Science.gov

Sample records for industry groundwater research

  1. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  2. USEPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM ON REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN SOILS, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. and around the world, mercury and arsenic contaminated soils, industrial wastes, and groundwater are difficult to effectively and cheaply remediate and contain. Mercury is a serious health concern and has been identified as a contaminant in the air, soil, sediment, su...

  3. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING RESEARCH REGISTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Labour, London (England).

    IN THIS CLASSIFIED REGISTER OF CURRENT AND RECENTLY COMPLETED STUDIES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN, INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS ARE ARRANGED BY THE ITEM NUMBER JUDGED MOST IMPORTANT, AND THE NUMBERS OF OTHER RELEVANT INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH PROJECTS ARE INSERTED AT THE END OF EACH SECTION TO PROVIDE CROSS REFERENCES. DESCRIPTIONS INCLUDE THE TITLE…

  4. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  5. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 3. Groundwater investigation and mitigation techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, J.

    1985-05-01

    The leaching of fly ash, bottom ash, coal piles, and other materials has recently developed into an area of major environmental concern. Federal, state, and local regulations require various degrees of leachate monitoring. Land subsidence and sinkhole development can adversely affect power-generating facilities and frequently result in substantial property losses. Seepage from impoundments of all sorts (for example, ash ponds or hydroelectric facilities) may results in substantial water losses, lost generation, reduced stability of structures, and in extreme cases, abandonment or failure of dikes and dams. The groundwater manual is organized into three volumes. Volume 1 provides basic background geological and hydrogeological material. Volume 2 describes specific electric utility industry groundwater related problems. Volume 3 discusses the techniques and instrumentation necessary to detect, evaluate, monitor, remedy, or prevent groundwater related problems experienced by the electric utility industry.

  6. Industry Invests in Research Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Margie

    1983-01-01

    Universities and industry are forging new relationships to support academic research and industrial research and development, including the establishment of university/cooperative research centers. Discusses various cooperative projects at these research centers. Includes a list of representative R&D centers in biotechnology, building…

  7. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  8. Research Projects in Industrial Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Industrial Technology Section.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe ongoing and completed projects being carried out by Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Industrial Technology Section. In the Pacific Northwest, the industrial sector is the largest of the four consuming sectors. It accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total firm demand in the region in 1987. It is not easy to asses the conservation potential in the industrial sector. Recognizing this, the Northwest Power Planning Council established an objective to gain information on the size, cost, and availability of the conservation resource in the industrial sector, as well as other sectors, in its 1986 Power Plan. Specifically, the Council recommended that BPA operate a research and development program in conjunction with industry to determine the potential costs and savings from efficiency improvements in industrial processes which apply to a wide array of industrial firms.'' The section, composed of multidisciplinary engineers, provides technical support to the Industrial Programs Branch by designing and carrying out research relating to energy conservation in the industrial sector. The projects contained in this booklet are arranged by sector --industrial, utility, and agricultural -- and, within each sector, chronologically from ongoing to completed, with those projects completed most recently falling first. For each project the following information is given: its objective approach, key findings, cost, and contact person. Completed projects also include the date of completion, a report title, and report number.

  9. Nanomedicine: Industry-wise research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Mike

    2007-04-01

    Academic participation in nanomedicine research is welcomed by European industries. The recipe for success may or may not include creativity, but it will certainly require awareness of drug development and approval processes.

  10. Treatment of Uncertainty in Groundwater Modeling: A (Limited) Research Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; Cohen, Stephen J.

    2010-05-16

    Groundwater systems are complex, exhibiting significant heterogeneity across multiple scales, multiple interacting processes, and nonlinear behaviors. Groundwater systems are also open, often with poorly defined boundaries and time-dependent, uncertain boundary forcings (e.g., recharge). As a consequence, a groundwater model cannot be expected to precisely reflect the system it represents and the model results are uncertain quantities. The dominant language of uncertainty is probability and the majority of research in the treatment of uncertainty in groundwater modeling has been directed at developing and improving probabilistic methods for these models. One area of recent research has been methods for assessing the impact of model uncertainty in groundwater analyses. This line of research is part of a long-term trend of increasing appreciation for the importance of providing estimates of uncertainty in groundwater model outputs. The research was motivated by observations of nonuniqueness in model parameterizations, the sensitivity of groundwater model output to model structural choices, and a history of practice that established the importance of iterative improvement in the conceptual basis of groundwater models. Among the methods proposed for assessing model uncertainty, we discuss Bayesian model averaging, it’s theoretical basis and research development. We outline critical arguments and discuss alternative approaches. Finally, we briefly describe a regulatory application of groundwater modeling that used Bayesian model averaging concepts to resolve a key conceptual model uncertainty.

  11. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  12. University-Industry Research Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2000-03-01

    University-industry research collaborations take many forms. Perhaps the simplest is unsponsored one-on-one collaborations between individuals. A more formal but less intimate arrangement is industrial sponsorship of individual or collective work on campus, e.g., via an outright gift or membership in an industrial affiliates consortium. A more intimate institutional collaboration is a mutually sanctioned joint project, sponsored by either a governmental funding agency or an industrial entity, the terms and conditions of which (funds flows, reports, intellectual property ownership, etc.) are governed by formal arrangements. Partnerships, e.g., support of an on-campus joint venture funded in part by one or more firms and in part by a third party, are the most intimate and complex form of such collaborations. During the past two decades Xerox has engaged in all four forms of collaborations. I give examples of each, and indicate the attributes which distinguish the more successful from the less successful collaborations, as well as recent trends in their nature and purposes.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  14. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  15. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks in Puerto Rico, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks throughout Puerto Rico was conducted to investigate the effect of ground-water usage on nearby surface- and ground-water resources. Water-bearing strata were divided into four generalized hydrogeologic units: (1) fissured aquifers (including karst and non-karst limestone); (2) intergranular aquifers; (3) intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units; and (4) strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Approximately 49 percent of the municipal industrial parks are located in areas with local or limited ground-water resources, 29 percent overlie intergranular aquifers, 13 percent overlie fissured aquifers, and 9 percent overlie intergranular units that overlie fissured rock units. Hydrogeologic data for the generalized hydrogeologic units were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports. Depths to ground water near industrial parks range from approximately 20 to 400 feet in the fissured aquifers, 6 to 65 feet in coastal intergranular aquifers, 3 to 30 feet in intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units, and 1 to 100 feet in strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Aquifer transmissivities near industrial parks range from approximately 100,000 feet squared per day in the fissured aquifers to less than 100 feet squared per day in the strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Well construction data were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports, drillers? logs, and unpublished reports. Specific capacity for wells near industrial parks ranges from approximately 100 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown in the fissured aquifer at Manati to approximately 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in strata with local and limited ground-water resources at Bayamon. Reported well yields near industrial parks ranges from 2,800 gallons per minute in the intergranular aquifer at Santa Isabel to approximately 3 gallons per minute in

  17. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 1. Geological formations and groundwater aquifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.R. Jr.; Redwine, J.C.

    1985-03-01

    Major areas of concern to power companies include the leaching of both solid wastes and stored coal, land subsidence and sinkhole development, and seepage away from all types of impoundments. These groundwater considerations can produce substantial increases in the cost of generating electricity. The leaching of fly ash, bottom ash, coal piles, and other materials has recently developed into an area of major environmental concern. Federal, state, and local regulations require various degrees of leachate monitoring. Land subsidence and sinkhole development can adversely affect power-generating facilities and frequently result in substantial property losses. Seepage from impoundments of all sorts (for example, ash ponds or hydroelectric facilities) may result in substantial water losses, lost generation, reduced stability of structures, and in extreme cases, abandonment or failure of dikes and dams. The groundwater manual is organized into three volumes. Volume 1 explains hydrogeologic concepts basic to understanding the occurrence, availability, and importance of underground waters and aquifers. It also contains a glossary of terms on subsurface hydrology and discusses such topics as the hydrologic cycle, groundwater quality in the 12 major US groundwater regions, and groundwater regulation. (ACR)

  18. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-12-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports applied research and technology development (AR&TD) for remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The program centers on delivering advanced scientific approaches and technologies from highly-leveraged, strategic investments that maximize impact to reduce risk and life-cycle cleanup costs. The current groundwater and soil remediation program consists of four applied programmatic areas: • Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative • Attenuation Based Remedies – Applied Field Research Initiative • Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants – Applied Field Research Initiative • Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management. This paper provides an overview of the applied programmatic areas, fiscal year 11 accomplishments, and their near-term technical direction.

  19. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 2. Groundwater-related problems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This manual was developed under the auspices of EPRI's Solid By-Products and Hazardous Waste Disposal subprogram to provide electric utility personnel with a user-oriented reference document that focuses on groundwater considerations frequently addressed by power companies. The major areas of concern include the leaching of both solid wastes and stored coal, land subsidence and sinkhole development, and seepage away from all types of impoundments. These three groundwater considerations can produce substantial increases in the cost of generating electricity. Separate analytics have been done for each chapter.

  20. Directions for social research to underpin improved groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Curtis, Allan; Sharp, Emily; Mendham, Emily

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImprovements in groundwater management require strategies to change human behaviour, yet there has been limited social research in the broad arena of groundwater management. This paper provides a critical review of the small but expanding literature on that topic to identify future directions for social researchers. Comprehensive search methods identified almost three hundred potentially relevant publications, which were sorted thematically and assessed in terms of their theoretical underpinning and the evidence used to support key findings. This process enabled the authors to identify a small number of high quality publications and to identify future research opportunities. The latter includes analysing how concepts of risk and sustainable yield are constructed differently by stakeholders, especially related to divisive issues concerning coal seam gas developments and reforms that reduce irrigation allocations; how governance arrangements can be improved to achieve more effective collaborative management of groundwater, especially if managed aquifer recharge is to be more widely implemented in rural agricultural contexts; and the role that trust and social norms can play in changing groundwater use practices.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center which provides information on research datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments regarding soil and groundwater pollution and related laboratory bench studies, and wh...

  2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center which provides information on research datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments regarding soil and groundwater pollution and related laboratory bench studies, and wh...

  3. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  4. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Industrial Research and Development Information System (IRIS) links an online interface to a historical database with more than 2,500 statistical tables containing all industrial research and development (R&D) data published by NSF since 19...

  5. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  6. When Research Criticizes an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2007-01-01

    When Robert W. Van Kirk released a study in January about selenium contamination in trout streams in southeastern Idaho, he expected some flak from the influential phosphate-mining industry. He did not expect to feel pressured by the administration of his own institution, Idaho State University, where he is an associate professor of mathematics.…

  7. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center that provides information on datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments and related bench studies in soil and groundwater pollution and distributes datasets for tes...

  8. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  9. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described. PMID:12838052

  10. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  11. Changing roles of researchers in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillson, Leonard

    1999-04-01

    Major changes have occurred in the industrial research environment over the past decade. Dynamic global competition in the marketplace has altered the traditional roles of physicists in industry while offering new career opportunities. This talk will describe the opportunities and challenges facing physicists in a wide spectrum of responsibilities, from the bench to the executive suite. Drawing on perspectives from several leading physics-based industries, the talk will highlight the skills and knowledge required for success in this new environment.

  12. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  13. The Industrial Library and Market Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lloyd J.

    1972-01-01

    Industrial market research is an area where the industrial librarian has an opportunity to make a creative contribution to his company. The pros and cons of this approach are discussed and the necessary library conditions for optimum results are set forth. (16 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in some North Indian villages.

    PubMed

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P; Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The study comprised suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use. A total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from Rewari town and its perimeter from the land chiefly used for agriculture. Physico-chemical characterization of the samples revealed that groundwater from most of the sources was not fit for drinking owing to a high concentration of calcium, magnesium, hardness and fluoride. Suitability for irrigation, too, was low since most of the sources had high value of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (SSP) and magnesium hazard which can render salinity and alkali hazard to soils on long term use in irrigation. No source of water was found to be suitable for industrial application since it had high concentration of calcium carbonate which can precipitate very easily. It was observed that sodium, sulphate, and chloride were the chief ions present in water and based on the abundance of ions and their correlation type, most of the groundwater samples are of sodium sulphate and/or sodium chloride type. The high concentration of the chemical constituents is attributed to the lithologic composition of the area. It was observed that the water of deep meteoric percolation type was of sodium sulphate type and the shallow of sodium chloride type. PMID:18202899

  15. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  16. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  18. Accelerators in Research and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.

    1997-10-01

    Over the last sixty years the applications of ion beam accelerators has grown from basic nuclear structure research to the manufacture, preservation, and development of a large number of products which directly affect every day life. In addition, ion beam accelerators continue to provide a unique contribution in both basic and applied research in fields from art history to zoology. Applications fit into two main groups, materials analysis and materials modification. Most materials analysis include routine use of Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) with new developments in analysis techniques being developed for remote elemental detection of plastic explosives and drugs. Existing accelerator systems and new accelerator systems are being developed for use in the area of accelerator based mass spectrometry (AMS) which is having a profound affect on a wide variety of fields which rely on counting extremely rare isotopes in very small samples. Accelerators used for materials modification continue to have a significant economic impact in the field of semiconductors and the development of new semiconductor and other high technology products.

  19. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the 'Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability. PMID:27318992

  20. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the `Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  1. Industry/University Consortium for ATS research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Golan, L.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Industry/University ATS research program is the result of two planning workshops. Workshop I was held April 8--10, 1991 and had the goal of identifying research needs for advanced gas turbine cycles that would permit rapid commercialization of cycles with significant improvements over the machines currently under development, in terms of the cost of electricity produced and the environmental burdens resulting from their use in power producing. Workshop II was held in January 1992 and continued the identification of the research needs to develop advanced gas turbine systems. The goals established for the ATS systems were: (1) efficiency exceeding 60% for large utility turbine system and 15% improvement in heat rate for industrial systems; (2) busbar energy costs 10% less than current state of the art and (3) fuel flexible designs. In addition Workshop II participants agreed that an industry driven research consortium was an acceptable mechanism to achieve base technology development needs.

  2. Government-University-Industry-Research Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Roundtable projects active during 1993 are described in this section. Projects completed in prior years are not included here, but publications resulting from them are included in the list of publications which are attached. Such prior projects include nurturing science and engineering talent, research facility financing, multidisciplinary research and education, university-industry-federal laboratory partnerships, and federal-state cooperation in science and technology.

  3. VET Research for Industry. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper was a keynote address at the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) conference held in Canberra in April 2012. The author notes that industry is arguably the key stakeholder in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector, but is not a single actor nor a disinterested consumer of…

  4. Research and Development in Industry 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichiello, John R.; And Others

    This report presents the results of the 1974 survey of industrial research and development and is the twentieth in a series extending back to 1953. Data on R&D expenditures and R&D scientists and engineers presented in this report were collected by the Bureau of the Census for the National Science Foundation, and cover the periods of 1956-74 and…

  5. Industry Support of Academic Research Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    National Science Board's fourteenth annual report to Congress indicates that university/industry relationships remained vigorous and varied during the 1960s/1970s, that corporate support of academic research is significantly higher than generally believed and that employee recruitment is an impetus for such alliances. These and other findings from…

  6. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  7. Ground-water levels and flow near the industrial excess landfill, Uniontown, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bair, E.S.; Norris, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Under an interagency contractual agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registration, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated geologic and hydrogeologic data available for the Industrial Excess Landfill (IEL) site in Uniontown, Ohio. During previous studies, ground-water contaminations was detected in observation wells installed at the site and in residential wells near the site. Water levels recorded on drillers' logs from 279 wells were used to characterize the regional ground-water flow system in the area of the IEL site. On the basis of the gross lithologic differences between the unconsolidated glacial-drift material and the indurated bedrock, and the inferred differences in their hydraulic properties, the flow system in the area of the IEL site was divided into two regional aquifers: a shallow, unconfined glacial-drift aquifer and a deeper, semiconfined bedrock aquifer. About 33 percent of the drillers' logs were from wells completed in the glacial-drift aquifer, whereas 67 percent were from wells completed in the bedrock aquifer. A composite potentiometric-surface map of the glacial drift aquifer shows that the IEL site appears to straddle a prominent ground-water ridge that trends northeast-southwest. Ground water flows radially away from this ridge, primarily to the northwest and to the southeast; as a result flow in the glacial-drift aquifer as the IEL site moves in a radial pattern away from the site in all directions. A composite, regional potentiometric-surface map of the bedrock aquifer shows a similar shows a similar elongated ground-water ridge trending northeast-southwest across the north-western corner of the IEL site; however, it does not appear that the IEL site straddles the ground-water ridge in the bedrock potentiometric surface. As a consequence of the radial-type of flow pattern in the glacial-drift aquifer at the IEL site, the direction of potential off-site movement of a contaminant at the IEL site, This radial type of

  8. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  9. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  10. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  11. Machine intelligence research applied to industrial automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, D.; Barnard, S. T.; Bolles, R. C.; Cain, R. A.; Hannah, M. J.; Herson, J. A.; Hill, J. W.; Horaud, P.; Kremers, J. H.; Mathews, S. H.

    1983-06-01

    Research was undertaken to explore and develop general purpose, cost-effctive techniques and hardware/software modules for computer-controlled systems of manipulators, sensors, and other components that are flexible, adaptable and easily trained to perform material handling, inspection, and assembly tasks. Seven published papers, resulting from this research, are included. They address such topics as recognition and location of partially visible objects, the SRI robot programming system, a modular programmable assembly station, an assessment of robot sensors, and applications of image understandin to industrial automation.

  12. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  13. Ground-water levels and directions of flow near the Industrial Excess Landfill, Uniontown, Ohio, March 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Bair, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial Excess Landfill (IEL), a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Super-fund site, is a closed landfill in northeastern Ohio. In March 1994, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, and PRC Environmental Management, Inc., measured water levels in 149 wells in the area. Surface-water altitudes were measured in 9 piezometers associated with the gages. The data show that the regional pattern of ground-water flow generally is from east to west, but it is locally altered by ground-water mounds that reflect the hummocky terrain. At the landfill, regional flow is altered by two ground-water mounds- one in the southeastern corner of the site and one just to the north. The relatively small ground-water mound at the landfill causes ground water to flow radially away from the southeastern corner of the landfill. Ground water that flows to east and south flows toward Metzger Ditch, whereas flow to the west is consistent with the regional direction of ground-water flow. Ground-water flow northward from IEL is diverted east or west by the southerly component of flow from the larger ground-water mound north of IEL.

  14. [Microbiological research for the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Ambrus, G

    2001-01-01

    A survey is presented on the last 50 years of biotechnological R & D activities in the Institute for Drug Research, Budapest. In the 1950s and 1960s this Institute played an important role in the industry of antibiotics in Hungary, contributing to the development of manufacturing processes for streptomycin, oxytetracycline, neomycin and nystatine. In the late 1950s a microbial screening program was initiated, which led to the discovery of several new antibiotics and the isolation of microorganisms producing medically important, known antibiotics and other therapeutical agents of microbial origin from natural sources. In the 1970s and 1980s the biotechnological research group elaborated new industrial processes for the production of several antibacterial antibiotics, such as gentamycin C, sisomicin, tobramycin, apramycin, kanamycin B and mupirocin and the antitumor antibiotic daunomycin. In the last 15 years new processes have been developed for manufacturing the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and mycophenolic acid and the hypocholesterolemic agents mevinolin and pravastatin as well as recombinant hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor. Research on steroid bioconversions has also been continued from the mid 1950s up to now. In the early 1960s manufacturing processes were developed for the anti-inflammatory prednisolone and the anabolic drug methandrostenolone. The results on microbial transformations (stereoselective reduction, hydroxylation) were utilized in the synthesis of contraceptive drugs. Since the mid 1960s several new microbial processes have been discovered for the selective side chain cleavage of natural sterols, resulting in various key intermediates for the synthesis of a wide variety of steroid drugs. PMID:11769096

  15. Impact of leather industries on fluoride dynamics in groundwater around a tannery cluster in South India.

    PubMed

    Sajil Kumar, P J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the controls of leather industries on fluoride contamination in and around a tannery cluster in Vaniyambadi. Hydrochemical analysis, mineral saturation indices and statistical methods were used to evaluate the intervening factors that controls the contamination processes. Fluoride in groundwater is exceeded the WHO guideline value (1.5 mg/L), in 62 % of the samples, mostly with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl type of water. Results of the principal component analysis grouped Na, F, HCO3 and NO3 under component 1. This result was in agreement with the cross plot indicating high positive correlation between F and Na (r (2)  = 0.87), HCO3 (r (2)  = 0.84) and NO3 (r (2)  = 0.55). Fluorite (CaF2) and Halite (NaCl) was undersaturated, while calcite (CaCO3) was oversaturated for all the samples. This suggest more dissolution of F-rich minerals under the active supports of Na. Bivariate plots of Na versus Cl and Na + K versus HCO3 showed a combined origin of Na from tannery effluent as well as silicate weathering. Two major clusters, based on the Na, HCO3 and F concentration showed that groundwater is affected by tanneries and silicate weathering. Fluoride concentration in 38 % of samples (n = 5) have significantly affected by the high Na concentration from tanneries. PMID:23248033

  16. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  17. PREVALENCE OF INDUSTRY SUPPORT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESEARCH INTEGRITY

    PubMed Central

    Tereskerz, Patricia M.; Hamric, Ann B.; Guterbock, Thomas M.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Most U.S. clinical trials are funded by industry. Opportunities exist for sponsors to influence research in ways that jeopardize research objectivity. The purpose of this study was to survey U.S. medical school faculty to assess financial arrangements between investigators and industry to learn about investigators’ first hand knowledge of the effects of industry sponsorship on research. Here we show first-hand knowledge that compromises occurred in: research participants’ well-being (9%), research initiatives (35%), publication of results (28%), interpretation of research data (25%), and scientific advancement (20%) because of industry support. Financial relationships with industry were prevalent and considered important to conducting respondents’ research. PMID:19353387

  18. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  19. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater. PMID:23160750

  20. Artificial factors influencing groundwater flows in the industrial complexes at the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Kue-Young; Woo, Nam C.

    2015-04-01

    Underground structures of the industrial complexes constructed along the coastal areas are vulnerable to the chemical degradations by the sea-water intrusion. Thus it is important to understand how the groundwater system has been altered after the facility construction. Based on the analysis of the groundwater fluctuations in the monitoring wells, the study area was divided into two sections, the rainfall impact areas and the tidal impact areas. Tidal impact section shows the hydraulic diffusivity(T /S, m2d-1) ranging from 9.6×102 to 4.6×104, with the minimum and maximum values for PZ-8 and PZ-5 affected by the underground structure and the excavation-backfill materials, respectively. Then, the storage coefficient was estimated from the hydraulic diffusivity using the results of single-well pumping tests. Transmissivities(T) ranged from 1.4×10 to 4.7×102 m2d-1, and the storage coefficients(S) from 0.002 to 0.052. The highest and the lowest transmissivities of PZ-5 and PZ-6 appeared to reflect the hydraulic property of backfill materials used for construction. Therefore, for hydrogeological characterization of the coastal region with large-scale constructions, field data from various tests should be carefully analyzed considering the impact and the interference of the construction activities, including the distance between underground structures and the monitoring wells, the array of structures, locations and depths of excavation and backfill, hydraulic property of backfill material, etc. Key word : hydrogeological characterization, coastal area, construction activity, tidal method, hydraulic diffusivity

  1. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  3. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 17-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Nine industrial-location research studies of the Appalachian region are presented in this document. These studies relate to the casting, plastic, metal, and food industries. Each study devotes sections to (1) a profile of the industry, (2) the industry's prospects for growth, (3) technology and trends, (4) primary factors influencing selection of…

  4. Research and development in the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  5. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  6. Norwegian Field Research Projects in Industrial Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvale, Thoralf Ulrik

    The Industrial Democracy Programme (IDP) of Norway seeks to create conditions for a self-supporting change process in industry, rather than implementing a ready-made model, believing that it is more valuable for employees to learn to change their organization than for the specific solution to be found. The central problems, therefore, have been to…

  7. Public health assessment for Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination, Sag Harbor, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NYD981486954. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The public health assessment was developed to address specific concerns that the community surrounding the Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination National Priorities List (NPL) site has brought to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry`s (ATSDR) attention.

