Science.gov

Sample records for industrial gas production

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 2. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The oil and gas ...

  2. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a co-funded, Gas Research Institute/EPA project to quantify methane emissions to the atmosphere resulting from operations in the natural gas industry. tudy results will measure or calculate all methane emissions, from production at the well and up to, but not ...

  3. Essays on the industrial composition of Texas oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Genevieve Lynn

    This dissertation examines the changes in Texas oil and gas production from 1970--1996. Chapter II applies the survivor technique to the 300 largest oil producing firms in Texas for the years 1970--1996. The survivor technique is a powerful method to determine the efficient scale of production in a competitive industry. While previous applications of the survivor technique did not yield conclusive findings, Texas oil production is a competitive industry for which the technique provides clear results. Specifically, the technique shows that firms producing more than 100,000 barrels of oil per day in Texas have higher opportunity costs of production. Chapter III describes the size distribution of firms in Texas oil production. The Pareto distribution is found to correctly describe the size distribution of the 300 largest firms producing oil in Texas from 1970--1996, while the lognormal distribution is conclusively rejected. The k-firm concentration ratio reveals that Texas oil production became relatively less concentrated over this period. A simple relationship between the concentration ratio and the parameters of the Pareto distribution is defined and estimates of the Pareto distribution parameters are used to show that the size distribution of firms did not change significantly over the period 1970--1996. The fourth chapter analyses the impact of the changes in the regulatory environment of the Texas natural gas industry. In 1970, natural gas producers faced a quagmire of regulations governing the sale and price of their gas. Today, natural gas is a commodity traded freely in spot and futures markets. This chapter examines the pattern of production that resulted from this changing regulatory environment by examining the behavior of nine natural gas producing firms in Texas over the period 1970--1996. Each of these firms appeared on the list of the Texas top four natural gas producers at least once over this period. The analysis reveals that the majors have

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  5. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  6. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  7. Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

    1980-01-01

    One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

  8. Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

    1980-12-01

    One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

  9. Industrial Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  10. Internalizing production externalities: A structural estimation of real options in the upstream oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, Lucija

    There are hundreds of thousands of crude oil and natural gas wells across North America that are currently not producing oil or gas. Many of these wells have not been permanently decommissioned to meet environmental standards for permanent closure, but are in an inactive state that enables them to be more easily reactivated. Some of these wells have been in this inactive state for more than sixty years which begs the question of whether they will ever contribute to our energy supply, or whether they are being left inactive because the environmental remediation costs are prohibitively high. I estimate a structural model of optimal well operations over time and under uncertainty to determine what conditions or policies might push any of the inactive wells out of the hysteresis in which they reside. The model is further used to forecast production from existing wells and recoverable reserves from existing pools. The estimation uses data on production decisions from 84 thousand conventional oil and gas wells and estimates of the remaining reserves of 47 thousand pools. As the producer's decision depends on their subjective belief for how prices and recoverable reserves change over time, I also estimate the probability of changes in prices and recovery technology. I model increases and decreases in the estimated recoverable reserves to depend on price, and predict that natural gas reserves are more responsive to changes in price than conventional oil reserves. Under high prices there is potential for large increases in gas reserves, however this is not the case for oil reserves when the oil price is high. And likewise, under low prices, gas reserves decrease more than oil reserves. The dynamic programming model predicts that with only a drastic, arguably implausible, increase in prices and recovery rates will there be a significant increase in the number of inactive wells that are reactivated. If ideal conditions are not enough to induce well reactivation then this

  11. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  12. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  13. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  14. Coal conversion products industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Warren, D.

    1980-01-01

    Coal-based synthetic fuels complexes under development consideration by NASA/MSFC will produce large quantities of synthetic fuels, primarily medium BTU gas, which could be sold commercially to industries located in South Central Tennessee and Northern Alabama. The complexes would be modular in construction, and subsequent modules may produce liquid fuels or fuels for electric power production. Current and projected industries in the two states which have a propensity for utilizing coal-based synthetic fuels were identified, and a data base was compiled to support MFSC activities.

  15. GRS/industry eastern gas shale data base

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; Sharer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Gas Resource Information System (GRIS) is a computerized data base that contains historical data on eastern gas shale wells. It contains all those elements which industry feels are important for the evaluation of drilling, completion, stimulation and production techniques for eastern gas shale wells. While GRI will be researching the data on the base to optimize production from the eastern gas shales, it will make GRIS available to industry as a mutually beneficial tool.

  16. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  17. An investment-production-regulatory model for firms in the offshore oil and gas industry. [Economic effects of proposed environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Di.

    1991-01-01

    This tripartite study examines the economic consequences of proposed environmental regulations on firms in the OCS oil and gas industry. The background part reviews the major issues associated with OCS oil and gas development and relevant environmental regulatory proposals. In the theoretical part, models are developed using optimal control theory and the theory of nonrenewable resources to analyze the impact of rising compliance cost on firm's behavior in terms of the investment and production rates over time. Finally, in the simulation part, an integrated investment-production-regulatory model is developed to simulate OCS development with and without the proposed environmental regulations. Effects of regulations are measured in terms of an increase in compliance costs and the associated reduction in net profits from oil and gas production. The theoretical results indicate that an increase in compliance costs will alter exploration, development and production rates. The total investments in exploration and development, and oil production will decrease as a result of rising compliance costs for exploration, development and production over the entire planning period.

  18. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels. PMID:20096571

  19. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  20. 2,3-Butanediol Production by Acetogenic Bacteria, an Alternative Route to Chemical Synthesis, Using Industrial Waste Gas ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Liew, FungMin; Tizard, Joseph H.; Ali, Mohammed S.; Conolly, Joshua J.; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Simpson, Séan D.

    2011-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (23BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, the best microbial 23BD production rates have been observed using pathogenic bacteria in fermentation systems that depend on sugars as the carbon and energy sources for product synthesis. Here we present evidence of 23BD production by three nonpathogenic acetogenic Clostridium species—Clostridium autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei—using carbon monoxide-containing industrial waste gases or syngas as the sole source of carbon and energy. Through an analysis of the C. ljungdahlii genome, the complete pathway from carbon monoxide to 23BD has been proposed. Homologues of the genes involved in this pathway were also confirmed for the other two species investigated. A gene expression study demonstrates a correlation between mRNA accumulation from 23BD biosynthetic genes and the onset of 23BD production, while a broader expression study of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes provides a transcription-level view of one of the oldest existing biochemical pathways. PMID:21685168

  1. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  2. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  3. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  4. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  5. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  6. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

  7. Gas production apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  8. Electro-gas-dynamic CO lasers with combustion products: a new scientific direction to the creation of the industrial high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Igor M.

    1997-04-01

    An industrial high-power laser is a technical system to be characterized primarily by the efficiency. For a high-power laser system to become like an industrial one the efficiency must be more than 10%. As is well known a steam-engine has such an efficiency. In welding and in cutting thick materials to provide required power density in a spot for the device with long focus the value of output power of radiation must be no less than 100 kW at beam divergence 10-3 rad. At the present time there is a problem in concurrent fulfillment of the requirements on an output power, the divergence, and the efficiency as well as the requirements on the stability of output parameters, total resource of operation, the safety of operation, and the use of standard components. A line of attack on this problem is proposed by the present author through the use of continuous formation of a CO laser mixture by combustion of a chemical fuel and the use of atmospheric air as a buffer gas (up to 80%), which is cooled in supersonic nozzles followed by excitation in a radio-frequency (rf) electric discharge without an electron gun. A small-scale model system of electrogasdynamic CO laser was used by the present author and his colleagues to demonstrate for the first time the laser radiation was possible in a system with combustion products and air. A technical proposal for a multipurpose self-contained industrial cw high-power CO laser system is proposed. This laser system is based on standard electrical machinery with a gas-turbine drive without ejecting toxic CO into the atmosphere.

  9. Solar/gas industrial process heat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of solar/gas industrial process heat systems, including consideration of market applications, the status and cost of applicable solar technologies, potential technical barriers to the efficient interfacing of solar with conventional gas fired equipment, and a detailed evaluation comparing solar/gas systems to competing options.

  10. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration from industrial flue gas by Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Banerjee, Debopam; Das, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of using Chlorella sorokiniana for CO2 sequestration from industrial flue gas. The flue gas emitted from the oil producing industry contains mostly CO2 and H2S (15.6% (v/v) and 120 mg L(-1), respectively) along with nitrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The high concentration of CO2 and H2S had an inhibitory effect on the growth of C. sorokiniana. Some efforts were made for the maximization of the algal biomass production using different techniques such as diluted flue gas, flue gas after passing through the scrubber, flue gas passing through serially connected photobioreactors and two different reactors. The highest reduction in the CO2 content of inlet flue gas was 4.1% (v/v). Some new pigments were observed in the flue gas sequestered biomass. Fatty acid composition in the total lipid was determined to evaluate its suitability for food, feed, and biofuel. PMID:24292202

  12. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  13. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  14. How is Order 636 affecting the gas distribution industry

    SciTech Connect

    Margossian, K.M. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper is part of a six part series on how interstate gas pipelines have been affected by Order 636. These papers are written in an interview format with different individuals representing the pipeline, natural gas, utility, and regulatory side of this new regulation. The issues deal with how it has affected these industries; how the relationships have changed between suppliers, marketers, distributors, etc.; the risks now involved in marketing, shipping, and buying gas products; and new technology developments have resulted to comply with the new regulations. This paper is an interview with Kenneth M. Magossian, president and chief operating officer of Commonwealth Gas Co. and Hopkinton LNG Corp.

