Science.gov

Sample records for industry impacted cities

  1. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  2. The impact of a large industrial city on the soil respiration in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorkalov, I. A.; Vorobeichik, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of soil respiration was measured in situ under native pine stands in a large industrial city (Yekaterinburg, Russia) and beyond it. The compared sites differed significantly in the two factors affecting soil respiration, i.e., in the degree of urbanization (including air pollution, changes in the microclimate, fragmentation of the biotopes, the appearance of introduced species, etc.) and in the character of recreation loads (primarily, trampling loads). The difference between soil respiration rates in the city and in the suburbs was significant; it reached its maximum in the summer, when the soil respiration in the city was 1.9-3.5 times lower than that in the suburbs. However, this difference was virtually absent in the spring and fall seasons. The impact of recreation loads on the soil respiration was relatively low; moreover, it could have both positive and negative signs, i.e., lead to the increase or decrease in the soil respirarion rate. The particular mechanisms explaining the influence of the considered factors on the rate of the CO2 emission from the soils are discussed.

  3. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  4. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents

    PubMed Central

    Golokhvast, Kirill; Vitkina, Tatyana; Gvozdenko, Tatyana; Kolosov, Victor; Yankova, Vera; Kondratieva, Elena; Gorkavaya, Anna; Nazarenko, Anna; Chaika, Vladimir; Romanova, Tatyana; Karabtsov, Alexander; Perelman, Juliy; Kiku, Pavel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%), while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%), including size 200–300 nm (7%). In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p ≤ 0.05) and DNA (12%, p ≤ 0.05), as well as changes in leukocytes' energy potential (53%, p ≤ 0.05). An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p ≤ 0.01) and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p ≤ 0.01; glutathione, 30%, p ≤ 0.01 with stable reductases levels) maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage. PMID:26064419

  5. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents.

    PubMed

    Golokhvast, Kirill; Vitkina, Tatyana; Gvozdenko, Tatyana; Kolosov, Victor; Yankova, Vera; Kondratieva, Elena; Gorkavaya, Anna; Nazarenko, Anna; Chaika, Vladimir; Romanova, Tatyana; Karabtsov, Alexander; Perelman, Juliy; Kiku, Pavel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%), while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%), including size 200-300 nm (7%). In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p ≤ 0.05) and DNA (12%, p ≤ 0.05), as well as changes in leukocytes' energy potential (53%, p ≤ 0.05). An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p ≤ 0.01) and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p ≤ 0.01; glutathione, 30%, p ≤ 0.01 with stable reductases levels) maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage. PMID:26064419

  6. Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  7. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  8. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  9. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  10. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment

    PubMed Central

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust. PMID:26217736

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment.

    PubMed

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust. PMID:26217736

  13. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  14. The economic impact of Mexico City's smoke-free law

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero López, Carlos Manuel; Jiménez Ruiz, Jorge Alberto; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic impact of Mexico City's 2008 smoke-free law—The Non-Smokers' Health Protection Law on restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Material and methods We used the Monthly Services Survey of businesses from January 2005 to April 2009—with revenues, employment and payments to employees as the principal outcomes. The results are estimated using a differences-in-differences regression model with fixed effects. The states of Jalisco, Nuevo León and México, where the law was not in effect, serve as a counterfactual comparison group. Results In restaurants, after accounting for observable factors and the fixed effects, there was a 24.8% increase in restaurants' revenue associated with the smoke-free law. This difference is not statistically significant but shows that, on average, restaurants did not suffer economically as a result of the law. Total wages increased by 28.2% and employment increased by 16.2%. In nightclubs, bars and taverns there was a decrease of 1.5% in revenues and an increase of 0.1% and 3.0%, respectively, in wages and employment. None of these effects are statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions There is no statistically significant evidence that the Mexico City smoke-free law had a negative impact on restaurants' income, employees' wages and levels of employment. On the contrary, the results show a positive, though statistically non-significant, impact of the law on most of these outcomes. Mexico City's experience suggests that smoke-free laws in Mexico and elsewhere will not hurt economic productivity in the restaurant and bar industries. PMID:21292808

  15. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  16. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city. PMID:24645262

  17. Manpower Impacts of Industrial Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany. Research and Statistics Office.

