Science.gov

Sample records for industry background information

  1. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  2. 2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian…

  4. Estimates of future regional heavy oil production at three production rates--background information for assessing effects in the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications from a project considering the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degree} to 20{degree} API gravity inclusive) production being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The report includes projections of future heavy oil production at three production levels: 900,000; 500,000; and 300,000 BOPD above the current 1992 heavy oil production level of 750,000 BOPD. These free market scenario projections include time frames and locations. Production projections through a second scenario were developed to examine which heavy oil areas would be developed if significant changes in the US petroleum industry occurred. The production data helps to define the possible constraints (impact) of increased heavy oil production on the US refining industry (the subject of a future report). Constraints include a low oil price and low rate of return. Heavy oil has high production, transportation, and refining cost per barrel as compared to light oil. The resource is known, but the right mix of technology and investment is required to bring about significant expansion of heavy oil production in the US.

  5. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  6. Information gains from cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Paranjape, Aseem; Akeret, Joël

    2014-07-01

    To shed light on the fundamental problems posed by dark energy and dark matter, a large number of experiments have been performed and combined to constrain cosmological models. We propose a novel way of quantifying the information gained by updates on the parameter constraints from a series of experiments which can either complement earlier measurements or replace them. For this purpose, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy from information theory to measure differences in the posterior distributions in model parameter space from a pair of experiments. We apply this formalism to a historical series of cosmic microwave background experiments ranging from Boomerang to WMAP, SPT, and Planck. Considering different combinations of these experiments, we thus estimate the information gain in units of bits and distinguish contributions from the reduction of statistical errors and the "surprise" corresponding to a significant shift of the parameters' central values. For this experiment series, we find individual relative entropy gains ranging from about 1 to 30 bits. In some cases, e.g. when comparing WMAP and Planck results, we find that the gains are dominated by the surprise rather than by improvements in statistical precision. We discuss how this technique provides a useful tool for both quantifying the constraining power of data from cosmological probes and detecting the tensions between experiments.

  7. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  8. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of modern oceanography is an end user oriented product. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast-based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct potential users and customers are coastal managers, shipping, offshore industry, ports and harbours, fishing, tourism and recreation industry, and scientific community. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Five general classes of users for data and information are specified: (1) operational users that analyze the collected data and produce different forecasts serving to impose regulation measures; (2) authorities and managers of large-scale projects needing timely oceanographic information, including statistics and climatic trends; (3) industrial enterprises, safety of structures and avoiding of pollution; (4) tourism and recreation related users aiming protection of human health; (5) scientists, engineers, and economists carrying out special researches, strategic design studies, and other investigations to advance the application of marine data. The analysis of information received during the extensive inquiry among all potential end users reveals variety of data and information needs encompassing physical, chemical, biological and hydrometeorological observation. Nevertheless, the common requirement concerns development of observing and forecasting systems providing accurate real-time or near-real time data and information supporting decision making and environmental management. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast for the future changes of marine environment are essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. For this purpose different systems have been developed to collect data and to produce forecasts on the state of the marine environment and to provide

  9. Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voet, Tony Vander

    This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

  10. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  11. How does background information improve memory for text content?

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Kintsch, Walter

    2002-07-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether reading background information benefits memory for text content by influencing the amount of content encoded or the organization of the encoded content. In Experiment 1, half of the participants read background information about the issues to be discussed in the text material, whereas half did not. All the participants were then tested for free recall and cued recall of text content. Free recall was greater for individuals who read issue information than for those who did not. The groups did not differ on cued recall, suggesting that background information did not facilitate the encoding of more text content. Measures of representational organization indicated that increased recall in the issue information group resulted from better organization of content in memory. Experiment 2 extended these findings, using background information about text sources, demonstrated that the efficacy of background information depends on the semantic relationship between that information and text content. PMID:12219893

  12. 7 CFR 1220.112 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.112 Industry information. The... markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the soybean industry, and activities...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.112 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.112 Industry information. The... markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the soybean industry, and activities...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.112 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.112 Industry information. The... markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the soybean industry, and activities...

  15. ASK For Information Retrieval: Part I. Background and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, N. J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and theory underlying a design study for an interactive information retrieval system funded by the British Library Research and Development Department which will determine structural representations of anomalous states of knowledge (ASKs) underlying information needs. References are cited. (EJS)

  16. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  17. 76 FR 81523 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and Request for... following information is provided for the information collection: Title: Federal Advisory...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.9 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... enhance the image of the mushroom industry....

  19. 7 CFR 1209.9 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... enhance the image of the mushroom industry....

  20. 7 CFR 1209.9 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... enhance the image of the mushroom industry....

  1. 7 CFR 1219.15 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.15 Industry... efficiency, and enhance the image of Hass avocados and the Hass avocado industry in the United States....

  2. 7 CFR 1219.15 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.15 Industry... efficiency, and enhance the image of Hass avocados and the Hass avocado industry in the United States....

  3. 7 CFR 1219.15 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.15 Industry... efficiency, and enhance the image of Hass avocados and the Hass avocado industry in the United States....

  4. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  5. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  6. Do Executives' Backgrounds Matter to IPO Investors? Evidence from the Life Science Industry

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  7. Do executives' backgrounds matter to IPO investors? Evidence from the life science industry.

    PubMed

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  8. Information Resource Management for Industrial Information Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosa, Marta

    This paper argues that the function of educational programs is to convey a sense of reality and an understanding of the open-endedness of information needs and situations; only such a reality orientation can instill the necessary flexibility in information professionals for effectively managing change. There is a growing consensus among…

  9. Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

  10. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Industrial Research and Development Information System (IRIS) links an online interface to a historical database with more than 2,500 statistical tables containing all industrial research and development (R&D) data published by NSF since 19...

  11. 7 CFR 1215.8 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.8 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.8 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

  14. 7 CFR 1215.8 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.112 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1220.112 Section 1220.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the soybean industry, and activities...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.112 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industry information. 1220.112 Section 1220.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the soybean industry, and activities...

  17. Information routing driven by background chatter in a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Domedel-Puig, Núria; Rué, Pau; Pons, Antonio J; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity -or chatter- that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios. PMID:22174668

  18. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E-mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT, TE, and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B-mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck, which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  19. Basic Information Sources: Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Thomas J., Ed.

    Ways in which the National Reading Center can help business, industry, and occupational training agencies expand and develop reading programs for disadvantaged adults are explored in this publication. An annotated bibliography provides basic information sources such as periodicals, instructional materials, and other information services. Company…

  20. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... information and programs that will lead to the development of new markets, marketing strategies,...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.8 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... information and programs that will lead to the development of new markets, marketing strategies,...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... information and programs that will lead to the development of new markets, marketing strategies,...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... information and programs that will lead to the development of new markets, marketing strategies,...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.9 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industry information. 1209.9 Section 1209.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.125 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industry information. 1260.125 Section 1260.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... information and programs that will lead to the development of new markets, marketing strategies,...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.15 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industry information. 1219.15 Section 1219.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass...

  8. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Library, Columbus.

    Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

  9. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  10. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

  11. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  12. 7 CFR 1209.9 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1209.9 Section 1209.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... to the development of new markets and marketing strategies, increased efficiency, and activities...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.15 - Industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1219.15 Section 1219.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... efficiency in processing, enhance the development of new markets and marketing strategies, increase...

  14. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  15. The effective use of newspaper information in corporations (1) Centered around industrial and technical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    The author explains the such background that as information society has progressed, databases have become much more important than ever in effectively utilizing information resourses which newspaper companies hold. This explanation is also the report by a database producer of Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun newspaper article information. This database's coverage is all-directional in industry fields in order to meet the information needs there, being emphasized on advanced high-technology fields as well as new products. He introduces efficient searching methods including NK Thesaurus, corporate name code book. He also discusses the practices of the information use by showing some examples in which newspaper article data are actually used in industrial and technical fields.

  16. Partnering industry to develop clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Victoria; Hamer, Susan

    2012-09-01

    Over the past six months, the nursing team from the Department of Health's Informatics Directorate has been working with colleagues in industry to promote and share learning and understanding of issues surrounding the nursing profession. Team members were asked among other things to identify key questions senior nursing colleagues and suppliers should ask one another when considering the implementation of a new system for recording clinical information and extracting pertinent data. This article aims to encourage collaborative working and understanding of the importance of senior nurse involvement in choosing and delivering the right system for staff and patients. PMID:23008903

  17. Industrial information database service by personal computer network 'Saitamaken Industrial Information System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Keiji

    Saitamaken Industrial Information System provides onlined database services, which does not rely on computers for the whole operation, but utilizes computers, optical disk files or facsimiles for certain operations as we think fit. It employes the method of providing information for various, outputs, that is, image information is sent from optical disk files to facsimiles, or other information is provided from computers to terminals as well as facsimiles. Locating computers as a core in the system, it enables integrated operations. The system at terminal side was developed separately with functions such as operation by turnkey style, down-loading of statistical information and the newest menu.

  18. Accessibility and Integrity of Networked Information Collections. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    This paper considers questions related to the integrity and accessibility of new electronic information resources. It begins with a review of recent developments in networked information resources and the tools to identify, navigate, and use such resources. An overview is then given of the issues involved in access and integrity questions. Links…

  19. The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

  20. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  1. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in [1] to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  2. Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

    This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

  3. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  4. Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects

  5. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  6. Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very

  7. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13629), FDA published the notice... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived...

  8. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  9. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  10. [Seminar on Industrial Information (for the ECAFE and ECA Regions), Tehran, Iran, 14 - 25 Sept. 1970. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

    The Seminar was organized by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to bring together policy-making officials to determine the most efficient way of organizing the flow of industrial information and its application for the acceleration of the industrialization of developing countries. Background papers including the actual…

  11. Alliance Building in the Information and Online Database Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Johanna Olson

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of information industry alliance formation using environmental scanning methods. Highlights include why libraries and academic institutions should be interested; a literature review; historical context; industry and market structures; commercial and academic models; trends; and implications for information providers,…

  12. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background Information...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  15. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  17. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emission monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Picazo, A.G.

    1992-10-01

    The market survey covers the emission monitoring equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  18. Challenges and Benefits of Chemical Information Service in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary E.; Curtis, Jan M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses chemical information services offered in industrial chemical libraries, based on experiences at the 3M Library. Topics include qualifications of chemical information professionals; corporate culture; clients; services, including reference, current awareness, confidentiality, and end-user support; and information resources, including…

  19. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265

  20. Financial Aspects of Industrial Information Centers: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavage, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a survey of the economic elements of special libraries and information centers in American industrial companies, focusing on the assessment of allocated resources, pricing behavior, cost behavior, and accounting practices of such centers. (FM)

  1. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information..., Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). DATES: Comments must be received by... INFORMATION: Title: Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...

  2. Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

  3. Corporate Information Systems in Transition: Call for Industry Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John F. X.

    Database publishers are in a position to assist corporate users in their transition into the future by providing services which successfully integrate online systems with the larger information systems. Information is one of industry's most valuable assets. Present and future technological advancements offer the means for controlling burgeoning…

  4. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  5. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  6. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  7. 78 FR 59335 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Previously Approved Information Collection (Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Approved Information Collection (Industry Responses to Noncompliance Records) AGENCY: Food Safety and... information collection concerning industry responses to noncompliance records. There are no changes to the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Industry Responses to Noncompliance Records. Type of Request: Extension of...

  8. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  9. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  10. The Importance of Providing Background Information on the Structure and Scoring of Performance Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Karns, Kathy; Hamlett, Carol L.; Dutka, Sue; Katzaroff, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effects of providing students with background information about the structure and scoring of mathematics performance assessments (PA). Results for 187 elementary school students who had PA orientation and 182 who did not show the effects of test wiseness training for average and above-average students, but not for below-average…

  11. Industry sector analysis, China: Petrochemical industry in east China. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the petrochemical equipment and technology market in East China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  12. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Asbestos control industry. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the asbestos control market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  13. Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Ceron, F.

    1992-10-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for pollution control equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for pollution control equipment.

  14. Information Technologies in Higher Education: Lessons Learned in Industrial Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Almonte, Milagros; Andreu, Hernando Bustos; Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a teaching experience in which information and communication technologies were applied in five industrial engineering courses at the Universidad de Tarapaca in Chile. The paper compares the performance and course pass rates of the e-learning platform and portable pocket PC platform with those of the same courses teaching in…

  15. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Business and Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current applications of geographic information systems (GIS) and suggests that industry can use such systems to aid in decision making. The discussion covers factors that will influence future use of GIS, potential uses of GIS in the private sector, and the need to develop an integrated GIS. (CLB)

  16. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the business”. 29 CFR 1605.1(a)(2), 31 FR 3870 (1966). In 1967, the Commission revised these... “undue hardship”. 29 CFR 1605.1(b)(c), 32 FR 10298. In 1972, Congress amended title VII to incorporate... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  2. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials in the Information Technology Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.

    A study investigated the influence of information technology (IT)-industry-sponsored credentials from both organizational and individual perspectives. A senior-level human resource (HR) executive from each of 33 organizations with 500 or more employees completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (response rate=66% of the 50 organizations comprising…

  3. Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

  4. A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

  5. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  6. Information Transfer in the Illinois Swine Industry: How Producers Are Informed of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Genefer L.; Hollis, Gilbert; Wheeler, Matthew B.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 127 (of 300) Illinois swine producers found that 114 owned computers; the majority used industry magazines as sources of information about new technologies; extension newsletters were used much less by corporate farm enterprises; very small numbers used electronic mail; only about half used university specialists for information; and…

  7. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. 1260.169 Section 1260.169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  8. Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

  9. Mass and number size distributions of particulate matter components: comparison of an industrial site and an urban background site.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Adewale M; Beddows, David C S; Shi, Zongbo; Harrison, Roy M