  15. Gas insulated substation equipment for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kenedy, J.J.

    1984-11-01

    Until recently the only available method for construction of high voltage systems was to use exposed air insulated equipment supported on porcelain columns. The past decade has witnessed the introduction and wide acceptance of compressed gas insulated equipment as a viable alternative to the conventional substation system. The characteristics of gas insulated substations (GIS) and their application for industrial use at service voltages at 69 kV and above are discussed.

  16. Strategic alliances for the future of the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Catell, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    The natural gas industry is in a position to benefit significantly from the inherent environmental advantages of natural gas and access to a large reserves base. Concurrently, the domestic natural gas industry will be undergoing extensive regulatory and structural changes in the coming years as a result of the implementation of FERC Order 636. The competition between fuels is intensifying, and the number of new market players and consumer demands are rising. As all sectors of the industry are facing new risk resulting from changes in access to storage, balancing, excess capacity, capacity release programs, and from the entry of gas marketers and aggregators, companies must increasingly rely on strategic alliances to remain competitive and stable. Strategic alliances are cooperative relationships between gas companies, pipelines, end-users, producers, marketers, as well as government bodies and labor unions. The principal goals of strategic alliances are to reduce risks, leverage resources and competitiveness, achieve long-term objectives, and build flexibility. Brooklyn Union has been involved in strategic alliances in the areas of (1) exploration, production, and supply; (2) transportation and storage; (3) marketing and market development; (4) regulatory and legislative activities; and (5) environmental activities. These alliances have allowed Brooklyn Union to diversify its gas supply, cooperatively support new pipelines, introduce new products and services, retain customers, generate new business, and assist in the enactment of reasonable Federal and State regulations and energy policies. Brooklyn Union recognizes that in the future the natural gas industry must continue to form strategic alliances to better serve the customer. Through strategic alliances the industry can increase the value and importance of natural gas as America`s premier energy source.

  17. Selected technology for the gas industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers were presented at a conference concerned with the application of technical topics from aerospace activities for the gas industry. The following subjects were covered: general future of fossil fuels in America, exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes, technology for liquefied gas, safety considerations relative to fires, explosions, and detonations, gas turbomachinery technology, fluid properties, fluid flow, and heat transfer, NASA information and documentation systems, instrumentation and measurement, materials and life prediction, reliability and quality assurance, and advanced energy systems (including synthetic fuels, energy storage, solar energy, and wind energy).

  18. Production of gaseous radiotracers for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Jagadeesan, K C; Anand, S; Chitra, S; Rana, Y S; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Gujar, H G; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes prerequisite tests, analysis and the procedure for irradiation of gaseous targets and production of gaseous radioisotopes i.e. argon-41 ((41)Ar) and krypton-79 ((79)Kr) in a 100MWTh DHRUVA reactor located at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai, India. The produced radioisotopes will be used as radiotracers for tracing gas phase in industrial process systems. Various details and prequalification tests required for irradiation of gaseous targets are discussed. The procedure for regular production of (41)Ar and (79)Kr, and assay of their activity were standardized. Theoretically estimated and experimentally produced amounts of activities of the two radioisotopes, irradiated at identical conditions, were compared and found to be in good agreement. Based on the various tests, radiological safety analysis and standardization of the irradiation procedure, necessary approval was obtained from the competent reactor operating and safety authorities for regular production of gaseous radiotracers in DHRUVA reactor. PMID:27518216

  19. Productivity, A Priority for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mietus, Walter S.

    The need for increased industrial productivity has become great in American society. If America is not to be outstripped by foreign competitors, worker productivity must be increased. Industrial arts can play a part in increasing productivity by fostering productive ideas in students. Attempts at work redesign have led to short-term increases in…

  20. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    PubMed

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. PMID:21326829

  1. A Phenomenological Model of Industrial Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woestman, J. T.; Logothetis, E. M.; Shane, M. D.; Brailsford, A. D.

    1997-08-01

    Gas sensors are widely used in industry for applications ranging from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes, including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces, to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases. This presentation reports on a model to describe the response of typical electrochemical solid state gas sensors in environments of air (80% N2 and 20% O_2) and one reducing species such as CO, H2 or CH_4. The goal of the model is to predict the time-dependent sensor output resulting from a time-dependent gas composition. Through a set of coupled differential equations, the model accounts for the flow of the gases into the sensor, their diffusion through a porous spinel coating, their adsorption/desorption on/off a catalytic electrode and their redox reaction on the electrode. The solution of these equations provides an oxygen adatom concentration on the electrode surface. This oxygen concentration is used in the Nernst equation to determine an instantaneous sensor emf and a first order filter is user to account for the time delay associated with the emf generation processes. The model was applied to the operation of an automotive oxygen sensor exposed to mixtures of O2 and CO in N2 and mixtures of O2 and H2 in N_2. Good agreement was found with experimental results under both steady state and dynamic operating conditions.

  2. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  3. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes}, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn`t be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930`s, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980`s. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed.

  4. Product stewardship in the composites industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Donald C.; Merriman, Edmund A.

    1994-01-01

    The definition and purpose of Product Stewardship is discussed. Its' impact in the composites industry is stated. The report also outlines 12 ways that Product Stewardship can be utilized by consumers.

  5. Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

  6. Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

  7. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development. PMID:26695777

  8. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  9. Applications of Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded gas resources and to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the reservoir. Nanotechnology can make the oil and gas industry considerably greener. There are numerous areas in which nanotechnology can contribute to more-efficient, less-expensive, and more-environmentally sound technologies than those that are readily available. We identified the following possibilities of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry: 1-Nanotechnology-enhanced materials that provide strength to increase performance in drilling, tubular goods, and rotating parts. 2- Designer properties to enhance hydro-phobic to enhance materials for water flooding applications. 3- Nano-particulate wetting carried out using molecular dynamics 4- Lightweight materials that reduce weight requirements on offshore platforms 5- Nano-sensors for improved temperature and pressure ratings 6- New imaging and computational techniques to allow better discovery, sizing, and characterization of reservoirs.

  10. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  11. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  12. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  13. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  14. Tempo of Argentinian oil and gas industry quickens

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1988-08-01

    Exploration and production programs that the Argentinian Government has set in motion are making the country, which will host the next World Petroleum Congress, a more active and visible member of the international oil industry. A high, but possibly diminishing, inflation rate of about 15%/month, external financial debt, and the depressed price of oil are still drags on progress. But there are positive factors at work too. The government has recognized that it is in the country's self interest to entice technologically experienced foreign oil companies to search for and exploit its probably abundant oil and gas resources. The government's primary objective is to add enough output to its some 430,000 b/d production to eliminate crude oil imports. A good start on this will be made early next year when the country's first offshore field begins production.

  15. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in cost of petroleum fuels has caused an increased interest in alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the end of 2006. This rapid growt...

  16. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continual rise in demand for and cost of petroleum fuels has resulted in an increased demand for alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the e...

  17. Gas hearth products market fact base. Topical report, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determine the influence of service providers, and; identify important trends that can affect the markets for gas hearth products. The market fact base is based on four studies: a market analysis synthesizing primary and secondary research reports; in-depth interviews with market influencers from across the country (architects, contractors, interior designers, fireplace retailers and installers) and industry experts from gas utilities and trade associations; focus group meetings with consumers who own or intend to buy fireplaces, gas fireplace industry professionals, and editors of fireplace-related trade magazines, and; quantitative interviews with consumers in six U.S. cities.

  18. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  19. Organizational Productivity in Post-Industrial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The term "post-industrial society" denotes the fact that more than half of a society's economy is devoted to service rather than to the production of goods. Discusses prospects for increasing productivity in service organizations and argues that irrational elements are built into service organizations as a consequence of the nature of the support…

  20. Opportunities for Industrial Uses of Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for and development of non-fuel industrial uses of agricultural commodities is an ongoing endeavor. New technologies which can involve chemically, enzymatically, or genetically modifying agricultural products will be required in order to meet the requirements of the products of the futur...