  8. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Peach, D.; Binley, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins - the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater quality for several

  9. Determination of Vocs in groundwater at an industrial contamination site using a homemade low-density polyethylene passive diffusion sampler.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Tan, Zhiqiang; Pang, Long; Liu, Jingfu

    2013-11-01

    A home-made inexpensive passive diffusion bag (PDB) sampler, prepared by filling deionized water in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubes, was evaluated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) sampling in groundwater at industrial contamination sites. Impacts of environmentally relevant conditions on the sampling equilibration time and partitioning of VOCs between the sampler and the water sample were investigated. Sample salinity, agitation and temperature can influence the equilibration time, but generally sampling equilibration was obtained in 14 days under real field sampling of VOCs in groundwater. Both laboratory study and field testing in a contaminated site showed that the VOC concentrations in the developed sampler were equal to those in the water samples at equilibrium. Coupled with a purge and trap concentrator-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (P&T-GC-MS), the developed PDB sampler provided a low-cost sampling device for routine monitoring of VOCs in groundwater in wells, with LODs in the range of 2.9-10 microg/L. The proposed PDB was applied to determine VOCs in groundwater at an industrial contamination site, and the present results agreed well with those determined using conventional pump-and-sample monitoring. All the studied 13 VOCs were tested in the four wells in the industrial contamination sites, with their concentrations in the range of 12-73660 microg/L. In addition, while benzene and toluene were heavily contaminated up to a maximum concentration of 74000 tg/L and 6000 microg/L, respectively, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene and bromobenzene had relatively low contamination levels (below 25 microg/L). PMID:24552064

  10. Industry Perceptions of University-Industry Relationships Related to Agricultural Biotechnology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Welsh, Rick; Lacy, William B.; Biscotti, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Following a rise in university-industry relationships (UIRs), scholars began questioning the efficacy of those relationships, as well as whether industry and university research interests and integrity are being compromised. Although many of these studies focus on the university, few examine the perspectives of industry participants. We conducted…

  11. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  12. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  13. Worldwide Directory of Mineral Industries Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlbier, Herbert; And Others

    Presented is background knowlege of the institutions of the world involved in mineral industry education and research, including detailed information on the professional staff, research activities, and capabilities of the various mineral industry departments of these institutions. Also included is information on special interest within a…

  14. Research and Development in Industry: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond M.

    This report presents results from the 1999 Survey of Industrial Research and Development. It contains a full set of statistics produced from the survey, trends in industrial research and development (R&D) since 1953, and statistics on employment since 1989. Contents include: (1) "Note to Users of Historical Statistics"; (2) "Detailed Statistical…

  15. Hot topics for watermelon research: A survey of the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is critical for public researchers to address the needs of the industry with which they cooperate. While most active researchers believe that they are serving the needs of the industry, an occasional survey can be a useful tool to monitor and prioritize those needs. A survey was compiled after ...

  16. Industrial contamination of a municipal water-supply lake by induced reversal of ground-water flow, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Bethune, D.N.; Farvolden, R.N.; Ryan, M.C.; Guzman, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    Laguna Asososca, a large ground-water-fed volcanic crater, is an important source of municipal water supply for the city of Managua. In 1990, after 65 years of pumping at increasing rates from the crater, the gradient between the Laguna and the highly contaminated Lake Managua had potentially reversed, leading to a scenario where the Laguna was possibly drawing in contaminated ground water from Lake Managua and/or a highly contaminated aquifer below an industrial area located between the Laguna and Lake Managua. A drilling and sampling program undertaken between 1990 and 1992 found: (1) four synthetic organic chemicals in the Laguna (methylene chloride, chloroform, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene), (2) numerous other synthetic organic chemicals near Laguna Asososca in the ground water below the industrial area, and (3) no evidence of Laguna Asososca drawing water from Lake Managua. It appears that the Laguna Asososca capture zone extended into the industrial area but not as far as Lake Managua. Ground-water flow modeling of the regional ground-water flow system was consistent with the field interpretation. Estimates of the relative mobilities of the synthetic organic chemicals indicated that the chemicals found in the water of Laguna Asososca likely represented the mobile leading edge of a contaminant plume emanating from the industrial area. The simplest and most effective solution to mitigate contamination of Laguna Asososca is to maintain its water level above that of Lake Managua by reducing its pumpage to about 50% of the 1990 rate.

  17. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  18. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  19. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  20. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  1. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  2. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  3. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  4. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system. PMID:24446583

  5. PHYTOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: REMEDIATION OF SOIL, SEDIMENT, GROUNDWATER, AND ET CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL has a number of research efforts underway in the general field of using plants as all or part of an environmental improvement strategy. Planted systems have been demonstrated on several SITE program locations for PAH and PCP degradation in soil, TCE uptake and degradation ...

  6. Groundwater bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U.S. lawmakers have become concerned about groundwater problems in the United States, and thus the contamination of groundwater is rapidly becoming one of the hottest issues of 1987 and probably for many years into the future. The 100th Congress has seen a proliferation of bills relating to various problems involving groundwater: need for more data, funding of research, and development of standards for groundwater quality. Because round 50% of the nation's drinking water is obtained from groundwater, the available support is dependent not only upon the available quantity but also on the quality of that supply.Because groundwater quality in general and groundwater contamination in particular provides such complex problems, final legislation probably will emphasize more research and more data collection. At present, a bill, the National Ground Water Contamination Research Act, has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Rep. Sam Gejdenson (D-Conn.), and a companion bill has been introduced in the Senate by Sen. David Durenberger (R-Minn.). These bills renew action on a groundwater research bill that passed the House but not the Senate near the end of the 99th Congress. The bills address not only research but also promote a national program for the assessment of groundwater quality and a national clearinghouse for groundwater information.

  7. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  8. Academic-industry Collaborations in Translational Stroke Research.

    PubMed

    Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Barthel, Henryk; Gounis, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Academic-industry collaborations are an emerging format of translational stroke research. Next to classic contract research models, a multitude of collaboration models has been developed, some of which even allowing for multinational or intercontinental research programs. This development has recently been paralleled by first successful attempts to overcome the translational stroke research road block, such as the unprecedented success of novel endovascular approaches or the advent of the multicenter preclinical trial concept. While the first underlines the role of the industry as a major innovation driver in stroke research, the latter will require enrollment of industrial partners for optimal output. Moreover, academic-industry partnerships are invaluable to bridge the translational "valley of death" as well as funding gaps in times of dwindling public funding and declining high risk capital investments. However, these collaborations are also subject to relevant challenges because interests, values, and aims often significantly differ between cademia and industry. Here, we describe common academic-industry collaboration models as well as associated benefits and challenges in the stroke research arena. We also suggest strategies for improved planning, implementation, guidance, and utilization of academic-industry collaborations to the maximum mutual benefit. PMID:27301976

  9. Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

    2006-01-01

    TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

  10. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  11. Specific asset investment in industry and university research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jing; Yang, Zhonghua

    Industry university research have become more frequent in development activities. Both industry and university will invest specific asset which may cause switching costs. The paper discusses the issue of deciding optimal specific asset rate in the relationship by a game model. Conclusions about the factors which determine the optimal specific asset investments are drawn.

  12. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  13. Correlates of Research Productivity for Industrial Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kip W.; Jansen, Duane G.

    1992-01-01

    Responses from 318 of 500 industrial education faculty showed that (1) over 70 percent were over 45; and (2) significant correlates of research productivity were networking with other faculty, conducting summer research, internal motivation, and involvement in teaching and advising graduate research students. (SK)

  14. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  15. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  16. Research, Development, and industrialization of artificial musk: an overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu

    2014-12-01

    Four key problems need to be addressed during the research and development of artificial musk. The past two decades have witnessed the remarkable industrialization of artificial musk in China. PMID:25556726

  17. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  18. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  19. Assessment of industrial attitudes toward generic research needs in tribology

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, L.B.; Zlotnick, M.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Based on extended discussions during visits with 27 companies representing 13 different parts of the tribology industry (such as bearings, lubricants, coatings, powerplants), it is apparent that only a tiny fraction of the large sums publicly reported as R and D expenditures by industry are used to fund generic tribology research. For example, of the greater than $2 B expenditures reported for R and D in the lubricants sector for 1982, the estimated total for generic tribology research was $12 M. This was the largest expenditure in any sector of the tribology industry and one-third of the total of $36 M. In the automotive industry out of a reported expenditure of $4 B, the estimated generic tribology research was $3 M. In some segments of the tribology industry, for example coatings and filters, there were no expenditures on generic research. There was little tendency to improve the state of the art of the tribology industry through long-term investment in generic R and D in ways that would foster innovation and productivity of energy conservation technology. Expenditures were oriented to development of specific commercial and military products, or to basic research focused on unspecified far term results, although useful spin-off of military developments into commercial fields sometimes occurs. There was a broad consensus in the companies visited that existing research results were not always made easily accessible to potential users in industry. The implication was that industry might benefit more if a larger fraction of the funds were devoted to putting the research results into a form design and development engineers could more readily apply. The need for a more effective presentation of research results was expressed with greater urgency at the smaller companies, but there seemed to be a broad consensus on the need for improvement. Recommendations are given.

  20. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

  1. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  2. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  3. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater. PMID:23745972

  4. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing:A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues,recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, anddescriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  5. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  6. Developing a Collaborative Research Environment for a Study of Coastal Groundwater Hydraulics: Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Yalo, N.

    2011-12-01

    The city of Cotonou, Benin, has a population between 1.5 and 2 million people served by groundwater wells. Recent evidence suggests that salinity is increasing in a series of wells which border a salt-water lake. Modeling and field characterization of this complex groundwater system is targeted at providing the national water agency in Benin with assessment of multiple management strategies to reduce the impact of saline inflows from the lake. Research efforts have evolved through development of collaboration among colleagues from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin) and the University of Notre Dame (USA): participants have included faculty and students (undergraduate and graduate) from both institutions. The combined research team has provided the ability to: (i) identify funding opportunities through multiple funding sources, (ii) establish long-term monitoring in the lake and groundwater systems through field measurements by Benin partners, (iii) introduce new tools (numerical and instrumentation) through professional contacts and suppliers in the U.S., (iv) establish site security (for long-term installation of equipment) through local knowledge of customs and cultural requirements, and (v) interpret data and management strategies from multiple viewpoints. The project has provided for collection of high-quality data that have provided opportunities to improve both the conceptual model of the local hydrogeology and the field strategies used to characterize both parameters and boundary conditions impacting flow to the water-supply wells.

  7. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  8. TRADE, INDUSTRIAL, AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. RCU RESEARCH SUMMARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    RESEARCH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TYPE RECENTLY COMPLETED IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IS SUMMARIZED. STUDIES IN VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT THE POST-HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ARE CONCERNED WITH SCHOOLS AND STUDENTS, TEACHING TECHNIQUES, AND CURRICULUM EFFECTIVENESS. RESEARCH RELATING TO TRAINING AND RETRAINING CONCERNED…

  9. Tobacco Industry Efforts to Undermine Policy-Relevant Research

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry, working through third parties to prevent policy-relevant research that adversely affected it between 1988 and 1998, used coordinated, well-funded strategies in repeated attempts to silence tobacco researcher Stanton A. Glantz. Tactics included advertising, litigation, and attempts to have the US Congress cut off the researcher's National Cancer Institute funding. Efforts like these can influence the policymaking process by silencing opposing voices and discouraging other scientists from doing work that may expose them to tobacco industry attacks. The support of highly credible public health organizations and of researchers’ employers is crucial to the continued advancement of public health. PMID:19008508

  10. The Competition for Industry Research Funding: How Satisfied Are University Commercial Research Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Constrained public funding for universities and the emphasis placed on university-industry interactions mean that universities are increasingly required to compete for industrial funds for research. This in turn means that universities need to develop a customer service culture in order to be competitive and attractive to industry. Many studies…

  11. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  12. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  13. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary. PMID:26942541

  14. Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence: research, education, industrial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1994-04-01

    A review is given of the participants and the research, education and industrial mission of the center. The Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence is established at the Georgia Institute of Technology with the University of Georgia, University of Florida, Pennsylvania State University, David Sarnoff Research Center and the American Display Consortium being charter members. The research mission addresses short, medium and long term needs in five technological areas; cathode ray tube, electroluminescence, field emission devices, plasma display panels and active-matrix liquid crystal display back-light phosphors through interactive university/industry technology groups. Outreach activities include the establishment of a phosphor database, industry analysis and short courses in addition to the conventional university education role. Specific science and technology programs are briefly described.

  15. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders in the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. In 1996, Council meetings focused on the following: (1) the impact of information technology on the structure of research and educational organizations; (2) ways to improve communication between the science and engineering community and the public; and (3) new approaches both to measuring the results of research investments, and to communicating those metrics to non-technical decision-makers and to the public. Significant milestones were also achieved in four major projects, representing, impart, follow-up activity from previous Council Meeting discussions: (1) facilitating the Federal Demonstration Partnership, designed to maximize the efficiency of the federal research support system; (2) compiling results of a regional workshop on experiences in industry-university collaborative organization; (3) publishing the results of a study comparing the cost structures for research performed in the industrial, academic, and government laboratory sector; and (4) catalyzing, and participating in, a series of campus-based convocations on stresses being experienced in the research university environment.

  16. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. The open dialogue and informal exchange of ideas preclude a process of making formal recommendations or offering specific advice. Instead, the Roundtable seeks to stimulate new approaches by dissemination of its discussions, and pro-active contacts with organizations that may want to build on the idea base it establishes. After introductory material on the structure and operation of the Roundtable, accomplishments on current projects are described. Projects include: Stresses on research and education at colleges and universities; Formulating US research policies within an international context; The Federal Demonstration project, designed to improve the management of federally-funded research; Analysis of the costs of research in industrial, academic, and federal labs; Industry-university research collaborations; and Public stakeholding in America`s investment in science and technology.

  17. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  18. A Groundwater project for K-12 schools: Bringing research into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Walsh, M.; Gensic, J.

    2011-12-01

    Simple water quality test kits were used in a series of K-12 classrooms to demonstrate scientific processes and to motivate learning in K-12 students. While focused on student learning, this project also allowed collection of regional data on groundwater quality (primarily nitrate) in the study area. The project consisted of development and administration of a weeklong groundwater quality unit introduced to K-12 schools in northern Indiana and taught by a graduate student in an engineering discipline. The structure of the week started with an introduction to basic groundwater concepts modified for the specific grade level; for this project the students ranged from grades 4-12. In addition to groundwater basics, the purpose of the collection of the water quality data, as well as relevance to the research of the graduate student, were outlined. The students were then: (i) introduced to two simple water quality testing methods for nitrates, (ii) required to hypothesize as to which method will likely be "better" in application, and (iii) asked to practice using these two methods under laboratory conditions. Following practice, the students were asked to discuss their hypotheses relative to what was observed during the practice focusing on which testing method was more accurate and/or precise. The students were then encouraged to bring water samples from their home water system (many of which are on private wells) to analyze within groups. At the end of the week, the students shared their experience in this educational effort, as well as the resulting nitrate data from numerous groundwater wells (as collected by the students). Following these discussions the data were added to an online database housed on a wiki sponsored by the Notre Dame Extended Research Community (http://wellhead.michianastem.org/home). These data were plotted using the free service MapAList to visually demonstrate to the students the spatial distribution of the data and how their results have

  19. Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, K.; Rao, N. Prasada

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water is the vital resource, necessary for all aspects of human and ecosystem survival and health. Depending on the quality, bore water may be used for human consumption, irrigation purposes and livestock watering. The quality of bore water can vary widely depending on the quality of ground water that is its source. Pollutants are being added to the ground water system through human and natural processes. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the factories, which react with percolating rainwater and reaches the ground water. The percolating water picks up a large number of heavy metals and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the ground water. The usage of the contaminated bore water causes the diseases. Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium are used or released by many industries. Aim This study was conducted to investigate the pollution of bore water in the industrial region (Kurichi Industrial Cluster) of Coimbatore, in the state of Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods Four samples were taken from residential areas around Kurichi Industrial Cluster and analysed to find the concentrations of Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium. Four more samples were taken from other residential regions far from the industrial estate and served as control. Samples were analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Results We found that the ground water of the areas surrounding the industrial cluster does not contain significant amount of those metals. Instead, Heavy metal contamination of ground water were observed in some residential areas of coimbatore. Conclusion The regulatory measures to contain and prevent ground water contamination by industries undertaken by Tamilnadu pollution control board may have lead to absence of heavy metal contamination in Kurichi Industrial cluster, Coimbatore, India. PMID:27190788

  20. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance. PMID:20609394

  1. Water-elevation, stream-discharge, and ground-water quality data in the Alaska Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1993 to May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kriegler, A.T.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    From May 1993 to May 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management collected data on ground-water and surface-water elevations, stream discharge, and ground-water quality in the Alaska Railroad Industrial area in Fairbanks, Alaska. The data- collection efforts were coordinated with environmental efforts being made in the study area by the Alaska Railroad Corporation. These data were collected as part of an effort to characterize the hydrogeology of the Alaska Railroad Industrial area and to define the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in the area. Ground-water data were collected at 52 observation wells, surface-water data at 12 sites, stream discharge data at 9 sites, and chemical water-quality data at 32 observation wells.

  2. A review of industrial symbiosis research: theory and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Chen, Bin; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan

    2015-03-01

    The theory, methodologies, and case studies in the field of industrial symbiosis have been developing for nearly 30 years. In this paper, we trace the development history of industrial symbiosis, and review its current theoretical and methodological bases, as well as trends in current research. Based on the research gaps that we identify, we provide suggestions to guide the future development of this approach to permit more comprehensive analyses. Our theoretical review includes key definitions, a classification system, and a description of the formation and development mechanisms. We discuss methodological studies from the perspective of individual industrial metabolic processes and network analysis. Analyzing specific metabolic processes can help to characterize the exchanges of materials and energy, and to reveal the ecological performance and economic benefits of the symbiosis. Network analysis methods are increasingly being used to analyze both the structural and functional characteristics of a system. Our suggestions for future research focus on three aspects: how to quantitatively classify industrial symbiosis systems, monitor the dynamics of a developing industrial symbiosis system, and analyze its internal attributes more deeply.

  3. Boom in clinical research industry: a dangerous trend.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Saraya, Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade or so India has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the clinical trial industry. The projections forecast a continuing growth of this trend. It has been predicted that by 2011 India will be in charge of 15% of global clinical trials. The enthusiasm for the growth of this industry in India is shared not just by the major pharmaceutical companies and CROs but also equally so by government agencies. The raison d'être for medical research is that it should lead to maximum possible benefit to the largest number of people. Hence, an examination of the extent to which public good is served can act as a measure for objective analysis of this exponential increase in the clinical trial industry. After all it is the health and lives of the people that are at stake. On the face of it, it would seem that all trials testing the safety and efficacy of various molecules, by their very nature work towards public welfare as they are indispensible to the development of any drug including the life-saving ones. An increasing number of clinical trials at all stages in a product's life cycle are funded by the pharmaceutical industry. It would then seem that the industry-sponsored medical research is necessarily furthering the larger objective of human wellbeing. However, the operations of the pharmaceutical industry, the nature of the processes involved and the operative motives are a bit too complex to facilitate this larger objective so simply, just as yet. This warrants a closer look at the various aspects of industry-sponsored clinical research. PMID:20306757

  4. Strategies for implementing zero discharge in an industrial smelter : 1. Managing fluroide in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagnitti, F.; Salzman, S.; Thwaites, L.; Allinson, G.; Le Blanc, M.; Hill, J.; Doerr, S.; de Rooij, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Portland Aluminium smelter produces approximately 75 ML of process wastewater each year. This is combined with storm water runoff from the site to give an annual production of 715 ML. In common with many other smelters, this wastewater stream is currently discharged to the ocean. However, although the quality of the water Portland Aluminium discharges currently meets all Australian Environmental Protection Agency license requirements, this mode of release is unlikely to be acceptable in the near future, and alternative disposal options for the water are required. The Portland smelter has developed strategies which will enable it to achieve zero-discharge within 5 years. These strategies include separating process water from storm water, recycling storm water, construction of evaporation ponds to receive process water, irrigation of process water and storm water on lands within the site and maintenance of important wetland functions. The poster presents a summary of the management strategies currently being trialed and in particular focuses on modeling the spatial and temporal variations of fluoride found in the shallow groundwater and the implications of achieving zero-discharge. The poster also discusses the possible impacts on the distribution of fluoride and other solutes in the vadose zone by the irrigation of treated process water on blue-gum plantations. Computer simulations indicate that irrigation of process water (either treated or untreated) on the land poses no significant long-term threat to regional or surficial groundwater. However the impacts of increased solute transport through the vadose zone on changes in soil structure and nutrition require further investigation.

  5. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  6. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  7. Using Live Cases for Teaching, Industry Collaboration, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Mikko; Mattila, Pekka; Salo, Jari; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2013-01-01

    The use of live cases in marketing teaching has been suggested as a way to provide students with interesting and relevant course work while collaborating on live case exercises also provides industry partners with valuable new ideas for innovation and development. When properly conducted, live cases can also be used for conducting research by the…

  8. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  9. Basic Guidelines for University-Industry Research Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannock, Jean C.; Denny, Amanda M.

    1998-01-01

    Universities should embrace university/industry relationships because they benefit both the institution and society. As such relationships evolve, the university should continually review its policies. The model used by Wake Forest University (North Carolina) for routinely reviewing research agreements is presented to assist other universities in…

  10. [Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

  11. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  12. Distribution of nitrogen species in groundwater aquifers of an industrial area in alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains--a case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Singh, Vinod K; Malik, Amrita; Basant, Nikita

    2006-10-01

    The groundwater samples collected from the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers of an industrial area of the Kanpur city (Uttar Pradesh, India) were analyzed for the concentration levels and distribution pattern of nitrogenous species, such as nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonical-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), organic-nitrogen (Org-N) and total Kjeldahl-nitrogen (TKN) to identify the possible contamination source. Geo-statistical approach was adopted to determine the distribution and extent of the contaminant plume. In the groundwater aquifers NO(3)-N, NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, TKN, Org-N and Total-N ranged from 0.10 to 64.10, BDL (below detection limit)-6.57, BDL-39.00, 7.84-202.16, 1.39-198.97 and 8.89-219.43 mg l(-1), respectively. About 42% and 26% of the groundwater samples of the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers, respectively, exceeded the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) guideline value of 10 mg l(-1) for NO(3)-N and may pose serious health hazards to the people of the area. The results of the study revealed that the groundwater aquifers of the study area are highly contaminated with the nitrate and indicates point source pollution of nitrate in the study area. PMID:16791709

  13. German industrial research project ADAPTRONIK: content, results, and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanselka, Holger; Sachau, Delf

    2001-06-01

    Within the framework of an idea competition for future-oriented key technologies and their industrial utilization, in 1997 BMBF called for project proposals from industries and research for so-called 'Leitprojekte'. An independent group of experts selected few project proposals from the many submitted, and proposed them to BMBF for promotion. One of these projects is the BMBF-Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK which is introduced in this paper. Adaptronics describes the field of technology focusing on the development of a new class of so-called smart structures. The Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK consists of 24 partners from industry and research institutes and is conducted under the responsibility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The project focuses on the development and structure-conforming integration of piezoelectric fibers and patches in structures for lightweight construction. It is aimed at active vibration and noise reduction, contour deformation and micro-positioning in the very sense of adaptronics in various industrial applications. The project targets are prototype assemblies from the fields of automotive industry, rail vehicles, mechanical engineering, medical engineering, and aerospace. In the paper the content, the status and an outlook will be presented.