    2014-03-15

    Size-resolved composition of particulate matter (PM) sampled in the industrial town of Port Talbot (PT), UK was determined in comparison to a typical urban background site in Birmingham (EROS). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) sampler was deployed for two separate sampling campaigns with the addition of a Grimm optical spectrometer at the PT site. MOUDI samples were analysed for water-soluble anions (Cl(-), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-)) and cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and trace metals (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba and Pb). The PM mass distribution showed a predominance of fine particle (PM₂.₅) mass at EROS whereas the PT samples were dominated by the coarse fraction (PM₂.₅₋₁₀). SO₄(2-), Cl(-), NH4(+), Na(+), NO₃(-), and Ca(2+) were the predominant ionic species at both sites while Al and Fe were the metals with highest concentrations at both sites. Mean concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher at PT than EROS due to industrial and marine influences. The contribution of regional pollution by sulphate, ammonium and nitrate was greater at EROS relative to PT. The traffic signatures of Cu, Sb, Ba and Pb were particularly prominent at EROS. Overall, PM at EROS was dominated by secondary aerosol and traffic-related particles while PT was heavily influenced by industrial activities and marine aerosol. Profound influences of wind direction are seen in the 72-hour data, especially in relation to the PT local sources. Measurements of particle number in 14 separate size bins plotted as a function of wind direction and speed are highly indicative of contributing sources, with local traffic dominant below 0.5 μm, steelworks emissions from 0.5 to 15 μm, and marine aerosol above 15 μm. PMID:24419284

  10. Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none

  11. 75 FR 70235 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to access Confidential Business..., Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) will assist the Office of Enforcement and Compliance...

  12. Industrial espionage today and information wars of tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyal, Paul

    1996-03-01

    In this report we review case histories of industrial espionage publicized in the media and in Congressional hearings. The threat to the United Stages as the world's largest investor in R&D is magnified by the transition from a cold war military confrontation of the super powers to an economic competition in global markets. To sustain their market share, France, Japan and Russia have initiated national programs to acquire U.S. technical know-how. Former intelligence staff now distill fragments of sensitive information into meaningful knowledge to guide industrial and national efforts to ascertain dominance. This threat is amplified by the exponential proliferation of global communication networks, like INTERENET, that reach into corporate America and permit unseen adversaries to probe the vast U.S. data stores for unprotected intelligence. Counter intelligence in industrial espionage by the United Stages on a national level is virtually impossible because of public scrutiny in our open society. On the positive side, the upheaval of a rapid transition from high-tension and high economic stability to low-tension and high economic instability is prompting international collaboration against international terrorism. On the corporate level, strategic alliances with foreign firms are expanding to sustain competitiveness and innovation in areas of specialty. A national security plan to protect the U.S. information resources is needed; and a viable policy to operate our information highways as safe conduits for electronic business. The well being of the global economy, not just that of our nation, is at stake and should not be left to chance and provocation.

  13. Information geometry with correlated data: Bayesian explorations of cosmological predictions for the microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Katherine; de Bernardis, Francesco; Niemack, Michael; Sethna, James

    We developed a new, generalized fitting algorithm for miltiparameter models which incorporates varying and correlated errors. This was combined with geometrical methods of sampling to explore model prediction space, notably to plot geodesics and determine the size and edges of the model manifold. We illustrate this using the microwave background spectra for all possible universes, as described by the standard Λ-cold dark matter (Λ-CDM) cosmological model. In this case, the predicted data are fluctuations and highly correlated with varying errors, resulting in a manifold with a varying metric (as the natural metric to use is given by the Fisher information matrix). Furthermore, the model manifold shares the hyperribbon structure seen in other models, with the edges forming a strongly distorted image of a hypercube. Practical applications of such an analysis include optimizing experimental instrumentation designed to test more detailed cosmological theories. Funding supported in part by NSERC.

  14. Implementation of building information modeling in Malaysian construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Aftab Hameed; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Harman, Nur Melly Edora

    2014-10-01

    This study has assessed the implementation level of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the construction industry of Malaysia. It also investigated several computer software packages facilitating BIM and challenges affecting its implementation. Data collection for this study was carried out using questionnaire survey among the construction practitioners. 95 completed forms of questionnaire received against 150 distributed questionnaire sets from consultant, contractor and client organizations were analyzed statistically. Analysis findings indicated that the level of implementation of BIM in the construction industry of Malaysia is very low. Average index method employed to assess the effectiveness of various software packages of BIM highlighted that Bentley construction, AutoCAD and ArchiCAD are three most popular and effective software packages. Major challenges to BIM implementation are it requires enhanced collaboration, add work to a designer, interoperability and needs enhanced collaboration. For improving the level of implementing BIM in Malaysian industry, it is recommended that a flexible training program of BIM for all practitioners must be created.

  15. The Technology Information Environment with Industry{trademark} system description

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, R.; Machin, G.

    1996-03-01

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In{trademark}) provides users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users access resources without requiring the user to have technical or computer expertise. TIE-In utilizes existing, proven technologies such as the Kerberos authentication system, X-Windows, and UNIX sockets. A Front End System (FES) authenticates users and allows them to register for resources and subsequently access them. The FES also stores status and accounting information, and provides an automated method for the resource owners to recover costs from users. The resources available through TIE-In are typically laboratory-developed applications that are used to help design, analyze, and test components in the nation`s nuclear stockpile. Many of these applications can also be used by US companies for non-weapons-related work. TIE-In allows these industry partners to obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring them to duplicate the technical resources (people, hardware, and software) at Sandia.

  16. Technology, Information and Organization; Information Transfer in Industrial R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Richard S.; Wolek, Francis W.

    This is a study of information transfer in the R and D operations of large industrial corporations. Its basis is a body of survey data collected from 2000 engineers and scientists in 13 establishments of four corporations and from 1200 members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The data describe instances in which…

  17. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  18. Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ron

    This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

  19. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  20. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-09-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  1. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  2. Background updating and shadow detection based on spatial, color, and texture information of detected objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Ahmed Mahmoud; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2012-05-01

    Background model updating is a vital process for any background subtraction technique. This paper presents an updating mechanism that can be applied efficiently to any background subtraction technique. This updating mechanism exploits the color and spatial features to characterize each detected object. Spatial and color features are used to classify each detected object as a moving background object, a ghost, or a real moving object. The starting position of each detected object is the cue for updating background images. In addition, this paper presents a hybrid scheme to detect and remove cast shadows based on texture and color features. The robustness of the proposed method and its effectiveness in overcoming challenging problems such as gradual and sudden illumination changes, ghost appearance, non-stationary background objects, the stability of moving objects most of the time, and cast shadows are verified quantitatively and qualitatively.

  3. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products... information collection for a survey of the egg products industry. DATES: Comments on this notice must be.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Egg Products Industry Survey. Type of Request: New information...