  1. Industrial Technology and the Productivity Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinn, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The role of industrial technology in addressing productivity encompasses work experience and attitude, quality assurance, research and development, time and motion studies, plant layout and flow diagramming, cost analysis, production process selection, maintenance, computer applications, materials and inventory requirements, safety programming,…

  2. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  3. Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

  4. INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

  5. Information highway: Alliances and their impact on the gas industry. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The report describes the major developments in digital information networks, the key industry players and their alliances and technologies, and the significance of their activities to the gas industry. The newly-integrated industries involved in creating the 'information highway' are likely to promote standards based on open protocols and accelerate the pace of technology implementation in new products that link home systems and external network systems. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Factors leading to the development of a new communications infrastructure and the alliances driving it were analyzed in order to best define opportunities and interests for the gas industry.

  6. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  7. The Mobile Monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools ...

  8. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not yet been well quantified. This presentation introduces new m...

  9. New applications for Coriolis flow and density measurement in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.; Keilty, M.

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneous, highly accurate measurement of mass, density and temperature makes the Coriolis instrumentation ideal technology for a wide variety of natural gas applications. This paper describes the technology, discusses the benefits of using Coriolis instrumentation, and describes several applications related to the oil and gas production industries utilizing the Coriolis meter.

  10. Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  11. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  12. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  13. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  14. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  15. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the mode ling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  16. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  17. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  18. Structural and technological changes of greenhouse gas emissions during the transition period in Polish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasierb, Slawomir; Niedziela, Karol; Wojtulewicz, Jerzy

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the patterns of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Polish industry arising during the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. A method of analyzing industry energy use and GHG emissions is discussed. Using this method, the impact of changes in industrial production value, the share of specific industry branches in the total industrial production, energy intensity, and the mix of the energy carriers in the 1989 1993 period has been analyzed. The last year of the analyzed period shows favorable trends in efficiency and signs of production structure shift to a less energy-intensive one. Economic reform implemented after 1989, which released energy carriers' prices from government control, had important effects on the industrial sector. Energy efficiency and emission intensity trends of 1992 1994 were favorable; if they continue, production will return to 1989 levels with much lower energy consumption and significantly decreased GHG emissions.

  19. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  20. The Economic Impact of Shale Gas Production in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    Energy is important to our daily lives. A price change of one energy type may influence our consumption choices, commodities prices and industry production. For the United States, shale gas is becoming a promising source of natural gas because of the rapid increase in its reserve and production capacity. Shale gas production is projected to be a large proportion of U.S. gas production, as predicted by Energy Information Administration (EIA). However, besides knowing the big picture, more details are needed before characterizing shale gas as a "game changer." It is interesting to address questions like to what extent the production of shale gas could affect other industries' production, stabilize commodities' prices, and what are the impacts on factor payments, capital returns, labor payments and household consumption. In this study, I use a CGE model to measure the impact on industry and the change in social welfare associated with shale gas production.

  1. 2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS PIPELINE, URR COAL LOADING STATION, CONRAIL PORT PERRY BRIDGE, URR HOT METAL BRIDGE, USSSTEEL EDGAR THOMSON WORKS. - Conrail Port Perry Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins production industry, which includes operations that convert industrial organic chemicals into solid or liquid polymers. Elements of the analysis include an industry definition, raw materials, products and manufact...

  3. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  4. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  5. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  6. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182

  7. Thermal barrier coating on high temperature industrial gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N.; Stoner, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal barrier coating used was a yttria stabilized zirconia material with a NiCrAlY undercoat, and the base engine used to establish improvements was the P&WA FT50A-4 industrial gas turbine engine. The design benefits of thermal barrier coatings include simplified cooling schemes and the use of conventional alloys in the engine hot section. Cooling flow reductions and improved heating rates achieved with thermal barrier coating result in improved performance. Economic benefits include reduced power production costs and reduced fuel consumption. Over the 30,000 hour life of the thermal barrier coated parts, fuel savings equivalent to $5 million are projected and specific power (megawatts/mass of engine airflow) improvements on the order of 13% are estimated.

  8. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  9. Phase 2: Seminars to US industry of TDA feasibility study. US export potential for oil and gas suppliers to Russian production associations. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-18

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Russian Production Association Varyeganneftegas Joint Stock Company (VNG JSC). It is a report Phase II of the Russian Oilfield Study, and it had two main objectives. The first was to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. private sector in sales of oilfield equipment and services; the second goal was to assist the World Bank and VNG JSC in efforts to rehabilitate their oilfields by familiarizing VNG representatives with U.S. production and service capabilities in the petroleum sector. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Background; (2) The Planning Stage; (3) The Implementation Stage; and (4) Conclusions.

  10. Trace gas flux from container production of woody landscape plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agriculture industry is a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are widely believed to be causing increased global temperatures. Reduction of these emissions has been heavily researched, with most of the work focusing on row crop and animal production sectors. Little attention has...

  11. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  12. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  13. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  14. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  15. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  17. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria. PMID:27106591

  18. Hybrid intelligent algorithms for industrial production planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, P.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the main significant contributions of a new non-linear membership function using fuzzy approach to capture and describe vagueness in the technological coefficients of constraints in the industrial production planning problems has been investigated thoroughly. This non-linear membership function is flexible and convenience to the decision makers in their decision making process. Secondly, a nonlinear objective function in the form of cubic function for fuzzy optimization problems is successfully solved by 15 hybrid and non-hybrid optimization techniques from the area of soft computing and classical approaches. An intelligent performance analysis table is tabulated to the convenience of decision makers and implementers to select the niche optimization techniques to apply in real word problem solving approach particularly related to industrial engineering problems.

  19. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  20. Managing greenhouse gas emission in the indian aluminum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, H.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorocarbons are pollutants that destroy the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere and allow more ultraviolet radiation to reach the surface of the earth. Over-exposure to such radiation damages plants and greatly increases people’s risk of skin cancer. Aluminum refineries and smelters, which consume large amounts of energy, are committed to continuous improvement in greenhouse gas abatement. Although India is under no international pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Indian aluminum industry could undertake such a commitment voluntarily. This analysis shows where immediate improvements are possible, and presents a tentative action plan for the industry.

  1. [Urinary tract carcinomas in gas industry employees (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Manz, A

    1976-01-16

    Arising from a retrospective investigation of the causes of death in active and pensioned employees from the author's sphere of observation, the increased occurence of urinary tract carcinoma in furnace battery and pipe system workers in the gas industry is pointed out. Statistical studies suggest a causal connection between exposure to tar in these jobs and the urinary tract carcinomas. The necessity for industrial medical precautions is commented on. PMID:814428

  2. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep; Pfefferle, William

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines

  3. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  4. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  5. Daugaz, a computerized data base serving the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Uvodic, A.; Collomb, A.; Bizzochi, C.

    1988-01-01

    The computerized documentary data bank Daugaz was created in 1982 by Gaz de France in order to handle the growing number of publications and to make its documentation accessible to the gas industry. Constantly extended, with the help, since 1985, of the French Gas Association, it now includes almost 50 000 written or audiovisual document references relating to gas energy. Daugaz has been accessible on line from outside France since September 1985 and is making promising developments, through fruitful cooperation, with the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal in Canada for example. Its vocation as an international data bank should be confirmed in the future.

  6. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  7. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  8. Competitive position of natural gas: industrial baking. Topical report, December 1986-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    To quantify the competitive position of natural gas in industrial baking, market profiles were developed to define current technologies (single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens are predominant) and to characterize the applications and use of each technology in industrial baking. Important cost and performance parameters were identified and validated through interviews with industry representatives. Two areas of research that could improve technologies' effectiveness are advanced burner controls activated based on oven load that could reduce product loss, the largest coast associated with the oven, and cogeneration, which could penetrate the baking market if the high capital costs associated with existing equipment could be reduced.

  9. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  10. Bailey's industrial oil and fat products

    SciTech Connect

    Swern, D.

    1982-01-01

    The material in this book is divided into 7 chapters and is not solely an updating of subjects from earlier editions. Information on hydrogenation (chapter 1) is an update of the process in oil and fat technology. Chapter 2, entitled Fat Splitting, Esterification, and Interesterification, described the techniques used to obtain some of the most important chemical raw materials derived from oils and fats. The widely diverse natural sources of and the processing of oils and fats to render them suitable for the many industrial and edible applications are addressed in chapter 3, Extraction of Fats and Oils, and in chapter 4, Refining and Bleaching. Selected important commercial uses for oils and fats in edible products that show improved demand are discussed in chapter 5, and predominately industrial uses of oils and fats form the basis of material in chapter 6. The discussion of analytical methods for oils and fats covered in chapter 7 is entirely new material as is that covering environmental aspects presented in chapter 8. (BLM)

  11. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  12. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  13. Political risk in the international oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lax, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines problems of foreign investment policies faced by oil and gas corporations through an in-depth look at how the political environments confronting them change. Lax describes how to analyze poltical risks as an essential component of corporate decision making in the 1980s-given the changing relationship between host government and company, new resource nationalism, and growing awareness of power in developed and developing countries alike. Contents: 1. Introduction: political risk and corporate decision making. 2. The politicization of oil and gas. 3. Substance and structure of the oil and gas industry. 4. Risks and resources in oil and gas. 5. The nature of political risks. 6. Approaches to political risk analysis. 7. Corporate management of political risk. Bibliography. Index.