  14. Problems for biomedical research at the academia-industrial interface.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, David

    2003-01-01

    Throughout much of the world, universities have driven towards industrial partnerships. This collaboration, which, in the biochemical field at least, has to continue if potential benefits for patients are to be realised, has brought with it a number of problems. These include the neglect of long-term research in favour of short-term projects, the curtailing of free dissemination of research information within university departments and the biasing of results of clinical trials by the financial interests of the investigators. It is very important that governments, universities, and industry itself address these problems. Universities should monitor the amount of basic, curiosity-driven research that is being carried on, compared with that which is more short-term goal orientated. PhD students and post-doctoral fellows should be exposed to the principles of bioethics early on in their careers. Further work is necessary on the terms of research contracts to protect, on the one hand, the rights of individual scientists and, on the other, industry from rogue scientists. Where problems arise, procedures should be in place for independent reviews to be conducted by bodies such as the Medical Research Council in the UK or the National Institutes of Health in the USA. The conflict-of-interest rules recently introduced for publication in medical journals should be extended to all branches of science. PMID:12645228

  15. Pake Prize: The Evolving Nature of Industrial Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, W. Dale

    2014-03-01

    The support of basic research in the physical sciences expanded rather quickly in the late 1950s and into the 1960s stimulated, in part, by the successful contribution of the scientific effort to the Second World War. Many in industry took on the challenge of creating research activities that focused on basic research. Many of these activities slowed in the 1970s and 1980s because of events in the economy and the marketplace. The challenges confronting the industrial research complexes were many. Retaining the high standards of quality in the research organization, encouraging partial realignment of programs to be more supportive of product lines and the various pressures arising from legislative measures to increase product efficiencies while reducing unwanted pollutants into the atmosphere, to name a few. Some of the highlights of the past 50 years will be reviewed using automotive industry examples. There will be another talk from Paul Grant for the next 36 minutes. I do not have his abstract yet but it has been requested.

  16. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information..., Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). DATES: Comments must be received by... INFORMATION: Title: Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...

  17. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  18. Groundwater exposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater flow meddles with hydrological, environmental and geological processes. As water scarcity issues mount for people living above ground, the vast stores of freshwater in the subsurface require research attention.

  19. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  20. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AT THE EASTERN TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 1872-1929

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century the submarine telegraph cable industry, which had blossomed in the 1850s, had reached what historians regard as technological maturity. For a host of commercial, cultural and technical reasons, the industry seems to have become conservative in its attitude towards technological development, which is reflected in the small scale of its staff and facilities for research and development. This paper argues that the attitude of the cable industry towards research and development was less conservative and altogether more complex than historians have suggested. Focusing on the crucial case of the Eastern Telegraph Company, the largest single operator of submarine cables, it shows how the company encouraged inventive activity among outside and in-house electricians and, in 1903, established a small research laboratory where staff and outside scientific advisors pursued new methods of cable signalling and cable designs. The scale of research and development at the Eastern Telegraph Company, however, was small by comparison to that of its nearest competitor, Western Union, and dwarfed by that of large electrical manufacturers. This paper explores the reasons for this comparatively weak provision but also suggests that this was not inappropriate for a service-sector firm. PMID:25977587

  1. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  2. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  3. Overview of current research opportunities in industrial microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Silberglitt, R.; Hien, L.K.; Rattien, S.

    1983-08-01

    The use of electromagnetic energy in industrial heating applications has many potential advantages as compared to conventional heating methods, e.g., increased energy efficiency, increased uniformity, lower product surface temperature, decreased space and production time requirements, and even improved product quality. However, industry has been slow to adopt this technique, especially as compared to the recent market penetration of consumer microwave ovens. This has been attributed to technological inertia, as well as the difficulty of demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of electromagnetic heating because at present most equipment must be custom-designed. Based upon a detailed survey of existing electromagnetic heating research and application areas, a number of research opportunities with significant technological innovation potential have been identified. These are reviewed, with emphasis on the microwave frequency range.

  4. Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Minhas, P S; Lal, Khajanchi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, Gajender; Verma, T P

    2015-08-01

    Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 μg g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 μg g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination. PMID:25894348

  5. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  6. Research on critical groundwater level under the threshold value of land subsidence in the typical region of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Lei, K.-C.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater in Beijing has been excessively exploited in a long time, causing the groundwater level continued to declining and land subsidence areas expanding, which restrained the economic and social sustainable development. Long years of study show good time-space corresponding relationship between groundwater level and land subsidence. To providing scientific basis for the following land subsidence prevention and treatment, quantitative research between groundwater level and settlement is necessary. Multi-linear regression models are set up by long series factual monitoring data about layered water table and settlement in the Tianzhu monitoring station. The results show that: layered settlement is closely related to water table, water level variation and amplitude, especially the water table. Finally, according to the threshold value in the land subsidence prevention and control plan of China (45, 30, 25 mm), the minimum allowable layered water level in this region while settlement achieving the threshold value is calculated between -18.448 and -10.082 m. The results provide a reasonable and operable control target of groundwater level for rational adjustment of groundwater exploited horizon in the future.

  7. From research to industry — The establishment of a radiation processing industry in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessis, T. A. Du; Stevens, RCB

    In the late sixties the South African Atomic Energy Board in pursuing its objectives to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy in general, established a research group with the specific purpose of investigating and developing radiation processing as a new technique. During the early years it was realised that the economic and technological facets of establishing a new industry were equally important and, in addition to fundamental research, strong emphasis was placed on the necessity of marketing this new technology. Although the initial emphasis was put on gamma sterilization, and today still forms the backbone of the radiation processing industry, the promising fields of polymer modification and food irradiation hold a lot of promise in the radiation processing industry. Following ten years of successfully introducing and providing a radiation service, the South African Atomic Energy Board in 1980 decided to transfer its service to the private sector. These developments in South Africa are a good sample of how a small country, through initial government envolvement, can acquire a sophisticated new private industry.

  8. Beyond CMOS -- The Semiconductor Industry's Nanoelectronics Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coufal, Hans

    2006-03-01

    The tremendously powerful scaling of transistors, that has enabled Moore's Law for the past forty years, can not continue forever. Some of the reasons, such as the atomistic nature of matter, are obvious. Others are less obvious and will be briefly reviewed before some of the potential alternatives to charge based logic will be analyzed. Such an analysis had the semiconductor industry initiate a Nanoelectronics Research Initiative. The current status of this program will be reviewed

  9. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  10. Groundwater composition near the nickel—copper smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula, central Barents Region (NW Russia and NE Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Danilova, Svetlana; Jæger, Øystein; Reimann, Clemens; Storrø, Gaute

    1998-07-01

    The chemical composition of 185 groundwater samples collected from two catchments in the extreme NE Norway and NW Russia over the period April 1994 to November 1995 is reported in terms of Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO 3, P, Pb, PO 4,Rb, S, Sb, Se, Si, SO 4, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn concentrations (as determined by ICP-MS, ICP-AES and IC), pH and electrical conductance. One catchment (C2) is located in Russia 5 km downwind of the nickel—copper ore smelting industry in Monchegorsk, which is a major SO 2 and trace metal emission source, the other (C5) is located in Norway 30 km off-wind from the nickel-copper ore smelter in Nikel and 52 km off-wind from the nickel—copper ore roasting plant of Zapoljarniy, which are also significant emitters of inorganic atmospheric pollutants. Groundwater chemistry mostly reflects the mineralogical composition of the gabbro aquifer in C2 and the Quaternary deposits in C5, although groundwater in C2 also shows signs of incipient contamination from surface waters (heavy metals, sulphate, chloride). Groundwater in C2 appears to have been acidified by S-compounds emitted from Monchegorsk, but the groundwater's capacity to neutralise incoming acidity has not been exhausted. In C5, groundwater has not been acidified to any extent and has a high acid neutralising capacity. This study demonstrates that the geological substrate of a catchment is a fundamental control on how groundwater responds to atmospheric pollution, even if the latter is severe.

  11. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-02-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed

  12. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports technology development and technical assistance for the remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The core of the program is centered on delivering proactive, responsive expertise and technologies with highly-leveraged, carefully selected investments that maximum impact on life-cycle cleanup costs and risks across the DOE complex. The program currently focuses on four main priorities: improved sampling and characterization strategies, advanced predictive capabilities, enhanced remediation methods, and improved long-term performance evaluation and monitoring. In FY 2010, the program developed a detailed research and development (R and D) plan in support of a larger initiative to integrate R and D efforts across EM. This paper provides an overview of the priority action areas and the program's near-term technical direction.

  13. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports technology development and technical assistance for the remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The core of the program is centered on delivering proactive, responsive expertise and technologies with highly-leveraged, carefully selected investments that maximize impact on life-cycle cleanup costs and risks across the DOE complex. The program currently focuses on four main priorities: improved sampling and characterization strategies, advanced predictive capabilities, enhanced remediation methods, and improved long-term performance evaluation and monitoring. In FY 2010, the program developed a detailed research and development (R&D) plan in support of a larger initiative to integrate R&D efforts across EM. This paper provides an overview of the high priority action areas and the program s near-term technical direction.

  14. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  15. Microfluidics—from fundamental research to industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    The advance of microfluidics started in the early 1980s. At the time, researchers realized that many processes and reactions in chemistry and biology, which typically take place on small length scales, can be defined, controlled and understood much better when using tools on equally small length scales. Reactions and reaction kinetics rely on (gradual) concentration differences and microfluidics provides the unique possibility to establish exactly such gradients of solutes, ion concentrations, pH value and so on. Nowadays the variety of specific microfluidic methods is large. In principle, they can be divided into two groups: (i) monophase flow, where miscible (e.g. aqueous) fluids are mixed, mostly by diffusion owing to the laminar flow on small length scales and (ii) multiphase flow, the most prominent example of which is probably droplet microfluidics, where water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions are used to encapsulate chemical or biological systems and separate them from each other, much like in 'micron-scale test tubes'. Now, 30 years later, microfluidic techniques are seriously considered for industrial applications, although some important steps in the upscaling process are still missing. The purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the different aspects in microfluidics research starting from fundamental research reaching all the way to industrial applications. The study by Toma and co-workers takes advantage of the controlled diffusive mixing when co-flowing aqueous, miscible solutions. They combine microfluidics with optical, spectroscopic and scattering techniques to study DNA packing. Nunes et al review the different regimes when replacing one of the fluids by an oil phase and varying flow rates and device geometries with a particular emphasis on using multiphase microfluidics for synthesis of particles or fibres. Going into the third dimension by fabricating microfluidic devices with several layers, producing emulsions can also be achieved by

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF GEOCHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PARAMETERS AFFECTING METAL TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable assessment of the hazards or risks arising from groundwater contamination and the design of effective means of rehabilitation of contaminated sites requires the capability to predict the movement and fate of dissolved solutes in groundwater. he modeling of metal transpor...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  18. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings

  19. New Technology Industries. Skills Task Force Research Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Chris

    This paper provides an overview of the growth of new technology industries in Great Britain and the skills needed for these industries. The industries are advanced materials, biotechnology, and opto-electronics. The report profiles the current status, expected growth, and skills needed for each of these industry sectors. It also points out the…

  20. Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

  1. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Rois; Hendron, Bob; Pless, Shanti; Huppert, Mark; Cochrane, Ric

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  2. Experimental research on a slope destabilization process with a movement of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Ishizawa, T.; Fukuzono, T.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters.Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse.However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short.The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope.New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m.In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope destabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope destabilization.

  3. Experimental research on a slope unstabilization process with a complex movement of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters. Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse (Fukuzono, 1985). However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short. The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope. New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m. In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope unstabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope unstabilization.

  4. Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Roberts, J. Keith; Chew, William; Warren, Larry C.; Ashley, Paul R.; Everitt, Henry O.; Webster, Eric; Foreman, John V.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Temmen, Mark G.; Varadan, Vijay; Hayduke, Devlin; Wu, Pae C.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Yang, Yang; Kim, Tong-Ho; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Brown, April S.; Callahan, John

    2011-04-01

    Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ground systems. The objective of the research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weapons. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based microsensors, nano-energetics, nano-batteries, nano-composites, and nano-plasmonics. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) missile systems by significantly reducing the size, weight and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of chemical sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing and toxic industrial chemicals; the development of highly sensitive/selective, self-powered miniaturized acoustic sensors for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance; the development of a minimum signature solid propellant with increased ballistic and physical properties that meet insensitive munitions requirements; the development of nano-structured material for higher voltage thermal batteries and higher energy density storage; the development of advanced composite materials that provide high frequency damping for inertial measurement units' packaging; and the development of metallic nanostructures for ultraviolet surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The current status of the overall AMRDEC Nanotechnology research efforts is disclosed in this paper. Critical technical challenges, for the various technologies, are presented. The authors' approach for overcoming technical barriers and achieving required performance is also discussed. Finally, the roadmap for each technology, as well as the overall program, is presented.

  5. Pesticide residues in groundwater in The Netherlands: state of observations and future directions of research.

    PubMed

    Loch, J P; Verdam, B

    1989-01-01

    In the first stage of a programme of sampling and analysis for pesticide residues in groundwater in The Netherlands, the upper groundwater below four vulnerable soils was analysed for nearly 2,5 years in eight sampling rounds. Of 18 compounds analysed, including some metabolites, 1,3-dichloropropene, aldicarb, ethoprophos dinoseb, metamitron, atrazine, desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine, metolachlor and ethylenethioureum were repeatedly detected in the groundwater in concentrations above 0.1 micrograms.dm-3, the limit for pesticides in drinking water set by the EC. These observations were made below fields with potatoe-, maize- and bulb flower culture, all on low-humic to moderately humic sandy soils. No residues were found below a cracked light clay on a sandy subsoil. On the locations sampled evidence was found for complete in situ removal in the upper groundwater of 1,3-dichloropropene, high persistence of aldicarb residues and partial in situ degradation of dinoseb. PMID:2756375

  6. Groundwater issues in the Potomac River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jay

    Great strides have been made by the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, along with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia, in protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Since these entities joined forces in a renewed effort to protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay area, a number of useful programs have been established and public awareness has been raised.The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers and several regional co-sponsors presented Ground Water Issues and Solutions in the Potomac River Basin/Chesapeake Bay Region Conference March 14 at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., to provide insight into groundwater-related issues. Attendance at the conference included 150 groundwater professionals from state, county and private agencies, along with a significant number of students from area universities. More than 30 papers were presented dealing with research projects and field studies. Topics included geohydrologic relationships, groundwater quality impacts, impact of industrial processes on groundwater quality, saltwater intrusion, groundwater protection in the Chesapeake Bay area, land-use impacts on groundwater quality, groundwater modeling, groundwater withdrawals, and policy issues. In addition to the technical sessions, a debate of “How clean is clean?” was held.

  7. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.; Martin, R.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  8. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  9. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  10. The pharmaceutical industry and research in 2002 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anand S; Garner, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    The success of the pharmaceutical industry will continue to depend on its ability to satisfy the clinical needs of established market economies. The number and quality of new drugs emerging from development pipelines seems likely to rise due to increased research and development budgets of the merged pharmaceutical companies, efficiencies across all facets of the development process, increasing use of new technologies and availability of new targets from the ongoing work on the role of human genes in disease pathways. In addition to the traditional small-molecule drugs, the market for protein products, including monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic vaccines, is likely to expand as advances in recombinant and formulation technologies are made. Current work on relatively newer fields of pharmaceutical research, such as novel G-protein-coupled receptors, chemokines/cytokines, integrins and control of cell cycle regulation and signal transduction pathways (kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors) will lead to new drugs over the next decade. It is tempting to argue that a progressive fall in the number of new drugs in the last decade of the 20th century reflects the end of an era as companies struggle to identify any remaining quality products using old-style drug hunting practices. PMID:14747843

  11. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  12. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds and Stable Isotopes in Groundwater as Tracers of Industrial-Age Recharge in the Southern California Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitz, K.; Land, M. T.; Hamlin, S. N.; Dawson, B. M.

    2002-12-01

    The USGS, in collaboration with the California Water Resources Control Board, is using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and stable isotopes to assess the susceptibility of California aquifers to contamination from land surface activities. One of the areas studied is the 2700 square kilometer coastal plain of southern California, where we have sampled more than 200 public supply and monitoring wells. The ground-water hydrologic cycle in the southern California coastal plain is dominated by human activity. Engineered recharge facilities along the Rio Hondo, San Gabriel River, Santa Ana River, and Santiago Creek are the primary sources of ground-water replenishment for the regional aquifer system. During the past 50 years, approximately 20 cubic kilometers of water have been recharged through these facilities. The primary source of ground-water discharge is from hundreds of production wells that are generally perforated at depths ranging from 150 to 300 meters. Currently, the rates of recharge and discharge are approximately equal. VOCs in ground-water can be used to demarcate water that has entered the flow system within the past 50 years. Associated with each of the recharge facilities is a "radial wedge:" within the wedge ground-water contains one or more VOCs at concentrations above the USGS laboratory reporting limits (LRL); outside the wedge there are no detections above LRL. The distribution of specific VOCs in ground-water reflects the historical usage of those compounds. For example, MTBE, which was introduced within the past decade, is only present in ground water within a few kilometers of the recharge facilities. In contrast, chloroform, which has been used or generated for more than 50 years, is present in ground water more than 20 kilometers from the larger recharge facilities. The distribution of stable isotopes can also be used to demarcate water that has entered the flow system within the past 50 years. Within the radial wedges, the isotopes of

  14. 76 FR 10067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...--Industrial Macromolecular Crystallography Association Correction In notice document 2011--2412 appearing on... and Production Act of 1993--Industrial Nacromolecular Crystallography Association'' should read ``Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  15. Diaphragm Pressure Wave Generator Developments at Industrial Research Ltd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, A. J.; Emery, N.; Glasson, N. D.

    2010-04-01

    Industrial Research Ltd (IRL) have been developing a unique diaphragm based pressure wave generator technology for pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Our system uses a metal diaphragm to separate the clean cryocooler gas circuit from a conventionally lubricated mechanical driver, thus producing a clean pressure wave with a long life drive that does not require the precision manufacture and associated costs of large linear motors. The first successful diaphragm pressure wave generator produced 3.2 kW of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 72% with a swept volume of 200 ml and a prototype has now accumulated over 2500 hours running. This paper describes recent developments in the technology. To explore scaling, a small diaphragm pressure wave generator with a swept volume of 20 ml has been constructed and has delivered 454 W of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 60%. Improvements have been made to the hydraulic force amplifier mechanism for driving the diaphragms resulting in a cheaper and lighter mechanism than the mechanical linkage originally used. To meet a customer's specific requirements, the 200 ml pressure wave generator's stroke was extended to achieve 240 ml of swept volume thereby increasing its acoustic power delivery to 4.1 kW without compromising efficiency.

  16. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  17. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  18. Research on Computer-based Creative Industries Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuqin, Sun

    In recent years, creative industries based on the computer technology is booming and leads a new trend in this field. This creative industries considers innovation as a driving force. It combines the various cultural art resources with the latest computer technology, estabilshes new production and consumption patterns, promotes new industrial clusters, cultivates new consumer groups and generates enormous economic and social value. Therefore, computer-based creative industries is not only a cultural or educational philosophy, but also a development strategy with practical and sustainable features.

  19. The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummolo, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

  20. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Eight studies identify, examine, and evaluate significant elements of industry-location decisions as they relate directly or indirectly to public investment policies and activities that may be considered as economic growth stimulants for the Appalachian region. Examined in the document are the chlor-alkali industry; the manufacturing of trucks,…

  1. Recreation as an Industry. Appalachian Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The role which recreation as an industry can play in economic development of an area -- through creation of jobs, generation of incomes, and stimulation of public and private investment -- is the primary concern of this 1966 study. The document establishes the tourism-recreation industry as being resource-based, with enterprises which are mainly…

  2. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  5. White light interferometer: applications in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sujit

    2015-06-01

    Applications of interferometer are countless both in the research and commercial world. Laser sources offer precise measurements of relative path difference between two interfering beams. An exciting example is LIGO (laser Interferometer for Gravitational Observatory), which is aiming to resolve length change as small as 10-19 m over a 4 km length for detection of gravitational waves. However, laser is a disadvantage for microscopic imaging and surface topography applications usually required in semiconductor industry. A different approach for microscopy is to use white light in place of laser. White light due to its limited temporal coherence offers a multitude of benefits for imaging applications. An immediate benefit from white light is the sharp localisation of interference fringe that makes the 3D topography construction or OCT (Optical Coherence Topography) realisable using a Scanning White Light Interferometer (SWLI) imager. In Mirau Mode, SWLI performs high resolution imaging; whereas in Michelson mode Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) is realised. SWLI can easily be modified into PUPS (Pupil Plane SWLI) for Ellipsometry. Superimposing Michelson Interferometer known as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any reflector) can form interference fringes even in presence of wide angle light scattered from a moving illuminated object. This paper describes work undertaken at Nanometrics (UK) on simulation of SWLI fringes including high Numerical Aperture (NA) applications, thin film characterisation, OCT generation and Zemax modelling of compact dispersion-free vibration-immune Fourier-Transformed spectrometer. VISAR as a modified Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is also discussed based on the work at Rutherford-Appleton laboratory (UK).

  6. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  7. [High-resolution research on the NO3- changes of karst groundwater and its responses to the outside environmental variations].

    PubMed

    Pu, Jun-Bing; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Ping-Heng; Gou, Peng-Fei; He, Qiu-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2011-03-01

    In order to thoroughly reveal the karst groundwater system in response to the external environment, multi-index high-resolution auto-monitoring instruments were used to research the hydrogeochemistry variations of Qingmuguan subterranean stream. The monitoring indicators were pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), water level, rainfall and NO3-. In the observed 6 times rainfall events, the pH value was mainly controlled by acid rain and EC was impacted by the rain chemistry, physical dilution effect of rainfall and agricultural wastewater. NO3- derived from agricultural activities was less impacted by rain chemistry; and its variations were mainly affected by physical dilution effect of rainfall and agricultural wastewater. Under the influences of the R1 rainfall, the rapid changes of EC and NO3- were contrary in generally, but pH value decreased due to the acid rain. In the R2, R3, R4 and R6 rain events, the water level was positively response to the rainfall and the pH value decreased due to the acid rain; however both of the EC and NO3- decreased due to the dilution effect. With the afflux of agricultural wastewater, both of the EC and NO3- were rapidly changed in synchronization within the shortest of 5 h of and the longest of only 27 h and the pH value showed accelerated decline. During the R5 torrential rain events, water level abruptly increased and all of the pH value, EC and NO3- sharply decreased as a result of dilution effect. The groundwater quality was changed because the afflux of agricultural wastewaters in the entire rainfall periods. According to the National Groundwater Quality Standard, P. R. China (GB/T 14848-9), the groundwater quality of the QSS showed the following order in the entire rainfall events: Grade III --> Grade IV --> Grade V --> Grade 1V --> Grade V --> Grade LV --> Grade V --> Grade IV --> Grade III. As a important drinking water source around local inhabitants, the groundwater quality of Qingmuguan subterranean stream was

  8. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  9. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  10. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  11. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  12. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  13. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  14. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... considering a proposed research study. In the Federal Register of June 3, 2009 (74 FR 26703), FDA announced... Application.'' In a document published in the Federal Register on July 25, 1975 (40 FR 31298), FDA changed the... terminated a 1963 order from the Commissioner of Food and Drugs (28 FR 183, January 8, 1963) that...

  15. 77 FR 43416 - ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration,...

  16. Research and industrial application of series MJ-compound binders

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Gao, J.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of the series MJ-compound binders studies, which were developed recently, as well as the results of industrial tests and applications. Compared with traditional binders used to produce coal briquettes such as lime, humic acid, clay, etc., the series MJ-compound binders have the advantages of low additive ratio, low price and rich resources, as well as simple production processes and low operational costs. The successful development of the MJ10/MJ11 compound binder and its industrial applications, which uses dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof coal briquettes, has made great progress in industrial coal briquetting technologies in China. Therefore, it is now possible to produce coal briquettes locally near coal mine areas and to transport them long distance to different consumers.

  17. Low-energy electron accelerators in industry and applied research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, W.

    1998-04-01

    The use of electron accelerators in industry involve a broad range of machines and applications. The major actual large-scale applications are crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, plastic films and foam, curing of coatings and rubbers, and sterilisation of medical products. The recent availability, at attractive costs, of electron accelerators with high beam power (up to 200 kW) covering an energy range up to 10 MeV, has created new possibilities for a substantial expansion of the application range. The actual position of electron accelerators in industry is reviewed, new emerging applications and novel opportunities for multipurpose facilities are described.