  4. Exploring the background features of acidic and basic air pollutants around an industrial complex using data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; She, Chin-Wen; Lin, Yo-Chen; Chiang, Chow-Feng

    2010-11-01

    Air pollution data around a monitored site are normally difficult to analyze due to highly inter-related meteorological and topographical factors on top of many complicated atmospheric chemical interactions occurred in local and regional wind fields. The challenge prompts this study to develop a comprehensive data-mining algorithm of cluster analysis followed by meteorological and interspecies correlations to mitigate the inherent data complexity and dissimilarity. This study investigated the background features of acidic and basic air pollutants around a high-tech industrial park in Taiwan. Monthly samplings were taken at 10 sites around the park in a year. The temporal distribution plots show a baseline with two characteristic groups of high and low peaks. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirms that high peaks were primarily associated with low speed south wind in summer for all the chemical species, except for F(-), Cl(-), NH(3) and HF. Crosschecking with the topographical map identifies several major external sources in south and southwest. Further meteorological correlation suggests that HCl is highly positively associated with humidity, while Cl(-) is highly negatively associated with temperature, both for most stations. Interestingly, HNO(3) is highly negatively associated with wind speed for most stations and the hotspot was found in summer and around the foothill of Da-Tu Mountain in the northwest, a stagnant pocket on the study site. However, F(-) is highly positively associated with wind speed at downwind stations to the prevailing north wind in winter, indicating an internal source from the north. The presence of NH(4)(+) stimulates the formation of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) (R=0.7), and HNO(3), H(2)SO(4), NH(3) (R=0.3-0.4). As H(2)SO(4) could be elevated to a level as high as 40% of the regulated standard, species interactions may be a dominate mechanism responsible for the substantial increase in summer from external sources. PMID:20825963

  5. Characterization Of Industrial And Background Aerosols In The RhÔne-alpes Region Using Laser Remote Sensing Device.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffroy, S.; Rairoux, P.; Mondelain, D.; Boutou, V.; Wolf, J.-P.; Frejafon, E.

    Lack of reliable database on aerosol emission and dispersion is one of the main rea- sons for the incertitude of the impact of aerosol on the climate change. International statements and policies requested improvement on the global and on the regional scale. This new project is related to the characterisation of the spatial and time distribution of the aerosols in the Rhône-Alpes region. Actually, aerosols monitoring is mainly performed at ground level in this region and only few studies have been performed on the 3D distribution of urban aerosols (soot) using remote sensing laser device. The Rhône-Alpes region is representative for the regional impact of industry and traffic emission and also for the long-range transport of pollution over the East part of the Alps. The environmental situation of the region in term of sources and localization is especially dominated by: heavy traffic with several motorways (A6 from Paris, A7 to Marseille - both downtown - and A43 to the Alps and Italy) and industrial pollu- tion in particular for Lyon (refinery and several chemistry plants) and Saint Etienne agglomerations, which have a direct impact on the local air quality and also on the regional and national scale. Characterization of the aerosol load and dispersion in this region will be achieved applying two schemes. The first one will be related to the 3D quantitative characterization of diffuse aerosol emission in the industrial areas. Mon- itoring will be performed using a UV-infrared lidar remote sensing device. Emission cadastre elaboration and microphysical characterisation of the emission will be estab- lished. Direct access to several aerosol distribution modes will be used to describe the aerosol population dynamic: sedimentation, transport and aggregation. Studies on the direct impact of the emission on the region will be achieved coupling the 3D and ground level monitoring with dispersion model. The second scheme will be related to the long term remote sensing of

  6. 75 FR 1053 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to access Confidential Business... Confidential Business Information Under EPA Contracts No. EP-W-6-065 and EP07H000213, Industrial...

  7. 75 FR 61025 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA..., NW., Room 725, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood Lumber, Promotion,...

  8. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI) announces the proposed extension of a public information....doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on this renewed.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract DOI is below parity with the Relevant Civilian Labor Force...

  9. Using probe secondary structure information to enhance Affymetrix GeneChip background estimates

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Raad Z.; Fodor, Anthony A.; Gibas, Cynthia J.

    2007-01-01

    High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data. A number of statistical techniques have been developed to correct for this background noise. Here, we demonstrate that probe minimum folding energy and structure can be used to enhance a previously existing model for background noise correction. We estimate that probe secondary structure accounts for up to 3% of all variation on Affymetrix microarrays. PMID:17387043

  10. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived... guidance for industry 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC)...

  11. 77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... collection of information was published on April 12, 2012 (77 FR 21992). One comment was received. This... Civil Rights, Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI) has submitted to OMB for renewal..._Anderson@ios.doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on...

  12. GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

  13. GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Pretreated Lignocellulosic Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to util...

  14. Information for Industry; Proceedings of a One Day Seminar, (Univ. of Newcastle, 6th December 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcastle Public Library, New South Wales (Australia).

    The objective of this seminar was to increase the awareness of the importance of information to industry and the availability of informational resources in Newcastle. It is directed toward management, research and technical executives. The four papers presented for discussion are: (1) "The importance of information to industry," (2) "The mechanics…

  15. Making background work visible: opportunities to address patient information needs in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pollack, Ari; Aaronson, Barry; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing use of patient-facing technologies such as patient portals to address information needs for outpatients, we understand little about how patients manage information and use information technologies in an inpatient context. Based on hospital observations and responses to an online questionnaire from previously hospitalized patients and caregivers, we describe information workspace that patients have available to them in the hospital and the information items that patients and caregivers rate as important and difficult to access or manage while hospitalized. We found that patients and caregivers desired information—such as the plan of care and the schedule of activities—that is difficult to access as needed in a hospital setting. Within this study, we describe the various tools and approaches that patients and caregivers use to help monitor their care as well as illuminate gaps in information needs not typically captured by traditional patient portals. PMID:26958295

  16. Computerized information resources in toxicology and industrial health--a review.

    PubMed

    Halton, D M

    1986-07-01

    The explosion in scientific information presents problems for toxicologists and industrial health specialists who need to respond rapidly and comprehensively to the information needs of the public, government and industry. The application of information technology enables large volumes of toxicology and industrial health information to be stored and retrieved through a variety of data-base resources. Three different categories of databases are described: dictionary, bibliographic and informational types. Examples of specific toxicology and industrial health databases within each category are given; their origin, style and content are reviewed. Specialists in the industrial health field are encouraged to improve their knowledge and literacy in the new disciplines of information technology and information science. PMID:3538497

  17. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency... in accordance with Title 5, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Sec. 1320.10. If you have...

  18. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., presented in the Federal Register publication of February 17, 2009, 74 FR 7439. GSA is proceeding with the... Investigations for Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public... collection of personal data for background investigations for child care workers accessing GSA owned...

  19. 77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., which is abstracted below, describes the nature of the information collection and its estimated burden... 1320.12. On October 31, 2011, 76 FR 67182, EPA sought comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d... Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460, and (2) OMB by mail to: Office of Information and...

  20. Background information and technological tests of hard X-ray detectors .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalucci, L.; Caroli, E.; Quadrini, E.; Del Sordo, S.; Ubertini, P.

    Hard X-ray detectors for astronomical observations are currently being designed with advanced background rejection capabilities, based on high level of pixelisation and on fast signal processing. The development of such devices, based on room temperature semiconductor such as CdTe or CdZnTe comes through extensive testing programs normally based on ground campaigns, using radioactive sources, X-ray tubes and particle beam accelerators. These methods show their limits, however, especially for the measurements of the response to the different types of hadrons. Firtsly, we briefly review the knowledge of the primary sources of background and of the different radiation environments both for space and balloon altitudes, for which typical fluxes/rates are given. Then, we discuss how flying prototypes on high altitude balloons can greatly help to test the detector performance in an environment almost as severe as the conditions found in orbit, with detectors responding at very similar rates.