  14. Wind tunnel modeling of toxic gas releases at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Government agencies and the petroleum, chemical and gas industries in the US and abroad have become increasingly concerned about the issues of toxic gas dispersal. Because of this concern, research programs have been sponsored by these various groups to improve the capabilities in hazard mitigation and response. Present computer models used to predict pollutant concentrations at industrial facilities do not properly account for the effects of structures. Structures can act to trap or deflect the cloud and modify the cloud dimensions, thereby possibly increasing or reducing downwind concentrations. The main purpose of this evaluation was to develop a hybrid modeling approach, which combines wind tunnel and dispersion modeling, to obtain more accurate concentration estimates when buildings or structures affect the dispersion of hazardous chemical vapors. To meet the study objectives, wind tunnel testing was performed on a building cluster typical of two industrial settings where accidental releases of toxic gases might occur. This data set was used to test the validity of the AFTOX and SLAB models for estimating concentrations and was used to develop and test two hybrid models. Two accident scenarios were simulated, an evaporating pool of a gas slightly heavier than air (Hydrazine-N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and a liquid jet release of Nitrogen Tetroxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) where dense gas dispersion effects would be significant. Tests were conducted for a range of wind directions and wind speeds for two different building configurations (low rise and high rise structures).

  15. Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M.; Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F.; Knight, Connie D.; Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt; Holm, Gus; Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich; Engler, Thomas W.; Lorenz, John Clay

    2004-10-01

    Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

  16. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-08-31

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

  17. Natural gas from seaweed: is near-term R and D funding by the US gas industry warranted

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, C.

    1985-10-01

    This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R and D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (MBP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable. The paper develops a macroanalytic framework for R and D decision making in an innovative but high-cost and high-risk method of natural gas production. It identifies and analyzes principal factors having significant bearing on the US natural gas industry and against this background examines implications for R and D funding of the MBP. The study is based on an extensive review of secondary data sources on the economics and technology of natural gas production supplemented by personal discussions with a number of experts. This paper suggests that decisions on near-term R and D funding of the MBP should be based on careful study of the current, continuing, and projected developments in the US natural gas industry as a whole rather than on narrow and short-term considerations. 16 references, 6 tables.

  18. Industrial protein production crops: new needs and new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2010-01-01

    There are many diverse uses for industrial proteins with new opportunities for novel uses frequently emerging. Prominent among these uses are enzymes catalyzing the processing of food/feed and for the production of cellulosic biofuels. Other significant industrial protein uses include antibodies and other binding proteins for purification and/or clean-up of industrial product streams. Enabling technology is needed to produce these now expensive industrial proteins could be produced cost-effectively. Plant-based production of industrial enzymes offers the prospect of massive, scalable production, coupled with low production cost especially if a co-product, such as seed oil or starch, subsidizes the primary crop production costs. High-protein seeds whose composition is remodeled to produce industrial proteins can be a cost-effective means to produce industrial proteins. There are both technical and regulatory issues to resolve in order to deploy plants and seeds as industrial protein production platforms and many of these issues may be more easily resolved by developing nonfood crops specifically for use as industrial production platforms. An emerging industrial plant, Camelina, has potential as a protein-production platform subsidized by the seed oil co-product. PMID:21912205

  19. [Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

    2011-12-01

    Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises. PMID:22468539

  20. Clinical laboratories: production industry or medical services?

    PubMed

    Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey. PMID:25405721

  1. Training using multimedia in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bihn, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Multimedia is becoming a widely used and accepted tool in general education. From preschool to the university, multimedia is promising and delivering some very impressive results. Its application in specific industry segments, like oil and gas, is expected to proliferate within the very near future. In fact, many titles are already on the market or in development. The objective of this article is to present an overview of the current state of multimedia as used in petroleum industry training and to provide managers with a feel for not only the technology but, more importantly, what benefit the technology is expected to bring to their organization.

  2. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  3. Myanmar production meets first-gas targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, A.

    1998-09-07

    Despite scheduling complications caused by annual monsoons, the Yadana project to bring offshore Myanmar gas ashore and into neighboring Thailand has met it first-gas target of July 1, 1998. The Yadana field is a dry-gas reservoir in the reef upper Birman limestone formation t 1,260 m and a pressure of 174 bara (approximately 2,500 psi). It extends nearly 7 km (west to east) and 10 km (south to north). The water-saturated reservoir gas contains mostly methane mixed with CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. No production of condensate is anticipated. The Yadana field contains certified gas reserves of 5.7 tcf, calculated on the basis of 2D and 3D seismic data-acquisition campaigns and of seven appraisal wells. The paper discusses early interest, development sequences, offshore platforms, the gas-export pipeline, safety, environmental steps, and schedule constraints.

  4. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon.

  5. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1995-07-01

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

  6. The impact of corrosion on the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1996-08-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety, and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation, and refinery activities.

  7. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  8. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  9. New models for success emerge for US natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, W.M. ); Hutchinson, R.A. )

    1994-11-14

    Very few companies in the US natural gas industry are confident in their ability to compete effectively in the brave new world of deregulation. Boston Consulting Group recently conducted an internal study to help the industry think about its future and identify models for success in this new environment. The authors examined the historical performance of 800 companies using several shareholder-value indicators, including cash-flow returns on investment, a measure of cash returns on cash invested that correlates closely to share price. Based on that review and discussions with investment managers and industry analysts, the authors were able to focus on a handful of companies that actually have thrived and created value against the difficult landscape of the past decade. Interviews with their senior executives provided important strategic and operational insights.

  10. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  11. Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Jennings, T.V.; Lemon, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission of accurate price signals to both suppliers and end-users. Economic efficiency requires that prices respond to changes in conditions such as the world oil price, such as the world oil price, regional demands (for example, those of the Northeast US), sectoral demands (e.g., those of the electric utilities), and environmental policy (select use of gas for emission control, for example). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  13. Antrim gas play, production expanding in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-30

    Devonian Antrim shale gas, the Michigan basin's dominant hydrocarbon play in terms of number of wells drilled for several years, shows every sign of continuing at a busy pace. About 3,500 Antrim completions now yield 350 MMcfd, more than 60% of Michigan's gas production. The outlook is for Antrim production to climb in the next 2--3 years to 500--600 MMcfd, about 1% of US gas output. These delivery numbers, slow decline rates, and expected producing life of 20--30 years has snagged pipelines attention. The growing production overtaxed local gathering facilities last fall, and the play recently got its first interstate outlet. Completion and production technology advances are improving well performance and trimming costs. Several hundred wells a year are likely to be drilled during the next few years. Production increases are coming from new wells, deepenings, and workovers. Numerous pipeline/gathering projects are planned in the area to handle the growing Antrim volumes. The paper discusses the development of this resource, efforts to extend the play, geology and production, drilling programs, and gas transportation.

  14. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  15. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  16. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  18. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  19. Rolls-Royce`s Trent industrial gas turbine moves to market

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Rolls-Royce Trent industrial gas turbine, derived from the aircraft Trent 800 engine, is making significant progress in initial unit production and application at Rolls-Royce Gas Turbine Engines Canada Inc., located in Montreal. This paper discusses the design, development and application of this very high output aeroderivative gas turbine. The combustor section for the Trent has been designed for dry low-emission (DLE) performance, and the combustion system is designed primarily for natural gas, but dual-fuel versions are also offered with water-injection for liquid fuel emission control. There are eight individual combustors, the design of which is based on a premixed, lean burn, series staged concept developed by Rolls-Royce to simultaneously reduce both NO{sub x} and CO. 4 figs.

  20. Interconnecting compressors control coalbed gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, R.; Niederhofer, J. )

    1992-10-05

    This paper reports that centralized compressors afford Taurus Exploration Inc.'s coalbed gas operations optimum control of gas production. Unlike satellite stations, the centralized system allows methane gas to e shifted from station to station via the interconnecting low-pressure pipeline network. The operations area encompasses approximately 40,000 acres, about 40 miles southwest of Birmingham, Ala. The project includes about 250-miles of low-pressure gas flow lines to almost 400 wells. The centralized system is less costly than a satellite station to build and operate. Unlike a satellite station that requires each compressor to have a complete set of ancillary equipment, the centralized system requires only one suction manifold, one dehydration setup, and one metering facility for every five compressor sets.

  1. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  2. Coal or natural gas for ecofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, A.

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the technology of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used in the Sasal plant in South Africa. It discusses environmental aspects and economics of new FT facilities for the production of diesel fuels. Several projects are briefly described which use this technology for natural gas conversion.