  18. University-Industry Research Collaboration: A Model to Assess University Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Di Costa, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers recognize that collaboration between industry and the public research institutions is a necessity for innovation and national economic development. This work presents an econometric model which expresses the university capability for collaboration with industry as a function of size, location and research quality. The…

  19. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  20. Constituting the Significance and Value of Research: Views from Information Technology Academics and Industry Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Pham, Binh; Stoodley, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The information technology research community, comprising both academic and industry stakeholders, is responding to national and international imperatives that challenge disparate groups to work together. In this article it is shown how, within both academic and industrial contexts, researchers interpret, or constitute, the significance and value…

  1. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  2. Working Together, Creating Knowledge: The University-Industry Research Collaboration Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    This document provides a detailed assessment of the opportunities and challenges facing university-industry research collaborations. This report represents a synthesis of the work and findings of this initiative. It analyzes several of the critical issues facing research collaborations between industry and universities and offers suggestions to…

  3. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  4. Selected Research Tools in Economics, Labor and Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Ronald J.

    Twenty-two indexing and abstracting services and general reference sources in the areas of labor and industrial relations are listed in this selective bibliography for users of State University of New York at Albany Libraries. Classification numbers are included for each source and most have annotations. Materials are listed under four…

  5. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  6. Intellectual Property in the Context of Research-Industry Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arup, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    A discussion of the legal and social implications of collaboration between Australia industry and higher education institutions for the development of new technologies focuses on the forms of collaboration and the disposition of intellectual property rights between employer and employee or customer and contractor. (MSE)

  7. TRANSLATING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE: THE DRINKING WATER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply Industry is very conservative in adopting major changes in water supply treatment. n increased number of regulations and an accelerated regulatory agenda has the potential for revolutionizing this field. echnology transfer and information diffusion will be very i...

  8. University-industry research relationships in biotechnology: implications for the university.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, D; Gluck, M; Louis, K S; Stoto, M A; Wise, D

    1986-06-13

    The growth of university-industry research relationships in biotechnology has raised questions concerning their effects, both positive and negative, on universities. A survey of over 1200 faculty members at 40 major universities in the United States reveals that biotechnology researchers with industrial support publish at higher rates, patent more frequently, participate in more administrative and professional activities and earn more than colleagues without such support. At the same time, faculty with industry funds are much more likely than other biotechnology faculty to report that their research has resulted in trade secrets and that commercial considerations have influenced their choice of research projects. Although the data do not establish a causal connection between industrial support and these faculty behaviors, our findings strongly suggest that university-industry research relationships have both benefits and risks for academic institutions. The challenge for universities is to find ways to manage these relationships that will preserve the benefits while minimizing the risks. PMID:3715452

  9. Designing Research to Improve Students' Learning: "Industry/University" Collaborations for Educating Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    University/industry partnerships provide a vehicle for synthesizing knowledge from the fields of teachers' professional learning, higher degree research training and research impact. This analysis outlines a conceptual framework for having a direct research impact on socio-cultural, economic and environmental learning (SEEL). The particular…

  10. A Low-cost Method to Identify Tubewells for Longitudinal Research on Arsenic in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Labrique, Alain B.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in tubewell groundwater from the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh could result in up to 300,000 arsenic-related cancer cases over the next four decades. Understanding the magnitude and temporal dynamics of this exposure, via longitudinal studies, is imperative for planning effective mitigation and management strategies. Appropriate methods are needed to identify tubewells for longitudinal sampling. A plastic band marked with a unique identification number was developed, and various methods for attaching the band to the tubewell were tested, resulting in the choice of a galvanized-iron split-rivet. Two follow-up surveys at two and 14 months post-banding assessed the durability and longevity under field conditions in the JiVitA Project area in rural, northwestern Bangladesh. After two months, ~96.0% of the original bands on 1,063 tubewells were functional, although the rivets were partially corroded. After 14 months, ~65% of a subsample of the bands were functional. With further improvements to the rivets, these bands offer an inexpensive, durable, enumeration technology for longitudinal studies on groundwater arsenic. PMID:18330072

  11. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  12. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Year 2 Report and Year 3 Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, Geroge; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL): a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, contributes to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL enables Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during the second year of implementation. The AERIAL Year 3 proposal is also included.

  13. Health Promotion and Industry: Where Interdisciplinary Research Meets Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Thomas C.; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation research in work-site health promotion offers an opportunity to test the effectiveness of work-site health promotion and disease prevention programs. Based on an evaluation of the research, an interdisciplinary approach to data collection and analysis is suggested, and policy implications are outlined. (TJH)

  14. Navigating a research partnership between academia and industry to assess the impact of personalized genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Kaufman, David J.; Sharp, Richard R.; Moreno, Tanya A.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the process of structuring a partnership between academic researchers and two personalized genetic testing companies that would manage conflicts of interest while allowing researchers to study the impact of this nascent industry. Methods We developed a transparent process of ongoing communication about the interests of all research partners to address challenges in establishing study goals, survey development, data collection, analysis, and manuscript preparation. Using the existing literature on conflicts of interest and our experience, we created a checklist for academic and industry researchers seeking to structure research partnerships. Results Our checklist includes questions about the risk to research participants, sponsorship of the study, control of data analysis, freedom to publish results, the impact of the research on industry customers, openness to input from all partners, sharing results before publication, and publication of industry-specific data. Transparency is critical to building trust between partners. Involving all partners in the research development enhanced the quality of our research and provided an opportunity to manage conflicts early in the research process. Conclusion Navigating relationships between academia and industry is complex and requires strategies that are transparent and responsive to the concerns of all. Employing a checklist of questions prior to beginning a research partnership may help to manage conflicts of interest. PMID:22241103

  15. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  16. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  17. Origins of behavioral teratology and distinctions between research on pharmaceutical agents and environmental/industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Most behavioral teratology studies have focused on pharmaceutical agents. Investigations of developmental toxicity are lacking for the majority of the nearly 100,000 industrial chemicals currently in use. Only some three dozen chemicals have been examined for behavioral/neurochemical deviations in offspring following maternal exposures. Examination of industrial agents for developmental toxicity, therefore, remains a major public health need. Most developmental research addresses the effects of pharmaceutical agents, but these studies frequently do not address environmental/industrial concerns due to fundamental differences in experimental methodology. The route, duration, and timing of exposure, usefulness of fostering of offspring, and potential concomitant exposure of both parents are all variables which should be treated differently in research on industrial chemicals as opposed to pharmaceutical agents. After briefly tracking the history of behavioral teratology, the present paper discusses differences in application of behavioral teratological principles to industrial versus pharmaceutical agents, and points to the largely untested number of industrial chemicals needing investigation. 57 references.

  18. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  19. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment. PMID:27552808

  20. Ethical considerations of industry-sponsored research: the use of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J D

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the history and character of these research requirements, with special emphasis on questions concerning the role of industry in sponsored research. This discussion is becoming more vigorous with each passing year as private investment in research assumes greater importance in the scientific enterprise. I concentrate on issues of industry-supported human use that are on the "cutting edge" of contemporary biomedical ethics. Of special interest are questions about the disclosure of financial arrangements between industry and investigators, such as the nature and amount of capitated remuneration. PMID:8892182

  1. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  2. [Research and industrialization of biobased materials in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the research and commercialization progresses of biobased polymeric materials including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactides (PLA), poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and its monomer succinate, and CO2 copolymer poly (propylene carbonate), especially these efforts made in China. PMID:26672370

  3. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  4. Groundwater contamination field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

  5. 76 FR 46185 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...This rule establishes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). Softwood lumber is used in products like flooring, siding and framing. The program will be financed by an assessment on softwood lumber domestic manufacturers and importers and will be administered by a board of industry members selected by the Secretary of Agriculture......

  6. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial...

  7. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  8. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  9. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial...

  10. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  11. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... final rule that implemented the Order (76 FR 46185; August 2, 2012) and would bring the Order in line..., Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes to the Membership of the Softwood Lumber Board... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). The Board administers...

  12. Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, about 75 acres of black mangroves have died in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Although many factors can contribute to the mortality of mangroves, changes in irrigation practices, rainfall, and water use resulted in as much as 25 feet of drawdown in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in the vicinity of the reserve between 1986 and 2002. To clarify the issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study to ascertain how aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices have affected groundwater levels and groundwater flow to the Mar Negro area of the reserve. Changes in groundwater flow to the mangrove swamp and bay from 1986 to 2004 were estimated in this study by developing and calibrating a numerical groundwater flow model. The transient simulations indicate that prior to 1994, high irrigation return flows more than offset the effect of reduced groundwater withdrawals. In this case, the simulated discharge to the coast in the modeled area was 19 million gallons per day. From 1994 through 2004, furrow irrigation was completely replaced by micro-drip irrigation, thus eliminating return flows and the simulated average coastal discharge was 7 million gallons per day, a reduction of 63 percent. The simulated average groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the reserve from 1986 to 1993 was 2 million gallons per day, compared to an average simulated discharge of 0.2 million gallons per day from 1994 to 2004. The average annual rainfall for each of these periods was 38 inches. The groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was estimated at about 0.5 million gallons per day for 2003-2004 because of higher than average annual rainfall during these 2 years. The groundwater flow model was used to test five alternatives for increasing

  13. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry. PMID:25639120

  14. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. 1260.169 Section 1260.169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  15. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the following…

  16. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development (R&D) Forum. The R&D Forums are held periodically to generate a National research agenda that will foster solutions for the many challenges...

  17. Intensification of University-Industry Relationships and Its Impact on Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Dridi, Houssine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the intensification of university-industry relationships and its impact on university research. The paper consists of recent follow-up research to an international comparative research project conducted in the 1990s. It deals specifically with the Quebec (Canada) situation. Twenty-eight in-depth interviews were conducted in the…

  18. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Education and Industry Information Order; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION..., 2011 (76 FR 46185), regarding softwood lumber. Corrections are made in the amendatory instruction... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Division, Fruit...

  19. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  20. Applied Operations Research: Augmented Reality in an Industrial Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the application of computer generated data or graphics onto a real world view. Its use provides the operator additional information or a heightened situational awareness. While advancements have been made in automation and diagnostics of high value critical equipment to improve readiness, reliability and maintenance, the need for assisting and support to Operations and Maintenance staff persists. AR can improve the human machine interface where computer capabilities maximize the human experience and analysis capabilities. NASA operates multiple facilities with complex ground based HVCE in support of national aerodynamics and space exploration, and the need exists to improve operational support and close a gap related to capability sustainment where key and experienced staff consistently rotate work assignments and reach their expiration of term of service. The initiation of an AR capability to augment and improve human abilities and training experience in the industrial environment requires planning and establishment of a goal and objectives for the systems and specific applications. This paper explored use of AR in support of Operation staff in real time operation of HVCE and its maintenance. The results identified include identification of specific goal and objectives, challenges related to availability and computer system infrastructure.

  1. MEMS and nanotechnology research for the electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Y. Eugene

    2001-08-01

    The 20th Century has witnessed breathtaking developments in the miniaturization and the large-scale integration of microelectronic devices that have had an enormous impact on human affairs. The same miniaturization paradigm can be applied to mechanical devices using MEMS technology leading to ultra small micromachines that cannot otherwise be fabricated using conventional machining and assembly techniques. The MEMS technology is expected to have a great impact in the 21st century by enabling many complex electromechanical systems to be fabricated and integrated. In this paper, applications of MEMS to many areas relating to information and biotechnology are discussed. These topics are presented in the context of ongoing research at the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT). SAIT is the central research laboratory for the Samsung Corporation whose charter is to develop breakthrough technologies to be the leader in the 21st century.

  2. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  3. [The drug industry and research: status in Germany].

    PubMed

    Geursen, R

    1996-01-01

    If globally active pharmaceutical companies are to remain competitive, it is essential for them to be able to conduct research and development on an appropriate scale. Generally, their respective domestic market forms their base. For that reason, conditions there should be research-and innovation-friendly. In addition, pharmaceutical research calls for very long-term investment decisions. Companies that become involved in this interaction of profit and loss differ fundamentally from state or public organizations. The ensuing conflict of interest has become increasingly evident in Germany since the end of the 70s. The regulatory environment surrounding the market has changed in all fields, be they fiscal, sociopolitical or in pharmaceutical legislation, into a confusing and incoherent body of regulations. Moreover, part of society is undecided about its attitude towards pharmaceutical progress and the introduction of new technologies. In view of these developments it is high time to change course and help ensure that one of the few remaining competitive sectors in Germany-and one with a promising future-stays in the country. PMID:8967203

  4. The research of distributed interactive simulation based on HLA in coal mine industry inherent safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhi-Wu

    2010-08-01

    To solve the inherent safety problem puzzling the coal mining industry, analyzing the characteristic and the application of distributed interactive simulation based on high level architecture (DIS/HLA), a new method is proposed for developing coal mining industry inherent safety distributed interactive simulation adopting HLA technology. Researching the function and structure of the system, a simple coal mining industry inherent safety is modeled with HLA, the FOM and SOM are developed, and the math models are suggested. The results of the instance research show that HLA plays an important role in developing distributed interactive simulation of complicated distributed system and the method is valid to solve the problem puzzling coal mining industry. To the coal mining industry, the conclusions show that the simulation system with HLA plays an important role to identify the source of hazard, to make the measure for accident, and to improve the level of management.

  5. Nebraska Initiative for Aerospace Research and Industrial Development (NIARID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Reichenbach, Steve; Ianno, Ned; Farr, Lynne; Tarry, Scott; Narayanan, Ram; Lehrer, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  6. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemala, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows - How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  7. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  8. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984.

  9. Contemporary tectonic stress: Advances in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Birgit; Sperner, Blanka

    The need for knowledge about the in situ tectonic stress field in research and economic applications was the topic of a series of two World Stress Map (WSM) Euroconferences. WSM is a global database containing information on contemporary tectonic stress in the Earth's crust, which is derived from six types of stress indicators: earthquake focal mechanisms, well bore breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring measurements, and young (Quaternary) geological indicators such as faultslip data and volcanic alignments.The database as well as stress maps from different regions of the world are available via the Internet (http://www-wsm.physik.uni-karlsruhe.de/). The first WSM Euroconference addressed the commercial application of in situ stress measurements. Improved knowledge of tectonic stress and effective rock strength is important in the design and construction of underground openings. For oil companies in charge of exploration and production, in situ stresses are basic input data for the calculation of actual production rates, petrophysical properties, borehole stability, compaction, subsidence, seismicity, solid control, sand production, geomechanical parameters, hydrocarbon migration, and hydraulic fracturing.The loss of drilling mud or hydrocarbons due to incomplete sealing of the drill holes or unexpected fracturing caused by tectonic stress leads to severe environmental problems and economic losses. In civil engineering and mining, the stability aspect is of equal economic importance, but in addition, the stability of road tunnels and mines is essential to save human life.

  10. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  11. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

  12. Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.

    PubMed

    Megerdichian, Christine L; Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-11-01

    Evidence has shown that factors other than the central pharmacological effects of nicotine are important in promoting smoking behavior. One such non-nicotine effect includes sensory stimulation, which may promote smoking by developing learned associations with nicotine's rewarding effects, or by constituting a rewarding experience independent of nicotine. The present study used internal tobacco industry documents to examine industry efforts to understand and manipulate stimulation of the sensory nerves by tobacco smoke, and the influence of sensory stimulation on smoker behavior. Research focused on sensory nerves of the head and neck, including the olfactory nerve, which carries flavor and odor, and the trigeminal nerve, which carries irritant information. The tobacco industry maintained a systematic research program designed to elucidate an understanding of responses of sensory nerves to nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke, and attempted to develop nicotine-like compounds that would enhance sensory responses in smokers. Industry research appeared intended to aid in the development of new products with greater consumer appeal. The potential influence of sensory response in enhancing nicotine dependence through an associative mechanism was acknowledged by the tobacco industry, but evidence for research in this area was limited. These findings add to evidence of industry manipulation of sensory factors to enhance smoking behavior and may have implications for development of more effective treatment strategies, including more "acceptable" nicotine replacement therapies. PMID:17978985

  13. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  14. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

  15. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and..., research, consumer information, and industry information activities with respect to soybean and soybean..., marketing and utilization of soybean and soybean products and the creation of new products thereof, to...

  19. National Arboretum Solves Green Industry Problems with a Multi-Disciplinary Research Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ornamental horticulture or “green” industry continues to be one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture in the U.S., ranking behind only corn and soybeans in total cash receipts. The Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit (FNPRU), of the U.S. National Arboretum, is the largest research g...

  20. Nutrition professionals are obligated to follow ethical guidelines when conducting industry-funded research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiscal climate for research reflects the increasing difficulty in obtaining competitive government and foundation funds. Thus, nutrition professionals conducting research may need to work with industry. However, there is a growing concern about real or perceived conflicts of interest and the pot...

  1. Reshaping the Business School: Industry/Labor Programs of Applied Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, J. Barry

    1987-01-01

    The author presents results of a cooperative program of applied research with General Motors and the United Auto Workers that may provide insight into ways of addressing concerns being raised about business schools' curricula and research. He also highlights issues and offers guidelines for joint ventures between education and industry. (CH)

  2. Industrial and Academic Collaboration: Hybrid Models for Research and Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Sara; Mayer, Igor; Arnab, Sylvester; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how, in the light of global economic downturn and rising student populations, new academic-industrial models for research collaboration based upon specific technological expertise and knowledge can be developed as potential mechanisms for preserving and extending central university research infrastructure. The paper explores…

  3. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  4. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  5. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    PubMed Central

    Mandle, Jessie; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Michalow, Julia; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design Narrative review. Results This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies. PMID:25623608

  6. Developing more open and equitable relationships with industry to improve advancements in clinical research in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Campa, M; Ryan, C; Menter, A

    2016-06-01

    Relationships between physicians, scientists, and the pharmaceutical industry can be complicated by conflicts of interest. Honest and equitable relationships, however, are essential to the advancement of dermatologic clinical research. Several factors can increase transparency in clinical trials including preregistration of clinical trials, reporting of all data produced from clinical trials, non-industry ownership of clinical trial data, clarity of statistical methods and publication of both positive and negative results. Through collaborative, scientifically rigorous studies, physicians and industry can achieve significant advances in dermatologic care. PMID:27317287

  7. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  8. Land-Grant University-Industry Relationships in Biotechnology: A Comparison with the Non-Land-Grant Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, James; Kenney, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presents study of industrial involvement in biotechnology research, comparing faculty surveys from land-grant colleges of agriculture and nonagricultural research universities. Agricultural biotechnologists report higher industrial involvement and more optimism about it. Industrial funding levels shown as significant factor in activities and…

  9. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  10. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: IN-SITU MITIGATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) OIA receives funding from the U.S. State Department's Bio-Chem Redirect program to engage former Soviet biological and chemical weapons scientists in civilian research in environmental monitoring and remediation. Scientists in t...

  11. Assessing Consumer Responses to PREPs: A Review of Tobacco Industry and Independent Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Cummings, K. Michael; O'Connor, Richard J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing CR, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate PREPs and new products. Methods Internal industry research reviewed included published papers, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Results Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. Conclusions A model which conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model, and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of PREPs and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health. PMID:19959675

  12. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  13. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  14. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of shallow groundwater during rainfall-runoff events in a Mediterranean mountain catchment (Vallcebre Research Catchments, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of improving the knowledge of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountain areas, this work investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of the depth to water table during rainfall-runoff events in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). In combination with rainfall and runoff measurements, the depth to the water table was monitored at 13 locations within the Can Vila catchment (0.56 km2) during 19 rainfall-runoff events. The distribution of piezometers in the catchment allows examining the effect of topography and distance from the stream on the spatial and temporal distribution of depth to water table. On the other hand, the analysis of different rainfall-runoff events allows investigating the role of antecedent wetness conditions on the shallow groundwater dynamics associated to the streamflow response. Results show that the depth to water table did not rise in unison throughout the catchment during rainfall-runoff events. The shallow groundwater response was clearly different between locations near and far from the stream. However, this response was not clearly related to the topography. The antecedent wetness conditions were found as the most important control on the spatio-temporal variability of the groundwater response, which in turn affects the magnitude of the streamflow response. In dry conditions, a higher spatio-temporal variability of depth to water table as well as a much slower response of the groundwater was observed.

  16. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  17. Patent information management in Nagasaki Research & Development Center of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (MHI).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukae, Tatsuro; Kubo, Masaru

    It is expected for our company, dealing with heavy industry to survive informationized society, and the development of research results has become an important matter. Under these environments, guarding the research results and offering the patent informations timely are necessary. The patent service in our center was established in 1963 and had since used papers as medium to manage information. Nowadays we have begun to use on-line systems of PATOLIS and PATROLS instead of papers, and increased efficiency of information offer.

  18. Postgraduate Training & Research in Collaboration with Industry (Twenty Years of Experience in the U.K.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Ray; Barber, Kevin

    Universities are often accused of being "ivory towers" that are divorced from the "real worlds" of industry and commerce. Similarly, it is argued that academics teach "yesterday's science," and that they are unaware of modern developments in technology and engineering. When it is realized that the research budgets of some large organizations…

  19. The Teaching-Research-Industry-Learning Nexus in Information and Communications Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Tanya; Armarego, Jocelyn; Koppi, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The teaching-research nexus concept has been extensively examined in the higher education literature, and the importance of industry linkages in information and communications technology (ICT) education has also been widely discussed. However, to date there has been little recognition of the full extent of relationships between aspects of…

  20. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and Employees in Team…

  1. Research and Development in Industry 1977. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The National Science Foundation sponsored Survey of Industrial Research and Development for 1977 was conducted by the Bureau of the Census in January 1978. Approximately 1,500 R&D-performing companies participated in the survey. Remarks attributed to company officials were based on discussions with representatives from leading R&D-performing…

  2. Research and Development in Industry, 1982. Funds, 1982; Scientists and Engineers, January 1983. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data in this report were collected by the Bureau of the Census for the National Science Foundation annual Survey of Industrial Research and Development and cover the periods 1956 to 1982 for funding data and January 1957 to January 1983 for personnel data. These data are presented in 40 tables under seven major headings: (1) total funds for…

  3. The Impact of University-Industry Research on Doctoral Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malfroy, Janne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the doctorate and the desirable outcomes of doctoral education are the focus of debates in the UK, the USA, Australia and other Organisation for Economic Development countries. Part of that reconceptualisation of the doctorate includes a growing international interest in university-industry research, which, as a consequence, has…

  4. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... FR 61002) and a second rule pertained to proposed referendum procedures (75 FR 61025). Both rules... Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 61025). Copies of the rule were made available by USDA through the... Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum...

  5. University-Industry Research Contracts. Symbols of Cooperation or Unexploded Bombs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, John; Matthews, Duncan; Pickering, John; Wilson, Caroline

    1998-01-01

    Examination of several hundred contracts for university-industry research collaboration in five British universities reveals several types of clauses that could cause problems in legal interpretation. Problem areas include ownership of intellectual property, reward allocation, and monitoring of results. (SK)

  6. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Case Studies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elmima C.; And Others

    This report presents nine case studies of Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported during 1978-1980 by the National Science Foundation. The intent of this document is to provide readers with a qualitative picture of cooperative science as practiced under the IUCR program. The information presented in this report is…

  7. R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Maureen McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Within the past few decades, university-industry research centers have been developed in large numbers and emphasized as a valuable policy tool for innovation. Yet little is known about the heterogeneity of organizational structure within these centers, which has implications regarding policy for and management of these centers. This dissertation…

  8. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Student Learning in Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Kelly, Christine; Gummer, Edith

    2011-01-01

    The instructional design and the corresponding research on student learning of two virtual laboratories that provide an engineering task situated in an industrial context are described. In this problem-based learning environment, data are generated dynamically based on each student team's distinct choices of reactor parameters and measurements.…

  9. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic"…

  10. Research on the Textbook Publishing Industry in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research literature about the publishing process and the roles of participants in this process on the textbook publishing industry in the USA. The contents of books, collected works, reports and journal articles were analysed, and summaries of the contents were then organised chronologically to…

  11. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open...

  12. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open...