    The effects of technological change on the manpower and training needs of New York State industry were studied in a survey of 281 Industrial situations. The study was designed to help answer questions about the effects of factory and related technological change in displacing workers, in creating recruitment and training needs, and in altering the…

  18. Impact of energy availability on city traffic and development

    SciTech Connect

    Scheelhaase, K.

    1982-01-01

    The energy problem will continue to influence urban development. Given that the automobile consumes more energy than other systems of transportation, alternatives must be sought, which may be pedestrian zones, bicycle paths, and public passenger transport systems. The general public, the government, industry, and city planners are called upon to turn the cities again into what they once were, the cultural and economic centers of regions. 6 refs.

  19. 75 FR 15740 - Euclid Industries, Inc.: Bay City, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Euclid Industries, Inc.: Bay City, MI; Notice of Termination of... Euclid Industries, Inc., Bay City, Michigan. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  20. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  1. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  2. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  3. Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

  4. Incorporation of effluent trading in the city of Millville, NJ industrial pretreatment program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.T.; Dimino, M.A.; Tarasevich, A.

    1998-07-01

    The City of Millville, NJ recently updated its sewer use ordinance to incorporate technically defensible effluent limitations for industrial users of their POTW. These limitations were designed to protect the POTW from the potential inhibitory effects of pollutants in the waste stream, to protect the quality of the biosolids generated at the POTW, and to protect the quality of effluent discharged by the POTW. Along with these technically defensible limits, the City also developed a pollutant trading program which allows industries to set up agreements, under the City's supervision, which affect the allocation of pollutant loadings.

  5. The Economic Impact of Industrialization on a Rural Town Economy; Wynne, Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Guy, Jr.

    The study investigated the economic impact of industrialization on the public and private sector of the community of Wynne, Arkansas. In the private sector, income, job opportunities and employment shifts, migration, commuting, and employee characteristics (age, sex, and education) were studied. In the public sector, the city government's…

  6. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    PubMed

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium. PMID:25895249

  7. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  8. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders. PMID:24505256

  9. New employment regimes in cities: the impact on immigrant workers.

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1996-10-01

    "The major cities of highly developed countries exhibit marked changes in job supplies and employment relations. It is frequently held that post-industrial societies require plentiful supplies of highly educated workers and will hold no openings for the low skilled. It is this latter category of jobs that immigrants have tended to fill in recent decades. Empirical data on major cities in advanced economies negate this supposition, revealing that there is an ongoing demand for immigrant labour and a continuing stream of employment opportunities which do not require high educational levels and which pay low wages. The article examines whether this job supply is merely a residue, to some extent augmented by the supply of low wage workers themselves, or whether it is a feature of a reconfigured labour market in advanced urban economies, i.e. a systemic development." PMID:12179812

  10. The impact of (mega)-cities on the earth's gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, S.; Estrella, N.; Güntner, A.; Matiu, M.; Peterseim, N.; Menzel, A.

    2013-12-01

    The world population is constantly growing; today over 7 billion people populate the planet. This development has led to a strong urbanization and expanding cities. According to the United Nations, since 2007 more human beings have lived in urban areas than in rural areas, and by 2030 the urban share will be more than 60%. The challenges of fast growing cities lie in urban management, supply to inhabitants of resources (e.g. water, power, food), and strong environmental problems (e.g. pollution), i.e. their ecological footprint. In our study we address the question of another footprint, whether (mega)-cities have an impact on the earth's gravity field. Analyzing the possible triggers will help to understand the multiple footprints of big cities in various regions. We analyze several data sources. The main data sets are a) monthly solutions of the gravity satellite mission GRACE, detecting changes in the earth's gravity field over time, b) data of the hydrological model WGHM, estimating mass changes in terrestrial and ground water storage, c) urban population data of the United Nations, d) land cover information of the European Space Agency, e) different climate data sets and other auxiliary data. The results suggest a non-uniform pattern of gravity changes with variations in trends related to different clustering parameters.