  3. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  4. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  5. Productivity Continued to Increase in Many Industries during 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    Productivity, as measured by output per employee hour, grew in 1984 in about three quarters of the industries for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly publishes data. (A table shows productivity trends in industries measured by the Bureau, including mining, transportation and utilities, and trade and services.) (CT)

  6. Electrical studies for an industrial gas turbine cogeneration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, R.L.; Kalkstein, E.W. and Co., Newark, DE . Engineering Dept. Parsons Co., Pasadena, CA ); Willoughby, R.D. )

    1989-07-01

    Electrical studies are required to assure the proper integration of a gas-turbine cogeneration facility into an existing industrial-plant electrical system and the connected utility grid. Details of such a study effort are presented, including boundary-limit definition for the system model, individual component modeling, load-flow and short-circuit studies, stability studies, and simulation of on-line isolation from the electric utility during system undervoltage or underfrequency conditions. The impact of the studies on the design process and plant system reliability is discussed.

  7. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2015-12-01

    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  8. Operational performance comparisons in the gas processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Salahor, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Comparison and benchmarking of operational performance measures in the natural gas processing and gathering industry has helped operators to identify and prioritize improvement initiatives and has led to direct and tangible improvements in operating efficiency. However, proper interpretation and utilization of performance benchmarking data in a complex operation such as gas processing must reflect due consideration of the technical factors which influence the overall economic performance and resource requirements. Plant operators must be able to use the data to understand the key technical influences reflected in their results, and thereby set performance targets commensurate with the structural considerations particular to their facility. Ernst and Young has developed an analytical framework for gas processing and gathering operations incorporating such considerations, and conducted a study involving North American and international participants for the past four years. The information obtained form this work has revealed a wide range of performance results across plants, and has served to challenge much of the conventional wisdom regarding what levels of performance are attainable, and to provide understanding as to how gas processing operational resource requirements are influenced by technical parameters.

  9. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. Remote Sensing Application in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Oleg; Aloltsov, Alexander; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The main environmental problems of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (a federal subject of Russia) related to the activities of oil and gas industry (82 active companies which hold 77,000 oil wells). As on the 1st of January 2013 the subject produces more than 50% of all oil in Russia. The principle of environmental responsibility makes it necessary to minimize human impact and ecological impact. One of the most effective tools for environmental monitoring is remote sensing. The main advantages of such approach are: wide coverage of areas of interest, high temporal resolution, precise location, automatic processing, large set of extracted parameters, etc. Authorities of KhMAO are interested in regular detection of the impact on the environment by processing satellite data and plan to increase the coverage from 434.9 to 659.9 square kilometers with resolution not less than 10 m/pixel. Years of experience of our company shows the significant potential to expand the use of such remote sensing data in the solution of environmental problems. The main directions are: monitoring of rational use of associated petroleum gas (detection of all gas flares and volumes of burned gas), monitoring of soil pollution (detection of areas of oil pollution, assess of the extent of pollution, planning of reclamation activities and assessment of their efficiency, detection of potential areas of pipelines corrosion), monitoring of status of sludge pits (inventory of all sludge pits, assessment of their liquidation), monitoring of technogenic impact (detection of changes), upgrading of a geospatial database (topographic map of not less than 1:50000 scale). Implementation of modeling, extrapolation and remote analysis techniques based on satellite images will help to reduce unnecessary costs for instrumental methods. Thus, the introduction of effective remote monitoring technology to the activity of oil and gas companies promotes environmental responsibility of these companies.

  11. A study of white finger in the gas industry.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D D; Jones, B; Ogston, S; Tasker, E G; Robinson, A J

    1985-01-01

    Men engaged in breaking or reinstating road surfaces are exposed to vibration from mechanical tools. In view of the lack of epidemiological information on vibration white finger in such a population, a survey was carried out to identify the prevalence of symptoms of white finger in a sample of men using these tools in the gas industry and to compare the prevalence with that found in a control group not occupationally exposed to vibration. Altogether 905 men (97%) in the gas industry and 552 men (92%) in the control group were interviewed, using a questionnaire from which the presence or absence of white finger symptoms from all causes was noted. The prevalence of white finger was 9.6% in the group exposed to vibration at work compared with 9.5% in the control group. The prevalence in the former group when adjusted for age differences between the survey and control populations was 12.2%, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In case the approach of comparing prevalences of white finger from all causes might have obscured any contributory effect of vibration, the prevalence of white finger was examined in relation to the number of years vibrating tools had been used, this being the only measure of exposure to vibration available. No direct association was found between the prevalence of symptoms and number of years vibrating tools had been used. In view of this and the absence of a significant excess of white finger symptoms in the group using vibratory tools, the authors conclude that vibration white finger is not a special problem in the gas industry. Nevertheless, experimental tests carried out on the different types of roadbreakers used in the industry and on different road surfaces indicate that the vibration levels exceed the standards advocated in the draft international standard DIS 5349 (1979) at the lower end of the frequency spectrum. That no particular problem has been found may be due to the relatively short exposures to vibration

  12. Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) - A lower Green-House-Gas (GHG) option for industrial wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shuwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-12-01

    A high-retention membrane bioreactor system, the Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) is a wastewater reclamation process which has the potential to tap on waste heat generated in industries to produce high quality product water. There are a few key factors which could make MDBR an attractive advanced treatment option, namely tightening legal requirements due to increasing concerns on the micropollutants in industrial wastewater effluents as well as concerns over the electrical requirement of pressurized advanced treatment processes and greenhouse gas emissions associated with wastewater reclamation. This paper aims to provide a consolidated review on the current state of research for the MDBR system and to evaluate the system as a possible lower Green House Gas (GHG) emission option for wastewater reclamation using the membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system as a baseline for comparison. The areas for potential applications and possible configurations for MDBR applications are discussed. PMID:25262945

  13. The Microbiological Production of Industrial Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    Compares traditional and newer methods by which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Includes a discussion of economic considerations and new genetic methods in programing microorganisms. Details methods for producing enzymes, aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids, ethanol, n-butanol, and alkene oxides. (CS)

  14. Who will market the independent power production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Frumerman, B.

    1988-02-01

    While this question is important, there is another question that is not asked often enough: How can the independent power production industry market itself and thereby create an environment in which member companies can thrive in the years ahead. This issue demands greater attention than it has received so far. If the independent power-production industry does not make an immediate and concerted effort to help shape public opinion regarding its role in generating and selling power, others outside the industry will. Unfortunately, such non-industry views do not tend to be supportive of the goals of independent power producers.

  15. Human resource needs and development for the gas industry of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas industry will confront many challenges in the 1990s and beyond, one of which is the development of human resources to meet future needs. An efficient, trained work force in this era of environmental concern, high technology, and alternative fuels is essential for the industry to continue to meet the competition and to safely deliver our product and service to all customers. Unfortunately, during this period there will be an increasing shortfall of technical personnel to replace those lost to attrition and a steady decline in the availability of new employees who are able to read, write, and perform simple math. Technological and government developments that will impact the industry and the skill levels needed by the industry employees are reviewed. In-house and external training of professional and nonprofessional personnel and the benefits and disadvantages of selected advanced training methods are discussed. Recommendations are presented that can help improve the training of gas industry employees to meet future needs. 22 refs.

  16. Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-01-01

    A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. Computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Thomas C

    2016-10-13

    The predominant technical challenge of the upstream oil and gas industry has always been the fundamental uncertainty of the subsurface from which it produces hydrocarbon fluids. The subsurface can be detected remotely by, for example, seismic waves, or it can be penetrated and studied in the extremely limited vicinity of wells. Inevitably, a great deal of uncertainty remains. Computational sciences have been a key avenue to reduce and manage this uncertainty. In this review, we discuss at a relatively non-technical level the current state of three applications of computational sciences in the industry. The first of these is seismic imaging, which is currently being revolutionized by the emergence of full wavefield inversion, enabled by algorithmic advances and petascale computing. The second is reservoir simulation, also being advanced through the use of modern highly parallel computing architectures. Finally, we comment on the role of data analytics in the upstream industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597785

  19. Economic impact analysis of the oil and natural gas production NESHAP and the natural gas transmission and storage NESHAP. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, L.

    1999-05-01

    This report evaluates the impact of the final rule for controls of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the Oil and Natural Gas Production industry and the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage industry. Total social costs are estimated by evaluating costs of compliance with the rule and associated market impacts, including: price changes in the natural gas market, adjustments in quantity produced, small entity impacts, and employment impacts.

  20. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries. PMID:15811669

  1. Windowless gas targets for neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Erik. B.; Lanza, Richard C.; Lidsky, L. M.

    1997-02-01

    A windowless deuterium gas target has been constructed for either monoenergetic or white neutron production with a 900 KeV deuteron accelerator. The target is capable of operation at 100 mbar target pressure, and can admit a beam of 5 mm transverse extent. This target is further being modified by the inclusion of an intermittent valve arrangement to reduce the flow rates in the higher pressure stages. This valve should allow operation at up to 1000 mbar with low duty factor beams.