  13. Research Interactions between Industry and Higher-Education: An Examination of the Major Legal Issues Involved in Four Representative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Bernard Dinsmore

    The use of complex research agreements for joint research activities between industry and universities is assessed, with attention to the legal rights of the contracting parties. The focus is research relationships between a university and a company or an individual scientist and industry. The historical development and legal foundation of…

  14. Researcher Practice: Embedding Creative Practice within Doctoral Research in Industrial Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the potential for a researcher to use their own creative practice as a method of data collection. Much of the published material in this field focuses on more theoretical positions, with limited use being made of specific PhDs that illustrate the context in which practice was undertaken by the researcher. It explores…

  15. Coordinating ‘Ethical’ Clinical Trials: The Role of Research Coordinators in the Contract Research Industry

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2010-01-01

    Change in the way new drugs are developed, including the privatization of clinical trials, has altered the arrangement and roles of health care professions. In this article I examine one aspect of this change: the role of research coordinators in the conduct of contract research in the United States. My focus on coordinators highlights the ethical conflicts embedded in clinical trials. I describe the ways in which coordinators experience and contend with the conflict between research and care and show how their construction of ethics is distinct from institutional conceptions formally associated with human subjects research. My analysis demonstrates how the coordinators' focus on ethics is a response to their role conflict and an attempt to reinsert individualized care into the context of research. PMID:17184412

  16. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  17. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steady-state and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer. The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination. The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or ?3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  18. Japanese industrial research on lean combustion: A case study: International Research Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    In recent years, Japanese automakers have introduced a number of successful lean-combustion engines. These engines, in addition to the general expertise in building small cars, have made the Japanese automobiles into the gas mileage champions of the US market. The lean-combustion engines also provide very satisfactory performance and acceptable emissions. United States automakers and research managers, who were probably better informed about lean-combustion than the Japanese were, actively investigated lean-combustion but did not develop an engine. This report examines the basis for the Japanese innovations, the research that took the Japanese past the US state of the art to permit engine development. A preliminary review of recent (1980s) Japanese literature did not turn up strong evidence of new research activity in the lean-combustion area, but did provide background on new engines developed by several major manufacturers. The study was conducted solely through the Japanese and US published literature, with emphasis on early research conducted in the 1970s. This report presents an example of how Japanese research progress can be examined by reviewing the Japanese research literature. Although useful information was obtained by this method, it is still difficult to get a complete picture. When reviewing the literature, as was done for this report, one must remember that the marginal use of references by Japanese researchers obscures prior work, as does the tendency of the Japanese to publish several articles on similar or identical topics. 50 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Research and development in sensor technology: The DOE industrial energy conservation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Sensor technology is an important component of modern day process technologies. It lends itself to further research and development with the potential for increased energy efficiency and productivity. Sensors are used by industry in practically every aspect of the production process. The utilization of automatic control systems and the anticipation of increased future applications of computers in production processes have highlighted the importance of research in this area. Recognizing this need, IP has funded a series of targeted projects to develop process-specific sensors as well as sensors for generic applications. This brochure describes, in summary form, the Office of Industrial Programs' research and development (R and D) efforts in the advancement of sensor technology.

  20. More regulation of industry-supported biomedical research: are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Malmstrom, David Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Industry-sponsored biomedical research is under the microscope. In an attempt to achieve just results in extraordinary cases, critics are suggesting regulations that would pervert the U.S. clinical trial process. However, the arguments made to justify such regulation are weak at best. All the proposals to regulate industry sponsorship of clinical trials that we surveyed (over a hundred articles and ten books, most written in the past decade) suffer from some form of fallacious reasoning. In the interest of advocating sound policy, this article points out some of the most common reasoning errors found in the literature on financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials. PMID:19723253

  1. Research and Development in Industry: 1979. Funds, 1979. Scientists and Engineers, January 1980. Surveys of Science Resources Series. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report analyzes data on research and development (R&D) performed by industry during 1979, examines historical trends for key R&D funding variables, and presents information on industry-employed R&D scientists and engineers. Areas addressed in the first section on R&D funds include: major R&D industries (aircraft/missiles, electrical…

  2. Environmental regulatory drivers for industrial natural gas research and development. Final topical report, March 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, J.; Cheng, R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to analyze opportunities for environmentally driven research and development projects for industrial natural gas use. The report seeks to identify broad trends in current and future environmental regulations, identify those areas of industrial gas use which are most significantly affected and analyze the role of industrial natural gas energy use in response to these implications.

  3. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  4. Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

  5. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained. PMID:24471556

  6. Screening antibiotics: industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s.

    PubMed

    Jesús Santesmases, María

    2011-01-01

    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Comparñia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman's research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between industrial production of antibiotics and the research program aimed at identifying new candidate drugs is examined. I suggest that this screening program in search of new antibiotics was organised like industrial manufacturing. The research objects and tools came, both materially and conceptually, from industrial production: a line of artisanship put together in order to obtain a product with the collaboration of every member of the production line. Following the style developed by Selman Waksman in Rutgers, the screening program evaluated samples manually, and the microbiological skills were enhanced with every test. The Madrid team's practice of applying instructions for use led to circulation of knowledge and practices, including research material and microbiological methods. PMID:22332466

  7. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. The metalcasting industry and future research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santner, Joe; Overfelt, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen million tons of castings are used annually in ninety percent of all manufactured goods and in all manufacturing machinery making metalcasting the manufacturing backbone of America. There are approximately 3,000 foundries located in 49 states directly providing employment to 200,000 people and indirectly supporting transportation, petrochemical, construction, and other end-user industries. The Solidification Design Center (SDC) began a pioneering effort to address metalcasting industry technical needs to maintain US global leadership in quality, price, and delivery. While individual companies have interacted in the past with the Auburn University SDC, eighty-percent of the foundries employ less than 100 individuals while only six-percent of the foundries employ more than 250 persons. The American Foundrymen's Society (AFS) formed the Solidification Design and Control Consortium to reach the small businesses in the U.S. metalcasting industry. Over a century of operation has proved the AFS committee structure to be a robust management tool. The recognized metalcasting industry technical needs and the unique opportunities that low earth orbit offers foundry process research are described in the present paper. In addition, the metalcasting approach to prioritize proposals, transfer technology developed within the small business community, and the metalcasting industry concerns regarding working with a government aerospace program are also discussed. .

  9. Groundwater Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.

    A good introductory groundwater textbook must strike a delicate balance in presenting the basics of the physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, and engineering aspects of the groundwater field without being too lengthy or overly detailed. Charles Fitts states that his motivation for writing Groundwater Science was to be able to “…teach concepts and quantitative analyses with a clear, lean, but thorough book.” He has succeeded in striking this balance of having just the right amount of information, and has met his goals of producing a concise book that can be used to teach the concepts and analyses necessary for the study of groundwater.Overall, Groundwater Science would serve well as the text for an introductory groundwater course at the college senior or first-year graduate level. The author and the publisher have made excellent use of two-color, gray and blue-scale images throughout the book. The graphics are crisp and explanatory. Data sets needed to work some of the problems in the book are available as text files from its Web site (http://www.academicpress.com/groundwater). I found these files to be complete and easy to understand. The references are up to date and point the reader to additional information across a wide range of groundwater issues, and also provide a number of examples to illustrate different points made in the book.

  10. Advancing Global Capacity for Engineering Education Research: Relating Research to Practice, Policy and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura; Beddoes, Kacey

    2010-01-01

    Findings are presented from a series of moderated interactive sessions held at international engineering education conferences between July 2007 and December 2008, where attendees discussed the current state and future trajectory of engineering education research. More specifically, this study examines how session attendees described: (1) the…

  11. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  12. Academia, advocacy, and industry: a collaborative method for clinical research advancement.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Rena J; Lortz, Amanda; Calhoun, Amy R U L; Carey, John C

    2014-07-01

    Professionals who work in academia, advocacy, and industry often carry out mutually exclusive activities related to research and clinical care. However, there are several examples of collaboration among such professionals that ultimately allows for improved scientific and clinical understanding. This commentary recounts our particular experience (a collaboration between geneticists at the Universities of Minnesota and Utah, the 4p- Support Group, and Lineagen, Inc) and reviews other similar projects. We formally propose this collaborative method as a conduit for future clinical research programs. Specifically, we encourage academicians, directors of family/advocacy/support groups, and members of industry to establish partnerships and document their experiences. The medical community as a whole will benefit from such partnerships and, specifically, families will teach us lessons that could never be learned in a laboratory or textbook. PMID:24700599

  13. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  14. Association of Clinical Researchers and Educators a statement on relationships between physicians and industry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A; Black, Henry R; Fonseca, Rafael; Garber, Jeffrey; Gonzalez-Campoy, J Michael; Kimmelstiel, Carey; Markowitz, Avi B; Nakayama, Don; Stell, Lance K; Stossel, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between physicians, particularly those in academic medicine, and industries that develop pharmaceutical products, medical devices, and diagnostic tests have led to substantial advances in patient care. At the same time, there is a strong awareness that these relationships, however beneficial they may be, should conform to established principles of ethical professional practice. Through a writing committee drawn from diverse disciplines across several institutions, the Association of Clinical Researchers and Educators (ACRE) has written a code of conduct to provide guidance to physicians in observing these principles. Our recommendations are not intended to be prescriptive or inflexible, but rather to be of assistance to physicians in making their own personal decisions on whether, or how, to be involved in research, education, or other collaborations with industry. PMID:22982801

  15. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research. PMID:26996912

  16. Discharge and travel-time determinations in the Royal Spring groundwater basin, Kentucky. Research report July 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkill, J.; Gouzie, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Groundwater flow in many karst regions, including the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky in which the study area was located, is unlike groundwater flow in granular aquifers. At least the major flows are turbulent and often with a free surface in large conduits, and applying concepts based on Darcy's Law to describe and model these flows is inappropriate. Parameters such as linear velocity, channel geometry, and conveyance used to describe surface stream flows are more applicable, and the primary objective of the project was to estimate these in a groundwater basin using the travel time of dye slugs and discharges obtained by dye dilution. These data were also needed to determine the travel time-discharge relationship required to manage contaminant spills and evaluate methods of enhancing low flows in the basin, the second and third objective of the project. These latter two objectives are of importance because the flow in the Royal Spring groundwater basin that was investigated is used as a municipal water supply.

  17. 77 FR 31368 - Guidance on Meetings With Industry and Investigators on the Research and Development of Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Meetings with Industry and Investigators on the Research and Development of Tobacco Products.'' This guidance describes FDA's current policies and recommendations with respect to Agency meetings with tobacco manufacturers, importers, researchers, and/or investigators relating to their......

  18. Views from academia and industry on skills needed for the modern research environment.

    PubMed

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Goodey, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify the most important skills for biochemistry students to succeed in research positions postgraduation. The results of these interviews were used to develop a survey, which was then administered to a larger group of biochemistry faculty and industry professionals. The output of the survey was a list of 52 skills valued by biochemistry professionals and rated by perceived importance. Importantly, the survey results also afford a comparative look at the prioritization of skills by two key populations: the academic faculty training students and the industry professionals hiring them. While there are many areas of agreement between these two populations, the survey also reveals areas were priorities diverge. The discrepancies found here suggest that the skills gap manifest at the point of employment may stem directly from differences in prioritization between the academic and industrial environments. This article aims to provide insight into the needs and requirements of the modern biochemical research environment, and invites debate concerning the preparation students receive in academia. Moreover, the results presented herein point to a need for further exploration of the possible misalignment of these two critical environments for young scientists. PMID:26147139

  19. Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jörg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com PMID:22423044

  20. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  1. Ground-water characterization field activities for 1995--1996 Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Lanigan, D.C.; Last, G.V.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents ground-water characterization field activities completed from August to December 1995 and in January 1996 at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) in Davis, California. The ground water at LEHR is one of several operable units under investigation by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this work was to further characterize the hydrogeology beneath the LEHR site, with the primary focus on ground water. The objectives were to estimate hydraulic properties for the two uppermost saturated hydrogeologic units (i.e., HSU-1 and HSU-2), and to determine distributions of contaminants of concern in these units. Activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives include well installation, geophysical logging, well development, ground-water sampling, slug testing, Westbay ground-water monitoring system installation, continuous water-level monitoring, Hydropunch installation, and surveying. Ground-water samples were collected from 61 Hydropunch locations. Analytical results from these locations and the wells indicate high chloroform concentrations trending from west/southwest to east/northeast in the lower portion of HSU-1 and in the upper and middle portions of HSU-2. The chloroform appears to originate near Landfill 2. Tritium was not found above the MCL in any of the well or Hydropunch samples. Hexavalent chromium was found at four locations with concentrations above the MCL in HSU-1 and at one location in HSU-2. One well in HSU-1 had a total chromium concentration above the MCL. Nitrate-nitrogen above the MCL was found at several Hydropunch locations in both HSU-1 and HSU-2.

  2. A pumping test at the shaft scale: Groundwater level recovery and pump-down at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salden, W.; Takeuchi, S.; Takeuchi, R.; Saegusa, H.

    2006-12-01

    An Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is currently under construction near Mizunami city in central Japan, consisting of two vertical shafts, one 6.5m and the other 4.5m in diameter. By late October 2005 the two shafts had reached depths of 173m and 191m below ground level, respectively. The water inflow at that time was about 150 m3/day into the Main shaft (6.5m) and about 400 m3/day into the Ventilation shaft (4.5m). On October 27 the pumping of discharge water was halted to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility. This resulted in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings to a level of approximately 50m below ground level. Beginning in February 2006 pumping was resumed and the underground workings were re-occupied. Monitoring of physico-chemical parameters continued at the site throughout the pumping hiatus. The continuous reading groundwater pressure monitoring instrumentation, consisting of an array of approximately 56 pressure monitoring zones in five monitoring wells in the site, and two monitoring wells around the site, recorded the pressure buildup and subsequent drawdown. The significant differences in inflow rates to the two shafts and variations in pressure recovery and subsequent drawdown recorded in the vicinity of the URL highlighted the complexity of the hydrogeological structures in the site and provided an opportunity to verify groundwater flow models. This study provides observations and preliminary analysis of the groundwater response and concludes by confirming the effectiveness of the multi-phase, multi-step site characterization methodology used by Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

  3. Dissemination of research results from Lund University to industry and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlander, Mirka

    2016-07-01

    Sweden is top ranked as the third most innovative nation in the world according to Global Innovation Index 2015. The academic staff at Swedish universities has the right to their inventions (research-ownership of patent rights) as opposed to far more diffuse university-ownership. Since 1977 the Swedish Higher Education Act imposes Swedish universities a so-called Third task. In addition to education and research they shall collaborate with the society and to inform the society about their activities. How does the largest university in Scandinavia deal with dissemination of research results to industry and society? The presentation will touch upon technology transfer, professional education and regional development as well as commercialization of research results.

  4. High-resolution and high-speed CT in industry and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabler, S.; Fella, C.; Dietrich, A.; Nachtrab, F.; Salamon, Michael; Voland, V.; Ebensperger, T.; Oeckl, S.; Hanke, R.; Uhlmann, N.

    2012-10-01

    The application of industrial CT covers many orders of magnitude of object sizes, ranging from freight containers (few meters) down to liquid foams (i.e. for food industry) or even parts of insects which are only several hundreds of micrometers in size. Similarly, the specifications for acquisition speed extend over some orders of magnitude, from hours to sub-second CT. We present the current technology in terms of X-ray sources and detectors, along with numerous applications from industry and materials research: e.g. industrial high-speed CT of car pistons, in situ micro-CT of milk foam decay at micrometer spatial resolution and 8 s scan time, as well as ex situ scans of tensile tested Nickel-alloys. The Fraunhofer Development Center X-ray Technology (Fürth, Germany) and the Chair of X-ray Microscopy (University Würzburg, Germany) are currently working on extending the technological limits, demonstrated, e,g. by the development of advanced X-ray detectors or a new inhouse CT system which comprises a high-brilliance liquid metal jet anode.

  5. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly. PMID:22815594

  6. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  7. "Multidimensional reflectometry for industry" (xD-Reflect) an European research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpe, Andreas; Koo, Annette; Verdu, Francisco M.; Leloup, Frédéric B.; Obein, Gaël.; Wübbeler, Gerd; Campos, Joaquín.; Iacomussi, Paola; Jaanson, Priit; Källberg, Stefan; Šmíd, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The European Metrology Research Program (EMRP) is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research and Development (RD) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). It supports and ensures research collaboration between them by launching and managing different types of project calls. Within the EMRP Call 2012 "Metrology for Industry", the joint research project (JRP) entitled "Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry" (xD-Reflect) was submitted by a consortium of 8 National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and 2 universities and was subsequently funded. The general objective of xD-Reflect is to meet the demands from industry to describe the overall macroscopic appearance of modern surfaces by developing and improving methods for optical measurements which correlate with the visual sensation being evoked. In particular, the project deals with the "Goniochromatism", "Gloss" and "Fluorescence" properties of dedicated artifacts, which will be investigated in three main work packages (WP). Two additional transversal WP reinforce the structure: "Modelling and Data Analysis" with the objective to give an irreducible set of calibration schemes and handling methods and "Visual Perception", which will produce perception scales for the different visual attributes. Multidimensional reflectometry involves the enhancement of spectral and spatial resolution of reference gonioreflectometers for BRDF measurements using modern detectors, conoscopic optical designs, CCD cameras, line scan cameras, and modern light sources in order to describe new effects like sparkle and graininess/coarseness. More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES FOR MERCURY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to establish bacteria to bind or immobilize mobile mercury in groundwater.In the Republic of Kazakhstan and in other areas of the former USSR there are some regions contaminated with mercury as a result of technogenic releases from industrial pla...

  9. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  10. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  11. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  12. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  13. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representatives from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  14. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  15. The university-promoted patent at the crossroads of the research results and immediate industrial use.

    PubMed

    Doddoli, R

    2007-02-01

    The departments, indeed the laboratories of the public research institutions, no longer are satisfied with displaying a certain number of annual scientific publications meant to highlight their expertise and know-how. In effect, for some years now, a new trend has been in vogue: stimulated by all the national and international public bodies, they are calling increasingly on the "patent pending" solution to make optimum use of the results of specific researches on the one hand and, on the other hand, to assert their excellence vis-à-vis the Ministry of Research of their country which is supposed to finance them. However, caught up in the euphoria of the research results, and lost in their formulae and practices, these researchers lose sight of the basis for a patent and its real reason for being (patent charter). A patent necessarily must be of service to the community, that is to say that essentially it must contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the population. To achieve this goal, going through certain stages is a must, namely that to start with a patent must be absolutely profitable to industry in order that, subsequently, it be consistent with its being of service to the community. In this context, its validity is set at 10 years renewable for another 10 years based on specific parameters as stipulated by the national and international patent institutions, indeed by the EPO (European Patent Office) the headquarters of which is in Munich. Its use by industry ensures proceeds for 10, even 20 years and must represent the material fruit of the applicant's effort. Beyond this period, the patent becomes public and therefore available to everyone. But the crucial problem is this: when can a patent really be used and how to do so as best as possible to guarantee profits for both parties involved and thus justify its reason for being? The purpose of this work thus is to incite university researchers to think about the real usefulness of a patent on

  16. Application of Accelerators in research and Industry: Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, J.L.; Morgan, I.

    1997-08-01

    The fourteenth International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry was held in November, 1996 in Texas, USA. The United States Department of Energy was one of the sponsors of this conference. The conference was widely attended by accelerator scientists throughout the world. The topics discussed included a wide range of applications spanning the fields from Art History to Zoology. An overview of the Design Project for the National spallation Neutron Source was presented in one of the plenary sessions, as was a summary of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive Ions. Accelerator based Atomic Physics had the most sessions. The subject of accelerator Technology covered topics such as new accelerators, beam handling systems, ion sources, detector, spectrometers, and magnets etc. Radioactive Beams and Nuclear Physics were also topics of several sessions. New Research Opportunities for Nuclear structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, Material Science, and the future facilities and applications of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive ions were discussed. These proceedings represent the papers presented at this exciting conference which summarized the State of the Art technology of Accelerator applications in research and Industry. These proceedings contain 341 papers, out of which, 99 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  17. Optical fiber sensor research and industry in Germany: review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-05-01

    Since more than 30 years, the increased research, technology development and commercialization of optical fiber sensors combined with their continuously growing technical applications have become a story of success worldwide and in Germany as well. German fiber sensor research and industry achieved remarkable milestones in the 1980ies and 1990ies, such as first field tests of magneto-optic current sensors in power facilities or of micro-bending fiber strain sensors in a highway bridge. Recent progress and the state of the art of optical fiber sensing in Germany are demonstrated by examples of advanced fiber Bragg grating and distributed sensor system applications, fiber gyroscopes and other interferometric sensors, chemical and bio-medical sensors, and sensors based on polymer fibers as well. In context with the growing international cooperation, the potential of German research and industry will be discussed in terms of novel fiber-optic sensor system concepts, of increasing maturity and reliability of this exciting sensor technology and of new applications and markets.

  18. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  19. Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt industrial crankshafts

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that refurbishes large industrial crankshafts. The team report indicated that the waste stream generated in the greatest quantity is spent cutting fluid from the grinding of crankshafts and that significant cost savings could be achieved by implementing a formal cutting fluid management program. This research brief discusses the process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended pollution prevention opportunities.

  20. Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Anthony A; Diethelm, Pascal; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Watt, Hilary C; McKee, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence. PMID:25650186

  1. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Progress Report and Proposal for Funding Continuation NASA Nebraska EPSCoR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Moussavi, Massoum; Nickerson, Jocelyn; Rundquist, Donald; Russell, Valerie; Tarry, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL), which began as a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, has contributed substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA, while intensifying Nebraska's rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL has enabled Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. Nebraska has placed emphasis on successfully securing additional funds from non-EPSCoR and non-NASA sources. AERIAL researchers have aggressively pursued additional funding opportunities offered by NASA, industry, and other agencies. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during its first three years of implementation.

  2. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  3. A Typology of Research Training in University-Industry Collaboration: The Case of Life Sciences in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of research collaboration between university and industry for the research training of doctoral students. It is concerned with the issues of how research training is constructed in such collaborations and what might be the effects of collaboration on doctoral students' learning. The study adopts a…

  4. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  5. [Incentives and disincentives for research and development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Curcio, Pasqualina Curcio

    2008-10-01

    The authors present a model with factors that influence research and development decisions by the pharmaceutical industry: risk of disease transmission and possibility of control; case-fatality and the presence of cure or treatments; income; number of persons who demand the medicine; and opportunity costs for the company. Companies tend to invest in markets with inelastic demand (highly contagious diseases with no possibility of controlling transmission and/or very lethal diseases without treatment) and/or where there is a large population or high per capita income. Companies tend not to invest in markets where marginal costs exceed marginal income, particularly when costs increase permanently as a consequence of rising opportunity costs generated by foregoing profit in other markets. In such cases, policies to subsidize R&D are not effective, and policies must be orientated towards strengthening basic and applied research by public institutions. PMID:18949238

  6. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  7. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Collishaw, Neil E; Callard, Cynthia

    2006-03-01

    A lack of scientific data remains the principal obstacle to regulating cigarette toxicity. In particular, there is an immediate need to improve our understanding of the interaction between smoking behaviour and product design, and its influence on cigarette deliveries. This article reviews internal tobacco industry documents on smoking behaviour research undertaken by Imperial Tobacco Limited (ITL) and British-American Tobacco (BAT). BAT documents indicate that smokers vary their puffing behaviour to regulate nicotine levels and compensate for low-yield cigarettes by smoking them more intensely. BAT research also shows that the tar and nicotine delivered to smokers is substantially greater than the machine-smoked yields reported to consumers and regulators. Internal documents describe a strategy to maximise this discrepancy through product design. In particular, BAT developed elastic cigarettes that produced low yields under standard testing protocols, whereas in consumers' hands they elicited more intensive smoking and provided higher concentrations of tar and nicotine to smokers. Documents also show that BAT pursued this product strategy despite the health risks to consumers and ethical concerns raised by senior scientists, and paired it with an equally successful marketing campaign that promoted these cigarettes as low-tar alternatives for health-concerned smokers. Overall, the documents seem to reveal a product strategy intended to exploit the limitations of the testing protocols and to intentionally conceal from consumers and regulators the potential toxicity of BAT products revealed by BAT's own research. Tobacco industry research underscores the serious limitations of the current cigarette testing protocols and the documents describe deceptive business practices that remain in place. PMID:16517278

  8. Necessity for Industry-Academic Economic Geology Collaborations for Energy Critical Minerals Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, M.

