Science.gov

Sample records for industry groundwater research

  1. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  2. USEPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM ON REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN SOILS, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. and around the world, mercury and arsenic contaminated soils, industrial wastes, and groundwater are difficult to effectively and cheaply remediate and contain. Mercury is a serious health concern and has been identified as a contaminant in the air, soil, sediment, su...

  3. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING RESEARCH REGISTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Labour, London (England).

    IN THIS CLASSIFIED REGISTER OF CURRENT AND RECENTLY COMPLETED STUDIES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN, INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS ARE ARRANGED BY THE ITEM NUMBER JUDGED MOST IMPORTANT, AND THE NUMBERS OF OTHER RELEVANT INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH PROJECTS ARE INSERTED AT THE END OF EACH SECTION TO PROVIDE CROSS REFERENCES. DESCRIPTIONS INCLUDE THE TITLE…

  4. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  5. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 3. Groundwater investigation and mitigation techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, J.

    1985-05-01

    The leaching of fly ash, bottom ash, coal piles, and other materials has recently developed into an area of major environmental concern. Federal, state, and local regulations require various degrees of leachate monitoring. Land subsidence and sinkhole development can adversely affect power-generating facilities and frequently result in substantial property losses. Seepage from impoundments of all sorts (for example, ash ponds or hydroelectric facilities) may results in substantial water losses, lost generation, reduced stability of structures, and in extreme cases, abandonment or failure of dikes and dams. The groundwater manual is organized into three volumes. Volume 1 provides basic background geological and hydrogeological material. Volume 2 describes specific electric utility industry groundwater related problems. Volume 3 discusses the techniques and instrumentation necessary to detect, evaluate, monitor, remedy, or prevent groundwater related problems experienced by the electric utility industry.

  6. Industry Invests in Research Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Margie

    1983-01-01

    Universities and industry are forging new relationships to support academic research and industrial research and development, including the establishment of university/cooperative research centers. Discusses various cooperative projects at these research centers. Includes a list of representative R&D centers in biotechnology, building…

  7. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  8. Research Projects in Industrial Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Industrial Technology Section.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe ongoing and completed projects being carried out by Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Industrial Technology Section. In the Pacific Northwest, the industrial sector is the largest of the four consuming sectors. It accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total firm demand in the region in 1987. It is not easy to asses the conservation potential in the industrial sector. Recognizing this, the Northwest Power Planning Council established an objective to gain information on the size, cost, and availability of the conservation resource in the industrial sector, as well as other sectors, in its 1986 Power Plan. Specifically, the Council recommended that BPA operate a research and development program in conjunction with industry to determine the potential costs and savings from efficiency improvements in industrial processes which apply to a wide array of industrial firms.'' The section, composed of multidisciplinary engineers, provides technical support to the Industrial Programs Branch by designing and carrying out research relating to energy conservation in the industrial sector. The projects contained in this booklet are arranged by sector --industrial, utility, and agricultural -- and, within each sector, chronologically from ongoing to completed, with those projects completed most recently falling first. For each project the following information is given: its objective approach, key findings, cost, and contact person. Completed projects also include the date of completion, a report title, and report number.

  9. Treatment of Uncertainty in Groundwater Modeling: A (Limited) Research Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; Cohen, Stephen J.

    2010-05-16

    Groundwater systems are complex, exhibiting significant heterogeneity across multiple scales, multiple interacting processes, and nonlinear behaviors. Groundwater systems are also open, often with poorly defined boundaries and time-dependent, uncertain boundary forcings (e.g., recharge). As a consequence, a groundwater model cannot be expected to precisely reflect the system it represents and the model results are uncertain quantities. The dominant language of uncertainty is probability and the majority of research in the treatment of uncertainty in groundwater modeling has been directed at developing and improving probabilistic methods for these models. One area of recent research has been methods for assessing the impact of model uncertainty in groundwater analyses. This line of research is part of a long-term trend of increasing appreciation for the importance of providing estimates of uncertainty in groundwater model outputs. The research was motivated by observations of nonuniqueness in model parameterizations, the sensitivity of groundwater model output to model structural choices, and a history of practice that established the importance of iterative improvement in the conceptual basis of groundwater models. Among the methods proposed for assessing model uncertainty, we discuss Bayesian model averaging, it’s theoretical basis and research development. We outline critical arguments and discuss alternative approaches. Finally, we briefly describe a regulatory application of groundwater modeling that used Bayesian model averaging concepts to resolve a key conceptual model uncertainty.

  10. Nanomedicine: Industry-wise research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Mike

    2007-04-01

    Academic participation in nanomedicine research is welcomed by European industries. The recipe for success may or may not include creativity, but it will certainly require awareness of drug development and approval processes.

  11. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  12. University-Industry Research Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2000-03-01

    University-industry research collaborations take many forms. Perhaps the simplest is unsponsored one-on-one collaborations between individuals. A more formal but less intimate arrangement is industrial sponsorship of individual or collective work on campus, e.g., via an outright gift or membership in an industrial affiliates consortium. A more intimate institutional collaboration is a mutually sanctioned joint project, sponsored by either a governmental funding agency or an industrial entity, the terms and conditions of which (funds flows, reports, intellectual property ownership, etc.) are governed by formal arrangements. Partnerships, e.g., support of an on-campus joint venture funded in part by one or more firms and in part by a third party, are the most intimate and complex form of such collaborations. During the past two decades Xerox has engaged in all four forms of collaborations. I give examples of each, and indicate the attributes which distinguish the more successful from the less successful collaborations, as well as recent trends in their nature and purposes.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  14. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  16. Assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks in Puerto Rico, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks throughout Puerto Rico was conducted to investigate the effect of ground-water usage on nearby surface- and ground-water resources. Water-bearing strata were divided into four generalized hydrogeologic units: (1) fissured aquifers (including karst and non-karst limestone); (2) intergranular aquifers; (3) intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units; and (4) strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Approximately 49 percent of the municipal industrial parks are located in areas with local or limited ground-water resources, 29 percent overlie intergranular aquifers, 13 percent overlie fissured aquifers, and 9 percent overlie intergranular units that overlie fissured rock units. Hydrogeologic data for the generalized hydrogeologic units were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports. Depths to ground water near industrial parks range from approximately 20 to 400 feet in the fissured aquifers, 6 to 65 feet in coastal intergranular aquifers, 3 to 30 feet in intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units, and 1 to 100 feet in strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Aquifer transmissivities near industrial parks range from approximately 100,000 feet squared per day in the fissured aquifers to less than 100 feet squared per day in the strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Well construction data were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports, drillers? logs, and unpublished reports. Specific capacity for wells near industrial parks ranges from approximately 100 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown in the fissured aquifer at Manati to approximately 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in strata with local and limited ground-water resources at Bayamon. Reported well yields near industrial parks ranges from 2,800 gallons per minute in the intergranular aquifer at Santa Isabel to approximately 3 gallons per minute in

  17. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 1. Geological formations and groundwater aquifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, A.R. Jr.; Redwine, J.C.

    1985-03-01

    Major areas of concern to power companies include the leaching of both solid wastes and stored coal, land subsidence and sinkhole development, and seepage away from all types of impoundments. These groundwater considerations can produce substantial increases in the cost of generating electricity. The leaching of fly ash, bottom ash, coal piles, and other materials has recently developed into an area of major environmental concern. Federal, state, and local regulations require various degrees of leachate monitoring. Land subsidence and sinkhole development can adversely affect power-generating facilities and frequently result in substantial property losses. Seepage from impoundments of all sorts (for example, ash ponds or hydroelectric facilities) may result in substantial water losses, lost generation, reduced stability of structures, and in extreme cases, abandonment or failure of dikes and dams. The groundwater manual is organized into three volumes. Volume 1 explains hydrogeologic concepts basic to understanding the occurrence, availability, and importance of underground waters and aquifers. It also contains a glossary of terms on subsurface hydrology and discusses such topics as the hydrologic cycle, groundwater quality in the 12 major US groundwater regions, and groundwater regulation. (ACR)

  18. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-12-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports applied research and technology development (AR&TD) for remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The program centers on delivering advanced scientific approaches and technologies from highly-leveraged, strategic investments that maximize impact to reduce risk and life-cycle cleanup costs. The current groundwater and soil remediation program consists of four applied programmatic areas: • Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative • Attenuation Based Remedies – Applied Field Research Initiative • Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants – Applied Field Research Initiative • Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management. This paper provides an overview of the applied programmatic areas, fiscal year 11 accomplishments, and their near-term technical direction.

  19. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 2. Groundwater-related problems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This manual was developed under the auspices of EPRI's Solid By-Products and Hazardous Waste Disposal subprogram to provide electric utility personnel with a user-oriented reference document that focuses on groundwater considerations frequently addressed by power companies. The major areas of concern include the leaching of both solid wastes and stored coal, land subsidence and sinkhole development, and seepage away from all types of impoundments. These three groundwater considerations can produce substantial increases in the cost of generating electricity. Separate analytics have been done for each chapter.

  20. Directions for social research to underpin improved groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Curtis, Allan; Sharp, Emily; Mendham, Emily

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImprovements in groundwater management require strategies to change human behaviour, yet there has been limited social research in the broad arena of groundwater management. This paper provides a critical review of the small but expanding literature on that topic to identify future directions for social researchers. Comprehensive search methods identified almost three hundred potentially relevant publications, which were sorted thematically and assessed in terms of their theoretical underpinning and the evidence used to support key findings. This process enabled the authors to identify a small number of high quality publications and to identify future research opportunities. The latter includes analysing how concepts of risk and sustainable yield are constructed differently by stakeholders, especially related to divisive issues concerning coal seam gas developments and reforms that reduce irrigation allocations; how governance arrangements can be improved to achieve more effective collaborative management of groundwater, especially if managed aquifer recharge is to be more widely implemented in rural agricultural contexts; and the role that trust and social norms can play in changing groundwater use practices.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center which provides information on research datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments regarding soil and groundwater pollution and related laboratory bench studies, and wh...

  2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center which provides information on research datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments regarding soil and groundwater pollution and related laboratory bench studies, and wh...

  3. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  4. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Industrial Research and Development Information System (IRIS) links an online interface to a historical database with more than 2,500 statistical tables containing all industrial research and development (R&D) data published by NSF since 19...

  5. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GROUNDWATER RESEARCH DATA CENTER FOR VALIDATION OF SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Ground Water Modeling Center has established a Groundwater Research Data Center that provides information on datasets resulting from publicly funded field experiments and related bench studies in soil and groundwater pollution and distributes datasets for tes...

  7. When Research Criticizes an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2007-01-01

    When Robert W. Van Kirk released a study in January about selenium contamination in trout streams in southeastern Idaho, he expected some flak from the influential phosphate-mining industry. He did not expect to feel pressured by the administration of his own institution, Idaho State University, where he is an associate professor of mathematics.…

  8. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  9. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described. PMID:12838052

  10. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  11. Changing roles of researchers in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillson, Leonard

    1999-04-01

    Major changes have occurred in the industrial research environment over the past decade. Dynamic global competition in the marketplace has altered the traditional roles of physicists in industry while offering new career opportunities. This talk will describe the opportunities and challenges facing physicists in a wide spectrum of responsibilities, from the bench to the executive suite. Drawing on perspectives from several leading physics-based industries, the talk will highlight the skills and knowledge required for success in this new environment.