  2. Pollution prevention in the fabricated metals products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, D.; Frewerd, B.; Pava, T.H.; Appley, E.

    1995-09-01

    The US metal fabrication industry is an essential part of both domestic and international economies and plays a key support role in the appliance, automotive, defense, electronics, furniture, and other assembly industries. Identified as Standard Industrial Classification Code (SIC Code) 34, the industry processes and manufacturers a wide range of metal components including cans, cutlery, hand tools, general hardware, ordnance, forgings, stampings, and structural metal products. The industry`s environmental compliance problems arise from increasingly restrictive discharge limitations and from the product phaseout of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) as mandated in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Hazardous raw materials in some metal fabrication operations are regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). Some facility discharges are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The major pollutants of concern are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs), hazardous air pollutants, heavy metals, acids, and oils.

  3. Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

  4. Mitigation strategies for microbiologically influenced corrosion in gas industry facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.H.; Zintel, T.P. ); Cookingham, B.A. ); Howard, D.; Morris, R.G. ); Day, R.A.; Frank, J.R. ); Pogemiller, G.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and its mitigation in gas industry facilities. The results show that MIC commonly occurs on both external and internal surfaces of pipes, in down hole tubulars and in process equipment such as separators. Mitigation strategies were tested in side-stream devices at several sites. The results demonstrate that many biocides and corrosion inhibitors are relatively ineffective in controlling the surface microbial populations, at least under the conditions of the tests. Detailed studies with glutaraldehyde demonstrated that reestablishment of surface MIC communities after removal of this biocide was very rapid. Continuous treatment with glutaraldehyde led to the development of surface microbial communities resistant to the effects of the biocide.

  5. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  6. Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ″well-to-wire″ (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8–2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  7. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. PMID:25841103

  8. Environmental impacts of antibiotic use in the animal production industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are routinely used in the livestock industry to treat and prevent disease. At subtherapeutic concentrations, antibiotics can select for resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of production animals, providing a potential reservoir for dissemination of drug resistant bacteria int...

  9. Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katusya; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Machida, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding the industrial potential of the fungus in biotechnology. Genes that have been newly discovered through genome research can be used for the production of novel valuable enzymes and chemicals, and are important for designing new industrial processes. This article describes recent progress of A . oryzae genomics and its impact on industrial production of enzymes, metabolites, and bioprocesses. PMID:16944282

  10. Convergence of natural gas and electricity industries means change, opportunity for producers in the U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, V.K. Jefferson Gas Systems Inc., Arlington, VA )

    1995-03-13

    The accelerating deregulation of natural gas and electricity distribution is the third and most powerful wave of energy deregulation coursing through North America. The first wave (1978--92) provided the impetus for sculpting competitive markets in energy production. The second (1986--95) is now breaking to fashion competitive bulk logistical and wholesale consumption markets through open access on and unbundling of gas pipeline and storage capacity and high voltage transmission capacity. The third wave, the deregulation of gas and electric retail markets through open access and nondiscriminatory, unbundled local gas and electric distribution tariffs, began in the early 1990s. It will gather momentum for the next 5 years and crest at the turn of the century, affecting and molding almost $300 billion/year in retail energy sales. The transformation will have these strategic implications: (1) the convergent evolution of the gas and electric industries; (2) severe margin compression along the energy value chain from wellhead to busbar to the distribution pipes and wires; and (3) the rapid emergency of cyberspace retailing of energy products and services. The paper discusses merchant plants, convergence and producers, capital flows, producer federations, issues of scale, and demand, margins, and value.

  11. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  12. Productive trends in India's energy intensive industries

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Sanstad, A.; Mongia, P.; Schumacher, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of productivity growth and input trends in six energy intensive sectors of the Indian economy, using growth accounting and econometric methods. The econometric work estimates rates and factor price biases of technological change using a translog production model with an explicit relationship defined for technological change. Estimates of own-price responses indicate that raising energy prices would be an effective carbon abatement policy for India. At the same time, the authors results suggest that, as with previous findings on the US economy, such policies in India could have negative long run effects on productivity in these sectors. Inter-input substitution possibilities are relatively weak, so that such policies might have negative short and medium term effects on sectoral growth. The authors study provides information relevant for the analysis of costs and benefits of carbon abatement policies applied to India and thus contributes to the emerging body of modeling and analysis of global climate policy.

  13. Hybrid neural prediction and optimized adjustment for coke oven gas system in steel industry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Quanli; Wang, Wei; Pedrycz, Witold; Cong, Liqun

    2012-03-01

    An energy system is the one of most important parts of the steel industry, and its reasonable operation exhibits a critical impact on manufacturing cost, energy security, and natural environment. With respect to the operation optimization problem for coke oven gas, a two-phase data-driven based forecasting and optimized adjusting method is proposed, where a Gaussian process-based echo states network is established to predict the gas real-time flow and the gasholder level in the prediction phase. Then, using the predicted gas flow and gasholder level, we develop a certain heuristic to quantify the user's optimal gas adjustment. The proposed operation measure has been verified to be effective by experimenting with the real-world on-line energy data sets coming from Shanghai Baosteel Corporation, Ltd., China. At present, the scheduling software developed with the proposed model and ensuing algorithms have been applied to the production practice of Baosteel. The application effects indicate that the software system can largely improve the real-time prediction accuracy of the gas units and provide with the optimized gas balance direction for the energy optimization. PMID:24808550

  14. 21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section 886.5918 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Industry Premarket Notification (510(k)) Guidance Document for Contact Lens Care Products.”...

  15. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  16. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i

  17. CO Methanation for Synthetic Natural Gas Production.

    PubMed

    Kambolis, Anastasios; Schildhauer, Tilman J; Kröcher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Energy from woody biomass could supplement renewable energy production towards the replacement of fossil fuels. A multi-stage process involving gasification of wood and then catalytic transformation of the producer gas to synthetic natural gas (SNG) represents progress in this direction. SNG can be transported and distributed through the existing pipeline grid, which is advantageous from an economical point of view. Therefore, CO methanation is attracting a great deal of attention and much research effort is focusing on the understanding of the process steps and its further development. This short review summarizes recent efforts at Paul Scherrer Institute on the understanding of the reaction mechanism, the catalyst deactivation, and the development of catalytic materials with benign properties for CO methanation. PMID:26598405

  18. Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. . Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. . Aero and Technology Products)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

  19. Ternary gas mixtures for high-voltage industrial insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, M. O.; Chan, C. C.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1981-10-01

    Gas dielectrics for insulating power apparatus, e.g., gas insulated transmission lines (GITL), were evaluated. Particular attention was given to mixtures using large proportions of an electron moderating gas (viz., N2, CHF3, or 1,1,1-C2H3F3) and smaller quantities of two electron attaching gases: SF6 and one fluorocarbon (e.g., c-C4F8). The proportions were sought at which the three gases function best as a team, moderating free electrons from higher to lower energies and there attaching them. Small amounts of the electron attaching additives can drastically raise the dielectric strength of the moderator. Certain combinations of SF6 and fluorocarbons do not produce the undesirable spark by products associated with either SF6 or fluorocarbons alone and also show improved negative polarity impulse breakdown characteristics over pure SF6. Small scale breakdown measurements were made of various ternary mixtures in the GITL geometry. It was found that nitrogen moderates electrons to extremely low energies, where SF6 attaches; the dipolar gases moderate to somewhat higher energies, where some fluorocarbons attach best.

  20. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  1. Environmental compliance tracking for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.C.; Qasem, J.; Killian, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    To meet the demand to track regulatory compliance requirements for oil and gas facilities, C-K Associates, Inc. and Conoco Inc. Natural Gas and Gas Products Department developed a customized relational database. The Compliance Tracking System (CTS), a Microsoft Access database, is designed to insure compliance with all applicable federally-enforceable air quality standards. Currently, compliance is insured through work practices, operating procedures, maintenance, and testing; however, associated documentation may be less formalized, especially for work practice standards and unmanned operations. Title V Operating Permits required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments created the specific need for documentation of such compliance. Title V programs require annual compliance certification and semi-annual reports of compliance monitoring with signature by a responsible official. The CTS compiles applicable standards as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. A responsible party (primary and secondary) for each compliance action is assigned. Multiple tickler functions within the system provide notice of upcoming or past-due compliance actions. Systems flexibility is demonstrated through various sort mechanisms. Compliance items can be managed and documented through work orders generated by the CTS. This paper will present how the CTS was developed as an environmental management system and populated for a natural gas plant operating under a Title V permit. The system was expanded to include water quality, waste, and emergency reporting requirements to become a multi-discipline environmental compliance tool for the facility. Regulatory requirements were re-formatted to action items pertinent to field operations. The compliance actions were assigned to fit within current procedures whenever possible. Examples are presented for each media with emphasis on federally-enforceable Title V requirements.