  11. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  12. Simulated Climate Impacts of Mexico City's Historical Urban Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson-Lira, Valeria

    Urbanization, a direct consequence of land use and land cover change, is responsible for significant modification of local to regional scale climates. It is projected that the greatest urban growth of this century will occur in urban areas in the developing world. In addition, there is a significant research gap in emerging nations concerning this topic. Thus, this research focuses on the assessment of climate impacts related to urbanization on the largest metropolitan area in Latin America: Mexico City. Numerical simulations using a state-of-the-science regional climate model are utilized to address a trio of scientifically relevant questions with wide global applicability. The importance of an accurate representation of land use and land cover is first demonstrated through comparison of numerical simulations against observations. Second, the simulated effect of anthropogenic heating is quantified. Lastly, numerical simulations are performed using pre-historic scenarios of land use and land cover to examine and quantify the impact of Mexico City's urban expansion and changes in surface water features on its regional climate.

  13. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  14. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  15. Industries, Cities and People, Episode VI. Resource Material Development: Population Dynamics in Eighth Grade American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.; And Others

    This is the sixth unit in a series that introduces population concepts into the eighth grade American history curriculum. (See SO 013 782 for an overview of the guide.) In Episode VI, the history topic is the rise of the cities and industrialization. This unit has five segments. Objectives are to help the student to (1) examine the lifestyles of…

  16. Multilingualism in a Post-Industrial City: Policy and Practice in Manchester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matras, Yaron; Robertson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Manchester (England), one of the first industrial cities, is now home to over 150 languages. Ethnic minority and migrant communities take active steps to maintain heritage languages in commerce and through education. The paper introduces a model for a holistic approach to profiling urban multilingualism that relies on triangulating a variety of…

  17. Effects of local emission sources on the acidification of rainwater in an industrial city in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Der-Yuan Wu

    1996-12-31

    This study investigated the acidification of precipitation in an industrial city in Taiwan Island. The purposes of this study is two fold. The first is to characterize the status of add precipitation around the industrial city. Rainwater samples were collected by automatic rainwater samplers-located at five sampling sites which covered the entire city. The second is to investigate the potential sources of acidic species in the acid rainwater. Further study was taken to ascertain the effects of local emissions as well as long range transportation on the acidification of precipitation. Investigation of acid rain on the Island of Taiwan has been conducted since 1984. Most of these researches were short-term and/or large-scale investigations. Long-term sampling of acid rain at heavy polluted region has never been investigated yet. In this investigation, Kaohsiung was selected as the city for the intensive acid rain sampling since it is the largest industrial city as well as the largest harbor in Taiwan Island. Both dry and wet acid samples were collected daily by the automatic rainwater samplers. Major cations (H{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}), anions (F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO3{sup -}, and SO4{sup -2}), and conductivity of acid samples were measured simultaneously. Actually, both pH value and conductivity were measured on site. During the period of investigation, 325 collected rainwater samples demonstrated an average pH value of 5.2 with the range of 3.1 to 6.3. This investigation revealed that emissions from local sources such as power plants, petrochemical plants, and cement plants play important roles on the acidification of rainwater in the industrial city in Taiwan.

  18. Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-10-01

    Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

  19. Impacts of classifying New York City students as overweight.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Lee, Ajin; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-03-29

    US schools increasingly report body mass index (BMI) to students and their parents in annual fitness "report cards." We obtained 3,592,026 BMI reports for New York City public school students for 2007-2012. We focus on female students whose BMI puts them close to their age-specific cutoff for categorization as overweight. Overweight students are notified that their BMI "falls outside a healthy weight" and they should review their BMI with a health care provider. Using a regression discontinuity design, we compare those classified as overweight but near to the overweight cutoff to those whose BMI narrowly earned them a "healthy" BMI grouping. We find that overweight categorization generates small impacts on girls' subsequent BMI and weight. Whereas presumably an intent of BMI report cards was to slow BMI growth among heavier students, BMIs and weights did not decline relative to healthy peers when assessed the following academic year. Our results speak to the discrete categorization as overweight for girls with BMIs near the overweight cutoff, not to the overall effect of BMI reporting in New York City. PMID:26976566

  20. High Comfort - Low Impact Concepts For Buildings and Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, Matthias

    2012-04-30

    This lecture provides an overview of what Transsolar is doing in the field of sustainable buildings and cities. Topics covered include: Why sustainability for buildings and cities; What does sustainability mean for buildings and cities; The company's "KlimaEngineering" approach; and Project examples.