  12. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  13. Suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in some North Indian villages.

    PubMed

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P; Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The study comprised suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use. A total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from Rewari town and its perimeter from the land chiefly used for agriculture. Physico-chemical characterization of the samples revealed that groundwater from most of the sources was not fit for drinking owing to a high concentration of calcium, magnesium, hardness and fluoride. Suitability for irrigation, too, was low since most of the sources had high value of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (SSP) and magnesium hazard which can render salinity and alkali hazard to soils on long term use in irrigation. No source of water was found to be suitable for industrial application since it had high concentration of calcium carbonate which can precipitate very easily. It was observed that sodium, sulphate, and chloride were the chief ions present in water and based on the abundance of ions and their correlation type, most of the groundwater samples are of sodium sulphate and/or sodium chloride type. The high concentration of the chemical constituents is attributed to the lithologic composition of the area. It was observed that the water of deep meteoric percolation type was of sodium sulphate type and the shallow of sodium chloride type. PMID:18202899

  14. The Industrial Library and Market Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lloyd J.

    1972-01-01

    Industrial market research is an area where the industrial librarian has an opportunity to make a creative contribution to his company. The pros and cons of this approach are discussed and the necessary library conditions for optimum results are set forth. (16 references) (Author/NH)

  15. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  16. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  18. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the `Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  19. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the 'Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability. PMID:27318992

  20. Accelerators in Research and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.

    1997-10-01

    Over the last sixty years the applications of ion beam accelerators has grown from basic nuclear structure research to the manufacture, preservation, and development of a large number of products which directly affect every day life. In addition, ion beam accelerators continue to provide a unique contribution in both basic and applied research in fields from art history to zoology. Applications fit into two main groups, materials analysis and materials modification. Most materials analysis include routine use of Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) with new developments in analysis techniques being developed for remote elemental detection of plastic explosives and drugs. Existing accelerator systems and new accelerator systems are being developed for use in the area of accelerator based mass spectrometry (AMS) which is having a profound affect on a wide variety of fields which rely on counting extremely rare isotopes in very small samples. Accelerators used for materials modification continue to have a significant economic impact in the field of semiconductors and the development of new semiconductor and other high technology products.

  1. Industry/University Consortium for ATS research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Golan, L.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Industry/University ATS research program is the result of two planning workshops. Workshop I was held April 8--10, 1991 and had the goal of identifying research needs for advanced gas turbine cycles that would permit rapid commercialization of cycles with significant improvements over the machines currently under development, in terms of the cost of electricity produced and the environmental burdens resulting from their use in power producing. Workshop II was held in January 1992 and continued the identification of the research needs to develop advanced gas turbine systems. The goals established for the ATS systems were: (1) efficiency exceeding 60% for large utility turbine system and 15% improvement in heat rate for industrial systems; (2) busbar energy costs 10% less than current state of the art and (3) fuel flexible designs. In addition Workshop II participants agreed that an industry driven research consortium was an acceptable mechanism to achieve base technology development needs.

  2. Government-University-Industry-Research Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Roundtable projects active during 1993 are described in this section. Projects completed in prior years are not included here, but publications resulting from them are included in the list of publications which are attached. Such prior projects include nurturing science and engineering talent, research facility financing, multidisciplinary research and education, university-industry-federal laboratory partnerships, and federal-state cooperation in science and technology.

  3. Research and Development in Industry 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichiello, John R.; And Others

    This report presents the results of the 1974 survey of industrial research and development and is the twentieth in a series extending back to 1953. Data on R&D expenditures and R&D scientists and engineers presented in this report were collected by the Bureau of the Census for the National Science Foundation, and cover the periods of 1956-74 and…

  4. Industry Support of Academic Research Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    National Science Board's fourteenth annual report to Congress indicates that university/industry relationships remained vigorous and varied during the 1960s/1970s, that corporate support of academic research is significantly higher than generally believed and that employee recruitment is an impetus for such alliances. These and other findings from…

  5. VET Research for Industry. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper was a keynote address at the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) conference held in Canberra in April 2012. The author notes that industry is arguably the key stakeholder in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector, but is not a single actor nor a disinterested consumer of…

  6. Ground-water levels and flow near the industrial excess landfill, Uniontown, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bair, E.S.; Norris, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Under an interagency contractual agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registration, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated geologic and hydrogeologic data available for the Industrial Excess Landfill (IEL) site in Uniontown, Ohio. During previous studies, ground-water contaminations was detected in observation wells installed at the site and in residential wells near the site. Water levels recorded on drillers' logs from 279 wells were used to characterize the regional ground-water flow system in the area of the IEL site. On the basis of the gross lithologic differences between the unconsolidated glacial-drift material and the indurated bedrock, and the inferred differences in their hydraulic properties, the flow system in the area of the IEL site was divided into two regional aquifers: a shallow, unconfined glacial-drift aquifer and a deeper, semiconfined bedrock aquifer. About 33 percent of the drillers' logs were from wells completed in the glacial-drift aquifer, whereas 67 percent were from wells completed in the bedrock aquifer. A composite potentiometric-surface map of the glacial drift aquifer shows that the IEL site appears to straddle a prominent ground-water ridge that trends northeast-southwest. Ground water flows radially away from this ridge, primarily to the northwest and to the southeast; as a result flow in the glacial-drift aquifer as the IEL site moves in a radial pattern away from the site in all directions. A composite, regional potentiometric-surface map of the bedrock aquifer shows a similar shows a similar elongated ground-water ridge trending northeast-southwest across the north-western corner of the IEL site; however, it does not appear that the IEL site straddles the ground-water ridge in the bedrock potentiometric surface. As a consequence of the radial-type of flow pattern in the glacial-drift aquifer at the IEL site, the direction of potential off-site movement of a contaminant at the IEL site, This radial type of

  7. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  8. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  9. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  10. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  11. Machine intelligence research applied to industrial automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, D.; Barnard, S. T.; Bolles, R. C.; Cain, R. A.; Hannah, M. J.; Herson, J. A.; Hill, J. W.; Horaud, P.; Kremers, J. H.; Mathews, S. H.

    1983-06-01

    Research was undertaken to explore and develop general purpose, cost-effctive techniques and hardware/software modules for computer-controlled systems of manipulators, sensors, and other components that are flexible, adaptable and easily trained to perform material handling, inspection, and assembly tasks. Seven published papers, resulting from this research, are included. They address such topics as recognition and location of partially visible objects, the SRI robot programming system, a modular programmable assembly station, an assessment of robot sensors, and applications of image understandin to industrial automation.

  12. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  13. Ground-water levels and directions of flow near the Industrial Excess Landfill, Uniontown, Ohio, March 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Bair, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial Excess Landfill (IEL), a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Super-fund site, is a closed landfill in northeastern Ohio. In March 1994, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, and PRC Environmental Management, Inc., measured water levels in 149 wells in the area. Surface-water altitudes were measured in 9 piezometers associated with the gages. The data show that the regional pattern of ground-water flow generally is from east to west, but it is locally altered by ground-water mounds that reflect the hummocky terrain. At the landfill, regional flow is altered by two ground-water mounds- one in the southeastern corner of the site and one just to the north. The relatively small ground-water mound at the landfill causes ground water to flow radially away from the southeastern corner of the landfill. Ground water that flows to east and south flows toward Metzger Ditch, whereas flow to the west is consistent with the regional direction of ground-water flow. Ground-water flow northward from IEL is diverted east or west by the southerly component of flow from the larger ground-water mound north of IEL.

  14. Impact of leather industries on fluoride dynamics in groundwater around a tannery cluster in South India.

    PubMed

    Sajil Kumar, P J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the controls of leather industries on fluoride contamination in and around a tannery cluster in Vaniyambadi. Hydrochemical analysis, mineral saturation indices and statistical methods were used to evaluate the intervening factors that controls the contamination processes. Fluoride in groundwater is exceeded the WHO guideline value (1.5 mg/L), in 62 % of the samples, mostly with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl type of water. Results of the principal component analysis grouped Na, F, HCO3 and NO3 under component 1. This result was in agreement with the cross plot indicating high positive correlation between F and Na (r (2)  = 0.87), HCO3 (r (2)  = 0.84) and NO3 (r (2)  = 0.55). Fluorite (CaF2) and Halite (NaCl) was undersaturated, while calcite (CaCO3) was oversaturated for all the samples. This suggest more dissolution of F-rich minerals under the active supports of Na. Bivariate plots of Na versus Cl and Na + K versus HCO3 showed a combined origin of Na from tannery effluent as well as silicate weathering. Two major clusters, based on the Na, HCO3 and F concentration showed that groundwater is affected by tanneries and silicate weathering. Fluoride concentration in 38 % of samples (n = 5) have significantly affected by the high Na concentration from tanneries. PMID:23248033

  15. [Microbiological research for the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Ambrus, G

    2001-01-01

    A survey is presented on the last 50 years of biotechnological R & D activities in the Institute for Drug Research, Budapest. In the 1950s and 1960s this Institute played an important role in the industry of antibiotics in Hungary, contributing to the development of manufacturing processes for streptomycin, oxytetracycline, neomycin and nystatine. In the late 1950s a microbial screening program was initiated, which led to the discovery of several new antibiotics and the isolation of microorganisms producing medically important, known antibiotics and other therapeutical agents of microbial origin from natural sources. In the 1970s and 1980s the biotechnological research group elaborated new industrial processes for the production of several antibacterial antibiotics, such as gentamycin C, sisomicin, tobramycin, apramycin, kanamycin B and mupirocin and the antitumor antibiotic daunomycin. In the last 15 years new processes have been developed for manufacturing the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and mycophenolic acid and the hypocholesterolemic agents mevinolin and pravastatin as well as recombinant hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor. Research on steroid bioconversions has also been continued from the mid 1950s up to now. In the early 1960s manufacturing processes were developed for the anti-inflammatory prednisolone and the anabolic drug methandrostenolone. The results on microbial transformations (stereoselective reduction, hydroxylation) were utilized in the synthesis of contraceptive drugs. Since the mid 1960s several new microbial processes have been discovered for the selective side chain cleavage of natural sterols, resulting in various key intermediates for the synthesis of a wide variety of steroid drugs. PMID:11769096

  16. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  17. PREVALENCE OF INDUSTRY SUPPORT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESEARCH INTEGRITY

    PubMed Central

    Tereskerz, Patricia M.; Hamric, Ann B.; Guterbock, Thomas M.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Most U.S. clinical trials are funded by industry. Opportunities exist for sponsors to influence research in ways that jeopardize research objectivity. The purpose of this study was to survey U.S. medical school faculty to assess financial arrangements between investigators and industry to learn about investigators’ first hand knowledge of the effects of industry sponsorship on research. Here we show first-hand knowledge that compromises occurred in: research participants’ well-being (9%), research initiatives (35%), publication of results (28%), interpretation of research data (25%), and scientific advancement (20%) because of industry support. Financial relationships with industry were prevalent and considered important to conducting respondents’ research. PMID:19353387

  18. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  19. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater. PMID:23160750

  20. Artificial factors influencing groundwater flows in the industrial complexes at the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Kue-Young; Woo, Nam C.

