basin from May 1991 through March 1992. Calculated total fluxes were combined with agricultural-use data to estimate the percentage of applied pesticide reaching the mouths of the Mississippi River and six major

Steven J. Larson; Paul D. Capel; Donald A. Goolsby; Steven D. Zaugg; Mark W. Sandstrom

1995-01-01

431

Reconnaissance Investigation Water Supply and Water Quality Control Study. Skagit River Basin Puget Sound Basin, Washington, D.C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Corps of Engineers requested data on present municipal and industrial (M and I) water supply and water quality control needs in the Skagit River Basin, and on such future requirements as could be estimated within the scope of a reconnaissance study in...

1966-01-01

432

Total basin discharge for the Amazon and Mississippi River basins from GRACE and a land-atmosphere water balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater discharge along continental margins is a key Earth system variable that is not well monitored globally. Here we propose a method for estimating monthly river basin outflows based on the use of new GRACE satellite estimates of terrestrial water storage changes in a coupled land-atmosphere water balance. Using GRACE land water storage changes (which include changes in groundwater storage)

T. H. Syed; J. S. Famiglietti; J. Chen; M. Rodell; S. I. Seneviratne; P. Viterbo; C. R. Wilson

2005-01-01

433

Mapping and assessment of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, arid northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the arid inland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects of environmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resource utilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, such as its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based on field observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classification and evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River. There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in the southern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the low reaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2, 22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin was evaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils, land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Qi, Shanzhong; Cai, Yumin

2007-01-01

434

Surface-water/ground-water relations in the Lemhi River Basin, east-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes work carried out in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to provide hydrologic information to help Federal, State, and local agencies meet the goals of the Lemhi River Model Watershed Project. The primary goal of the project is to maintain, enhance, and restore anadromous and resident fish habitat in the Lemhi River, while maintaining a balance between resource protection and established water uses. The main objectives of the study were to carry out seepage measurements to determine seasonal distributed gains and losses in the Lemhi River and to estimate annual ground-water underflow from the basin to the Salmon River. In 1997, seepage measurements were made during and after the irrigation season along a 60-mile reach of the Lemhi River between Leadore and Salmon. Except for one 4-mile reach that lost 1.3 cubic feet per second per mile, the river gained from ground water in early August when ground-water levels were high. Highest flows in the Lemhi River in early August were about 400 cubic feet per second. In October, when ground-water levels were low, river losses to ground water were about 1 to 16 cubic feet per second per mile. In October, highest flows in the Lemhi River were about 500 cubic feet per second, near the river's mouth. Annual ground-water underflow from the Lemhi River Basin to the Salmon River was estimated by using a simplified water budget and by using Darcy's equation. The water-budget method contained large uncertainties associated with estimating precipitation and evapotranspiration. Results of both methods indicate that the quantity of ground water leaving the basin as underflow is small, probably less than 2 percent of the basin's total annual water yield.

Donato, Mary M.

1998-01-01

435

Snow cover monitoring by remote sensing and snowmelt runoff calculation in the upper Huanghe River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Huanghe(Yellow) River basin is situated in the northeast of the Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet)Plateau of China. The melt-water\\u000a from the snow-cover is main water supply for the rivers in the region during springtime and other arid regions of the northwestern\\u000a China, and the hydrological conditions of the rivers are directly controlled by the snowmelt water in spring. So snowmelt\\u000a runoff forecast

Yong-chao Lan; Jian Wang; Er-si Kang; Quan-jie Ma; Ji-shi Zhang; Ren-sheng Chen

2002-01-01

436

Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples.

Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

2014-01-01

437

Ground-water data on the Hudson River basin, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the Hudson River basin occurs in unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock. Sand and gravel units of the unconsolidated deposits, which occur principally in valley bottoms, form the best aquifers and commonly provide well yields of several hundred gallons per minute. Carbonate aquifers are the most productive consolidated rock units. Ground water in the Hudson River basin is generally hard and may contain appreciable amounts of iron, salts in solution, or sulfur locally. Basic data on the availability of ground water in the Hudson River drainage area are compiled in (1) a hydrogeologic map of the drainage basin; (2) a table of well depths, yields, concentrations of selected chemical constituents, and hardness of ground water, listed by county and aquifer type; (3) a short text describing the occurrence of ground water in the basin; and (4) a bibliography of ground-water reports pertinent to the area studied. (Woodard-USGS)

Hammond, Deborah S.; Heath, Ralph C.; Waller, Roger Milton

1978-01-01

438

An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

2010-11-01

439

Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. Instead of focusing on WF from the perspective of administrative regions, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model, the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model and the generating regional IO tables (GRIT) method are combined to implement decomposition analysis for WF in a river basin. This framework is illustrated in the WF in Haihe River basin (HRB) from 2002 to 2007, which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1 to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF. However, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy-making in other water-limited river basins.

Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

2014-05-01

440

A macroscale hydrological data set of river flow routing parameters for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental-scale hydrologic routing models, also known as macrohydrological routing models, have evolved considerably in the past few years. As the models have become more sophisticated, they have represented a variety of new processes and expanded their data requirements-either as input data or as validation for the model output. This paper presents a new data set of large-scale hydrological river flow routing parameters for the Amazon and Tocantins basins. Part of this data set was required by the development of the continental-scale hydrological routing model HYDRA and its application to the Amazon Basin. HYDRA represents phenomenalike floods, backwater effects, and seasonal hydrograph much more realistically than the previous generation of macrohydrological routing models. The data set contains data on (1) river network at 5-min (~9 km) resolution, (2) time series of monthly means of river discharge and river stage for 122 fluviometric stations spread throughout the basin, (3) sinuosity of each of the main rivers measured at 111 river sections in the basin, and (4) depth to the water table and transmissivity of the aquifer derived from measurements taken at 81 points throughout the basin.

Costa, Marcos Heil; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique C.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Bustamante, Thiago R.; Silva, Fabrício A.; Coe, Michael T.

2002-08-01