  1. Nineteenth century flooding and pollutant loadings from the first industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James; Hurley, Rachel; Lewin, John

    2014-05-01

    Between 1750 and 1900 the city of Manchester was transformed. In the city and surrounding towns enormous volumes of fine-grained sediments (clays, silts and sands) were generated and much of this material, contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants, ended up in urban river channels that became choked with sediments. Water quality was dire. Urban channels were then periodically scoured by large floods from steep headwater catchments that evacuated sediments and deposited them on the wide rural floodplain downstream. The nature and extent of sediment pollution in the city and the volume of material transported by rivers can be established by studying floodplain deposits, a vital aspect of the history of the first industrial city that is now being explored. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) destroyed much of the valley floor of the Mersey-Irwell system downstream of the city. When the MSC opened at the beginning of 1894 it was the largest inland navigation of its kind in the world. We have identified well-preserved sedimentary records - that were not excavated or buried during the construction of the ship canal - that span this crucial period. High-resolution sampling of sediments has allowed reconstruction of large flood events, pollution history, and contaminant flux using detailed grain size and X-ray fluorescence analyses for the period up to 1887 when the construction of the MSC began. These constitute a geological archive of natural and anthropogenic environmental change before and during the Industrial Revolution. This paper presents natural baseline conditions for the Mersey-Irwell system, contaminant profiles for sediment-bound heavy metals, a record of exceptionally large floods for the nineteenth century, and the trajectory of change following the Industrial Revolution. This forms part of a larger project to establish the nature and extent of sediment pollution over the period of the Industrial Revolution in

  2. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  3. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  4. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  5. Functional and environmental assessment of the urboecosystems designed in the biologically reclamated landfill with industrial wastes (in Ryazan city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Alexey; Vasenev, Ivan; Karyakina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Regional environmental bodies' ability to understand, model and predict their soil cover environmental functions are especially important in case of landfill reclamation. The special attention has to be done to landfills with industrial wastes created earlier in frame of big city - comparatively closed to their residential areas. Dominated in Ryazan region sandy loam gray forest soils with not so high soil organic matter content and soil exchange capacity determine additional problems with landfill biological reclamation and continuous sustainable vegetation cover development. The modern environmental monitoring system has been developed in the big landfill with tanning industrial wastes from the biggest in Europe tannery to develop recommendation on the environmentally friendly reclamation technologies adapted to concrete landscape conditions and functional features of 2 m fresh soil-ground coating the landfill surface. More detailed monitoring system has to be developed to assess the regulatory environmental functions of the regenerated soil cover to minimize the reclamated landfill' negative impacts on the urban ecosystem air, surface and ground water quality. Obtained result will be useful for similar landfills with tanning industrial wastes environmental impact assessment and smart design.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

  7. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  8. The Nonfuel Minerals Industry: Regulatory Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex; Lacy, William

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an assessment of the effects of environmental and health and safety regulations on costs, competitiveness, and viability relative to the nation's metal mining and processing industry. (RE)

  9. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season, and the observations show emissions from BB impose viable yet highly variable impacts on organic aerosols (OA) in and around Mexico City. We have developed emission inventories for forest fires surrounding Mexico City based on measurement-estimated emission factors and MODIS fire counts, and for garbage fires in Mexico City based on in situ-measured emission factors and the population distribution and socioeconomic data. In this study, we will comprehensively assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosol loading, chemical composition, OA formation and photochemistry in Mexico City using WRF-Chem. Analysis of the model results, in conjunction with concurrent field measurements, will be presented.

  10. Industrial machinery noise impact modeling, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. H.; Kugler, B. A.

    1981-07-01

    The development of a machinery noise computer model which may be used to assess the effect of occupational noise on the health and welfare of industrial workers is discussed. The purpose of the model is to provide EPA with the methodology to evaluate the personnel noise problem, to identify the equipment types responsible for the exposure and to assess the potential benefits of a given noise control action. Due to its flexibility in design and application, the model and supportive computer program can be used by other federal agencies, state governments, labor and industry as an aid in the development of noise abatement programs.

  11. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  12. Biotechnology: Impact on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the nine key technology issues that affect the sustainability of the sugar- or bio-energy- cane industry, namely: land, fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and lately, information technology, growing the right varieties rema...