  1. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... 852.211-75), Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of Review: Revision of a currently approved collection. Abstract: VAAR provision 852.211-72, Technical Industry...

  2. 75 FR 13209 - Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... Regulation (VAAR) Provision 852.211-75, Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of... Industry Standards, requires items offered for sale to VA under the solicitation conform to...

  3. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security...

  4. Resource Information for Industrial Arts. Industrial Arts Series No. 10,008.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.; Stone, Gary A., Comp.

    Designed to assist teachers in improving industrial arts programs, this resource guide lists (1) 102 sources of free instructional materials (industries and trade associations), (2) 30 equipment and supply catalogs, (3) 80 loan films costing only the price of return postage, and (4) 124 books, 5 professional journals, and 10 magazines suggested…

  5. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    SciTech Connect

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  6. 75 FR 56096 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated AGENCY... Economics Incorporated (IEI) of Cambridge, MA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA...

  7. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Education and Industry Information Order; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION..., 2011 (76 FR 46185), regarding softwood lumber. Corrections are made in the amendatory instruction... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Division, Fruit...

  8. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  9. Technology, Innovation, and Regional Economic Development. Census of State Government Initiatives for High-Technology Industrial Development. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Census data were gathered on existing state government programs to stimulate, attract, or retain high technology industrial development. A preliminary taxonomy of program types and services indicated the range and diversity of the tactics. The census identified over 200 state and local economic development initiatives with at least some features…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Information on National Industrial R&D Expenditures. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary V.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) annually publishes information generated by its survey of research and development (R&D) expenditures by United States industry. These data are collected for NSF by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Other organizations also publish information on industrial R&D expenditures collected by surveys or derived from…

  11. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... final rule that implemented the Order (76 FR 46185; August 2, 2012) and would bring the Order in line..., Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes to the Membership of the Softwood Lumber Board... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). The Board administers...

  12. Directory of Technical Information Sources for Industry. Networks Study No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This publication seeks to bring together sufficient details of information sources relating to the technical and scientific needs of industry so that workers can identify the most appropriate source for a given problem. Produced under the guidance of the Australian Industry Information Network Liaison Committee convened by the National Library of…

  13. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  14. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  15. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability. PMID:19631704

  16. The data and system Nikkei Telecom "Industry/Technology Information Service"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Shizuya; Sueyoshi, Yukio

    Nihoh Keizai Shimbun started supplying "Industry/Technology Information Service" from July 1989 as a part of Nikkei Telecom Package, which is online information service using personal computers for its terminals. Previously Nikkei's database service mainly covered such areas as economy, corporations and markets. On the other hand, the new "Industry/Technology Information Service" (main data covers industry by industry information-semi macro) is attracting a good deal of attention as it is the first to supply science and technology related database which has not been touched before. Moreover it is attracting attention technically as it has an access by gateway system to JOIS which is the first class science technology file in Japan. This report introduces data and system of "Industry/Technology Information Service" briefly.

  17. Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

  18. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  19. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  20. On unitary evolution of a massless scalar field in a Schwarzschild background: Hawking radiation and the information paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2002-08-08

    We develop a Hamiltonian formalism which can be used to discuss the physics of a massless scalar field in a gravitational background of a Schwarzschild black hole. Using this formalism we show that the time evolution of the system is unitary and yet all known results such as the existence of Hawking radiation can be readily understood. We then point out that the Hamiltonian formalism leads to interesting observations about black hole entropy and the information paradox.

  1. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  2. Information highway: Alliances and their impact on the gas industry. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The report describes the major developments in digital information networks, the key industry players and their alliances and technologies, and the significance of their activities to the gas industry. The newly-integrated industries involved in creating the 'information highway' are likely to promote standards based on open protocols and accelerate the pace of technology implementation in new products that link home systems and external network systems. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Factors leading to the development of a new communications infrastructure and the alliances driving it were analyzed in order to best define opportunities and interests for the gas industry.

  3. The role of information to activate industry in Tohoku district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Nakao

    This is a record of the commemorative lecture at the First Meeting of Tohoku Technical Information Research Group. Prior to enter into the main subject, author, who had been the Director of School of Medicine. Tohoku University, mentions how JOIS affected the academic society when it was introduced to Tohoku district in 1978. People in academic society could have the point of view both from producer and receiver of information. After that, circumstances, structure and purposes of Tohoku Intelligent Cosmos Plan which aims at realizing scientific and technological information oriented city are mentioned. Issues needed to develop this Plan, including information issues are described.

  4. Post-industrial or Re-industrial: Two Interpretations of the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valaskakis, Kimon

    1982-01-01

    Examines two interpretations of the impact of microelectronics technology on international manufacturing and economic activities. The author describes how differences in estimates of the scope of changes caused by microelectronics and the relationship of these changes to concepts of industrialization will affect economic policy formation. (AM)

  5. The PM2.5 chemical composition in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement: main sources and local background.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Canal, Andrea; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Chemical analyses, receptor modeling and meteorological data were combined to determine the composition and sources of PM2.5 sampled daily in a large area in Italy characterized by a high number of heterogeneous industrial emissions and contiguous to a major urban center. The PM2.5 local background in the area, i.e. the common basic composition and concentrations of PM2.5, was determined. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression analysis (FA-MLRA) was used to identify and quantify the main PM sources. Groups of samples with similar source contributions were then sorted using cluster analysis. The potential source location and the influence of long range transport were investigated by using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) respectively. On an annual basis, five sources of PM were found relevant. Industrial emissions accounted for 3% of PM mass, whereas the main contribution to PM was related to a combination of ammonium nitrate, combustion (54%) and road traffic (36%), mainly related to urban emissions. The PM2.5 background was estimated to account for 20 μg m(-3). It comprises contributions of 55% ammonium nitrate and combustion, 46% road traffic, 6% fossil fuel combustion and 3% industrial emissions. Source contributions are influenced by both local atmospheric circulation and regional transport. PMID:24912903

  6. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essig, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  7. 76 FR 46185 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...This rule establishes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). Softwood lumber is used in products like flooring, siding and framing. The program will be financed by an assessment on softwood lumber domestic manufacturers and importers and will be administered by a board of industry members selected by the Secretary of Agriculture......

  8. 77 FR 37704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... published a Federal Register Notice (77 FR 6580) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals... requirements for the Industrial Minerals Surveys. This collection consists of 40 forms. The revision...

  9. Constituting the Significance and Value of Research: Views from Information Technology Academics and Industry Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Pham, Binh; Stoodley, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The information technology research community, comprising both academic and industry stakeholders, is responding to national and international imperatives that challenge disparate groups to work together. In this article it is shown how, within both academic and industrial contexts, researchers interpret, or constitute, the significance and value…

  10. Industrial waste management information for 1990 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    Litteer, D.L.; Peterson, C.N.; Sims, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    This product provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil consumption, and water usage for the calendar year 1990. It summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Industrial Waste Management Information System (IWMIS).