  2. Video Production Curriculum Guide. Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Calvin

    This curriculum guide is intended to help instructors implement video production as a trade and industrial education course offering with communication skills woven into each unit. The guide is written for a double-period class, meeting 350 hours per year for two years. The first year is based on single camera production; the second year is based…

  3. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  4. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  5. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    PubMed

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality. PMID:22148133

  6. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  7. Evaluation of Fresh Kills landfill gas for industrial applications. Final report, August 1977-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Briceland, C.; Bortz, S.; Khinkis, M.J.; Abassi, H.; Waibel, R.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes a combined laboratory and field test program carried out at the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island to determine the acceptability of landfill gas as a replacement for natural gas and imported fuels in industrial processes. Landfill gas, created by the natural breakdown of organic materials, is about 50 percent methane. The Fresh Kills gas was tested to gauge its performance, characteristics and heat value, especially in relation to natural gas. The result of the tests were so favorable, that an aggressive program has been initiated statewide to identify landfill sites and potential industrial users for the landfill gas.

  8. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  9. Cattle and the oil and gas industry in Alberta: A literature review with recommendations for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to bring together a review of published information on the potential effects of upstream oil and gas industry operations on the cattle industry in Alberta, some indication of the probability of occurrence of these effects, and recommendations on how they might be avoided or mitigated. Based on reviews of scientific papers and industry good-practice manuals, the report describes: The sources and quantities of environmental contaminants generated by Alberta`s oil and gas industry, including normal operations, accidental releases, and the effects of aging infrastructure; the chemical composition of the products, materials, and wastes associated with the industry; the fate and transport of the contaminants through air, water, and soil; cattle operations in Alberta; the toxicology of oil and gas industry contaminants in cattle; and selected Alberta case studies of accidental releases and planned experiments. Conclusions and recommendations deal with critical information gaps and strategies for the sustainable management of cattle and oil/gas operations in the province.

  10. Strategies implemented by the textile industry in response to natural-gas curtailments

    SciTech Connect

    Schreibeis, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of specific activities undertaken by textile firms in North and South Carolina and Georgia to insulate themselves against production losses resulting from natural gas curtailments. Results of the research effort focusing on investigating patterns or trends of precautionary activities undertaken by the textile industry in response to fuel interruptions are presented. Chapter II delineates the scope of the project, research design, and nature of the textile industry. One hundred candidate firms for detailed study were identified and 34 discussed their alternate fuel strategies. Information obtained was analyzed by means of two statistical analysis techniques. Methods employed and results are described in Chapter III. Overall results are presented in Chapter IV. Variations in the strategies implemented by various concerns were accounted for in terms of geographic location, plant size, plant type, and the duration and extent of curtailment impacts. Ranges of expenditures for short- and long-term strategies are identified.

  11. 76 FR 20657 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed a revised Statement...

  12. 75 FR 56092 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C; Notice of Filing September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 1, 2010, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed...

  13. 76 FR 78640 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed in PR12-8-000...

  14. 78 FR 21929 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2013, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed to cancel...

  15. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. PMID:25497055

  16. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  17. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  18. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Sharon Elder

    2006-01-24

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the sixth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organized and hosted two technology transfer meetings; (2) Collaborated with the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) to host a Natural Gas Outlook conference in Pittsburgh, PA; (3) Provided a SWC presentation at the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) meeting in Jackson Hole, WY; and (4) Completed and released a stripper well industry documentary entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering America's Forgotten Wells''.

  19. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations form when natural gas is trapped thermodynamically within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), which extends downward from the seafloor in open ocean depths greater than about 500 metres. As water depths increase, the thickness of the GHSZ thickens, but economic NGH deposits probably occur no deeper than 1 km below the seafloor. Natural gas (mostly methane) appears to emanate mostly from deeper sources and migrates into the GHSZ. The natural gas crystallizes as NGH when the pressure - temperature conditions within the GHSZ are reached and when the chemical condition of dissolved gas concentration in pore water is high enough to favor crystallization. Although NGH can form in both primary and secondary porosity, the principal economic target appears to be turbidite sands on deep continental margins. Because these are very similar to the hosts of more deeply buried conventional gas and oil deposits, industry knows how to explore for them. Recent improvements in a seismic geotechnical approach to NGH identification and valuation have been confirmed by drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico and allow for widespread exploration for NGH deposits to begin. NGH concentrations occur in the same semi-consolidated sediments in GHSZs worldwide. This provides for a narrow exploration window with low acoustic attenuation. These sediments present the same range of relatively easy drilling conditions and formation pressures that are only slightly greater than at the seafloor and are essentially equalized by water in wellbores. Expensive conventional drilling equipment is not required. NGH is the only hydrocarbon that is stable at its formation pressures and incapable of converting to gas without artificial stimulation. We suggest that specialized, NGH-specific drilling capability will offer opportunities for much less expensive drilling, more complex wellbore layouts that improve reservoir connectivity and in which gas

  20. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  1. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  2. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  3. The utilization of renewable resources in German industrial production.

    PubMed

    Busch, Rainer; Hirth, Thomas; Liese, Andreas; Nordhoff, Stefan; Puls, Jürgen; Pulz, Otto; Sell, Dieter; Syldatk, Christoph; Ulber, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Renewable resources will be an increasingly important issue for the chemical industry in the future. In the context of white biotechnology, they represent the intersection point of agriculture and the chemical industry. The scarcity and related increase in the price of fossil resources make renewable resources an interesting alternative. If one considers the production of bulk chemicals, it is evident that for this area besides the C sources, sugar and starch, new sources of raw materials must be opened up. One possible solution is to utilize lignocellulose both for materials and energy. This article discusses this interesting prospective for the future, particularly from the point of view of the German industry. PMID:16897820

  4. Gas-well production decline in multiwell reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S. ); Stark, J.J. ); Yost, A.B. II )

    1990-12-01

    This paper introduces a pseudosteady-state constant-pressure solution for gas wells. The solution was used to develop a type-curve-based method to history match and predict multiwell gas reservoir production. Good agreements between the predicted and actual gas well production rates were obtained.

  5. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  6. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a red xanthophyll (oxygenated carotenoid) with large importance in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous are currently known as the main microorganisms useful for astaxanthin production at the industrial scale. The improvement of astaxanthin titer by microbial fermentation is a requirement to be competitive with the synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures, which at present is the major source in the market. In this review, we show how the isolation of new strains of X. dendrorhous from the environment, the selection of mutants by the classical methods of random mutation and screening, and the rational metabolic engineering, have provided improved strains with higher astaxanthin productivity. To reduce production costs and enhance competitiveness from an industrial point of view, low-cost raw materials from industrial and agricultural origin have been adopted to get the maximal astaxanthin productivity. Finally, fermentation parameters have been studied in depth, both at flask and fermenter scales, to get maximal astaxanthin titers of 4.7 mg/g dry cell matter (420 mg/l) when X. dendrorhous was fermented under continuous white light. The industrial scale-up of this biotechnological process will provide a cost-effective method, alternative to synthetic astaxanthin, for the commercial exploitation of the expensive astaxanthin (about $2,500 per kilogram of pure astaxanthin). PMID:20711573

  7. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  8. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors. PMID:26261761

  9. Natural gas in the energy industry of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttica, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a gas industry perspective on the impacts of restructuring the natural gas and electric industries. The four main implications discussed are: (1) market trends, (2) strategic positioning, (3) significant market implications, and (4) issues for the future. Market trends discussed include transitioning rate of return to market competition and regulatory impacts. Significant market implications for gas-fired generation identified include limited new generation investment, extension of existing plants, and an opportunity for distributed power generation. 12 tabs.

  10. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  11. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  12. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  13. Projected total energy and natural gas demand in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The results presented summarize a study conducted to provide information on industrial energy use by fuel type, functional end use, industry group, and region (GRI-91/0179). The main objectives of the study were to identify the salient trends in future industrial total energy and natural gas demand and to analyze the basic factors underlying those trends.

  14. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  15. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-12-31

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  16. How a Physicist Can Add Value In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The talk will focus on some specific examples of innovative and fit-for-purpose physics applied to solve real-world oil and gas exploration and production problems. In addition, links will be made to some of the skills and areas of practical experience acquired in physics education and research that can prove invaluable for success in such an industrial setting with a rather distinct and unique culture and a highly-collaborative working style. The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most geographically and organizationally diverse areas of business activity on earth; and as a `mature industry,' it is also characterized by a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21st. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To be successful at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most exotic or improbable technologies can take off in this industry if they honestly offer the best solution to a real problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. On the other hand, any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well would prevail, no matter how inelegant! The speaker started out in atomic spectroscopy (Harvard), post-doc'ed in laser cooling and trapping of ions for high-accuracy time and frequency metrology (NIST), and then jumped directly into Drilling Engineering with Schlumberger Corp. in Houston. Since then, his career has moved through applied electromagnetics, geological imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, some R and D portfolio

  17. GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION OF BEDDING AND FOLIAGE PLANTS WITH INDUSTRIAL HEAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of potentially beneficial uses of industrial waste heat for production of bedding and foliage plants, using conventionally and warm-water heated greenhouses in Fort Valley, GA. Each greenhouse was a plastic covered, 30 x 72-ft quonset. Th...