  13. The impact of corrosion on the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1996-08-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety, and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation, and refinery activities.

  14. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  15. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  16. The Impact of the University Education for an IT Career in Cluj-Napoca City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    Cluj-Napoca city is considered a major IT hub in Romania, and the leading exporter of IT services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of University education on the future careers of IT students in city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the University students in the IT field in…

  17. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28546) (Environmental Procedures), in... connection to the Twin Cities. A trip by automobile between the Twin Cities and Rochester is approximately 1... intercity travelers a reasonable alternative to automobile travel. Project Purpose and Need: The purpose...

  18. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High levels of ‘excess’ mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in ‘Sense of Coherence’ (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the ‘excess’. Setting Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. Participants A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). Primary and secondary outcome measures SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). Results SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (−5.1 (95% CI −6.0 to −4.1)) and 8.1 (−8.1 (−9.1 to −7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. Conclusions The reasons for the high levels of ‘excess’ mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation

  19. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  20. Emerging Ohio alcohol industry: impacts on agriculture. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.; Ott, S.

    1981-01-01

    A modest alcohol industry using corn is now being developed in Ohio. Other Corn Belt states are also developing alcohol industries. Substantial changes in land use, livestock feeding, and commodity prices will result from the additional demands put on agriculture to meet food, feed, fiber, and now energy needs. Export demand, crop yield changes, and land availability will have important impacts on these changes. A close monitoring of this new industry will be needed to assist farmers, agro-industries, and policymakers to make the necessary adjustments, to take advantage of the opportunities presented, and to preserve and enhance the productivity of agriculture. 3 tables.

  1. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a... of Transportation, will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with...

  2. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs. PMID:19136242

  3. Impact of foreign animal diseases at the industry level.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, P

    2006-01-01

    Industry-level impacts of highly contagious foreign animal diseases can be extensive and disruptive. These impacts are the sum of disease effects on the separate economic units that comprise the input supply, production, processing and marketing system of that industry. These industry-level effects would not include government costs or costs associated with disrupted travel or tourism or general economic activity. Direct impacts are those that are related to production and result in direct economic consequences for animal protein producers. Indirect impacts are consequences that include loss of trade, market and consumer confidence, among others. While it is prudent for governments to identify the costs of effective surveillance and prevention, these costs are often very small compared to the total cost of response and recovery associated with a disease outbreak. It is important that the effectiveness of those prevention programmes not be compromised because of other short-term priorities perceived to be more urgent. PMID:20429073

  4. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  5. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. PMID:21830135

  6. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  7. Source identification of PCDD/Fs for various atmospheric environments in a highly industrialized city.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Lin, Chieh

    2004-10-01

    This study set out to identify possible PCDD/F emission sources for different atmospheric environments in a highly industrialized city located in southern Taiwan. We collected stack flue gas samples from five main stationary emission sources of the municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), medical waste incinerators (MWIs), electric arc furnaces (EAFs), secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs), and sinter plants to assess the characteristics of their PCDD/F emissions. For mobile sources, congener profiles reported in U.S. EPA's database for unleaded gas-fueled vehicles (UGFV) and diesel-fueled vehicles (DFV) were directly adopted owing to lack of local data. The congener profiles of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs were selected as the signatures of these PCDD/F emission sources. We conducted PCDD/F samplings on atmospheric environments of four categories, including background, residential area, traffic area, and industrial area. Through PCA and cluster analyses, we found that traffic areas were most influenced by PCDD/F emissions from UGFV and DFV, while those of industrial areas were mainly influenced by metallurgical facilities and MWIs. The above results were further examined by using the methodology of the indicatory PCDD/Fs. We confirmed that traffic areas were contributed by traffic sources, but industrial areas were simply affected by metallurgical facilities rather than MWIs. In conclusion, besides the use of PCA and cluster analyses, the methodology of the indicatory PCDD/Fs should be conducted for further validation in order to prevent misjudgment. PMID:15506183

  8. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  9. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  10. A pilot demonstration project of technology application from the aerospace industry to city management (four cities program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, G. F.; Blomeyer, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    The Four Cities Program has completed the first year of the planned two-year program. At the beginning of the first year, a variety of program initiation activities were accomplished. Contracts were negotiated; science and technology advisors were interviewed, selected and assigned; general indoctrination and integration of the advisors into city affairs occurred; technical needs were identified and related projects pursued; pilot projects for the second year were identified; inter-city coordination on technical problems began to emerge; and the general soundness of the four cities program seems to have been established. Above all, the inter-personal relationships between the advisors and their interfaces in city government appear to be functioning smoothly. The establishment of such mutual respect, trusts, and confidences are believed essential to the success of the program.