    2012-12-01

    Economic geology is a highly interdisciplinary field utilizing a diverse set of petrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and tectonic data for improved scientific understanding of element migration and concentration in the crust (ore formation). A number of elements that were once laboratory curiosities now figure prominently in new energy technologies (e.g. wind turbines, solar energy collectors). If widely deployed, such technologies have the capacity to transform the way we produce, transmit, store, and conserve energy. To meet domestic and worldwide renewable energy needs these systems must be scaled from laboratory, to demonstration, to widespread deployment. Such technologies are materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by these technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. There is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology to secure sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Available federal funding for critical elements focuses on downstream areas such as metallurgy, substitutions, and recycling rather than primary deposits. Undertaking the required research to discover and mine critical element deposits in an environmentally friendly manner will require significant partnering with industry due to the current lack of federal research support.

  9. Acrylamide: update on selected research activities conducted by the European food and drink industry.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Dominique; Andersson, Anders; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Gondé, Pierre; van Eijck, Paul; Faivre, Virginie; Lalljie, Sam P D; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Stadler, Richard H; Studer, Alfred; Silvani, David; Tallmadge, Dan; Thompson, Geoff; Whitmore, Tricia; Wood, John; Zyzak, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made by the European food and drink industry (CIAA) on acrylamide with regard to analytical methods, mechanisms of formation, and mitigation research in the major food categories. It is an update on the first CIAA review paper, "A Review of Acrylamide: An Industry Perspective on Research, Analysis, Formation and Control." Initial difficulties with the establishment of reliable analytical methods, in most cases, have now been overcome, but challenges remain in terms of the need to develop simple and rapid test methods and certified reference materials. Many trials have been conducted under laboratory and experimental conditions in a variety of foods, and a number of possible measures have been identified to relatively lower the amounts of acrylamide in food. Promising applications were studied in reconstituted potato models by addition of amino acids or use of asparaginase. In bakery wares, predictive models have been established to determine the role of ammonium carbonate and invert sugar in acrylamide formation. Studies in several commercial foods showed that acrylamide is not stable over time in roasted and ground coffee. Some progress in relatively lowering acrylamide in certain food categories has been achieved, but at this stage can only be considered marginal. Any options that are chosen to reduce acrylamide in commercial products must be technologically feasible and must not adversely affect the quality and safety of the final product. PMID:15759746

  10. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Plavski, Anton; Endo, Charles-Anica

    2013-04-01

    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  11. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring. PMID:11218354

  12. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  13. In Situ Treatment of Chromium-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S. )

    2002-12-01

    In Situ Treatment of Chromate Contaminated Groundwater Jonathan S. Fruchter Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Abstract of paper published in Environmental Science and Technology, 2002 Although not as common as solvent or fuel products contamination, chromate (chromium (VI)) contamination of groundwater is relatively widespread. Chromate has a variety of industrial uses, including chrome plating, steel making, and use as a corrosion inhibitor, wood preservative, well-drilling fluid additive, biocide, and as a pigment in paints and primers. EPA has estimated that as many as 1300 sites in the United States may have groundwater contaminated with chromate. The paper discusses a number of approaches to in situ treatment of chromate contamination in groundwater aquifers. The approaches include various types of chemical treatments, biological treatments and natural attenuation. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed and compared. Field examples of two types of chemical treatment, in situ redox manipulation and chemically enhanced pump and treat are presented. It is concluded that in situ methods show promise, but can be difficult to implement due to site-specific conditions and limited long-term experience with these methods. As more performance and cost data are acquired for the demonstrations that are ongoing, and continuing research increases our understanding of subsurface processes, in situ treatment methods for chromium (VI) contamination in groundwater should gain wider acceptance.

  14. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  15. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  16. From "Inspiration-driven" Research to "Industrial-strength" Research: Applying User-developed Climate Analytics at Large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Mason, E. E.; Langenhorst, A. R.; Balaji, V.; Nikonov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous climate models, several parameters output from a vast range of climate scenarios -- most likely motivates a climate scientist to analyze a suite of available data to research and address a plethora of scientific questions, eg. occurrence of El Niño events or simply validate and compute specialized metrics for a specific climate field. Providing a platform for our scientists to work with data from different models both in-house and extending a similar approach to the application of climate analysis on data from different modeling centers is a key goal that will be addressed in this presentation. Model intercomparison projects, Earth System Grid Federation and knowledge exchange within the climate science community have all enabled successful establishment of "data standards and controlled vocabulary" . This opens key possibilities to facilitate techniques used to "explore" dataset(s) in the Big-Data archive and perform climate analyses following a simple, standardized templated approach. A typical pattern of use would be where the scientist works with a few datasets interactively to refine and extract a signal of a particular climate phenomenon. At this point data access patterns are random, as the analysis is exploratory. We call this the "inspiration-driven" phase of research. Subsequently, the scientist would need to apply her analysis to a much wider set of data: different models and scenarios from CMIP5 for example. This can be thought of as the "industrial" phase of research. We provide a pathway for user-developed analyses to transition from inspiration to industry. We will illustrate techniques being adopted at GFDL to develop analysis through interactive computational exploration on selected data; Provide analysis capabilities in batch workflows (using: Flexible Runtime Environment) and also web-based with data exploration mechanisms tapped from GFDL's Curator infrastructure. Comparing climate data both at the inter and intra-laboratory level

  17. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  18. Hydrogeological conceptual model determined from baseline and construction phase groundwater pressure and surface tilt-meter data at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Salden, Walter; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Arai, Takashi; Matsuki, Koji

    2007-07-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed based on pressure responses observed at multilevel pressure monitoring zones in seven boreholes and surface tilt data in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site. Pressure changes caused by some earthquakes, cross-hole hydraulic testing, and shaft excavation activities are considered. Surface tilt has been measured from the half way of the shaft excavation phase. The shaft excavation has been commenced from July 2003 with two shafts (Main shaft and Ventilation shaft). By the end of October 2005, discharging of water in the shafts has been halted at the depths of 172 m and 191 m respectively to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility due to an excess of F and B concentration in the water. This results in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings. Beginning in February 2006 pumping has been resumed and the underground workings have been re-occupied. Continuous groundwater pressure and surface tilt measurements with some numerical analysis during the shaft excavation phase show the existence of the flow barrier fault predicted from the surface-based investigation phase and hydraulic parameter around the shafts. (authors)

  19. Distributed feedback interband cascade lasers for applications in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeth, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Hildebrandt, L.; Fischer, M.; Weih, R.; Kamp, M.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of laser sources in gas sensing applications has been increasing continuously. Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool in a variety of sectors including industry, health and security and modern environmental analysis. Especially the mid-infrared wavelength range is of great interest for high accuracy gas sensing applications, since many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have their strongest absorption features in the spectral region between 3 and 6 μm. These include, e. g., important hydrocarbons like methane or propane, as well as nitric oxide and formaldehyde. Interband cascade lasers (ICL) provide mono mode continuous wave (CW) operation above room temperature in this wavelength range. Application-grade complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) laser devices based on the ICL concept are presented, using lateral metal gratings as wavelength selective elements. The fabricated devices operate at specific, technologically relevant, emission wavelengths in the spectral region from 3 to 6 μm. CW operation up to 80 °C and mono mode wavelength tuning ranges above 20 nm were achieved with low energy consumption. Application examples in industry and research are presented that demonstrate the high potential of DFB ICLs for the use in TLAS. E. g., formaldehyde gas sensor systems based on DFB ICL devices operating around 3.6 μm can provide realtime in-situ measurements with resolution limits in the low ppb range, even in dense background atmospheres. The low power consumption of ICL based devices makes them especially favorable for battery-powered or portable sensor applications.

  20. Groundwater Screen

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  1. Global scale groundwater flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  2. The Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources and Groundwater Quality in the Patcham Catchment, England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Smith, M.; Pope, D. J.; Gumm, L.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge will also be extensively studied in both the field and laboratory. The Chalk is a major aquifer and regionally supplies 70% of potable water supplies. The long term sustainable use of this resource is of paramount importance and the outcomes of this project will better inform and enhance long term management strategies for this. Project partners include water companies, regulatory bodies and industry consultancies. The four main objectives of the CLIMAWAT project are: i) better improve the prediction of the impact of climate change on this groundwater resource; ii) better understand and quantify how recharge mechanisms will vary due to the uncertainty associated with climate change; iii) better understand the storage mechanisms and fate of contaminants (e.g. nitrates and pesticides) in this aquifer and iv) investigate the impact of using partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge. An extensive field monitoring and data collection programme is underway in the Patcham Catchment (SE of England). Simultaneous monitoring of climatic, unsaturated zone potentiometric, groundwater level and chemistry data will allow for a better understanding of how changes in recharge patterns will effect groundwater quality and quantity. Isoptopic analysis of sampled groundwaters has allowed for interpretations and a better understanding of the storage and movement of water through this aquifer. The laboratory experimental programme is also underway and the results from this will compliment the field based studies to further enhance the understanding of contaminant behaviour in the both unsaturated and saturated zones. Core experiments are being used to investigate how nutrient and other

  3. Groundwater Monitoring and Control Before Decommissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from Magurele-Bucharest

    SciTech Connect

    Dragusin, Mitica

    2008-01-15

    The research reactor type VVR-S (tank type, water is cooler, moderator and reflector, thermal power- 2 MW, thermal energy- 9. 52 GW d) was put into service in July 1957 and, in December 1997 was shout down. In 2002, Romanian Government decided to put the research reactor in the permanent shut-down in order to start the decommissioning. This nuclear facility was used in nuclear research and radioisotope production for 40 years, without events, incidents or accidents. Within the same site, in the immediate vicinity of the research reactor, there are many other nuclear facilities: Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant, Tandem Van der Graaf heavy ions accelerator, Cyclotron, Industrial Irradiator, Radioisotope Production Center. The objectives of this work were dedicated on the water underground analyses described in the following context: - presentation of the approaches in planning the number of drillings, vertical soil profiles (characteristics, analyses, direction of the flow of underground water, uncertainties in measurements); - presentation of the instrumentation used in analyses of water, soil and vegetation samples - analyses and final conclusions on results of the measurements; - comparison of the results of measurements on underground water from drillings with the measurements results on samples from the town and the system of drinking water - supplied from the second level of underground water. According to the analysis, in general, no values higher than the Minimum Detectable Activity were detected in water samples (MDA) for Pb{sup 212}, Bi{sup 214}, Pb{sup 214}, Ac{sup 228}, but situated under values foreseen in drinking water. Distribution of Uranium As results of the Uranium determination, values higher than 0,004 mg/l (4 ppb) were detected, values that represent the average contents in the underground water. The higher values, 2-3 times higher than background, were detected in the water from the drillings F15, F12, F5, F13, drillings located between RWTP

  4. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization. PMID:24791476

  5. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-02-18

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.

  6. A national laboratory/private industry cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA)

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.; MacEachin, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the history and process of establishing a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories and Magnavox Electronic Systems Company for the design, development, and testing of a 360-degree scanning, imaging, intrusion detection sensor. The subject of the CRADA is the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). It is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters and uses a combination of three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) and a new data processing method to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection and tracking combined with immediate visual assessment. The establishment of this CRADA represents a new paradigm in the cooperation between the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Laboratories and Private Industry. Although a formal document has now been executed, a CRADA is, nonetheless, primarily an agreement to work with each other to achieve goals that might otherwise be unattainable.

  7. Collaborating for breast health education and research. A university, industry, and community agency partnership.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B; Stamler, L L; Malinowski, A

    1999-11-01

    Initiating a collaborative health education program about breast health required talent, expertise, and workload contributions from all involved including university researchers, a regional breast screening agency, and local industries. The credibility and opinions of liaisons or key informants were valued highly, and their support was critical to the success of the project. Participation in any collaborative project is predicated on benefits perceived by each of the partners. The community agency reaped the benefits of greater dissemination of their educational materials through the interventions. The project increased corporate and union awareness of the resources of this agency and in this community. Throughout the project, meetings and telephone conferences were held on a weekly or biweekly basis with the liaisons. Liaisons disseminated updates to management and union representatives. PMID:10865537

  8. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  9. Status of HiLASE project: High average power pulsed DPSSL systems for research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocek, T.; Divoky, M.; Smrz, M.; Sawicka, M.; Chyla, M.; Sikocinski, P.; Vohnikova, H.; Severova, P.; Lucianetti, A.; Novak, J.; Rus, B.

    2013-11-01

    We introduce the Czech national R&D project HiLASE which focuses on strategic development of advanced high-repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems that may find use in research, high-tech industry and in the future European large-scale facilities such as HiPER and ELI. Within HiLASE we explore two major concepts: thin-disk and cryogenically cooled multislab amplifiers capable of delivering average output powers above 1 kW level in picosecond-to-nanosecond pulsed regime. In particular, we have started a programme of technology development to demonstrate the scalability of multislab concept up to the kJ level at repetition rate of 1-10 Hz.

  10. Development Problems With Component Construction. Proceedings of Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Fall 1959).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Publication of conference papers includes--(1) an overview of the ceiling system complex by a lighting manufacturer, (2) review of problems influencing the development of roofing systems, (3) description of cooperative research within the cement industry, and (4) description of joint research development of structural ceramic panels. Included…

  11. Groundwater Forecasting Optimization Pertain to Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing interest in removing dams due to changing ecological and societal values. Groundwater recharge rate is closely connected to reservoir presence or absence. With the removal of dams and their associated reservoirs, reductions in groundwater levels are likely to impact water supplies for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Therefore accessible economic and time effective tools to forecast groundwater level declines with acceptable uncertainty following dam removals are critical for public welfare and healthy regional economies. These tools are also vital to project planning and provide beneficial information for restoration and remediation managements. The standard tool for groundwater forecasting is 3D Numerical modeling. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be an alternative tool for groundwater forecasting pertain to dam removal. This project compared these two tools throughout the Milltown Dam removal in Western Montana over a five year period. It was determined that ANN modeling had equal or greater accuracy for groundwater forecasting with far less effort and cost involved.

  12. Review of available fluid sampling tools and sample recovery techniques for groundwater and unconventional geothermal research as well as carbon storage in deep sedimentary aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Evans, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Sampling fluids from deep wells and subsequent sample treatment prior to gas and liquid analysis requires special equipment and sampling techniques to account for the relatively high temperatures, pressures, and potential gas content present at depth. This paper reviews five major sampling methodologies, ranging from different in situ wireline samplers to producing pumps and the U-tube and discusses their advantages and drawbacks in the light of three principal applications, deep groundwater research, unconventional geothermal exploration, and carbon storage. Geochemical modelling is used to investigate the probability of decarbonation and concomitant carbonate scaling during sampling in geothermal and carbon sequestration applications. The two principal sample recovery techniques associated with the fluid samplers are also presented.

  13. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  14. Energy-conserving technologies for industry: a summary of recent progress in research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Monarch, M.; Alston, T.; Macal, K.; Macal, C.; Tatar, J.; Hersh, H.; Blomquist, C.; Singh, M.; Larsen, R.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six summary sheets on energy-conserving industrial technologies were prepared. These summaries describe Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) energy-conservation and waste-recovery projects that have progressed to the point of potential industrial application. Possibilities for cross-industry applications are pointed out in many of the summary sheets. Each summary includes the following types of information: industrial application, process energy savings, conventional situation, new technology, R and D project development and status, technical information, economic analysis, and industry-wide savings.

  15. Groundwater Governance in the United States: Common Priorities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Varady, Robert G; Huang, Ling-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical component of the water supply for agriculture, urban areas, industry, and ecosystems, but managing it is a challenge because groundwater is difficult to map, quantify, and evaluate. Until recently, study and assessment of governance of this water resource has been largely neglected. A survey was developed to query state agency officials about the extent and scope of groundwater use, groundwater laws and regulations, and groundwater tools and strategies. Survey responses revealed key findings: states' legal frameworks for groundwater differ widely in recognizing the hydrologic connection between surface water and groundwater, the needs of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and the protection of groundwater quality; states reported a range in capacity to enforce groundwater responsibilities; and states have also experienced substantial changes in groundwater governance in the past few decades. Overall, groundwater governance across the United States is fragmented. States nevertheless identified three common priorities for groundwater governance: water quality and contamination, conflicts between users, and declining groundwater levels. This survey represents an initial step in a broader, continuing effort to characterize groundwater governance practices in the United States. PMID:25406503

  16. Developing a high resolution groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, E.; de Graaf, I. E.; Alberti, K.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large-extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution of steady-state groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). Here we adopted the approach of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011) in order to make a MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological map (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorf, 2012). We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. Results are promising. The MODFLOW model can converge with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produce reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution that reflects the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. For this session, we aim to demonstrate and discuss the results and the prospects of this modeling study. References: D

  17. Groundwater workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Interstate Conference on Water Policy has released an Executive Report of the 1989 Ground Water Information Management Workshops. The report summarizes workgroup findings and recommendations for action as identified at the four workshops conducted in the winter and spring of 1989 in Little Rock, Ark.; Sacramento, Calif.; Harrisburg, Pa.; and Omaha, Nebr. The workshops, cosponsored by ICWP and the U.S. Geological Survey, attracted over 200 participants from local, state, and federal government, academia, and the private sector.The two primary objectives of the workshop series were to provide participants with information about groundwater data management initiatives at all levels of government, and to elicit information and ideas from participants about improving data management and exchange. The report states that although the individual workshops reflected regional concerns and experiences, collectively they provide a solid foundation for developing a national perspective on groundwater information management needs.

  18. Therapeutic Ultrasound Research And Development From An Industrial And Commercial Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Seip, Ralf

    2009-04-14

    The objective of this paper is to share the challenges and opportunities as viewed from an industrial and commercial perspective that one encounters when performing therapeutic ultrasound research, development, manufacturing, and sales activities. Research in therapeutic ultrasound has become an active field in the last decade, spurred by technological advances in the areas of transducer materials, control electronics, treatment monitoring techniques, an ever increasing number of clinical applications, and private and governmental funding opportunities. The development of devices and methods utilizing therapeutic ultrasound to cure or manage disease is being pursued by startup companies and large established companies alike, driven by the promise of profiting at many levels from this new and disruptive technology. Widespread penetration within the clinical community remains elusive, with current approaches focusing on very specific applications and niche markets. Challenges include difficulties in securing capital to develop the technology and undertake costly clinical trials, a regulatory landscape that varies from country to country, resistance from established practitioners, and difficulties in assembling a team with the right mix of technological savvy and business expertise. Success is possible and increasing, however, as evidenced by several companies, initiatives, and products with measurable benefits to the patient, clinician, and companies alike.

  19. Therapeutic Ultrasound Research And Development From An Industrial And Commercial Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seip, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to share the challenges and opportunities as viewed from an industrial and commercial perspective that one encounters when performing therapeutic ultrasound research, development, manufacturing, and sales activities. Research in therapeutic ultrasound has become an active field in the last decade, spurred by technological advances in the areas of transducer materials, control electronics, treatment monitoring techniques, an ever increasing number of clinical applications, and private and governmental funding opportunities. The development of devices and methods utilizing therapeutic ultrasound to cure or manage disease is being pursued by startup companies and large established companies alike, driven by the promise of profiting at many levels from this new and disruptive technology. Widespread penetration within the clinical community remains elusive, with current approaches focusing on very specific applications and niche markets. Challenges include difficulties in securing capital to develop the technology and undertake costly clinical trials, a regulatory landscape that varies from country to country, resistance from established practitioners, and difficulties in assembling a team with the right mix of technological savvy and business expertise. Success is possible and increasing, however, as evidenced by several companies, initiatives, and products with measurable benefits to the patient, clinician, and companies alike.

  20. NIST Accelerator Facilities And Programs In Support Of Industrial Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F.B.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Hudson, L.T.; Coursey, B.M.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Seltzer, S.M.

    2003-08-26

    NIST's Ionizing Radiation Division maintains and operates three electron accelerators used in a number of applications including waste treatment and sterilization, radiation hardness testing, detector calibrations and materials modification studies. These facilities serve a large number of governmental, academic and industrial users as well as an active intramural research program. They include a 500 kV cascaded-rectifier accelerator, a 2.5 MV electron Van de Graaff accelerator and a 7 to 32 MeV electron linac, supplying beams ranging in energy from a few keV up to 32 MeV. In response to the recent anthrax incident, NIST along with the US Postal Service and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) are working to develop protocols and testing procedures for the USPS mail sanitization program. NIST facilities and personnel are being employed in a series of quality-assurance measurements for both electron- and photon-beam sanitization. These include computational modeling, dose verification and VOC (volatile organic compounds) testing using megavoltage electron and photon sources.

  1. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of groundwater in aguanaval and chupaderos aquifers (Mexico)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate regional groundwater assessment studies are essential for the correct groundwater management by policy/decision makers; increased use of groundwater resources and drought have led to concern about the future availability of groundwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environ...