  18. Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...

  19. Correlates of Research Productivity for Industrial Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kip W.; Jansen, Duane G.

    1992-01-01

    Responses from 318 of 500 industrial education faculty showed that (1) over 70 percent were over 45; and (2) significant correlates of research productivity were networking with other faculty, conducting summer research, internal motivation, and involvement in teaching and advising graduate research students. (SK)

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  1. Industry Immersion for Reading and Mathematics Improvement. Valley Products Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; And Others

    An intensive industry immersion program of reading and mathematics was conducted in Spring 1989 for employees at Valley Products, Inc., in a cooperative venture by the Literacy Foundation, Memphis, the Memphis City Schools Adult Education Program, and the company. Employee participants were assessed with the San Diego Quick Assessment Test to…

  2. CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln. Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors and extractive sampling with an elect...

  3. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-12-03

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  4. [Description of Salmonella contamination of industrially made pizza products].

    PubMed

    Lohs, P; Kontny, I; Petzold, C; Schöttler, G

    1992-08-01

    Based on a impurity of industrial made pizza products with Salmonella it was checked to what extent the preparation instructions given by the producer are connected with a hygienic risk for the consumers. It can be declared that the producer didn't deal with its duty for exactness and that the made controls were insufficient. PMID:1388614

  5. Study of the outlook for the development of the gas industry in Russia and analysis of risk associated with this process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseeva, O. A.; Luk'yanova, A. S.; Tarasov, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The gas industry in Russia will develop under conditions of the persistence of existing risks and emergence of the new ones caused by the world financial crisis, increased uncertainty in estimating world prices for natural gas, together with disturbed balance between interests of gas producers and consumers, and threat of loss of the competitiveness of Russian natural gas on foreign markets. In this context, in choosing a strategy of the development of the gas industry and its production-and-financial program, it is necessary to carry out a risk analysis of optimum decisions. Specific features of carrying out a risk analysis and results of the risk analysis of strategic decisions that would provide enhanced steadiness and the effectiveness of the development of the gas industry under conditions of the uncertainty of both external and internal factors are presented.

  6. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  7. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion...

  8. Structural reform and productivity in the water and wastewater industry: Emerging issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Malcolm; Cohen, Bruce

    2010-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades there has been a range of reforms to the structure of the water supply and wastewater industries around the world. As yet these reforms have not been as extensive, or as uniform, as in other utilities such as telecommunications, gas, and electricity supply. One focus of reform has been to enhance the structure of water supply and wastewater industries to improve levels of productivity and efficiency while at the same time maintaining environmental and water quality standards, providing affordable access to clean water and encouraging innovation and improvement in service delivery. Now, however, a changing climate, new technologies, and greater emphasis on environmental impacts of supply from traditional sources are creating forces which are requiring a rethinking of traditional water and wastewater industry structures. The purpose of this paper is to examine emerging issues that confront the structure of the water and wastewater industries and to assess them in light of the findings of productivity and efficiency analysis undertaken to date. In doing so, this paper considers how industry structure may impact upon, and be influenced by, the dual achievement of both economic efficiency and issues such as water quality standards, environmental outcomes, innovation, and social goals in an evolving industry environment.

  9. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  10. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  11. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1). PMID:19765979

  12. Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

  13. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  14. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Albertson, J. D.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.; Rudek, J.; Thoma, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools for estimating emission rates from mobile methane measurements, and examines results from recent field measurements conducted downwind of several industrial plants using a specialized vehicle equipped with fast response methane sensor. Using these data along with local meteorological data measured by a 3-D sonic anemometer, a Bayesian approach is applied to probabilistically infer methane emission rates based on a modified Gaussian dispersion model. Source rates are updated recursively with repeated traversals of the downwind methane plume when the vehicle was circling around the targeted facilities. Data from controlled tracer release experiments are presented and used to validate the approach. With access via public roads, this mobile monitoring method is able to quickly assess the emission strength of facilities along the sensor path. This work is developing the capacity for efficient regional coverage of potential methane emission rates in support of leak detection and mitigation efforts.

  15. Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

  16. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  17. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  18. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  19. Environmental regulatory drivers for industrial natural gas research and development. Final topical report, March 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, J.; Cheng, R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to analyze opportunities for environmentally driven research and development projects for industrial natural gas use. The report seeks to identify broad trends in current and future environmental regulations, identify those areas of industrial gas use which are most significantly affected and analyze the role of industrial natural gas energy use in response to these implications.

  20. English-Spanish glossary: offshore exploration and production, gas processing, and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This series of articles contains 3 different English-Spanish glossaries of related terms used in the oil industry. The glossary of the offshore exploration and production involves a summary of terms used in the offshore oil activity. It also includes names of singular equipment used in offshore drilling, as well as several navigation terms in relation to the floating oil structures. With the help of the Gas Processors Association it was possible to compile a glossary of gas processing with a concise selection of common terms of the industry of gas processing. The glossary of valves includes more than 200 terms of the industry of valves in a specialized glossary, and several explanations about the application and operation of valves.

  1. Windowless gas targets for neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Erik B.

    A windowless deuterium gas target has been constructed for high yield production of either monoenergetic or white fast neutrons. The operation of this target has been demonstrated on a 900 keV deuteron accelerator. The target is capable of operation at 100 mbar target pressure, and can admit a low duty factor beam of 5 mm transverse extent. The target employs an intermittent valve arrangement to reduce the flow rates in the higher pressure stages of a differentially pumped vacuum system. This valve allows operation at much greater target pressures for low duty factor beams than would otherwise be the case. Neutron yield measurements validated the functionality of the target system. This target will make possible considerable advances in methods of non-destructive testing and evaluation which employ fast neutrons, whether mono-energetic or otherwise. It is further suited to use as a thermal neutron source, with the addition of an appropriate moderator. The development of this target system has not only provided a functioning and valuable piece of equipment for use in further research, but has also investigated the technological limitations and functional requirements of implementing such a system in a practical setting. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 2139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617- 253-1690.)

  2. Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

  3. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    PubMed

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products. PMID:26986880

  4. Heterologous laccase production and its role in industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Alessandra; Pezzella, Cinzia; Giardina, Paola; Faraco, Vincenza; Giovanni, Sannia

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, catalyzing the oxidation of an array of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These enzymes are implicated in a variety of biological activities. Most of the laccases studied thus far are of fungal origin. The large range of substrates oxidized by laccases has raised interest in using them within different industrial fields, such as pulp delignification, textile dye bleaching, and bioremediation. Laccases secreted from native sources are usually not suitable for large-scale purposes, mainly due to low production yields and high cost of preparation/purification procedures. Heterologous expression may provide higher enzyme yields and may permit to produce laccases with desired properties (such as different substrate specificities, or improved stabilities) for industrial applications. This review surveys researches on heterologous laccase expression focusing on the pivotal role played by recombinant systems towards the development of robust tools for greening modern industry. PMID:21327057

  5. Heterologous laccase production and its role in industrial applications

    PubMed Central

    Pezzella, Cinzia; Giardina, Paola; Faraco, Vincenza; Sannia, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, catalyzing the oxidation of an array of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These enzymes are implicated in a variety of biological activities. Most of the laccases studied thus far are of fungal origin. The large range of substrates oxidized by laccases has raised interest in using them within different industrial fields, such as pulp delignification, textile dye bleaching and bioremediation. Laccases secreted from native sources are usually not suitable for large-scale purposes, mainly due to low production yields and high cost of preparation/purification procedures. Heterologous expression may provide higher enzyme yields and may permit to produce laccases with desired properties (such as different substrate specificities, or improved stabilities) for industrial applications. This review surveys researches on heterologous laccase expression focusing on the pivotal role played by recombinant systems towards the development of robust tools for greening modern industry. PMID:21327057

  6. Gas reburn retrofit on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, H.; Latham, C.E.; Maringo, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, is being retrofitted with the gas reburning technology developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the Title I, ozone nonattainment, of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit set in New York`s regulation is about 47%. Eastman Kodak and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are cosponsoring this project. B & W is the prime contractor and contract negotiations with Chevron as the gas supplier are presently being finalized. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system is scheduled for a September 1995 outage. No. 43 Boiler`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}. Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient gas residence time to use pulverized coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Based on successful completion of this gas reburn project, modifying the other three cyclone boilers with gas reburn technology is anticipated. The paper will describe B & W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B & W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn design information specific to Eastman Kodak No. 43 Boiler, and numerical modeling experiences based on the pilot-scale Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) results along with those from a full-scale commercial boiler.

  7. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  8. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  9. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2014-07-01

    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  10. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.