  11. Food allergy information resources for consumers, industry and regulators.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Sancho, Ana I; Miles, Susan; Madsen, Charlotte; Valovirta, Errka; Frewer, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Through the EU-funded InformAll project a stakeholder consultation was conducted to solicit the views of different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, retailers, manufacturers, caterers, regulators and risk assessors, and the general public) regarding what information about food allergy is required by these stakeholders. The outcomes of this consultation are presented both generally and specifically from the potential perspectives of different stakeholders. The development of reliable credible resources aimed to begin to meet the needs identified is described, including a database of allergenic food materials which uniquely combines refereed information on the clinical aspects of food allergies with details of individual allergens and web portal with other credible internet resources. PMID:17393719

  12. Seismic data collection from water gun and industrial background sources in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal area, Illinois, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.; Carpenter, Phillip J.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The water gun is a tool adapted from deep marine geophysical surveys that is being evaluated for use as an acoustic fish deterrent to control the movement of invasive marine species. The water gun creates a seismic signal by using a compressed air discharge to move a piston rapidly within the water, resulting in an implosion. This energy pulse may be able to modify fish behavior or destroy marine life, such as the Asian carp, at some distance. The effects of this energy pulse on structures in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), such as canal walls, shore lines, and lock structures, are not known. The potential effects of the use of a water gun on structures was identified as a concern in the CSSC and was assessed relative to existing background sources during this study. During September 2011, two water guns with piston sizes of 80 and 343 cubic inches, respectively, were tested in the CSSC at varying pressures and distances from a canal wall consisting of dolomite and dolomite setblock. Seismic data were collected during these water gun firings using geophones on land, in boreholes, and at the canal wall interface. Data were collected at varying depths in the canal water using hydrophones. Seismic data were also collected during the occurrences of barge traffic, railroad traffic located near the electric fish barrier in Lemont, and coal-loading operations at a coal power plant near the electric fish barrier. In general, energy produced by barge and railroad sources was less than energy created by the water gun. Energy levels produced by coal-loading operations at least 200 feet from geophones were approximately four times lower than energy levels measured during water gun operations.

  13. Advanced Approach to Information Security Management System Model for Industrial Control System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS. PMID:25136659

  14. Advanced approach to information security management system model for industrial control system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Kyungho

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS. PMID:25136659

  15. Employee engagement and job satisfaction in the information technology industry.

    PubMed

    Kamalanabhan, T J; Sai, L Prakash; Mayuri, Duggirala

    2009-12-01

    Employee engagement has been identified as being important to employee productivity and performance. Measures of employee engagement and job satisfaction in the context of information technology (IT) were developed to explore how employee engagement affects perceived job satisfaction. In a sample of IT professionals (N = 159), controlling for age, sex, job tenure, and marital status, employee engagement had a significant and positive correlation with job satisfaction. PMID:20099537

  16. Background Information for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

  17. Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  18. In-frame and inter-frame information based infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Cao, Ercong; Hu, Xiaobo; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds is one of the key techniques of infrared search and track (IRST) systems. This paper proposes a novel method based on in-frame inter-frame information to detect infrared moving small targets accurately. For a single frame, in the spatial domain, a directional max-median filter is developed to make a pre-processing and a background suppression filtering template is utilized on the denoised image to highlight target. Then, targets in cloud regions and non-cloud regions are extracted by different thresholds according to a cloud discrimination method so that a spatial domain map (SDM) is acquired. In the frequency domain, we design an α-DoB band-pass filter to conduct coarse saliency detection and make an amplitude transformation with smoothing processing which is the so-called elaborate saliency detection. Furthermore, a frequency domain map (FDM) is acquired by an adaptive binary segmentation method. Lastly, candidate targets in single frame are extracted by a discrimination based on intensity and spatial distance criteria. For consecutive frames, a false alarm suppression is conducted on account of differences of motion features between moving target and false alarms to improve detection accuracy again. Large numbers of experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness for infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds.

  19. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... Defense Industrial Security Program if contractor access to classified information is required,...

  20. An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

  1. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  2. Information System Training, Usage, and Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study of the Hospitality Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William L., III; Gundersen, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses use of a mail survey to study the extent to which the hospitality industry employs various information technologies, including computer-mediated communication systems. Finds that hotel/motel size and chain affiliation are related to information system complexity, and that chain-affiliated hotels provide less computer and "in-house"…

  3. Career Opportunities in the Trucking Industry. Occupational and Career Information Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roderick; Raleigh, Susan

    This United States Employment Service's Occupational and Career Information Series publication on the trucking industry is designed to provide an occupationally oriented overview of the field for employment and career counselors, as well as students and other interested readers. The following information is included: a brief history of the…

  4. [Advanced information technologies for financial services industry]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The project scope is to develop an advanced user interface utilizing speech and/or handwriting recognition technology that will improve the accuracy and speed of recording transactions in the dynamic environment of a foreign exchange (FX) trading floor. The project`s desired result is to improve the base technology for trader`s workstations on FX trading floors. Improved workstation effectiveness will allow vast amounts of complex information and events to be presented and analyzed, thus increasing the volume of money and other assets to be exchanged at an accelerated rate. The project scope is to develop and demonstrate technologies that advance interbank check imaging and paper check truncation. The following describes the tasks to be completed: (1) Identify the economics value case, the legal and regulatory issues, the business practices that are affected, and the effects upon settlement. (2) Familiarization with existing imaging technology. Develop requirements for image quality, security, and interoperability. Adapt existing technologies to meet requirements. (3) Define requirements for the imaging laboratory and design its architecture. Integrate and test technology from task 2 with equipment in the laboratory. (4) Develop and/or integrate and test remaining components; includes security, storage, and communications. (5) Build a prototype system and test in a laboratory. Install and run in two or more banks. Develop documentation. Conduct training. The project`s desired result is to enable a proof-of-concept trial in which multiple banks will exchange check images, exhibiting operating conditions which a check experiences as it travels through the payments/clearing system. The trial should demonstrate the adequacy of digital check images instead of paper checks.

  5. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  6. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-air pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  7. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Air pollution monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution monitoring equipment market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  8. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Air conditioning equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air conditioning equipment market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  9. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-noise pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the noise pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  10. Patent information management in Nagasaki Research & Development Center of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (MHI).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukae, Tatsuro; Kubo, Masaru

    It is expected for our company, dealing with heavy industry to survive informationized society, and the development of research results has become an important matter. Under these environments, guarding the research results and offering the patent informations timely are necessary. The patent service in our center was established in 1963 and had since used papers as medium to manage information. Nowadays we have begun to use on-line systems of PATOLIS and PATROLS instead of papers, and increased efficiency of information offer.