  3. Exploitation: One View of Industry and Business. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; And Others

    A reasonable definition of exploitation is an unjust or improper use of another person for one's own profit or advantage. Exploitation predates the age of industry; it is not the sole province of industry and business. Worker responses to exploitation in the evolving industrial democracy have taken the form of labor unions, political clubs, credit…

  4. The Origin and Management of a State/Industry/University Research Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loper, Gerald D.; Sudermann, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Describes the origins and first two years of a focused collaborative project involving Wichita State University (Kansas), the aviation industry, and state economic-development organizations. The center is industry-driven and reflects the industry's current technological needs. The arrangement can offer significant advantages to each stakeholder,…

  5. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist Regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; García-García, P; Alamo, C

    2009-02-01

    Before the National Socialist party came to power, the German pharmaceutical industry constituted an international reference as far as the development of new medicines was concerned, having been responsible for synthetic analgesics (phenacetin, phenazones, acetylsalicylic acid), arsphenamine, barbiturates and sulfonamides. The year 1925 saw the founding of I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG), a conglomerate of companies that would monopolize the country's chemical production and come to own all its major pharmaceutical industries. During the World War II, I.G. Farben participated in numerous operations associated with the criminal activities of the Nazi executive, including the use of slave labour in plants built close to concentration camps, such as that at Auschwitz. With regard to medical and pharmacological research projects, I.G. Farben became involved in experimental programmes using patients from the Nazi regime's euthanasia programmes and healthy subjects recruited without their consent from concentration camps, on whom various pharmacological substances were tested, including sulfamide and arsenical derivatives and other preparations whose composition is not precisely known (B-1012, B-1034, 3382 or Rutenol, 3582 or Acridine), generally in relation to the treatment of infectious diseases, such as typhus, erysipelas, scarlet fever or paratyphoid diarrhoea. Furthermore, I.G. Farben played a decisive role in the German army's chemical warfare programme, contributing to the development of the first two neurotoxic substances, later known as 'nerve agents', tabun and sarin. Some of these activities came to light as a result of the one the famous Nuremberg Trials in 1947, which saw 24 executives and scientists from I.G. Farben brought to justice for, among other offences, the use of slave labour in the concentration camps and forced experimentation with drugs on prisoners. PMID:19125905

  6. Protein levels in beef cattle finishing diets: industry application, university research, and systems results.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L

    1996-11-01

    Consulting nutritionists were surveyed to determine current formulation and management practices for finishing beef cattle. Among the six consultants surveyed, percentage of CP in finishing diets ranged from 12.5 to 14.4%, with urea levels ranging from .5 to 1.5% of DM. Finishing diets were based primarily on highly processed, rapidly fermented grains (steam-flaked and high-moisture grain), with roughage levels ranging from 3 to 11% of DM. All six consultants considered feed bunk management to be a critical factor affecting feed intake and performance; five of the six consultants used aggressive implant programs based on estrogen + trenbolone acetate. Recent university research was reviewed with respect to CP level and source in finishing diets. Finishing cattle managed on aggressive implant programs seem to respond to higher levels of CP better than would be expected from the factorial calculation approach. Moreover, improvements in performance noted in recent research seemed to be more consistent when supplemental CP was derived from ruminally degraded vs undegraded sources. Calculation of protein requirements with a metabolizable protein (MP) system yielded estimates of protein needs by finishing cattle that agreed more closely with current industry practices than did calculation based on the factorial method. The difference between the MP system and the factorial method was primarily a result of accounting for microbial N needs in the MP system. Reasons for production responses to CP levels that are greater than those calculated by the factorial method include increased accretion of protein by rapidly growing, implanted cattle, particularly during the initial phase of the finishing period, alleviation of a microbial N deficiency, and ruminal and systemic effects of ruminally degraded N on acid-base balance of beef cattle fed rapidly fermented, high-grain diets. Reasons for production responses to supplemental CP need further research. PMID:8923202

  7. The interface between publicly funded and industry-funded research in pediatric psychopharmacology: opportunities for integration and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Heiligenstein, John H; Riddle, Mark A; Greenhill, Laurence L; Fegert, Jörg M

    2004-07-01

    Pediatric psychopharmacology research is undergoing a major expansion consequent to increasing use of psychotropic medications in children and recent legislative incentives to industry. In this rapidly changing context, the interface between publicly and privately funded research needs to be reconsidered to integrate activities and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. Once, by default, the almost exclusive domain of public research, child research is now increasingly funded by industry. There are, however, important issues unlikely to be addressed through private funding for which public support is needed, such as direct comparisons between active medications, between pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, or between combined and single treatment modalities; development of effective treatment strategies for patients unresponsive to first-line treatments; development of better research methods to assess efficacy and safety; identification of moderators and mechanisms of treatment response; and impact of treatment on illness course and prognosis. Industry-sponsored research is limited by the restricted access to proprietary databases, which impedes independent analyses and meta-analyses. Translation of basic neuroscience discoveries into treatment applications for children with mental illness is a critical area of inquiry that can benefit from integration of efforts and collaborations among academia, government, and industry. PMID:15219466

  8. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global scale groundwater model (run at 6' as dynamic steady state) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The aquifer schematization and properties were based on available global datasets of lithology and transmissivities combined with estimated aquifer thickness of an upper unconfined aquifer. The model is forced with outputs from the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB, specifically with net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed variation in saturated conductivity causes most of the groundwater level variations. Simulated groundwater heads were validated against reported piezometer observations. The validation showed that groundwater depths are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional scale groundwater patterns and flowpaths confirm the relevance of taking lateral groundwater flow into account in GHMs. Flowpaths show inter-basin groundwater flow that can be a significant part of a basins water budget and helps to sustain river baseflow, explicitly during times of droughts. Also important aquifer systems are recharged by inter-basin groundwater flows that positively affect water

  9. PREFACE: Applications of Novel Scintillators for Research and Industry (ANSRI 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    Scintillator detectors are used widely in the field of γ- and X-ray spectroscopy, particularly in the mid 1900s when the invention of NaI(Tl) by nobel laureate Robert Hofstadter in 1948, spurred the creation of new scintillator materials. In the development of such new scintillators, important characteristics such as its intrinsic efficiency, position sensitivity, robustness, energy and timing response, light output, etc, need to be addressed. To date, these requirements cannot be met by a single type of scintillator alone and therefore the development of an ''ideal'' scintillator remains the holy grail of nuclear instrumentation. Consequently, the last two decades have seen significant progress in the development of scintillator crystals, driven largely by technological advances. Conventional inorganic scintillators such as NaI(Tl) and BGO are now being replaced with better, novel organic, inorganic, ceramic and plastic scintillators offering a wider variety of options for many applications. The workshop on the Applications of Novel Scintillators in Research and Industry was held at University College Dublin in January 2015 and covered a wide range of topics that characterise modern advances in the field of scintillator technology. This set of proceedings covers areas including the growth, production and characterisation of such contemporary scintillators, along with their applications in various fields, such as; Medical Imaging; Defence/Security; Astrophysics; and Nuclear/Particle Physics. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent results on their research at the workshop. These proceedings atest to the excitement and interest in such a broad field, that pervades the pursuit of the development of novel materials for future applications. We would also like to thank Professor Luigi Piro, for giving an interesting public talk during the conference, and to the Institute of Physics Ireland Group for supporting the event. We thank ORTEC for

  10. Field-Scale Evaluation of Biostimulation for Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater at a Proposed NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, Craig S.

    2003-06-01

    A hydrologic, geochemical and microbial characterization of the Area 3 field site has been completed. The formation is fairly impermeable, but there is a region of adequate flow approximately 50 feet bgs. The experiment will be undertaken within that depth interval. Groundwater from that depth is highly acidic (pH 3.2), and has high levels of nitrate, aluminum, uranium, and other heavy metals, as well as volatile chlorinated solvents (VOCs). Accordingly, an aboveground treatment train has been designed to remove these contaminants. The train consists of a vacuum stripper to remove VOCs, two chemical precipitation steps to adjust pH and remove metals, and a fluidized bed bioreactor to remove nitrate. The aboveground system will be coupled to a belowground recirculation system. The belowground system will contain an outer recirculation cell and a nested inner recirculation cell: the outer cells will be continuously flushed with nitrate-free treated groundwater. The inner cell will receive periodic inputs of uranium, tracer, and electron donor. Removal of uranium will be determined by comparing loss rates of conservative tracer and uranium within the inner recirculation cell. Over the past year, a detailed workplan was developed and submitted for regulatory approval. The workplan was presented to the Field Research Advisory Panel (FRAP), and after some extensive revision, the FRAP authorized implementation. Detailed design drawings and numerical simulations of proposed experiments have been prepared. System components are being prefabricated as skid-mounted units in Michigan and will be shipped to Oak Ridge for assembly. One manuscript has been submitted to a peer reviewed journal. This paper describes a novel technique for inferring subsurface hydraulic conductivity values. Two posters on this project were presented at the March 2002 NABIR PI meeting. One poster was presented at the Annual conference of the American Society for Microbiology in Salt Lake City, UT in

  11. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  12. The past suppression of industry knowledge of the toxicity of benzene to humans and potential bias in future benzene research.

    PubMed

    Infante, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Petrochemical industry representatives often withhold information and misinterpret positive evidence of toxicity of benzene, even from their own research, also discouraging or delaying disclosure of findings of adverse effects to the public. They now appear to be attempting to influence study results in industry's favor by offering predetermined conclusions about study results as part of an effort to draw financial support for the studies. The American Petroleum Institute is currently raising funds for benzene research being conducted in China for which it has already announced the intended conclusions. PMID:16967835

  13. Current developments in groundwater ecology--from biodiversity to ecosystem function and services.

    PubMed

    Griebler, Christian; Malard, Florian; Lefébure, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater ecosystems constitute the largest terrestrial freshwater biome. They are dark, extremely low in energy and do not provide much space but they contain an unexpectedly high diversity of living forms showing characteristic adaptive features. The restricted accessibility along with the enormous 'invisible' heterogeneity challenged for a long time testing of scientific theories and unraveling of ecosystem functioning. Triggered by an improved interdisciplinarity, comprehensive sampling strategies and current developments in biotechnology and statistical analysis, groundwater ecology gains momentum entering a new era of research. We are only beginning to understand adaptive mechanisms, species distribution patterns and ecosystem functioning. Ninety-five percent of global liquid freshwater is stored in the terrestrial subsurface constituting a major source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is an urgent need to integrate evolutionary and ecological research for developing a holistic perspective of the functional roles of biodiversity and ecosystem services and predicting global changes under alternative groundwater resource use scenarios. PMID:24590188

  14. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  15. Development and Testing of a Moving Granular Bed Filter at the Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.Y.; Hsiau, S-S.; Lee, H-T.; Smid, J.; Wu, T-C.

    2002-09-18

    The main purpose of developing high temperature gas cleaning technologies are to clean the gas under high temperature in order to be cost effective and to improve energy efficiency. Moving granular bed filters are technically and economically applicable for high temperature cleaning system because of low cost, possible to keep operation at a constant pressure drop, simple structure, easy in operation and maintenance, no high risk internals, and more tolerant to process thermal flow. Energy and Resource Laboratories, Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute (ERL/ITRI) has been developing a moving granular bed filter (MGBF) for BIGCC(Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) high temperature gas cleanup. The filter granules move downwards directed by louver-like guide plates and the hot gases penetrate the MGBF horizontally. Filtration mechanisms include collection of the dust cake over the bed media surface and deep bed filtration. Stagnant zones of filter granules combining with the dusts always exist along the louver walls. Such stagnant zones often corrode the louver-like guide plates, increase the system pressure drop and decrease the total reaction efficiency that may endanger MGBF operation. Series louver and inert structure research that modify the granular flow pattern have been designed to eliminate the formation of these stagnant zones. By connecting to an auxiliary dust/bed media separation system, MGBF can be operated continuously at a stable pressure drop with a stable high efficiency. There are several MGBF R&D activities in progress: (1) a 3-dimensional cold flow system for testing the MGBF filtration efficiency; (2) a high temperature gas cleanup experimental system that has been designed and installed; (3) a 2-dimensional flow pattern experimental system for approving design concepts.

  16. Perspectives on stimulating industrial research and development for neglected infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, D.; Kremer, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent thinking on stimulating industrial research and development (R&D) for neglected infectious diseases and argues that it is critical to enlarge the value of the market for medicines and vaccines through, for example, global purchase funds. The most important economic barriers to R&D are that the commercial markets are small and that individual purchasing power is severely limited, even though the number of patients may be very large. Since R&D costs for all diseases are high, this means that returns will not cover investments. Various mechanisms have been proposed to address this economic imbalance (accepting that other barriers will also need to be considered). Economic devices which reduce the costs of R&D--push factors--are useful, but our review suggests that high costs do not explain the shortfall in R&D. Economic devices which address the lack of viable markets have been termed pull factors and are designed to create or secure a market, thereby improving the likelihood of a return on investments. One pull mechanism is the commitment in advance to purchase a product that meets specified criteria, if invented. The purchase-precommitment approach has a number of attractive features. For example, it only rewards successful outputs rather than supporting research that may not succeed. Pull programmes effectively mimic the market and lead companies to favour lines of attack that they believe will lead to marketable products. Overall, a combination of push and pull mechanisms is likely to represent an attractive approach. This could combine, for example, increased funding for public laboratories, public-private partnerships in R&D, purchases of underutilized existing products, and a precommitment to purchase new drugs and vaccines when developed. PMID:11545330

  17. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). Results The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. Conclusion The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits. PMID:26473092

  18. Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

  19. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  20. Using risk-based cleanup objectives as a basis to assess financial risk and negotiate a real property transfer at a former industrial site with DNAPL contaminated soils and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, F.W.; Podraza, D.M.

    1997-12-31

    Site specific risk based cleanup objectives are based on the protection of human health and environment as it relates to the intended use of the site. In many cases, this results in the development of cleanup objectives that are less burdensome. This approach may defer indefinitely preemptive cleanups for commercial/industrial sites which remain commercial/industrial. However, a risk based approach does not eliminate future liabilities or costs if the use of the site changes later on. This paper examines the history of a TCE, PCE, DCE contaminated commercial real estate site which was successfully sold using risk-based site specific arguments. Had a cleanup been mandated in the late 1980`s, remediation to the MCLs was estimated to have exceeded $5MM. Using risk-based site specific arguments, the remediation costs were reduced to between $250K and $1.5MM, depending on whether groundwater was considered to be impacted. By the buyer and seller working together, a non-invasive technology was selected and areas covered by the slabs of existing buildings were excluded from remediation. The seller agreed to be responsible for remediating certain accessible areas of the site over an 8 year time table after which the buyer would become responsible for remaining contamination at the site. The remaining contamination was quantified, restrictive covenants were written and a purchase price discount of $650K was granted to the buyer. This purchase price discount reflected future costs for remediation anticipated to be required at the time of future building demolition. The property was conveyed for ongoing use as a commercial/industrial site.

  1. The silence: the asbestos industry and early occupational cancer research--a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, D E

    1991-01-01

    To gain insight into corporate activities regarding the identification of occupational carcinogens earlier in this century, the actions of one industry, the asbestos industry, were reviewed. This industry, in concert with many of its insurers, systematically developed and then suppressed information on the carcinogenicity of asbestos. The development of warnings for those exposed to the asbestos was delayed. As a result, millions of workers were exposed to the carcinogen and hundreds of thousands died. These events are placed into the context of similar activities in other industries during this time. Images p792-a p793-a p796-a PMID:2029056

  2. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  3. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  4. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  5. Groundwater ecohydrology: phreatophyte root uptake of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    An analytic solution is presented for groundwater uptake by phreatophytes. This solution is developed for individual phreatophytes with prescribed mathematical forms of groundwater uptake beneath the plant. As this function is linear, mathematical solutions may be superimposed to simulate groundwater uptake by a field of phreatophytes. A simpler representation of groundwater uptake by a field of phreatophytes is developed through aid of the Analytic Element Method. This, too, may be superimposed as the functions are linear to simulate groundwater flow associated with fields of phreatophytes. Together, this provides a computationally effective means to simulate the detailed local groundwater flow field associated with uptake by a phreatophyte within a regional groundwater flow field. Results illustrate the spatial patterns that emerge from localized groundwater extractions within fields of phreatophytes.

  6. University-Industry Partnerships: A Study of How Top American Research Universities Establish and Maintain Successful Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, George W.; Torraco, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative research study utilized the grounded theory tradition to examine organizational structures and processes in a purposefully selected sample of American universities that have established and maintained partnerships with industry. Institutional leaders from the corporate relations offices from fifteen of the top research…

  7. Trade and Industrial Education Research Committee. Proceedings of the Carrousel Session, American Vocational Association (Dallas, Texas, December 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the texts of five research reports that were presented at a conference dealing with trade and industrial education. The following papers are included: "A Survey of Teacher Attitudes and Beliefs Related to the Use of Microcomputers in Vocational Education," by Steve Chi-Yin Yuen; "Retraining for Robotics and Other Forms of…

  8. The Trade and Industrial Education Research Committee. Proceedings of the Carousel Session, American Vocational Conference (Las Vegas, Nevada, December 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L., Ed.; Walter, Richard, Ed.

    This document presents three papers dealing with trade and industrial education research. "Educating the Vocational Teacher Educator" (Clyde Knight) reports a study to identify needs of vocational teacher educators to improve existing programs and make necessary changes in doctoral programs. "The Relationship between Perceived Learning Style and…

  9. A Preliminary Exploration of Operating Models of Second Cycle/Research Led Open Education Involving Industry Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from five Swedish universities were interviewed about open second cycle education. Research groups and scientists collaborate closely with industry, and the selection of scientists for the study was made in relation to an interest in developing technology-enhanced open education, indicated by applications for funding from the Knowledge…

  10. Exploring the Mechanisms of Knowledge Transfer in University-Industry Collaborations: A Study of Companies, Students and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Christian; Cappelen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university-industry collaboration projects involving companies, students and researchers. Data is collected through 35 qualitative interviews with Danish and Norwegian representatives from the above categories. All respondents have been involved in collaborative…

  11. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  12. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  13. An Industry/Academe Consortium for Achieving 20% wind by 2030 through Cutting-Edge Research and Workforce Training

    SciTech Connect

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Milliren, Christopher; Kaveh, Mos; Mohan, Ned; Stolarski, Henryk; Glauser, Mark; Arndt, Roger

    2013-12-01

    In January 2010, the University of Minnesota, along with academic and industry project partners, began work on a four year project to establish new facilities and research in strategic areas of wind energy necessary to move the nation towards a goal of 20% wind energy by 2030. The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with funds made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. $7.9M of funds were provided by DOE and $3.1M was provided through matching funds. The project was organized into three Project Areas. Project Area 1 focused on design and development of a utility scale wind energy research facility to support research and innovation. The project commissioned the Eolos Wind Research Field Station in November of 2011. The site, located 20 miles from St. Paul, MN operates a 2.5MW Clipper Liberty C-96 wind turbine, a 130-ft tall sensored meteorological tower and a robust sensor and data acquisition network. The site is operational and will continue to serve as a site for innovation in wind energy for the next 15 years. Project Areas 2 involved research on six distinct research projects critical to the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 goals. The research collaborations involved faculty from two universities, over nine industry partners and two national laboratories. Research outcomes include new knowledge, patents, journal articles, technology advancements, new computational models and establishment of new collaborative relationships between university and industry. Project Area 3 focused on developing educational opportunities in wind energy for engineering and science students. The primary outcome is establishment of a new graduate level course at the University of Minnesota called Wind Engineering Essentials. The seminar style course provides a comprehensive analysis of wind energy technology, economics, and operation. The course is highly successful and will continue to be offered at the University. The vision of U.S. DOE to

  14. Groundwater resources management through the applications of simulation modeling: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-15

    The global population is increasing rapidly and expected to touch the 9.5 billion mark by 2050 from the current 7.2 billion. The management of the groundwater resources is a challenging task worldwide against the backdrop of the growing water demand for industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses and shrinking resources. Moreover, this task has been hampered significantly due to declining/rising groundwater levels and associated contamination. A broad range of solutions could be considered to address the aforementioned problems of groundwater management, but the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with field experiments. Given their predictive capability, simulation models are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions, as they can forecast the likely impacts of a particular water management strategy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the simulation modeling applications for the management of groundwater resources. The past papers on the overview of groundwater simulation models, use of remote sensing and GIS in groundwater modeling, and application of simulation models in arid and semiarid regions are described in detail. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused. PMID:24880901

  15. A Study of the Plastics Industry in Missouri. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jack M.

    Missouri's plastics industry was surveyed to identify tasks, skills, and knowledges necessary for entry into plastics-related occupations. Respondents returned 129 questionnaires. Additional information was received by telephone interviews with cooperating industries and associations. Of responding firms, St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan…

  16. Adult Literacy: Industry-Based Training Programs. Research and Development Series No. 265C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Ernest L.; And Others

    Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…

  17. Catering and Hospitality Industry--Key Facts and Figures. Research Report. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjivassiliou, Kari

    According to reliable statistical information from a wide variety of sources, the hospitality industry in the United Kingdom is a significant growth industry that employed more than 2 million people (7% of the country's work force) in 1994. Of those individuals, 685,000 were employed in catering services sectors (with hospitals, retirement/nursing…

  18. Employment in the Catering & Hospitality Industry--Employee Attitudes and Career Expectations. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    A study examined the attitudes and career expectations of a random sample of catering and hospitality industry employees in the United Kingdom. The survey focused on the following: aspiration and career intentions, factors causing job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, employment patterns in the industry, satisfaction with/access to…

  19. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity. PMID:19763854

  20. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  1. Estimated public-water supply and industrial-commercial ground-water withdrawals and returns in Nassau County, Long Island, New York, 1973-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, D.S.; Williams, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nassau County, New York depends upon ground water for its freshwater supply. The primary water uses are for public-water supply and industrial-commercial purposes, which together accounted for 202 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1975. Public-water suppliers withdrew 85 percent of their water from the Magothy Formation. About 133 Mgal/d was returned to the ground after use in 1975, and about 69; Mgal/d was discharged to tidewater. In addition, about 34 Mgal/d infiltrated into sewerlines in 1975 and was also discharged to tidewater. Because of the importance of this freshwater supply, the New York State Department of Environmental conservation reviews applications for the installation of wells and compiles data on pumpage throughout Long Island. It also reviews applications to discharge wastewater into the surface water and ground water of the State. This report summarizes the data filed with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for Nassau County during 1973-79. It presents data and estimates on withdrawals for public and industrial-commercial supply, returns to the ground, and discharges through sewer systems. It also includes information on population and land use. (USGS)

  2. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping. PMID:23243867

  3. [Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qixing

    2005-06-01

    Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future. PMID:16180772

  4. 75 FR 61025 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA..., NW., Room 725, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood Lumber, Promotion,...

  5. Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

  6. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  7. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  8. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research. Annual report for fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  9. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  10. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and also supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, the large natural groundwater storage provides a buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a transient global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013) combined with information about e.g. aquifer thickness and presence of less permeable, impermeable, and semi-impermeable layers. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated simulated groundwater heads with observations, from North America and Australia, resulting in a coefficient of determination of 0.8 and 0.7 respectively. This shows that it is feasible to build a global groundwater model using best available

  11. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  12. Factors determining the economic value of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. Ejaz; Reeson, Andrew; Reinelt, Peter; Brozović, Nicholas; Whitten, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction threatens aquifer sustainability for future generations. Making the best use of limited groundwater resources requires knowledge of its alternative extractive and non-extractive values, as well as the cost of extraction and the hydrological interlinkages between alternative uses. Groundwater value is driven by a number of factors including its supply and demand and institutional and policy factors. These factors and how they affect value of groundwater are described. Also described are the various components relevant to the economic valuation of groundwater and there is discussion on the potential difficulties in their practical estimation. It is argued that groundwater management is essential when there are large potential spatial and temporal externalities related to groundwater pumping. Maintaining non-extractive and option values is likely to require trade-offs with current extractive uses. Well-informed management will be required to allocate groundwater efficiently between different users such as agriculture, industry and the environment, while also balancing the needs of current and future generations.

  13. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  14. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  15. Maximizing industry benefit through cooperation between federal, state and private-sector floricultural research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information, and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments § 1220.230 Promotion, research, consumer information, and...

  17. Examining the link between cash flow, market value, and research and development investment spending in the medical device industry.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Bryan P; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-02-01

    Unlike the pharmaceutical industry, no empirical research has focused on the factors influencing research and development (R&D) spending in the medical device industry. To fill that gap, this study examines how R&D spending is influenced by prior year cash flow and corporate market value using multiple regression analysis and a panel data set of medical device companies over the period 1962-2008. The empirical findings suggest that the elasticities of R&D spending with respect to cash flow and corporate market value equal 0.58 and 0.31, respectively. Moreover, based upon these estimates, simulations show that the recently enacted excise tax on medical devices, taken alone, will reduce R&D spending by approximately $4 billion and thereby lead to a minimum loss of $20 billion worth of human life years over the first 10 years of its enactment. PMID:23303706

  18. A research on service quality decision-making of Chinese communications industry based on quantum game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Xing, Peng

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, Chinese service industry is developing rapidly. Compared with developed countries, service quality should be the bottleneck for Chinese service industry. On the background of three major telecommunications service providers in China, the functions of customer perceived utilities are established. With the goal of consumer's perceived utility maximization, the classic Nash equilibrium solution and quantum equilibrium solution are obtained. Then a numerical example is studied and the changing trend of service quality and customer perceived utility is further analyzed by the influence of the entanglement operator. Finally, it is proved that quantum game solution is better than Nash equilibrium solution.

  19. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  20. Research on Technology Innovation Power Mechanism of the Software Industry in Jiangsu Province Based on System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Gang; Qian, Xi-Jiao

    The software industry develops rapidly without technology innovation (TI) in Jiangsu Province of China. Using the system dynamics (SD) method, this paper researched the causal relationship between TI's factors, and established the SD model. Then the model was tested and simulated. The results show that the simulation values tally with the actual values. Internal and external power factors of enterprises are positively related with TI. Then enterprises' scientific funds and the government's support are main power sources to promote TI.

  1. Climate change and groundwater ecohydrology: Simulating subsurface flow and discharge zones in Covey Hill, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, J.; Larocque, M.; Ouellet, M.; van Waterschoot, L.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 2 billion people use groundwater and in Canada it is the potable water supply for about 30% of the population. Groundwater is also used in industrial and agricultural applications, and contributes to important hydrological habitats for various species. Limited research has been conducted to determine the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater. Local studies are crucial to better understand how, for example, increased duration and frequency of storms or drought periods may affect groundwater dependent ecosystems in order to anticipate and mitigate the impacts. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore the effects of climate change on a groundwater-surface water interacting system that supports a fragile ecosystem. This research is used to inform ecological conservation measures. The research site is the 17500 ha Covey Hill Natural Laboratory, which is located on the Quebec, Canada and New York State, USA border in the Chateauguay River watershed. At various locations within the Natural Laboratory there is continuous monitoring of groundwater levels and river flows. Covey Hill is an important recharge zone for the regional aquifer and provides habitat for endangered salamanders in discharge zones. Two hydrogeological models were constructed to represent flow at the site. First, a three-dimensional, finite difference model was developed using MODFLOW software to simulate overall groundwater flow at the research site. Second, a smaller-scale, discrete fracture, transient, three-dimensional, finite difference, integrated model was developed using HydroGeoSphere software to represent in better detail flow from bedrock springs that occur at mid-slope and provide the habitat for endangered salamanders. The models were used to: 1) observe groundwater flow under current climate conditions; 2) quantify water dynamics in response to climate change using 10 scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (for 1971-2000 and 2041-2070 time periods); and 3

  2. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, ‘early innovation hunting’ with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building. PMID

  3. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Germann, Paul G; Schuhmacher, Alexander; Harrison, Juan; Law, Ronald; Haug, Kevin; Wong, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, 'early innovation hunting' with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building. PMID:23496921

  4. Work-Based Research Degrees: Systematic Cultivation through a University-Industry Network Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to expound on an innovative approach to cultivating work-based Doctorates and Masters of Philosophy degrees, which involves close collaboration between industry organisations and a tertiary institution. This paper also reports on an examination of the programme's structural ability to help develop the learning…

  5. Practical Problems in the Cement Industry Solved by Modern Research Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D.