    2015-04-01

    Underground structures of the industrial complexes constructed along the coastal areas are vulnerable to the chemical degradations by the sea-water intrusion. Thus it is important to understand how the groundwater system has been altered after the facility construction. Based on the analysis of the groundwater fluctuations in the monitoring wells, the study area was divided into two sections, the rainfall impact areas and the tidal impact areas. Tidal impact section shows the hydraulic diffusivity(T /S, m2d-1) ranging from 9.6×102 to 4.6×104, with the minimum and maximum values for PZ-8 and PZ-5 affected by the underground structure and the excavation-backfill materials, respectively. Then, the storage coefficient was estimated from the hydraulic diffusivity using the results of single-well pumping tests. Transmissivities(T) ranged from 1.4×10 to 4.7×102 m2d-1, and the storage coefficients(S) from 0.002 to 0.052. The highest and the lowest transmissivities of PZ-5 and PZ-6 appeared to reflect the hydraulic property of backfill materials used for construction. Therefore, for hydrogeological characterization of the coastal region with large-scale constructions, field data from various tests should be carefully analyzed considering the impact and the interference of the construction activities, including the distance between underground structures and the monitoring wells, the array of structures, locations and depths of excavation and backfill, hydraulic property of backfill material, etc. Key word : hydrogeological characterization, coastal area, construction activity, tidal method, hydraulic diffusivity

  1. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  3. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 17-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Nine industrial-location research studies of the Appalachian region are presented in this document. These studies relate to the casting, plastic, metal, and food industries. Each study devotes sections to (1) a profile of the industry, (2) the industry's prospects for growth, (3) technology and trends, (4) primary factors influencing selection of…

  4. Research and development in the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  5. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  6. Norwegian Field Research Projects in Industrial Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvale, Thoralf Ulrik

    The Industrial Democracy Programme (IDP) of Norway seeks to create conditions for a self-supporting change process in industry, rather than implementing a ready-made model, believing that it is more valuable for employees to learn to change their organization than for the specific solution to be found. The central problems, therefore, have been to…

  7. Public health assessment for Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination, Sag Harbor, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NYD981486954. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The public health assessment was developed to address specific concerns that the community surrounding the Rowe Industries Groundwater Contamination National Priorities List (NPL) site has brought to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry`s (ATSDR) attention.

  8. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Peach, D.; Binley, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins - the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater quality for several

  9. Determination of Vocs in groundwater at an industrial contamination site using a homemade low-density polyethylene passive diffusion sampler.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Tan, Zhiqiang; Pang, Long; Liu, Jingfu

    2013-11-01

    A home-made inexpensive passive diffusion bag (PDB) sampler, prepared by filling deionized water in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubes, was evaluated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) sampling in groundwater at industrial contamination sites. Impacts of environmentally relevant conditions on the sampling equilibration time and partitioning of VOCs between the sampler and the water sample were investigated. Sample salinity, agitation and temperature can influence the equilibration time, but generally sampling equilibration was obtained in 14 days under real field sampling of VOCs in groundwater. Both laboratory study and field testing in a contaminated site showed that the VOC concentrations in the developed sampler were equal to those in the water samples at equilibrium. Coupled with a purge and trap concentrator-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (P&T-GC-MS), the developed PDB sampler provided a low-cost sampling device for routine monitoring of VOCs in groundwater in wells, with LODs in the range of 2.9-10 microg/L. The proposed PDB was applied to determine VOCs in groundwater at an industrial contamination site, and the present results agreed well with those determined using conventional pump-and-sample monitoring. All the studied 13 VOCs were tested in the four wells in the industrial contamination sites, with their concentrations in the range of 12-73660 microg/L. In addition, while benzene and toluene were heavily contaminated up to a maximum concentration of 74000 tg/L and 6000 microg/L, respectively, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene and bromobenzene had relatively low contamination levels (below 25 microg/L). PMID:24552064

  10. Industry Perceptions of University-Industry Relationships Related to Agricultural Biotechnology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Welsh, Rick; Lacy, William B.; Biscotti, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Following a rise in university-industry relationships (UIRs), scholars began questioning the efficacy of those relationships, as well as whether industry and university research interests and integrity are being compromised. Although many of these studies focus on the university, few examine the perspectives of industry participants. We conducted…

  11. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  12. Industrial contamination of a municipal water-supply lake by induced reversal of ground-water flow, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Bethune, D.N.; Farvolden, R.N.; Ryan, M.C.; Guzman, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    Laguna Asososca, a large ground-water-fed volcanic crater, is an important source of municipal water supply for the city of Managua. In 1990, after 65 years of pumping at increasing rates from the crater, the gradient between the Laguna and the highly contaminated Lake Managua had potentially reversed, leading to a scenario where the Laguna was possibly drawing in contaminated ground water from Lake Managua and/or a highly contaminated aquifer below an industrial area located between the Laguna and Lake Managua. A drilling and sampling program undertaken between 1990 and 1992 found: (1) four synthetic organic chemicals in the Laguna (methylene chloride, chloroform, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene), (2) numerous other synthetic organic chemicals near Laguna Asososca in the ground water below the industrial area, and (3) no evidence of Laguna Asososca drawing water from Lake Managua. It appears that the Laguna Asososca capture zone extended into the industrial area but not as far as Lake Managua. Ground-water flow modeling of the regional ground-water flow system was consistent with the field interpretation. Estimates of the relative mobilities of the synthetic organic chemicals indicated that the chemicals found in the water of Laguna Asososca likely represented the mobile leading edge of a contaminant plume emanating from the industrial area. The simplest and most effective solution to mitigate contamination of Laguna Asososca is to maintain its water level above that of Lake Managua by reducing its pumpage to about 50% of the 1990 rate.

  13. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  14. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  15. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  16. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  17. Worldwide Directory of Mineral Industries Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlbier, Herbert; And Others

    Presented is background knowlege of the institutions of the world involved in mineral industry education and research, including detailed information on the professional staff, research activities, and capabilities of the various mineral industry departments of these institutions. Also included is information on special interest within a…

  18. Research and Development in Industry: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond M.

    This report presents results from the 1999 Survey of Industrial Research and Development. It contains a full set of statistics produced from the survey, trends in industrial research and development (R&D) since 1953, and statistics on employment since 1989. Contents include: (1) "Note to Users of Historical Statistics"; (2) "Detailed Statistical…

  19. Hot topics for watermelon research: A survey of the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is critical for public researchers to address the needs of the industry with which they cooperate. While most active researchers believe that they are serving the needs of the industry, an occasional survey can be a useful tool to monitor and prioritize those needs. A survey was compiled after ...

  20. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  1. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  2. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  3. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  4. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system. PMID:24446583

  5. PHYTOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: REMEDIATION OF SOIL, SEDIMENT, GROUNDWATER, AND ET CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL has a number of research efforts underway in the general field of using plants as all or part of an environmental improvement strategy. Planted systems have been demonstrated on several SITE program locations for PAH and PCP degradation in soil, TCE uptake and degradation ...

  6. Groundwater bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U.S. lawmakers have become concerned about groundwater problems in the United States, and thus the contamination of groundwater is rapidly becoming one of the hottest issues of 1987 and probably for many years into the future. The 100th Congress has seen a proliferation of bills relating to various problems involving groundwater: need for more data, funding of research, and development of standards for groundwater quality. Because round 50% of the nation's drinking water is obtained from groundwater, the available support is dependent not only upon the available quantity but also on the quality of that supply.Because groundwater quality in general and groundwater contamination in particular provides such complex problems, final legislation probably will emphasize more research and more data collection. At present, a bill, the National Ground Water Contamination Research Act, has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Rep. Sam Gejdenson (D-Conn.), and a companion bill has been introduced in the Senate by Sen. David Durenberger (R-Minn.). These bills renew action on a groundwater research bill that passed the House but not the Senate near the end of the 99th Congress. The bills address not only research but also promote a national program for the assessment of groundwater quality and a national clearinghouse for groundwater information.

  7. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  8. Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

    2006-01-01

    TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

  9. Academic-industry Collaborations in Translational Stroke Research.

    PubMed

    Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Barthel, Henryk; Gounis, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Academic-industry collaborations are an emerging format of translational stroke research. Next to classic contract research models, a multitude of collaboration models has been developed, some of which even allowing for multinational or intercontinental research programs. This development has recently been paralleled by first successful attempts to overcome the translational stroke research road block, such as the unprecedented success of novel endovascular approaches or the advent of the multicenter preclinical trial concept. While the first underlines the role of the industry as a major innovation driver in stroke research, the latter will require enrollment of industrial partners for optimal output. Moreover, academic-industry partnerships are invaluable to bridge the translational "valley of death" as well as funding gaps in times of dwindling public funding and declining high risk capital investments. However, these collaborations are also subject to relevant challenges because interests, values, and aims often significantly differ between cademia and industry. Here, we describe common academic-industry collaboration models as well as associated benefits and challenges in the stroke research arena. We also suggest strategies for improved planning, implementation, guidance, and utilization of academic-industry collaborations to the maximum mutual benefit. PMID:27301976

  10. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  11. Specific asset investment in industry and university research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jing; Yang, Zhonghua

    Industry university research have become more frequent in development activities. Both industry and university will invest specific asset which may cause switching costs. The paper discusses the issue of deciding optimal specific asset rate in the relationship by a game model. Conclusions about the factors which determine the optimal specific asset investments are drawn.

  12. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  13. Correlates of Research Productivity for Industrial Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kip W.; Jansen, Duane G.

    1992-01-01

    Responses from 318 of 500 industrial education faculty showed that (1) over 70 percent were over 45; and (2) significant correlates of research productivity were networking with other faculty, conducting summer research, internal motivation, and involvement in teaching and advising graduate research students. (SK)

  14. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  15. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  16. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  17. Research, Development, and industrialization of artificial musk: an overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu

    2014-12-01

    Four key problems need to be addressed during the research and development of artificial musk. The past two decades have witnessed the remarkable industrialization of artificial musk in China. PMID:25556726

  18. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  19. Assessment of industrial attitudes toward generic research needs in tribology

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, L.B.; Zlotnick, M.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Based on extended discussions during visits with 27 companies representing 13 different parts of the tribology industry (such as bearings, lubricants, coatings, powerplants), it is apparent that only a tiny fraction of the large sums publicly reported as R and D expenditures by industry are used to fund generic tribology research. For example, of the greater than $2 B expenditures reported for R and D in the lubricants sector for 1982, the estimated total for generic tribology research was $12 M. This was the largest expenditure in any sector of the tribology industry and one-third of the total of $36 M. In the automotive industry out of a reported expenditure of $4 B, the estimated generic tribology research was $3 M. In some segments of the tribology industry, for example coatings and filters, there were no expenditures on generic research. There was little tendency to improve the state of the art of the tribology industry through long-term investment in generic R and D in ways that would foster innovation and productivity of energy conservation technology. Expenditures were oriented to development of specific commercial and military products, or to basic research focused on unspecified far term results, although useful spin-off of military developments into commercial fields sometimes occurs. There was a broad consensus in the companies visited that existing research results were not always made easily accessible to potential users in industry. The implication was that industry might benefit more if a larger fraction of the funds were devoted to putting the research results into a form design and development engineers could more readily apply. The need for a more effective presentation of research results was expressed with greater urgency at the smaller companies, but there seemed to be a broad consensus on the need for improvement. Recommendations are given.