  11. Behavior analysis for information acquisition of scientists and engineers in industry (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Natsuo; Mizukami, Masayuki; Marumo, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Kunio

    Information acquisition actions for a week were recorded by 600 scientists and engineers in about 60 industrial companies. Approximately 3600 records of the actions were analysed in terms of the kind of information to be acquired, the tools to be accessed for information acquisition, the cause for, and the purpose of, information acquisition, necessity and urgency of information to be acquired, the degree of satisfaction for information obtained, and the period needed for information acquisition. Additionally, a part of panelists were sent a questionnaire and interviewed to answer time and money spended for information acquisition and evaluation of various tools for information acquisition, particularly of commercial databases. The main accessing tools are various primary materials, personal connection and personal files. Commercial databases are used 0.44 times per week by a scientist/engineer.

  12. Behavior analysis for information acquisition of scientists and engineers in industry (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Natsuo; Mizukami, Masayuki; Marumo, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Kunio

    Information acquisition actions for a week were recorded by 660 scientists and engineers in about 60 industrial companies. Approximately 3600 records of the actions were analysed in terms of the kind of information to be acquired, the tools to be accessed for information acquisition, the cause for, and the purpase of, information acquisition, necessity and urgency of information to be acquired, the deqee of satisfaction for information abtained, and the pesiod needed for information acquisition. Additionally, a part of poinelists were rent a questionnaise and inteririewed to answer time and money spended for information acquisition and evaluation of various tools for information acquisition, particularly of commercial databases. The main accessing tools are various primary materials, personal connection and personal files. Commercial databases are used 0.44 times per week by a scientist/engineer.

  13. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  14. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. PMID:27092418

  15. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information, and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments § 1220.230 Promotion, research, consumer information, and...

  16. Information highway and the gas industry: A threat or opportunity. Topical report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    This topical report discusses the likely infrastructure and services of the information highway, or I-Way, and examines I-Way activities already being undertaken by major players in the communications and energy industries. The report outlines the threats and opportunities to gas utilities that are posed by the development of a national information infrastructure. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Competitive factors are analyzed and innovative technology trials are examined both theoretically and through the use of case studies. Specific competitive threats and business opportunities for the gas industry are discussed.

  17. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  18. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  19. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy C.; Young, Arthur L.; Pelton, Arthur D.; Thompson, William T.; Wright, Ian G.

    2008-10-10

    with the goals to avoid premature failure, to quantitatively manage corrosion over the entire life of high temperature process equipment, to select alloys for equipment and to assist in equipment maintenance programs. ASSET software operates on typical Windows-based (Trademark of Microsoft Corporation) personal computers using operating systems such as Windows 2000, Windows NT and Vista. The software is user friendly and contains the background information needed to make productive use of the software in various help-screens in the ASSET software. A graduate from a university-level curriculum producing a B.S. in mechanical/chemical/materials science/engineering, chemistry or physics typically possesses the background required to make appropriate use of ASSET technology. A training/orientation workshop, which requires about 3 hours of class time was developed and has been provided multiple times to various user groups of ASSET technology. Approximately 100 persons have been trained in use of the technology. ASSET technology is available to about 65 companies representing industries in petroleum/gas production and processing, metals/alloys production, power generation, and equipment design.

  20. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  1. 23 CFR 636.115 - May I meet with industry to gather information concerning the appropriate risk allocation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I meet with industry to gather information... § 636.115 May I meet with industry to gather information concerning the appropriate risk allocation strategies? (a) Yes, information exchange at an early project stage is encouraged if it facilitates...

  2. A Hierarchy Fuzzy MCDM Method for Studying Electronic Marketing Strategies in the Information Service Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael T.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    In this paper, the impacts of Electronic Commerce (EC) on the international marketing strategies of information service industries are studied. In seeking to blend humanistic concerns in this research with technological development by addressing challenges for deterministic attitudes, the paper examines critical environmental factors relevant to…

  3. Environmental Scanning: Preliminary Findings of a Survey of CEO Information Seeking Behaviour in Two Canadian Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Ethel; Choo, Chun Wei

    1992-01-01

    Reports the preliminary results of a survey of the environmental scanning behavior of 207 chief executive officers (CEOs) in the Canadian publishing and telecommunications industries. Topics addressed include information sources, perceived source accessibility, perceived source quality, and frequency of source use. (16 references) (LRW)

  4. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Federal Register of June 1, 2006 (71 FR 31194), FDA published the notice of withdrawal and revision of... Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry 169 entitled ``Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  5. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  6. Developing a Computer Information Systems Curriculum Based on an Industry Needs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafarian, Ahmad; Sisk, Kathy A.

    This paper details experiences in developing an undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) curriculum at a small liberal arts school. The development of the program was based on the study of needs assessment. Findings were based on the analysis of four sources of data: the results of an industry needs survey, data from a needs assessment…

  7. Programmed Instruction in Business and Industry, Current Information Sources, No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Covering the period since 1960, this annotated bibliography contains 97 items (most with abstracts) relevant to programed instruction in business and industry. The following appear: (1) 12 bibliographies, directories, and information sources, both foreign and domestic; (2) general considerations of programed instruction as a training technique (26…

  8. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... FR 61002) and a second rule pertained to proposed referendum procedures (75 FR 61025). Both rules... Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 61025). Copies of the rule were made available by USDA through the... Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum...

  9. The Teaching-Research-Industry-Learning Nexus in Information and Communications Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Tanya; Armarego, Jocelyn; Koppi, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The teaching-research nexus concept has been extensively examined in the higher education literature, and the importance of industry linkages in information and communications technology (ICT) education has also been widely discussed. However, to date there has been little recognition of the full extent of relationships between aspects of…

  10. Exploring the Application of Information and Communication Technology in the U.S. Motor Carrier Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this qualitative case study focused on the limited amount of scholarly research addressing the use of information and communication technology in U.S. motor carrier operations. The trucking industry is part of the service sector which contributes approximately 67.8 percent to the gross domestic product of the United…

  11. 77 FR 6580 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of a revision... production and consumption data of industrial mineral commodities, some of which are considered strategic and critical. This information will be published as chapters in Minerals Yearbook, monthly Mineral...

  12. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Study No. 6. Towards an Australian Industry Information Newwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This report describes recent progress towards the provision of SDI services, current awareness bulletins, and retrospective search facilities to the potential users in Australian industry. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of periodical literature, reports, and patent literature. A list of information bulletins available from the…

  13. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  14. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  15. Design and implementation of information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liushi

    2011-02-01

    Usually in the traditional science and technology information system, the only text and table form are used to manage the data, and the mathematic statistics method is applied to analyze the data. It lacks for the spatial analysis and management of data. Therefore, GIS technology is introduced to visualize and analyze the information data on science and technology industry. Firstly, by using the developed platform-microsoft visual studio 2005 and ArcGIS Engine, the information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS is built up, which implements various functions, such as data storage and management, inquiry, statistics, chart analysis, thematic map representation. It can show the change of science and technology information from the space and time axis intuitively. Then, the data of science and technology in Guangdong province are taken as experimental data and are applied to the system. And by considering the factors of humanities, geography and economics so on, the situation and change tendency of science and technology information of different regions are analyzed and researched, and the corresponding suggestion and method are brought forward in order to provide the auxiliary support for development of science and technology industry in Guangdong province.

  16. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Gorham, Bethany

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  17. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  18. The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

  19. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re

  20. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... industrial security services for the Department of Transportation. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary...