    1972-01-01

    Practical chemical problems in the cement industry are being solved by such techniques as infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and arc spectroscopy, thermally evolved gas analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (CP)

  6. Education, Industrialization and Technical Progress in Mexico. IIEP Research Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padua, Jorge

    This report attempts to analyze the contributions of the educational system and job training programs to industrialization and technical progress in the Conubal zone of the Lower Balsas River of Mexico. The first of the study's three sections consists of two chapters that provide general background. Chapter 1, "Theories of Development and the Role…

  7. Practical Guidance for Strengthening Private Industry Councils. Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document is divided into three volumes. Volume I describes what exemplary Private Industry Councils (PICS) do, Volume II explains why they are effective, and Volume III tells how to implement exemplary practice. Volume I contains case studies of 10 exemplary PICs organized by 7 topics areas (history and structure, policies and program…

  8. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  9. Report Calls for "Transdisciplinary" Research and Collaboration Between Academia and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    A new report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences calls for increased integration across academic disciplines and increased coordination between academia and industry to help solve societal problems and maintain the United States' competiveness in science and technology in a global economy.

  10. Why We Need to Think beyond the "Industry" in Alcohol Research and Policy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The alcohol policy debate demands greater critical reflection on the complex and disaggregated nature of the alcohol industries in contrast to their frequent characterization as a coherent, monolithic and singular entity with a common goal. Such reflection is necessary in order to rethink the linked assumption that drinkers are vulnerable victims…

  11. Multispectral elastic scanning lidar for industrial flare research: characterizing the electronic subsystem and application.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Facundes da Costa, Renata; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; Guardani, Roberto; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2014-12-15

    This work deals with the analysis of the electronic subsystem of a multiwavelength elastic scanning lidar. Several calibration tests are applied to the Cubatão scanning lidar placed at the industrial area of Cubatão in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), in order to improve the knowledge of its performing itself and to design protocols for correcting lidar signal for undesirable instrumental effects. In particular, the trigger delay is assessed by means of zero-bin and bin-shift tests for analog (AN) and photo-counting (PC) signals, respectively. Dark current test is also performed to detect potential range-dependency that could affect lidar products. All tests were performed at different spatial resolutions. These instrumental corrections were applied to a case study of data acquired for characterizing the optical and microphysical properties of particles in an industrial flare. To that aim, a graphical method based on the space defined by the extinction-related Angström exponent versus its spectral curvature is used to derive the contribution of fine aerosol to extinction and the size of the fine aerosols in the industrial flare, therefore revealing features of the processes occurring inside the flame. Our study demonstrates the potential of this new technique for the study and measurement of industrial emissions. PMID:25607056

  12. Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased competition bring with them many benefits for business, consumers and the economy. But they can also result in the restructuring of industries not able to compete with changing economic markets. In the past, Australia has witnessed restructuring in many high-profile businesses, especially those in its manufacturing…

  13. Fundamentals of Research in Industrial Psychology. Teacher's Notes, Transparencies, Bibliography, Exercises. Teaching Packages #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bobbie J.; Rothstein, Pauline M.

    The purpose of this bibliographic instruction package is to help a non-library instructor prepare undergraduate students to find and use books, indexes, abstracts, periodical articles, and other printed reference sources in a search for published information on industrial psychology. The package is divided into two episodes which can be presented…

  14. Industrial Analytical Chemistry: The Eyes, Ears, and Handmaiden to Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses these three questions: (1) What are the roles of analytical chemists in industry? (2) What training is needed to fill assignments which make up these roles? and (3) What are some of the major challenges facing analytical chemists during the next five years? Includes information about a workshop for students. (JN)

  15. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  16. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  17. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration. PMID:19827235

  18. Drilling effect on subsurface microbial community structure in groundwater from the -250 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ise, K.; Amano, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    The deep geological disposal system is regarded as the most secure and practical disposal method of high-level radioactive waste in the world. In this disposal system, preservation of reducing condition is one of the key requirements, because most of radionuclides have low solubilities in such condition. However, the host rocks near the shafts and galleries would be affected by oxidization during the construction and operation period of a repository (for about 50 years). Therefore, the recovery of reducing condition after closing the repository should be verified. During the recovery processes, it is considered that microbial activities play important roles, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the changes in microbial communities by molecular method to evaluate microbial response toward the oxygen stress. The groundwater samples were collected from a borehole of 250 m depth at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, for two years immediately after drilling of a borehole without any contamination as much as possible. Immediately after drilling of the borehole, the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. was dominated about 65 % of the total clone library. Arcobacter spp. is known as sulfide oxidizer and which can growth chemoautotrophically. Half a year later, the phylotype related to Azoarcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. known as nitrate reducing bacteria increased, instead of the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. One year later, in addition to nitrate reducing bacteria, phylotype related to Dethiobacterspp. known as thiosulfate reducing bacteria was dominantly detected. Two years later, most of detected clones were related to uncultured species such as candidate division WS6 and JS1 which are detected frequently in deep-sea sediments. Our results indicate that these redox sequential reactions could contribute to the recovery and maintenance of reducing conditions and provide a conceptual model for evaluating the capacity to

  19. Pilot survey results to prioritize research needs in the watermelon industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is useful for researchers of any commodity to occasionally survey their clientele to monitor for new developments and make sure their research is focused on major problems. A discussion at the Watermelon Research and Development Working Group meeting in Asheville, NC (2006) led to the development...

  20. Competing for Pharmaceutical Industry Funds: Planning Issues for University Research Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    University research managers can take the lead role in strategic planning statements. As they relate to the development of capability statements, specific planning issues concerning research personnel and management support services are examined. Examples of how university research managers can use capability statements for marketing are…

  1. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were

  2. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  3. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  4. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  5. Research advances of antimicrobial peptides and applications in food industry and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuo; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Fengshan

    2010-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by a wide range of organisms and serve as their natural defenses against infection caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Because of the positively charge and amphipathic structure, AMPs kill target cells through diverse and complex mechanisms once in a target membrane and these special mechanisms are considered to be the critical factors for the less tendency of drug resistance development. Thus AMPs may become a new generation of promising antimicrobial agents in future anti-infection application. Additionally, AMPs can also be used in food industry and agriculture. On the basis of discussing the structural features, action mechanisms and sources, the applications of AMPs were reviewed in this paper, including in food industry, feedstuff, cultivation of disease-resistant transgenic plant, cultivation of transgenic animal, and aquaculture, especially the patented applications. PMID:20408795

  6. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-noise pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the noise pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  7. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  8. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-air pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  9. Space industrialization. Volume 1: An overview. [Marekt research, technology assessment, and economic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Benefits accruing to the United States from the investment of public and private resources in space industralization are projected. The future was examined to characterize resource pressures, requirements and supply (population, energy, materials, food). The backdrop of probable events, attitudes, and trends against which space industralization will evolve were postulated. The opportunities for space industry that would benefit earth were compiled and screened against terrestrial alternatives. A cursory market survey was conducted for the selected services and products provided by these initiatives.

  10. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  11. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  12. Government-industry-uUniversity and rResearch lLaboratories cCoordination for new product development: Session 2. Government research laboratory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1997-09-01

    This talk is the second in an expanded series of presentations on the Government-Industry-University and Research Laboratories Coordination for new product development, which is a timely and important public policy issue. Such interactions have become particularly timely in light of the present decline in funding for research and development (R&D) in the nation`s budget and in the private sector. These interactions, at least in principle, provide a means to maximize benefits for the greater good of the nation by pooling the diminishing resources. National laboratories, which traditionally interacted closely with the universities in educational training, now are able to also participate closely with industry in joint R&D thanks to a number of public laws legislated since the early 80s. A review of the experiences with such interactions at Argonne National Laboratory, which exemplifies the national laboratories, shows that, despite differences in their traditions and the missions, the national laboratory-industry-university triangle can work together.

  13. A worldwide view of groundwater depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.; van Kempen, C.; Reckman, J. W.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades, global water demand has increased two-fold due to increasing population, expanding irrigated area and economic development. Globally such demand can be met by surface water availability (i.e., water in rivers, lakes and reservoirs) but regional variations are large and the absence of sufficient rainfall and run-off increasingly encourages the use of groundwater resources, particularly in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Excessive abstraction for irrigation frequently leads to overexploitation, i.e. if groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge over extensive areas and prolonged times, persistent groundwater depletion may occur. Observations and various regional studies have revealed that groundwater depletion is a substantial issue in regions such as Northwest India, Northeast Pakistan, Central USA, Northeast China and Iran. Here we provide a global overview of groundwater depletion from the year 1960 to 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree by assessing groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and subtracting estimates of groundwater abstraction obtained from IGRAC-GGIS database. PCR-GLOBWB was forced by the CRU climate dataset downscaled to daily time steps using ERA40 re-analysis data. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily global groundwater recharge (0.5 degree) while considering sub-grid variability of each grid cell (e.g., short and tall vegetation, different soil types, fraction of saturated soil). Country statistics of groundwater abstraction were downscaled to 0.5 degree by using water demand (i.e., agriculture, industry and domestic) as a proxy. To limit problems related to increased capture of discharge and increased recharge due to groundwater pumping, we restricted our analysis to sub-humid to arid areas. The uncertainty in the resulting estimates was assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis of 100 realizations of groundwater recharge and 100 realizations of groundwater abstraction

  14. Non-animal models of epithelial barriers (skin, intestine and lung) in research, industrial applications and regulatory toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah; Daneshian, Mardas; Bouwstra, Joke; Caloni, Francesca; Constant, Samuel; Davies, Donna E; Dandekar, Gudrun; Guzman, Carlos A; Fabian, Eric; Haltner, Eleonore; Hartung, Thomas; Hasiwa, Nina; Hayden, Patrick; Kandarova, Helena; Khare, Sangeeta; Krug, Harald F; Kneuer, Carsten; Leist, Marcel; Lian, Guoping; Marx, Uwe; Metzger, Marco; Ott, Katharina; Prieto, Pilar; Roberts, Michael S; Roggen, Erwin L; Tralau, Tewes; van den Braak, Claudia; Walles, Heike; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Models of the outer epithelia of the human body - namely the skin, the intestine and the lung - have found valid applications in both research and industrial settings as attractive alternatives to animal testing. A variety of approaches to model these barriers are currently employed in such fields, ranging from the utilization of ex vivo tissue to reconstructed in vitro models, and further to chip-based technologies, synthetic membrane systems and, of increasing current interest, in silico modeling approaches. An international group of experts in the field of epithelial barriers was convened from academia, industry and regulatory bodies to present both the current state of the art of non-animal models of the skin, intestinal and pulmonary barriers in their various fields of application, and to discuss research-based, industry-driven and regulatory-relevant future directions for both the development of new models and the refinement of existing test methods. Issues of model relevance and preference, validation and standardization, acceptance, and the need for simplicity versus complexity were focal themes of the discussions. The outcomes of workshop presentations and discussions, in relation to both current status and future directions in the utilization and development of epithelial barrier models, are presented by the attending experts in the current report. PMID:26536291

  15. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity. PMID:26652980

  16. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.

    1994-08-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities.

  17. RESEARCH FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water is an excellent resource due to its quality and availability. In the United States it is available at almost any location in quantities large enough to provide for domestic needs and over one-third of the Country is underlain by aquifers capable of yielding 100,000 g...

  18. Spatial assessment of groundwater quality based on minor ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Elango, L.

    2011-12-01

    Use of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purpose depends on the desirable range of concentration of various ions. As the suitability of groundwater for different use depends on concentration of several ions, delineation of a region having groundwater of suitable quality relies on integrating the quality of groundwater with respect to each ion. This can be brought out with the aid of advanced tools such as GIS (geographical information system). This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the groundwater quality based on EC (electrical conductivity), fluoride, bromide and nitrate using GIS techniques and the regions requiring attention for groundwater treatment was identified in a part of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, southern India. Forty five groundwater samples were collected and their EC, fluoride, nitrate and bromide concentration was analysed. Groundwater was not suitable for consumption in 6.6% of the samples based on EC. Fluoride, nitrate and bromide concentration in groundwater was not permissible as per BIS and WHO standards in 57%, 22% and 11% of the groundwater samples respectively. The areas having groundwater suitable or unsuitable for domestic use was delineated using GIS. The groundwater samples collected from 69% of the locations exceeded the desirable limit for drinking for atleast one parameter. The groundwater was unsuitable for domestic use in the northeastern and southeastern parts of this area. The source for the concentration of these parameters exceeding the limit is different for each parameter. Hence it is important to take a suitable collective measure in improving the groundwater quality. Considering the various options available for redeeming the groundwater quality, artificial recharge of groundwater by rainwater harvesting will be suitable to reduce the concentration of all ions in this area.

  19. The strategic research agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics21: European component industry for broadband communications and the FP 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylén, Lars

    2006-07-01

    The design and manufacture of components and systems underpin the European and indeed worldwide photonics industry. Optical materials and photonic components serve as the basis for systems building at different levels of complexity. In most cases, they perform a key function and dictate the performance of these systems. New products and processes will generate economic activity for the European photonics industry into the 21 st century. However, progress will rely on Europe's ability to develop new and better materials, components and systems. To achieve success, photonic components and systems must: •be reliable and inexpensive •be generic and adaptable •offer superior functionality •be innovative and protected by Intellectual Property •be aligned to market opportunities The challenge in the short-, medium-, and long-term is to put a coordinating framework in place which will make the European activity in this technology area competitive as compared to those in the US and Asia. In the short term the aim should be to facilitate the vibrant and profitable European photonics industry to further develop its ability to commercialize advances in photonic related technologies. In the medium and longer terms the objective must be to place renewed emphasis on materials research and the design and manufacturing of key components and systems to form the critical link between science endeavour and commercial success. All these general issues are highly relevant for the component intensive broadband communications industry. Also relevant for this development is the convergence of data and telecom, where the low cost of data com meets with the high reliability requirements of telecom. The text below is to a degree taken form the Strategic Research Agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics 21 [1], as this contains a concerted effort to iron out a strategy for EU in the area of photonics components and systems.

  20. Probabilistically determining roles of groundwater use in aquacultural fishponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liou, Yi-Ting; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThis work probabilistically determined roles of groundwater use in farmed fishponds in the Pingtung plain, southern Taiwan. According to the standard of water quality for aquaculture, three hydrochemical parameters were considered - manganese, arsenic and ammonium-nitrogen. A minimal utilization ratio (UR) of groundwater was obtained from integrating the hydrochemical parameters diluted with surface water or seawater. Through the integration process, safe groundwater used for aquaculture can be determined effectively. Indicator kriging was adopted to estimate spatial probability distributions of UR. A proper groundwater role - UR < 0.1 (sparsely used), 0.1 ≦ UR < 0.5 (minor), 0.5 ≦ UR < 1 (major) or UR = 1 (completely used) - was gauged based on estimated probabilities. The analyzed results reveal that manganese and ammonium-nitrogen are the key factors influencing on groundwater use for aquaculture in this plain. After making the comparison of surveyed and estimated groundwater URs, this study recommends that groundwater in coastal townships can be sparsely used for elevating temperatures of pond water in winter. Meanwhile, inland townships of groundwater overuse should cultivate fish using surface water instead of groundwater; that is, groundwater plays a minor role in fishponds. Aquaculture industries using the substantial amount of groundwater are merely appropriate for development of few inland townships.

  1. Improving the Research Capacity of the Universities in Semi-Industrialized Countries. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniozos, Demetris

    The need for research capacity in developing countries and the traditional role and structure of universities in Greece are considered. A scientific and technological research capacity is viewed as a prerequisite for economic development. Until now universities have been highly specialized teaching institutions directly subordinate to the…

  2. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  3. Toward a Comprehensive Research Framework on Training and Development in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    1992-01-01

    A nominal group of 21 policymakers and training practitioners ranked research questions in three categories: strategic, applied, and fundamental. Twenty-six of the 35 questions appeared to be of high priority. Promising research issues include organizational effectiveness, cost/benefit concerns, human resource planning, and the mobility of special…

  4. Future of groundwater modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  5. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Annual reports for 1997, 1998, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    The Roundtable was created in 1984 to provide a unique forum for dialog among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas regarding issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. These annual reports begin by describing the purpose, structure, and mode of operation of the Roundtable. There follow sections devoted to the council activities, major projects, and follow-up planning, and the activities of the Roundtable working groups. Meeting agendas and publications lists are also included.

  6. A PDP-15 to industrial-14 interface at the Lewis Research Center's cyclotron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebberly, F. R.; Leonard, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    An interface (hardware and software) was built which permits the loading, monitoring, and control of a digital equipment industrial-14/30 programmable controller by a PDP-15 computer. The interface utilizes the serial mode for data transfer to and from the controller, so that the required hardware is essentially that of a teletype unit except for the speed of transmission. Software described here permits the user to load binary paper tape, read or load individual controller memory locations, and if desired turn controller outputs on and off directly from the computer.

  7. Poly(butylene succinate) and its copolymers: research, development and industrialization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Bao-Hua

    2010-11-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and its copolymers are a family of biodegradable polymers with excellent biodegradability, thermoplastic processability and balanced mechanical properties. In this article, production of the monomers succinic acid and butanediol, synthesis, processing and properties of PBS and its copolymers are reviewed. The physical properties and biodegradation rate of PBS materials can be varied in a wide range through copolymerization with different types and various contents of monomers. PBS has a wide temperature window for thermoplastic processing, which makes the resin suitable for extrusion, injection molding, thermoforming and film blowing. Finally, we summarized industrialization and applications of PBS. PMID:21058317

  8. Evaluating Adult Groundwater Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerakis, Argyrios

    1998-01-01

    One-day groundwater education workshops held to educate soil conservation personnel were assessed for effect on participant knowledge using a quasiexperimental design. Participants were tested on their groundwater knowledge and attitude toward groundwater conservation before and after the training. Participant scores improved significantly in only…

  9. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  10. Applications of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation to Industrial Analytical and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.

    1996-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is the brightest broadband infrared source available. It is almost 1000 times brighter than thermal sources in the range 1-1000 microns, and thus ideal for studies of samples of limited throughput, such as surfaces, microscopically small samples, samples in cryostats or in high pressure cells. Synchrotron radiation is also an absolute source, whose intensity is strictly proportional to the stored electron beam current and its high stability allows small changes - of the order of 0.01observed in time periods of the order of a minute. We have worked with several industrial companies and have implemented several synchrotron infrared facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The first of these was set up specifically to study intramolecular and bonding vibrational modes at surfaces of materials of industrial interest in areas of catalysis and corrosion. Semiconductor bulk and surface characterization also forms an important program, the bulk studies being done using an infrared microscope. Both substrates and actual devices have been studied. The instrument is a commercial Spectra-Tech IRus microspectrometer used with the synchrotron as an external source. In addition to the examples previously mentioned, we will also show others including applications to polymers and laminate structures. The National Synchrotron Light Source is funded by the United Sates Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CH00016.

  11. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766 571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

  12. The eICU research institute - a collaboration between industry, health-care providers, and academia.

    PubMed

    McShea, Michael; Holl, Randy; Badawi, Omar; Riker, Richard R; Silfen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    As the volume of data that is electronically available promliferates, the health-care industry is identifying better ways to use this data for patient care. Ideally, these data are collected in real time, can support point-of-care clinical decisions, and, by providing instantaneous quality metrics, can create the opportunities to improve clinical practice as the patient is being cared for. The business-world technology supporting these activities is referred to as business intelligence, which offers competitive advantage, increased quality, and operational efficiencies. The health-care industry is plagued by many challenges that have made it a latecomer to business intelligence and data-mining technology, including delayed adoption of electronic medical records, poor integration between information systems, a lack of uniform technical standards, poor interoperability between complex devices, and the mandate to rigorously protect patient privacy. Efforts at developing a health care equivalent of business intelligence (which we will refer to as clinical intelligence) remains in its infancy. Until basic technology infrastructure and mature clinical applications are developed and implemented throughout the health-care system, data aggregation and interpretation cannot effectively progress. The need for this approach in health care is undisputed. As regional and national health information networks emerge, we need to develop cost-effective systems that reduce time and effort spent documenting health-care data while increasing the application of knowledge derived from that data. PMID:20659837

  13. Properties of geopressured brines and wells in the Gulf Coast and opportunities for industrial/research participation

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1989-01-01

    Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. (In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft.) Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of US locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells include: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  14. GEDEON: A joint venture between research (CEA and CNRS) and industry (EDF and FRAMATOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear waste partitionning and transmutation (P & T) are considered in France as an official line of research, in accordance with the Law of December 30, 1991 concerning research in the field of long lived and highly active nuclear waste. A research group called GEDEON ( GEstion des DEchets par des Options Nouvelles) has been set up between CEA, CNRS, EDF and FRAMATOME with the aim to carry out basic research related to the use of accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) and of thorium as an option to reduce the waste long term impacts. In the partners agreement of GEDEON, the following subjects have been identified: spallation physics, nuclear data, subcritical neutronic studies, materials, thorium, system and scenario studies. The organization as well as the scientific program and activities of GEDEON are presented.

  15. Incorporating uncertainty into high-resolution groundwater supply models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Hartono, S.; Carlson, D.; Willson, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater modeling is a useful tool for evaluating whether an acquifer system is capable of supporting groundwater withdrawals over long periods of time and what effect, if any, such activity will have on the regional flow dynamics as well as on specific public water, agricultural and industrial supplies. An overview is given of an ongoing groundwater modeling study of the Chicot Aquifer in southwestern Louisiana where a low-resolution groundwater model is being used to study the regional flow in the Chicot acquifer and to provide boundary conditions for higher-resolution inset models created using telescopic mesh refinement (TMR).

  16. Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-10-05

    This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

  17. Issues in groundwater management

    SciTech Connect

    Smerdon, E.T.; Jordon, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that the solution to future water problems in Texas will require more effective management of the water resources. New supplies to meet future needs are not without limit; therefore, the solution to the problem will have to come from better water conservation as well as by providing new supplies. In some cases, conservation and reuse may be the only feasible answer. To accomplish what is needed will require the best efforts of all Texans. And good research programs will be required to discover ways to improve on what has been done in the past. This publication contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled ''Groundwater--Crisis or Opportunity,'' which was held in San Antonio October 29-31, 1984. It was one of several efforts related to water resources undertaken cooperatively in recent years by The University of Texas at Austin and The Texas A and M University System. The papers in this proceedings discuss the groundwater problems of the future in Texas.

  18. The relationship between certain characteristics of industrial research proposals and their subsequent disposition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, N. R.; Siegman, J.; Larson, J.

    1971-01-01

    The ideas produced by three idea generation groups operating within a large industrial R & D laboratory were studied over a period of two years. Data were collected in order to relate idea dispositions by management to subjective evaluations provided by respondents representing the technical staff and to study the roles of urgency, predictability, and expected time horizon in the disposition decision. The findings are (1) a significant positive correlation was found between idea dispositions and associated subjective evaluations despite the fact that management did not know the subjective evaluations at the time the disposition decisions were made; (2) urgency was the dominant consideration in the disposition decisions, but predictability and expected time horizon were dominant in the subjective evaluations; (3) predictability and time horizon are covariants; and (4) management hedges by shelving marginal ideas. Implications for R & D management are drawn.

  19. Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Xu, Weihai; Wang, Xinting; Huang, Xinping; Deng, Liping; Kang, Xinglun; Jiang, Zhigang; Ma, Xuli

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes “white mud” were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R. philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg, and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment. Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

  20. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort. PMID:22962798