  20. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

  1. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  2. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  3. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater. PMID:23745972

  4. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing:A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues,recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, anddescriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  5. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  6. Developing a Collaborative Research Environment for a Study of Coastal Groundwater Hydraulics: Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Yalo, N.

    2011-12-01

    The city of Cotonou, Benin, has a population between 1.5 and 2 million people served by groundwater wells. Recent evidence suggests that salinity is increasing in a series of wells which border a salt-water lake. Modeling and field characterization of this complex groundwater system is targeted at providing the national water agency in Benin with assessment of multiple management strategies to reduce the impact of saline inflows from the lake. Research efforts have evolved through development of collaboration among colleagues from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin) and the University of Notre Dame (USA): participants have included faculty and students (undergraduate and graduate) from both institutions. The combined research team has provided the ability to: (i) identify funding opportunities through multiple funding sources, (ii) establish long-term monitoring in the lake and groundwater systems through field measurements by Benin partners, (iii) introduce new tools (numerical and instrumentation) through professional contacts and suppliers in the U.S., (iv) establish site security (for long-term installation of equipment) through local knowledge of customs and cultural requirements, and (v) interpret data and management strategies from multiple viewpoints. The project has provided for collection of high-quality data that have provided opportunities to improve both the conceptual model of the local hydrogeology and the field strategies used to characterize both parameters and boundary conditions impacting flow to the water-supply wells.

  7. TRADE, INDUSTRIAL, AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. RCU RESEARCH SUMMARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    RESEARCH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TYPE RECENTLY COMPLETED IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IS SUMMARIZED. STUDIES IN VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT THE POST-HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ARE CONCERNED WITH SCHOOLS AND STUDENTS, TEACHING TECHNIQUES, AND CURRICULUM EFFECTIVENESS. RESEARCH RELATING TO TRAINING AND RETRAINING CONCERNED…

  8. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  9. Tobacco Industry Efforts to Undermine Policy-Relevant Research

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry, working through third parties to prevent policy-relevant research that adversely affected it between 1988 and 1998, used coordinated, well-funded strategies in repeated attempts to silence tobacco researcher Stanton A. Glantz. Tactics included advertising, litigation, and attempts to have the US Congress cut off the researcher's National Cancer Institute funding. Efforts like these can influence the policymaking process by silencing opposing voices and discouraging other scientists from doing work that may expose them to tobacco industry attacks. The support of highly credible public health organizations and of researchers’ employers is crucial to the continued advancement of public health. PMID:19008508

  10. The Competition for Industry Research Funding: How Satisfied Are University Commercial Research Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Constrained public funding for universities and the emphasis placed on university-industry interactions mean that universities are increasingly required to compete for industrial funds for research. This in turn means that universities need to develop a customer service culture in order to be competitive and attractive to industry. Many studies…

  11. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  12. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  13. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary. PMID:26942541

  14. Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence: research, education, industrial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1994-04-01

    A review is given of the participants and the research, education and industrial mission of the center. The Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence is established at the Georgia Institute of Technology with the University of Georgia, University of Florida, Pennsylvania State University, David Sarnoff Research Center and the American Display Consortium being charter members. The research mission addresses short, medium and long term needs in five technological areas; cathode ray tube, electroluminescence, field emission devices, plasma display panels and active-matrix liquid crystal display back-light phosphors through interactive university/industry technology groups. Outreach activities include the establishment of a phosphor database, industry analysis and short courses in addition to the conventional university education role. Specific science and technology programs are briefly described.

  15. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders in the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. In 1996, Council meetings focused on the following: (1) the impact of information technology on the structure of research and educational organizations; (2) ways to improve communication between the science and engineering community and the public; and (3) new approaches both to measuring the results of research investments, and to communicating those metrics to non-technical decision-makers and to the public. Significant milestones were also achieved in four major projects, representing, impart, follow-up activity from previous Council Meeting discussions: (1) facilitating the Federal Demonstration Partnership, designed to maximize the efficiency of the federal research support system; (2) compiling results of a regional workshop on experiences in industry-university collaborative organization; (3) publishing the results of a study comparing the cost structures for research performed in the industrial, academic, and government laboratory sector; and (4) catalyzing, and participating in, a series of campus-based convocations on stresses being experienced in the research university environment.

  16. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable was created just over a decade ago to provide a unique forum for dialogue among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas about issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. The open dialogue and informal exchange of ideas preclude a process of making formal recommendations or offering specific advice. Instead, the Roundtable seeks to stimulate new approaches by dissemination of its discussions, and pro-active contacts with organizations that may want to build on the idea base it establishes. After introductory material on the structure and operation of the Roundtable, accomplishments on current projects are described. Projects include: Stresses on research and education at colleges and universities; Formulating US research policies within an international context; The Federal Demonstration project, designed to improve the management of federally-funded research; Analysis of the costs of research in industrial, academic, and federal labs; Industry-university research collaborations; and Public stakeholding in America`s investment in science and technology.

  17. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  18. A Groundwater project for K-12 schools: Bringing research into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Walsh, M.; Gensic, J.

    2011-12-01

    Simple water quality test kits were used in a series of K-12 classrooms to demonstrate scientific processes and to motivate learning in K-12 students. While focused on student learning, this project also allowed collection of regional data on groundwater quality (primarily nitrate) in the study area. The project consisted of development and administration of a weeklong groundwater quality unit introduced to K-12 schools in northern Indiana and taught by a graduate student in an engineering discipline. The structure of the week started with an introduction to basic groundwater concepts modified for the specific grade level; for this project the students ranged from grades 4-12. In addition to groundwater basics, the purpose of the collection of the water quality data, as well as relevance to the research of the graduate student, were outlined. The students were then: (i) introduced to two simple water quality testing methods for nitrates, (ii) required to hypothesize as to which method will likely be "better" in application, and (iii) asked to practice using these two methods under laboratory conditions. Following practice, the students were asked to discuss their hypotheses relative to what was observed during the practice focusing on which testing method was more accurate and/or precise. The students were then encouraged to bring water samples from their home water system (many of which are on private wells) to analyze within groups. At the end of the week, the students shared their experience in this educational effort, as well as the resulting nitrate data from numerous groundwater wells (as collected by the students). Following these discussions the data were added to an online database housed on a wiki sponsored by the Notre Dame Extended Research Community (http://wellhead.michianastem.org/home). These data were plotted using the free service MapAList to visually demonstrate to the students the spatial distribution of the data and how their results have

  19. Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, K.; Rao, N. Prasada

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water is the vital resource, necessary for all aspects of human and ecosystem survival and health. Depending on the quality, bore water may be used for human consumption, irrigation purposes and livestock watering. The quality of bore water can vary widely depending on the quality of ground water that is its source. Pollutants are being added to the ground water system through human and natural processes. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the factories, which react with percolating rainwater and reaches the ground water. The percolating water picks up a large number of heavy metals and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the ground water. The usage of the contaminated bore water causes the diseases. Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium are used or released by many industries. Aim This study was conducted to investigate the pollution of bore water in the industrial region (Kurichi Industrial Cluster) of Coimbatore, in the state of Tamilnadu, India. Materials and Methods Four samples were taken from residential areas around Kurichi Industrial Cluster and analysed to find the concentrations of Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium. Four more samples were taken from other residential regions far from the industrial estate and served as control. Samples were analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Results We found that the ground water of the areas surrounding the industrial cluster does not contain significant amount of those metals. Instead, Heavy metal contamination of ground water were observed in some residential areas of coimbatore. Conclusion The regulatory measures to contain and prevent ground water contamination by industries undertaken by Tamilnadu pollution control board may have lead to absence of heavy metal contamination in Kurichi Industrial cluster, Coimbatore, India. PMID:27190788

  20. Water-elevation, stream-discharge, and ground-water quality data in the Alaska Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1993 to May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kriegler, A.T.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    From May 1993 to May 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management collected data on ground-water and surface-water elevations, stream discharge, and ground-water quality in the Alaska Railroad Industrial area in Fairbanks, Alaska. The data- collection efforts were coordinated with environmental efforts being made in the study area by the Alaska Railroad Corporation. These data were collected as part of an effort to characterize the hydrogeology of the Alaska Railroad Industrial area and to define the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in the area. Ground-water data were collected at 52 observation wells, surface-water data at 12 sites, stream discharge data at 9 sites, and chemical water-quality data at 32 observation wells.

  1. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance. PMID:20609394

  2. A review of industrial symbiosis research: theory and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Chen, Bin; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan

    2015-03-01

    The theory, methodologies, and case studies in the field of industrial symbiosis have been developing for nearly 30 years. In this paper, we trace the development history of industrial symbiosis, and review its current theoretical and methodological bases, as well as trends in current research. Based on the research gaps that we identify, we provide suggestions to guide the future development of this approach to permit more comprehensive analyses. Our theoretical review includes key definitions, a classification system, and a description of the formation and development mechanisms. We discuss methodological studies from the perspective of individual industrial metabolic processes and network analysis. Analyzing specific metabolic processes can help to characterize the exchanges of materials and energy, and to reveal the ecological performance and economic benefits of the symbiosis. Network analysis methods are increasingly being used to analyze both the structural and functional characteristics of a system. Our suggestions for future research focus on three aspects: how to quantitatively classify industrial symbiosis systems, monitor the dynamics of a developing industrial symbiosis system, and analyze its internal attributes more deeply.

  3. Strategies for implementing zero discharge in an industrial smelter : 1. Managing fluroide in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagnitti, F.; Salzman, S.; Thwaites, L.; Allinson, G.; Le Blanc, M.; Hill, J.; Doerr, S.; de Rooij, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Portland Aluminium smelter produces approximately 75 ML of process wastewater each year. This is combined with storm water runoff from the site to give an annual production of 715 ML. In common with many other smelters, this wastewater stream is currently discharged to the ocean. However, although the quality of the water Portland Aluminium discharges currently meets all Australian Environmental Protection Agency license requirements, this mode of release is unlikely to be acceptable in the near future, and alternative disposal options for the water are required. The Portland smelter has developed strategies which will enable it to achieve zero-discharge within 5 years. These strategies include separating process water from storm water, recycling storm water, construction of evaporation ponds to receive process water, irrigation of process water and storm water on lands within the site and maintenance of important wetland functions. The poster presents a summary of the management strategies currently being trialed and in particular focuses on modeling the spatial and temporal variations of fluoride found in the shallow groundwater and the implications of achieving zero-discharge. The poster also discusses the possible impacts on the distribution of fluoride and other solutes in the vadose zone by the irrigation of treated process water on blue-gum plantations. Computer simulations indicate that irrigation of process water (either treated or untreated) on the land poses no significant long-term threat to regional or surficial groundwater. However the impacts of increased solute transport through the vadose zone on changes in soil structure and nutrition require further investigation.