  1. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... industrial security services for the Department of Transportation. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary...

  2. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... industrial security services for the Department of Transportation. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary...

  3. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... industrial security services for the Department of Transportation. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary...

  4. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  5. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  6. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  7. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE BOOK ON THE PHOTOVOLTAICS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives background information on the photovoltaics industry to help the U.S. EPA evaluate premanufacture notice (PMN) and significant new use regulation (SNUR) submittals from the industry. It also gives information for photovoltaics industry on the Toxic Substances Con...

  9. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... classified pursuant to Executive Order 12356 of April 2, 1982, National Security Information, or...

  10. Implementing shared governance in a patient care support industry: information technology leading the way.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Lou Ann

    2014-06-01

    Implementing technology in the clinical setting is not a project but rather a journey in transforming care delivery. As nursing leaders in healthcare and patient care support organizations embrace technology to drive reforms in quality and efficiency, growing opportunities exist to share experiences between these industries. This department submission describes the journey to nursing shared governance from the perspective of an information technology-based company realizing the goal of supporting patient care. PMID:24853793

  11. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  12. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  13. Information technology industry certification's impact on undergraduate student perception of instructor effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, David L.

    The field of Computer Information Systems (CIS) or Information Technology (IT) is experiencing rapid change. A 2003 study analyzing the IT degree programs and those of competing disciplines at 10 post-secondary institutions concluded that information technology programs are perceived differently from information systems and computer science programs and are significantly less focused on both math and pure science subjects. In Information Technology programs, voluntary professional certifications, generally known in the Information Technology field as "IT" certifications, are used as indicators of professional skill. A descriptive study noting one subject group's responses to items that were nearly identical except for IT certification information was done to investigate undergraduate CIS/IT student perceptions of IT industry certified instructors. The subject group was comprised of undergraduate CIS/IT students from a regionally accredited private institution and a public institution. The methodology was descriptive, based on a previous model by Dr. McKillip, Professor of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, utilizing a web-based survey instrument with a Likert scale, providing for voluntary anonymous responses outside the classroom over a ten day window. The results indicated that IT certification affected student perceptions of instructor effectiveness, teaching methodology, and student engagement in the class, and to a lesser degree, instructor technical qualifications. The implications suggest that additional research on this topic is merited. Although the study was not designed to examine the precise cause and effect, an important implication is that students may be motivated to attend classes taught by instructors they view as more confident and effective and that teachers with IT industry certification can better engage their students.

  14. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  15. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Bonnie; Boddy, Mark; Doyle, Frank; Jamshidi, Mo; Ogunnaike, Tunde

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  16. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  17. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Intent to Turnover among Software Engineers in the Information Technology Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agada, Chuks N.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to turnover among software engineers in the information technology (IT) industry. The population that was analyzed in this study was software engineers in the IT industry to determine whether there is a relationship between job satisfaction and intent to…

  18. 23 CFR 636.115 - May I meet with industry to gather information concerning the appropriate risk allocation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I meet with industry to gather information concerning the appropriate risk allocation strategies? 636.115 Section 636.115 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.115 May I meet with industry...

  19. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES... information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. (a) The Director may, from time to...

  20. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Intermediation, Outreach, and Decision Rights in the Microfinance Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    The microfinance industry provides financial services to the world's poor in hopes of moving individuals and families out of poverty. This dissertation document suggests that information and communication technologies (ICTs) are changing the microfinance industry, especially given recent advancements in mobile banking, Internet usage and…

  1. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

  2. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  3. An Information System for the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Membership Information Network. Volume 1: Background Report and Implementation Models. Volume 2: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruday, Connie; And Others

    This document is designed to assist the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFP/I) in planning for the establishment of an information system for its members and other stakeholders who need information on educational facilities. The report focuses on the major activities to be accomplished and the issues to be considered when…

  4. Signal detection in a lumpy background: effects of providing more information to the human than just raw data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present a modification to the standard two- alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experiment in an attempt to help the human detect signals by providing redundant information. We call the old experiment 2AFC_RAW, and the new experiment, 2AFC_FILTER. In the 2AFC_FILTER experiment, we provide the observer with the pair of raw data images (as in 2AFC_RAW) plus filtered versions of the raw data. The thought behind this modification is that the human might benefit from generic pre-processing of the data into multiple images, each extracting different information. We defined two different 2AFC_FILTER experiments, each using Laguerre-Gauss functions as the filters. The difference between the two was their defining Gaussian envelope. We tested human performance given a variety of image classes with the 2AFC_RAW and the two 2AFC_FILTER experiments. The same raw data were used in each. We found that there was a significant human performance increase from the 2AFC_RAW to the 2AFC_FILTER experiment. It was also seen that the choice of the filters made a difference. Specifically, human performance was better when the Gaussian envelope of the Laguerre-Gauss functions matched the signal.

  5. A GUIDANCE PROJECT TO INVESTIGATE CHARACTERISTICS, BACKGROUND, AND JOB EXPERIENCES OF SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL ENTRY WORKERS IN THREE SELECTED INDUSTRIES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORMAN, ROBERT E.

    FIFTEEN CERTIFIED SECONDARY SCHOOL COUNSELORS PARTICIPATED IN AN ON-THE-JOB INVESTIGATION OF THREE SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN MONTANA--MINING, LUMBERING, AND CONSTRUCTION. THE PURPOSES WERE TO (1) PROVIDE THE PARTICIPATING COUNSELORS WITH ON-THE-JOB KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL FOR ENGAGING IN MORE EFFECTIVE VOCATIONAL COUNSELING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS…

  6. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  7. Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: A thematic content analysis of canadian broker websites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. Methods An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Results Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was somewhat inconsistent across

  8. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    PubMed

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26573955

  9. Supplier Networks and the Importance of Information Technology: Outlook on the European Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Maria José Alvarez; Kulcsar, Borbala; Aksoy, Dilan

    The trends in the automotive industry changed radically from the beginning of the 80s. Increasing competition, new systems and developments compelled the companies to re-evaluate and re-design their investments and processes, by extending their networks to other parts of the world in order to gain more market. This trend could be observed first in the Western-European countries and later in Eastern-Europe. With entering new areas the companies had to face with several difficulties coming inter alia from the decisions of supplier network and information system implementation. In our study we analyze the strategic decisions of major carmaker companies entering the Eastern-European market. Our research includes two case studies of the Hungarian automotive sector.

  10. Database of Industrial Technological Information in Kanagawa : Networks for Technology Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Shindo, Tadashi

    This system is one of the databases which require participation by its members and of which premise is to open all the data in it. Aiming at free technological cooperation and exchange among industries it was constructed by Kanagawa Prefecture in collaboration with enterprises located in it. The input data is 36 items such as major product, special and advantageous technology, technolagy to be wanted for cooperation, facility and equipment, which technologically characterize each enterprise. They are expressed in 2,000 characters and written by natural language including Kanji except for some coded items. 24 search items are accessed by natural language so that in addition to interactive searching procedures including menu-type it enables extensive searching. The information service started in Oct., 1986 covering data from 2,000 enterprisen.