  4. Boom in clinical research industry: a dangerous trend.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Saraya, Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade or so India has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the clinical trial industry. The projections forecast a continuing growth of this trend. It has been predicted that by 2011 India will be in charge of 15% of global clinical trials. The enthusiasm for the growth of this industry in India is shared not just by the major pharmaceutical companies and CROs but also equally so by government agencies. The raison d'être for medical research is that it should lead to maximum possible benefit to the largest number of people. Hence, an examination of the extent to which public good is served can act as a measure for objective analysis of this exponential increase in the clinical trial industry. After all it is the health and lives of the people that are at stake. On the face of it, it would seem that all trials testing the safety and efficacy of various molecules, by their very nature work towards public welfare as they are indispensible to the development of any drug including the life-saving ones. An increasing number of clinical trials at all stages in a product's life cycle are funded by the pharmaceutical industry. It would then seem that the industry-sponsored medical research is necessarily furthering the larger objective of human wellbeing. However, the operations of the pharmaceutical industry, the nature of the processes involved and the operative motives are a bit too complex to facilitate this larger objective so simply, just as yet. This warrants a closer look at the various aspects of industry-sponsored clinical research. PMID:20306757

  5. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  6. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  7. [Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

  8. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  9. Using Live Cases for Teaching, Industry Collaboration, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Mikko; Mattila, Pekka; Salo, Jari; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2013-01-01

    The use of live cases in marketing teaching has been suggested as a way to provide students with interesting and relevant course work while collaborating on live case exercises also provides industry partners with valuable new ideas for innovation and development. When properly conducted, live cases can also be used for conducting research by the…

  10. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  11. Basic Guidelines for University-Industry Research Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannock, Jean C.; Denny, Amanda M.

    1998-01-01

    Universities should embrace university/industry relationships because they benefit both the institution and society. As such relationships evolve, the university should continually review its policies. The model used by Wake Forest University (North Carolina) for routinely reviewing research agreements is presented to assist other universities in…

  12. Distribution of nitrogen species in groundwater aquifers of an industrial area in alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains--a case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Singh, Vinod K; Malik, Amrita; Basant, Nikita

    2006-10-01

    The groundwater samples collected from the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers of an industrial area of the Kanpur city (Uttar Pradesh, India) were analyzed for the concentration levels and distribution pattern of nitrogenous species, such as nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonical-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), organic-nitrogen (Org-N) and total Kjeldahl-nitrogen (TKN) to identify the possible contamination source. Geo-statistical approach was adopted to determine the distribution and extent of the contaminant plume. In the groundwater aquifers NO(3)-N, NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, TKN, Org-N and Total-N ranged from 0.10 to 64.10, BDL (below detection limit)-6.57, BDL-39.00, 7.84-202.16, 1.39-198.97 and 8.89-219.43 mg l(-1), respectively. About 42% and 26% of the groundwater samples of the shallow and deep groundwater aquifers, respectively, exceeded the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) guideline value of 10 mg l(-1) for NO(3)-N and may pose serious health hazards to the people of the area. The results of the study revealed that the groundwater aquifers of the study area are highly contaminated with the nitrate and indicates point source pollution of nitrate in the study area. PMID:16791709

  13. German industrial research project ADAPTRONIK: content, results, and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanselka, Holger; Sachau, Delf

    2001-06-01

    Within the framework of an idea competition for future-oriented key technologies and their industrial utilization, in 1997 BMBF called for project proposals from industries and research for so-called 'Leitprojekte'. An independent group of experts selected few project proposals from the many submitted, and proposed them to BMBF for promotion. One of these projects is the BMBF-Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK which is introduced in this paper. Adaptronics describes the field of technology focusing on the development of a new class of so-called smart structures. The Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK consists of 24 partners from industry and research institutes and is conducted under the responsibility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The project focuses on the development and structure-conforming integration of piezoelectric fibers and patches in structures for lightweight construction. It is aimed at active vibration and noise reduction, contour deformation and micro-positioning in the very sense of adaptronics in various industrial applications. The project targets are prototype assemblies from the fields of automotive industry, rail vehicles, mechanical engineering, medical engineering, and aerospace. In the paper the content, the status and an outlook will be presented.

  14. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information..., Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). DATES: Comments must be received by... INFORMATION: Title: Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...

  15. Problems for biomedical research at the academia-industrial interface.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, David

    2003-01-01

    Throughout much of the world, universities have driven towards industrial partnerships. This collaboration, which, in the biochemical field at least, has to continue if potential benefits for patients are to be realised, has brought with it a number of problems. These include the neglect of long-term research in favour of short-term projects, the curtailing of free dissemination of research information within university departments and the biasing of results of clinical trials by the financial interests of the investigators. It is very important that governments, universities, and industry itself address these problems. Universities should monitor the amount of basic, curiosity-driven research that is being carried on, compared with that which is more short-term goal orientated. PhD students and post-doctoral fellows should be exposed to the principles of bioethics early on in their careers. Further work is necessary on the terms of research contracts to protect, on the one hand, the rights of individual scientists and, on the other, industry from rogue scientists. Where problems arise, procedures should be in place for independent reviews to be conducted by bodies such as the Medical Research Council in the UK or the National Institutes of Health in the USA. The conflict-of-interest rules recently introduced for publication in medical journals should be extended to all branches of science. PMID:12645228

  16. Pake Prize: The Evolving Nature of Industrial Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, W. Dale

    2014-03-01

    The support of basic research in the physical sciences expanded rather quickly in the late 1950s and into the 1960s stimulated, in part, by the successful contribution of the scientific effort to the Second World War. Many in industry took on the challenge of creating research activities that focused on basic research. Many of these activities slowed in the 1970s and 1980s because of events in the economy and the marketplace. The challenges confronting the industrial research complexes were many. Retaining the high standards of quality in the research organization, encouraging partial realignment of programs to be more supportive of product lines and the various pressures arising from legislative measures to increase product efficiencies while reducing unwanted pollutants into the atmosphere, to name a few. Some of the highlights of the past 50 years will be reviewed using automotive industry examples. There will be another talk from Paul Grant for the next 36 minutes. I do not have his abstract yet but it has been requested.

  17. Groundwater exposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater flow meddles with hydrological, environmental and geological processes. As water scarcity issues mount for people living above ground, the vast stores of freshwater in the subsurface require research attention.

  18. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  19. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  20. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AT THE EASTERN TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 1872-1929

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century the submarine telegraph cable industry, which had blossomed in the 1850s, had reached what historians regard as technological maturity. For a host of commercial, cultural and technical reasons, the industry seems to have become conservative in its attitude towards technological development, which is reflected in the small scale of its staff and facilities for research and development. This paper argues that the attitude of the cable industry towards research and development was less conservative and altogether more complex than historians have suggested. Focusing on the crucial case of the Eastern Telegraph Company, the largest single operator of submarine cables, it shows how the company encouraged inventive activity among outside and in-house electricians and, in 1903, established a small research laboratory where staff and outside scientific advisors pursued new methods of cable signalling and cable designs. The scale of research and development at the Eastern Telegraph Company, however, was small by comparison to that of its nearest competitor, Western Union, and dwarfed by that of large electrical manufacturers. This paper explores the reasons for this comparatively weak provision but also suggests that this was not inappropriate for a service-sector firm. PMID:25977587

  1. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  2. Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Minhas, P S; Lal, Khajanchi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, Gajender; Verma, T P

    2015-08-01

    Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 μg g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 μg g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination. PMID:25894348

  3. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  4. Research on critical groundwater level under the threshold value of land subsidence in the typical region of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Lei, K.-C.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater in Beijing has been excessively exploited in a long time, causing the groundwater level continued to declining and land subsidence areas expanding, which restrained the economic and social sustainable development. Long years of study show good time-space corresponding relationship between groundwater level and land subsidence. To providing scientific basis for the following land subsidence prevention and treatment, quantitative research between groundwater level and settlement is necessary. Multi-linear regression models are set up by long series factual monitoring data about layered water table and settlement in the Tianzhu monitoring station. The results show that: layered settlement is closely related to water table, water level variation and amplitude, especially the water table. Finally, according to the threshold value in the land subsidence prevention and control plan of China (45, 30, 25 mm), the minimum allowable layered water level in this region while settlement achieving the threshold value is calculated between -18.448 and -10.082 m. The results provide a reasonable and operable control target of groundwater level for rational adjustment of groundwater exploited horizon in the future.

  5. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  6. Overview of current research opportunities in industrial microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Silberglitt, R.; Hien, L.K.; Rattien, S.

    1983-08-01

    The use of electromagnetic energy in industrial heating applications has many potential advantages as compared to conventional heating methods, e.g., increased energy efficiency, increased uniformity, lower product surface temperature, decreased space and production time requirements, and even improved product quality. However, industry has been slow to adopt this technique, especially as compared to the recent market penetration of consumer microwave ovens. This has been attributed to technological inertia, as well as the difficulty of demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of electromagnetic heating because at present most equipment must be custom-designed. Based upon a detailed survey of existing electromagnetic heating research and application areas, a number of research opportunities with significant technological innovation potential have been identified. These are reviewed, with emphasis on the microwave frequency range.

  7. From research to industry — The establishment of a radiation processing industry in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessis, T. A. Du; Stevens, RCB

    In the late sixties the South African Atomic Energy Board in pursuing its objectives to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy in general, established a research group with the specific purpose of investigating and developing radiation processing as a new technique. During the early years it was realised that the economic and technological facets of establishing a new industry were equally important and, in addition to fundamental research, strong emphasis was placed on the necessity of marketing this new technology. Although the initial emphasis was put on gamma sterilization, and today still forms the backbone of the radiation processing industry, the promising fields of polymer modification and food irradiation hold a lot of promise in the radiation processing industry. Following ten years of successfully introducing and providing a radiation service, the South African Atomic Energy Board in 1980 decided to transfer its service to the private sector. These developments in South Africa are a good sample of how a small country, through initial government envolvement, can acquire a sophisticated new private industry.

  8. Beyond CMOS -- The Semiconductor Industry's Nanoelectronics Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coufal, Hans

    2006-03-01

    The tremendously powerful scaling of transistors, that has enabled Moore's Law for the past forty years, can not continue forever. Some of the reasons, such as the atomistic nature of matter, are obvious. Others are less obvious and will be briefly reviewed before some of the potential alternatives to charge based logic will be analyzed. Such an analysis had the semiconductor industry initiate a Nanoelectronics Research Initiative. The current status of this program will be reviewed

  9. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  10. Groundwater composition near the nickel—copper smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula, central Barents Region (NW Russia and NE Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Danilova, Svetlana; Jæger, Øystein; Reimann, Clemens; Storrø, Gaute

    1998-07-01

    The chemical composition of 185 groundwater samples collected from two catchments in the extreme NE Norway and NW Russia over the period April 1994 to November 1995 is reported in terms of Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO 3, P, Pb, PO 4,Rb, S, Sb, Se, Si, SO 4, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn concentrations (as determined by ICP-MS, ICP-AES and IC), pH and electrical conductance. One catchment (C2) is located in Russia 5 km downwind of the nickel—copper ore smelting industry in Monchegorsk, which is a major SO 2 and trace metal emission source, the other (C5) is located in Norway 30 km off-wind from the nickel-copper ore smelter in Nikel and 52 km off-wind from the nickel—copper ore roasting plant of Zapoljarniy, which are also significant emitters of inorganic atmospheric pollutants. Groundwater chemistry mostly reflects the mineralogical composition of the gabbro aquifer in C2 and the Quaternary deposits in C5, although groundwater in C2 also shows signs of incipient contamination from surface waters (heavy metals, sulphate, chloride). Groundwater in C2 appears to have been acidified by S-compounds emitted from Monchegorsk, but the groundwater's capacity to neutralise incoming acidity has not been exhausted. In C5, groundwater has not been acidified to any extent and has a high acid neutralising capacity. This study demonstrates that the geological substrate of a catchment is a fundamental control on how groundwater responds to atmospheric pollution, even if the latter is severe.

  11. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-02-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed

  12. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports technology development and technical assistance for the remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The core of the program is centered on delivering proactive, responsive expertise and technologies with highly-leveraged, carefully selected investments that maximize impact on life-cycle cleanup costs and risks across the DOE complex. The program currently focuses on four main priorities: improved sampling and characterization strategies, advanced predictive capabilities, enhanced remediation methods, and improved long-term performance evaluation and monitoring. In FY 2010, the program developed a detailed research and development (R&D) plan in support of a larger initiative to integrate R&D efforts across EM. This paper provides an overview of the high priority action areas and the program s near-term technical direction.

  13. The Office of Groundwater & Soil Remediation Fiscal Year 2011 Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Aylward, R. S.; Cercy, Mike; Seitz, Roger; Ramirez, Rosa; Skubal, Karen L.; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation supports technology development and technical assistance for the remediation of environments contaminated by legacy nuclear waste. The core of the program is centered on delivering proactive, responsive expertise and technologies with highly-leveraged, carefully selected investments that maximum impact on life-cycle cleanup costs and risks across the DOE complex. The program currently focuses on four main priorities: improved sampling and characterization strategies, advanced predictive capabilities, enhanced remediation methods, and improved long-term performance evaluation and monitoring. In FY 2010, the program developed a detailed research and development (R and D) plan in support of a larger initiative to integrate R and D efforts across EM. This paper provides an overview of the priority action areas and the program's near-term technical direction.

  14. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  15. Microfluidics—from fundamental research to industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    The advance of microfluidics started in the early 1980s. At the time, researchers realized that many processes and reactions in chemistry and biology, which typically take place on small length scales, can be defined, controlled and understood much better when using tools on equally small length scales. Reactions and reaction kinetics rely on (gradual) concentration differences and microfluidics provides the unique possibility to establish exactly such gradients of solutes, ion concentrations, pH value and so on. Nowadays the variety of specific microfluidic methods is large. In principle, they can be divided into two groups: (i) monophase flow, where miscible (e.g. aqueous) fluids are mixed, mostly by diffusion owing to the laminar flow on small length scales and (ii) multiphase flow, the most prominent example of which is probably droplet microfluidics, where water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions are used to encapsulate chemical or biological systems and separate them from each other, much like in 'micron-scale test tubes'. Now, 30 years later, microfluidic techniques are seriously considered for industrial applications, although some important steps in the upscaling process are still missing. The purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the different aspects in microfluidics research starting from fundamental research reaching all the way to industrial applications. The study by Toma and co-workers takes advantage of the controlled diffusive mixing when co-flowing aqueous, miscible solutions. They combine microfluidics with optical, spectroscopic and scattering techniques to study DNA packing. Nunes et al review the different regimes when replacing one of the fluids by an oil phase and varying flow rates and device geometries with a particular emphasis on using multiphase microfluidics for synthesis of particles or fibres. Going into the third dimension by fabricating microfluidic devices with several layers, producing emulsions can also be achieved by

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF GEOCHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PARAMETERS AFFECTING METAL TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable assessment of the hazards or risks arising from groundwater contamination and the design of effective means of rehabilitation of contaminated sites requires the capability to predict the movement and fate of dissolved solutes in groundwater. he modeling of metal transpor...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  18. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings

  19. Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

  20. New Technology Industries. Skills Task Force Research Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Chris

    This paper provides an overview of the growth of new technology industries in Great Britain and the skills needed for these industries. The industries are advanced materials, biotechnology, and opto-electronics. The report profiles the current status, expected growth, and skills needed for each of these industry sectors. It also points out the…

  1. Experimental research on a slope destabilization process with a movement of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Ishizawa, T.; Fukuzono, T.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters.Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse.However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short.The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope.New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m.In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope destabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope destabilization.

  2. Experimental research on a slope unstabilization process with a complex movement of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, many slope disasters occur by typhoon, long-term rainfall and short-time heavy rainfall, where properties and lives have been annually lost. Slope failure is still the main one of the natural disasters. Slope failure mechanism is not understood well, for example, it unable to predict the timing of failure. Therefore, a method with extensometers were applied for prediction of slope collapse (Fukuzono, 1985). However, the accurate prediction is very difficult because the allowable time for warning is sometimes too short. The warning system must be improved for the specific each slope. New rational index to predict slope failure with early stage also must be studied through such experiments. Slope failure(shallow landslide) occurs on the weathered layer with a thickness of about 1 to 2m. In such conditions, ease of infiltration by heavy rainfall makes land collapsing quite often and repeatedly. Mechanism of slope failure is induced by 1) water pressure or table by rainfall, 2) reduction of strength like cohesion, 3)increase of self weight by water. This must be verified. So we conducted the large-scale model slope test with rainfall to understand the process of slope unstabilization by large-scale rainfall simulator at National research Institute for earth science and disaster prevention. We will express the part of the results to discuss the mechanism of slope failure. In one of the main results, complex movement of groundwater in the slope play the main roll of slope unstabilization.

  3. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Rois; Hendron, Bob; Pless, Shanti; Huppert, Mark; Cochrane, Ric

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  4. Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Roberts, J. Keith; Chew, William; Warren, Larry C.; Ashley, Paul R.; Everitt, Henry O.; Webster, Eric; Foreman, John V.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Temmen, Mark G.; Varadan, Vijay; Hayduke, Devlin; Wu, Pae C.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Yang, Yang; Kim, Tong-Ho; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Brown, April S.; Callahan, John

    2011-04-01

    Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ground systems. The objective of the research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weapons. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based microsensors, nano-energetics, nano-batteries, nano-composites, and nano-plasmonics. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) missile systems by significantly reducing the size, weight and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of chemical sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing and toxic industrial chemicals; the development of highly sensitive/selective, self-powered miniaturized acoustic sensors for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance; the development of a minimum signature solid propellant with increased ballistic and physical properties that meet insensitive munitions requirements; the development of nano-structured material for higher voltage thermal batteries and higher energy density storage; the development of advanced composite materials that provide high frequency damping for inertial measurement units' packaging; and the development of metallic nanostructures for ultraviolet surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The current status of the overall AMRDEC Nanotechnology research efforts is disclosed in this paper. Critical technical challenges, for the various technologies, are presented. The authors' approach for overcoming technical barriers and achieving required performance is also discussed. Finally, the roadmap for each technology, as well as the overall program, is presented.

  5. Pesticide residues in groundwater in The Netherlands: state of observations and future directions of research.

    PubMed

    Loch, J P; Verdam, B

    1989-01-01

    In the first stage of a programme of sampling and analysis for pesticide residues in groundwater in The Netherlands, the upper groundwater below four vulnerable soils was analysed for nearly 2,5 years in eight sampling rounds. Of 18 compounds analysed, including some metabolites, 1,3-dichloropropene, aldicarb, ethoprophos dinoseb, metamitron, atrazine, desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine, metolachlor and ethylenethioureum were repeatedly detected in the groundwater in concentrations above 0.1 micrograms.dm-3, the limit for pesticides in drinking water set by the EC. These observations were made below fields with potatoe-, maize- and bulb flower culture, all on low-humic to moderately humic sandy soils. No residues were found below a cracked light clay on a sandy subsoil. On the locations sampled evidence was found for complete in situ removal in the upper groundwater of 1,3-dichloropropene, high persistence of aldicarb residues and partial in situ degradation of dinoseb. PMID:2756375

  6. Groundwater issues in the Potomac River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jay

    Great strides have been made by the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, along with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia, in protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Since these entities joined forces in a renewed effort to protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay area, a number of useful programs have been established and public awareness has been raised.The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers and several regional co-sponsors presented Ground Water Issues and Solutions in the Potomac River Basin/Chesapeake Bay Region Conference March 14 at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., to provide insight into groundwater-related issues. Attendance at the conference included 150 groundwater professionals from state, county and private agencies, along with a significant number of students from area universities. More than 30 papers were presented dealing with research projects and field studies. Topics included geohydrologic relationships, groundwater quality impacts, impact of industrial processes on groundwater quality, saltwater intrusion, groundwater protection in the Chesapeake Bay area, land-use impacts on groundwater quality, groundwater modeling, groundwater withdrawals, and policy issues. In addition to the technical sessions, a debate of “How clean is clean?” was held.

  7. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.; Martin, R.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  8. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  9. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  10. The pharmaceutical industry and research in 2002 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anand S; Garner, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    The success of the pharmaceutical industry will continue to depend on its ability to satisfy the clinical needs of established market economies. The number and quality of new drugs emerging from development pipelines seems likely to rise due to increased research and development budgets of the merged pharmaceutical companies, efficiencies across all facets of the development process, increasing use of new technologies and availability of new targets from the ongoing work on the role of human genes in disease pathways. In addition to the traditional small-molecule drugs, the market for protein products, including monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic vaccines, is likely to expand as advances in recombinant and formulation technologies are made. Current work on relatively newer fields of pharmaceutical research, such as novel G-protein-coupled receptors, chemokines/cytokines, integrins and control of cell cycle regulation and signal transduction pathways (kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors) will lead to new drugs over the next decade. It is tempting to argue that a progressive fall in the number of new drugs in the last decade of the 20th century reflects the end of an era as companies struggle to identify any remaining quality products using old-style drug hunting practices. PMID:14747843

  11. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  12. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds and Stable Isotopes in Groundwater as Tracers of Industrial-Age Recharge in the Southern California Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitz, K.; Land, M. T.; Hamlin, S. N.; Dawson, B. M.

    2002-12-01

    The USGS, in collaboration with the California Water Resources Control Board, is using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and stable isotopes to assess the susceptibility of California aquifers to contamination from land surface activities. One of the areas studied is the 2700 square kilometer coastal plain of southern California, where we have sampled more than 200 public supply and monitoring wells. The ground-water hydrologic cycle in the southern California coastal plain is dominated by human activity. Engineered recharge facilities along the Rio Hondo, San Gabriel River, Santa Ana River, and Santiago Creek are the primary sources of ground-water replenishment for the regional aquifer system. During the past 50 years, approximately 20 cubic kilometers of water have been recharged through these facilities. The primary source of ground-water discharge is from hundreds of production wells that are generally perforated at depths ranging from 150 to 300 meters. Currently, the rates of recharge and discharge are approximately equal. VOCs in ground-water can be used to demarcate water that has entered the flow system within the past 50 years. Associated with each of the recharge facilities is a "radial wedge:" within the wedge ground-water contains one or more VOCs at concentrations above the USGS laboratory reporting limits (LRL); outside the wedge there are no detections above LRL. The distribution of specific VOCs in ground-water reflects the historical usage of those compounds. For example, MTBE, which was introduced within the past decade, is only present in ground water within a few kilometers of the recharge facilities. In contrast, chloroform, which has been used or generated for more than 50 years, is present in ground water more than 20 kilometers from the larger recharge facilities. The distribution of stable isotopes can also be used to demarcate water that has entered the flow system within the past 50 years. Within the radial wedges, the isotopes of

  14. 76 FR 10067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...--Industrial Macromolecular Crystallography Association Correction In notice document 2011--2412 appearing on... and Production Act of 1993--Industrial Nacromolecular Crystallography Association'' should read ``Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  15. Diaphragm Pressure Wave Generator Developments at Industrial Research Ltd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, A. J.; Emery, N.; Glasson, N. D.

    2010-04-01

    Industrial Research Ltd (IRL) have been developing a unique diaphragm based pressure wave generator technology for pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Our system uses a metal diaphragm to separate the clean cryocooler gas circuit from a conventionally lubricated mechanical driver, thus producing a clean pressure wave with a long life drive that does not require the precision manufacture and associated costs of large linear motors. The first successful diaphragm pressure wave generator produced 3.2 kW of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 72% with a swept volume of 200 ml and a prototype has now accumulated over 2500 hours running. This paper describes recent developments in the technology. To explore scaling, a small diaphragm pressure wave generator with a swept volume of 20 ml has been constructed and has delivered 454 W of acoustic power at an electro-acoustic efficiency of 60%. Improvements have been made to the hydraulic force amplifier mechanism for driving the diaphragms resulting in a cheaper and lighter mechanism than the mechanical linkage originally used. To meet a customer's specific requirements, the 200 ml pressure wave generator's stroke was extended to achieve 240 ml of swept volume thereby increasing its acoustic power delivery to 4.1 kW without compromising efficiency.

  16. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  17. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  18. Research on Computer-based Creative Industries Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuqin, Sun

    In recent years, creative industries based on the computer technology is booming and leads a new trend in this field. This creative industries considers innovation as a driving force. It combines the various cultural art resources with the latest computer technology, estabilshes new production and consumption patterns, promotes new industrial clusters, cultivates new consumer groups and generates enormous economic and social value. Therefore, computer-based creative industries is not only a cultural or educational philosophy, but also a development strategy with practical and sustainable features.

  19. Industrial Location Research Studies: Reports 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantus Co., Inc., New York, NY.

    Eight studies identify, examine, and evaluate significant elements of industry-location decisions as they relate directly or indirectly to public investment policies and activities that may be considered as economic growth stimulants for the Appalachian region. Examined in the document are the chlor-alkali industry; the manufacturing of trucks,…

  20. The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummolo, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

  1. Recreation as an Industry. Appalachian Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The role which recreation as an industry can play in economic development of an area -- through creation of jobs, generation of incomes, and stimulation of public and private investment -- is the primary concern of this 1966 study. The document establishes the tourism-recreation industry as being resource-based, with enterprises which are mainly…

  2. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry...

  5. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  6. White light interferometer: applications in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sujit

    2015-06-01

    Applications of interferometer are countless both in the research and commercial world. Laser sources offer precise measurements of relative path difference between two interfering beams. An exciting example is LIGO (laser Interferometer for Gravitational Observatory), which is aiming to resolve length change as small as 10-19 m over a 4 km length for detection of gravitational waves. However, laser is a disadvantage for microscopic imaging and surface topography applications usually required in semiconductor industry. A different approach for microscopy is to use white light in place of laser. White light due to its limited temporal coherence offers a multitude of benefits for imaging applications. An immediate benefit from white light is the sharp localisation of interference fringe that makes the 3D topography construction or OCT (Optical Coherence Topography) realisable using a Scanning White Light Interferometer (SWLI) imager. In Mirau Mode, SWLI performs high resolution imaging; whereas in Michelson mode Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) is realised. SWLI can easily be modified into PUPS (Pupil Plane SWLI) for Ellipsometry. Superimposing Michelson Interferometer known as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any reflector) can form interference fringes even in presence of wide angle light scattered from a moving illuminated object. This paper describes work undertaken at Nanometrics (UK) on simulation of SWLI fringes including high Numerical Aperture (NA) applications, thin film characterisation, OCT generation and Zemax modelling of compact dispersion-free vibration-immune Fourier-Transformed spectrometer. VISAR as a modified Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is also discussed based on the work at Rutherford-Appleton laboratory (UK).

  7. [High-resolution research on the NO3- changes of karst groundwater and its responses to the outside environmental variations].

    PubMed

    Pu, Jun-Bing; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Ping-Heng; Gou, Peng-Fei; He, Qiu-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2011-03-01

    In order to thoroughly reveal the karst groundwater system in response to the external environment, multi-index high-resolution auto-monitoring instruments were used to research the hydrogeochemistry variations of Qingmuguan subterranean stream. The monitoring indicators were pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), water level, rainfall and NO3-. In the observed 6 times rainfall events, the pH value was mainly controlled by acid rain and EC was impacted by the rain chemistry, physical dilution effect of rainfall and agricultural wastewater. NO3- derived from agricultural activities was less impacted by rain chemistry; and its variations were mainly affected by physical dilution effect of rainfall and agricultural wastewater. Under the influences of the R1 rainfall, the rapid changes of EC and NO3- were contrary in generally, but pH value decreased due to the acid rain. In the R2, R3, R4 and R6 rain events, the water level was positively response to the rainfall and the pH value decreased due to the acid rain; however both of the EC and NO3- decreased due to the dilution effect. With the afflux of agricultural wastewater, both of the EC and NO3- were rapidly changed in synchronization within the shortest of 5 h of and the longest of only 27 h and the pH value showed accelerated decline. During the R5 torrential rain events, water level abruptly increased and all of the pH value, EC and NO3- sharply decreased as a result of dilution effect. The groundwater quality was changed because the afflux of agricultural wastewaters in the entire rainfall periods. According to the National Groundwater Quality Standard, P. R. China (GB/T 14848-9), the groundwater quality of the QSS showed the following order in the entire rainfall events: Grade III --> Grade IV --> Grade V --> Grade 1V --> Grade V --> Grade LV --> Grade V --> Grade IV --> Grade III. As a important drinking water source around local inhabitants, the groundwater quality of Qingmuguan subterranean stream was

  8. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  9. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  10. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  11. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  12. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  13. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  14. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... considering a proposed research study. In the Federal Register of June 3, 2009 (74 FR 26703), FDA announced... Application.'' In a document published in the Federal Register on July 25, 1975 (40 FR 31298), FDA changed the... terminated a 1963 order from the Commissioner of Food and Drugs (28 FR 183, January 8, 1963) that...

  15. 77 FR 43416 - ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration,...

  16. Research and industrial application of series MJ-compound binders

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Gao, J.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of the series MJ-compound binders studies, which were developed recently, as well as the results of industrial tests and applications. Compared with traditional binders used to produce coal briquettes such as lime, humic acid, clay, etc., the series MJ-compound binders have the advantages of low additive ratio, low price and rich resources, as well as simple production processes and low operational costs. The successful development of the MJ10/MJ11 compound binder and its industrial applications, which uses dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof coal briquettes, has made great progress in industrial coal briquetting technologies in China. Therefore, it is now possible to produce coal briquettes locally near coal mine areas and to transport them long distance to different consumers.

  17. Low-energy electron accelerators in industry and applied research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, W.

    1998-04-01

    The use of electron accelerators in industry involve a broad range of machines and applications. The major actual large-scale applications are crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, plastic films and foam, curing of coatings and rubbers, and sterilisation of medical products. The recent availability, at attractive costs, of electron accelerators with high beam power (up to 200 kW) covering an energy range up to 10 MeV, has created new possibilities for a substantial expansion of the application range. The actual position of electron accelerators in industry is reviewed, new emerging applications and novel opportunities for multipurpose facilities are described.

  18. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  19. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  20. University-Industry Research Collaboration: A Model to Assess University Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Di Costa, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers recognize that collaboration between industry and the public research institutions is a necessity for innovation and national economic development. This work presents an econometric model which expresses the university capability for collaboration with industry as a function of size, location and research quality. The…

  1. Working Together, Creating Knowledge: The University-Industry Research Collaboration Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    This document provides a detailed assessment of the opportunities and challenges facing university-industry research collaborations. This report represents a synthesis of the work and findings of this initiative. It analyzes several of the critical issues facing research collaborations between industry and universities and offers suggestions to…

  2. Constituting the Significance and Value of Research: Views from Information Technology Academics and Industry Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Pham, Binh; Stoodley, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The information technology research community, comprising both academic and industry stakeholders, is responding to national and international imperatives that challenge disparate groups to work together. In this article it is shown how, within both academic and industrial contexts, researchers interpret, or constitute, the significance and value…

  3. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  4. University-industry research relationships in biotechnology: implications for the university.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, D; Gluck, M; Louis, K S; Stoto, M A; Wise, D

    1986-06-13

    The growth of university-industry research relationships in biotechnology has raised questions concerning their effects, both positive and negative, on universities. A survey of over 1200 faculty members at 40 major universities in the United States reveals that biotechnology researchers with industrial support publish at higher rates, patent more frequently, participate in more administrative and professional activities and earn more than colleagues without such support. At the same time, faculty with industry funds are much more likely than other biotechnology faculty to report that their research has resulted in trade secrets and that commercial considerations have influenced their choice of research projects. Although the data do not establish a causal connection between industrial support and these faculty behaviors, our findings strongly suggest that university-industry research relationships have both benefits and risks for academic institutions. The challenge for universities is to find ways to manage these relationships that will preserve the benefits while minimizing the risks. PMID:3715452

  5. Selected Research Tools in Economics, Labor and Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Ronald J.

    Twenty-two indexing and abstracting services and general reference sources in the areas of labor and industrial relations are listed in this selective bibliography for users of State University of New York at Albany Libraries. Classification numbers are included for each source and most have annotations. Materials are listed under four…

  6. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  7. Intellectual Property in the Context of Research-Industry Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arup, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    A discussion of the legal and social implications of collaboration between Australia industry and higher education institutions for the development of new technologies focuses on the forms of collaboration and the disposition of intellectual property rights between employer and employee or customer and contractor. (MSE)

  8. TRANSLATING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE: THE DRINKING WATER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply Industry is very conservative in adopting major changes in water supply treatment. n increased number of regulations and an accelerated regulatory agenda has the potential for revolutionizing this field. echnology transfer and information diffusion will be very i...

  9. A Low-cost Method to Identify Tubewells for Longitudinal Research on Arsenic in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Labrique, Alain B.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in tubewell groundwater from the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh could result in up to 300,000 arsenic-related cancer cases over the next four decades. Understanding the magnitude and temporal dynamics of this exposure, via longitudinal studies, is imperative for planning effective mitigation and management strategies. Appropriate methods are needed to identify tubewells for longitudinal sampling. A plastic band marked with a unique identification number was developed, and various methods for attaching the band to the tubewell were tested, resulting in the choice of a galvanized-iron split-rivet. Two follow-up surveys at two and 14 months post-banding assessed the durability and longevity under field conditions in the JiVitA Project area in rural, northwestern Bangladesh. After two months, ~96.0% of the original bands on 1,063 tubewells were functional, although the rivets were partially corroded. After 14 months, ~65% of a subsample of the bands were functional. With further improvements to the rivets, these bands offer an inexpensive, durable, enumeration technology for longitudinal studies on groundwater arsenic. PMID:18330072

  10. Designing Research to Improve Students' Learning: "Industry/University" Collaborations for Educating Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    University/industry partnerships provide a vehicle for synthesizing knowledge from the fields of teachers' professional learning, higher degree research training and research impact. This analysis outlines a conceptual framework for having a direct research impact on socio-cultural, economic and environmental learning (SEEL). The particular…

  11. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  12. Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) Year 2 Report and Year 3 Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, Geroge; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL): a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, contributes to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL enables Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during the second year of implementation. The AERIAL Year 3 proposal is also included.

  13. Health Promotion and Industry: Where Interdisciplinary Research Meets Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Thomas C.; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation research in work-site health promotion offers an opportunity to test the effectiveness of work-site health promotion and disease prevention programs. Based on an evaluation of the research, an interdisciplinary approach to data collection and analysis is suggested, and policy implications are outlined. (TJH)

  14. Navigating a research partnership between academia and industry to assess the impact of personalized genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Kaufman, David J.; Sharp, Richard R.; Moreno, Tanya A.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the process of structuring a partnership between academic researchers and two personalized genetic testing companies that would manage conflicts of interest while allowing researchers to study the impact of this nascent industry. Methods We developed a transparent process of ongoing communication about the interests of all research partners to address challenges in establishing study goals, survey development, data collection, analysis, and manuscript preparation. Using the existing literature on conflicts of interest and our experience, we created a checklist for academic and industry researchers seeking to structure research partnerships. Results Our checklist includes questions about the risk to research participants, sponsorship of the study, control of data analysis, freedom to publish results, the impact of the research on industry customers, openness to input from all partners, sharing results before publication, and publication of industry-specific data. Transparency is critical to building trust between partners. Involving all partners in the research development enhanced the quality of our research and provided an opportunity to manage conflicts early in the research process. Conclusion Navigating relationships between academia and industry is complex and requires strategies that are transparent and responsive to the concerns of all. Employing a checklist of questions prior to beginning a research partnership may help to manage conflicts of interest. PMID:22241103

  15. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  16. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  17. Origins of behavioral teratology and distinctions between research on pharmaceutical agents and environmental/industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Most behavioral teratology studies have focused on pharmaceutical agents. Investigations of developmental toxicity are lacking for the majority of the nearly 100,000 industrial chemicals currently in use. Only some three dozen chemicals have been examined for behavioral/neurochemical deviations in offspring following maternal exposures. Examination of industrial agents for developmental toxicity, therefore, remains a major public health need. Most developmental research addresses the effects of pharmaceutical agents, but these studies frequently do not address environmental/industrial concerns due to fundamental differences in experimental methodology. The route, duration, and timing of exposure, usefulness of fostering of offspring, and potential concomitant exposure of both parents are all variables which should be treated differently in research on industrial chemicals as opposed to pharmaceutical agents. After briefly tracking the history of behavioral teratology, the present paper discusses differences in application of behavioral teratological principles to industrial versus pharmaceutical agents, and points to the largely untested number of industrial chemicals needing investigation. 57 references.

  18. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  19. Ethical considerations of industry-sponsored research: the use of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J D

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the history and character of these research requirements, with special emphasis on questions concerning the role of industry in sponsored research. This discussion is becoming more vigorous with each passing year as private investment in research assumes greater importance in the scientific enterprise. I concentrate on issues of industry-supported human use that are on the "cutting edge" of contemporary biomedical ethics. Of special interest are questions about the disclosure of financial arrangements between industry and investigators, such as the nature and amount of capitated remuneration. PMID:8892182

  20. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment. PMID:27552808

  1. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  2. Groundwater contamination field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

  3. [Research and industrialization of biobased materials in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the research and commercialization progresses of biobased polymeric materials including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactides (PLA), poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and its monomer succinate, and CO2 copolymer poly (propylene carbonate), especially these efforts made in China. PMID:26672370

  4. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  5. Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, about 75 acres of black mangroves have died in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Although many factors can contribute to the mortality of mangroves, changes in irrigation practices, rainfall, and water use resulted in as much as 25 feet of drawdown in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in the vicinity of the reserve between 1986 and 2002. To clarify the issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study to ascertain how aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices have affected groundwater levels and groundwater flow to the Mar Negro area of the reserve. Changes in groundwater flow to the mangrove swamp and bay from 1986 to 2004 were estimated in this study by developing and calibrating a numerical groundwater flow model. The transient simulations indicate that prior to 1994, high irrigation return flows more than offset the effect of reduced groundwater withdrawals. In this case, the simulated discharge to the coast in the modeled area was 19 million gallons per day. From 1994 through 2004, furrow irrigation was completely replaced by micro-drip irrigation, thus eliminating return flows and the simulated average coastal discharge was 7 million gallons per day, a reduction of 63 percent. The simulated average groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the reserve from 1986 to 1993 was 2 million gallons per day, compared to an average simulated discharge of 0.2 million gallons per day from 1994 to 2004. The average annual rainfall for each of these periods was 38 inches. The groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was estimated at about 0.5 million gallons per day for 2003-2004 because of higher than average annual rainfall during these 2 years. The groundwater flow model was used to test five alternatives for increasing

  6. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... final rule that implemented the Order (76 FR 46185; August 2, 2012) and would bring the Order in line..., Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes to the Membership of the Softwood Lumber Board... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). The Board administers...

  7. 76 FR 46185 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...This rule establishes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). Softwood lumber is used in products like flooring, siding and framing. The program will be financed by an assessment on softwood lumber domestic manufacturers and importers and will be administered by a board of industry members selected by the Secretary of Agriculture......

  8. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial...

  9. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  10. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  11. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial...

  12. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. 1260.169 Section 1260.169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  14. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the following…

  15. Intensification of University-Industry Relationships and Its Impact on Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Dridi, Houssine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the intensification of university-industry relationships and its impact on university research. The paper consists of recent follow-up research to an international comparative research project conducted in the 1990s. It deals specifically with the Quebec (Canada) situation. Twenty-eight in-depth interviews were conducted in the…

  16. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development (R&D) Forum. The R&D Forums are held periodically to generate a National research agenda that will foster solutions for the many challenges...

  17. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry. PMID:25639120

  18. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Education and Industry Information Order; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION..., 2011 (76 FR 46185), regarding softwood lumber. Corrections are made in the amendatory instruction... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Division, Fruit...

  19. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  20. Applied Operations Research: Augmented Reality in an Industrial Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the application of computer generated data or graphics onto a real world view. Its use provides the operator additional information or a heightened situational awareness. While advancements have been made in automation and diagnostics of high value critical equipment to improve readiness, reliability and maintenance, the need for assisting and support to Operations and Maintenance staff persists. AR can improve the human machine interface where computer capabilities maximize the human experience and analysis capabilities. NASA operates multiple facilities with complex ground based HVCE in support of national aerodynamics and space exploration, and the need exists to improve operational support and close a gap related to capability sustainment where key and experienced staff consistently rotate work assignments and reach their expiration of term of service. The initiation of an AR capability to augment and improve human abilities and training experience in the industrial environment requires planning and establishment of a goal and objectives for the systems and specific applications. This paper explored use of AR in support of Operation staff in real time operation of HVCE and its maintenance. The results identified include identification of specific goal and objectives, challenges related to availability and computer system infrastructure.

  1. MEMS and nanotechnology research for the electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Y. Eugene

    2001-08-01

    The 20th Century has witnessed breathtaking developments in the miniaturization and the large-scale integration of microelectronic devices that have had an enormous impact on human affairs. The same miniaturization paradigm can be applied to mechanical devices using MEMS technology leading to ultra small micromachines that cannot otherwise be fabricated using conventional machining and assembly techniques. The MEMS technology is expected to have a great impact in the 21st century by enabling many complex electromechanical systems to be fabricated and integrated. In this paper, applications of MEMS to many areas relating to information and biotechnology are discussed. These topics are presented in the context of ongoing research at the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT). SAIT is the central research laboratory for the Samsung Corporation whose charter is to develop breakthrough technologies to be the leader in the 21st century.

  2. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  3. [The drug industry and research: status in Germany].

    PubMed

    Geursen, R

    1996-01-01

    If globally active pharmaceutical companies are to remain competitive, it is essential for them to be able to conduct research and development on an appropriate scale. Generally, their respective domestic market forms their base. For that reason, conditions there should be research-and innovation-friendly. In addition, pharmaceutical research calls for very long-term investment decisions. Companies that become involved in this interaction of profit and loss differ fundamentally from state or public organizations. The ensuing conflict of interest has become increasingly evident in Germany since the end of the 70s. The regulatory environment surrounding the market has changed in all fields, be they fiscal, sociopolitical or in pharmaceutical legislation, into a confusing and incoherent body of regulations. Moreover, part of society is undecided about its attitude towards pharmaceutical progress and the introduction of new technologies. In view of these developments it is high time to change course and help ensure that one of the few remaining competitive sectors in Germany-and one with a promising future-stays in the country. PMID:8967203

  4. The research of distributed interactive simulation based on HLA in coal mine industry inherent safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhi-Wu

    2010-08-01

    To solve the inherent safety problem puzzling the coal mining industry, analyzing the characteristic and the application of distributed interactive simulation based on high level architecture (DIS/HLA), a new method is proposed for developing coal mining industry inherent safety distributed interactive simulation adopting HLA technology. Researching the function and structure of the system, a simple coal mining industry inherent safety is modeled with HLA, the FOM and SOM are developed, and the math models are suggested. The results of the instance research show that HLA plays an important role in developing distributed interactive simulation of complicated distributed system and the method is valid to solve the problem puzzling coal mining industry. To the coal mining industry, the conclusions show that the simulation system with HLA plays an important role to identify the source of hazard, to make the measure for accident, and to improve the level of management.

  5. Nebraska Initiative for Aerospace Research and Industrial Development (NIARID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Reichenbach, Steve; Ianno, Ned; Farr, Lynne; Tarry, Scott; Narayanan, Ram; Lehrer, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  6. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemala, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows - How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  7. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  8. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  9. Contemporary tectonic stress: Advances in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Birgit; Sperner, Blanka

    The need for knowledge about the in situ tectonic stress field in research and economic applications was the topic of a series of two World Stress Map (WSM) Euroconferences. WSM is a global database containing information on contemporary tectonic stress in the Earth's crust, which is derived from six types of stress indicators: earthquake focal mechanisms, well bore breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring measurements, and young (Quaternary) geological indicators such as faultslip data and volcanic alignments.The database as well as stress maps from different regions of the world are available via the Internet (http://www-wsm.physik.uni-karlsruhe.de/). The first WSM Euroconference addressed the commercial application of in situ stress measurements. Improved knowledge of tectonic stress and effective rock strength is important in the design and construction of underground openings. For oil companies in charge of exploration and production, in situ stresses are basic input data for the calculation of actual production rates, petrophysical properties, borehole stability, compaction, subsidence, seismicity, solid control, sand production, geomechanical parameters, hydrocarbon migration, and hydraulic fracturing.The loss of drilling mud or hydrocarbons due to incomplete sealing of the drill holes or unexpected fracturing caused by tectonic stress leads to severe environmental problems and economic losses. In civil engineering and mining, the stability aspect is of equal economic importance, but in addition, the stability of road tunnels and mines is essential to save human life.

  10. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984.