  11. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

  12. Construction industry cost effectiveness; It does have an impact

    SciTech Connect

    Schappa, P.J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness (CICE) project. Northern States Power (NSP) decided to implement many suggestions proposed in the CICE report to improve labor productivity for their 800 MW project. With the project successfully completed in 1987 on time and within budget, this paper reviews the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness strategies employed by Northern States Power and their impact on the project.

  13. Man's Impact on the Environment: The City as an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This environmental education program emphasizes the cause and effect of change in a city ecosystem with special attention given to man and his role in environmental change. Concepts are employed from the natural and social sciences to investigate environmental problems. Unit activities are inquiry oriented and answer these questions: (1) What is…

  14. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    mass concentration, is also expected to scale the same way. Experimental data for five cities: Mexico City, Mexico; Las Vegas and Reno, NV, USA; Beijing, China; and Delhi, India (the data for the last two cities were obtained from the literature); are in reasonable accord with the model. The scaling relation provided by the model may be considered a useful metric depending on the assumption that specific city conditions (such as latitude, altitude, local meteorological conditions, degree of industrialization, population density, number of cars per capita, city shape, etc.) vary randomly, independent of city size. While more detailed studies (including data from more cities) are needed, we believe that this relatively weak dependence of the pollution concentration on the city population might help to explain why the worsening of urban air quality does not directly lead to a decrease in the rate of growth in city population.

  15. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (<0 μg/m(3)) that in surrounding areas in only 41 prefectures, which were located in western China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.05), and between [Formula: see text] and urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  16. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  17. Microzonation Mapping Of The Yanbu Industrial City, Western Saudi Arabia: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Sayed, Sr.; Alarifi, Nassir S.; Lashin, Aref A.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas along the western coast of Saudi Arabia are susceptible to natural disasters and environmental damages due to lack of planning. To produce a site-specific microzonation map of the rapidly growing Yanbu industrial city, spatial distribution of different hazard entities are assessed using the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP) together with Geographical Information System (GIS). For this purpose six hazard parameter layers are considered, namely; fundamental frequency, site amplification, soil strength in terms of effective shear-wave velocity, overburden sediment thickness, seismic vulnerability index and peak ground acceleration. The weight and rank values are determined during AHP and are assigned to each layer and its corresponding classes, respectively. An integrated seismic microzonation map was derived using GIS platform. Based on the derived map, the study area is classified into five hazard categories: very low, low, moderate high, and very high. The western and central parts of the study area, as indicated from the derived microzonation map, are categorized as a high hazard zone as compared to other surrounding places. The produced microzonation map of the current study is envisaged as a first-level assessment of the site specific hazards in the Yanbu city area, which can be used as a platform by different stakeholders in any future land-use planning and environmental hazard management.

  18. Meningococcal meningitis in an industrial area adjoining Surat City--some clinico-epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, B S; Saxena, D M; Kantharia, S L; Somasunderam, C; Mehta, N R

    1989-06-01

    An industrial area with poor sanitation and inhabited by migrant, male predominant population, situated South to Surat City, experienced an outbreak of pyogenic meningitis during 1985-87. A total of 197 cases of meningitis with 34 deaths were reported during a period of 1 1/2 years. Neisseria meningitidis was the predominant pathogen isolated from 66 out of 138 CSF samples. Recently migrated males of productive age groups drawn from the States of Uttar Pradesh and Orissa were predominantly affected. Male to female ratio was found to be 7.2:1. Nearly 2/3rd of the cases were reported during the dry colder months of winter and spring. Pregnancy and childbirth appeared to be important predisposing factors in females. Nine cases were reported from the family contacts of cases. Majority of the cases were labourers doing manual work. PMID:2809153

  19. The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

    This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

  20. Drought impacts in the New York City metropolitan area: A comparison of impacts between 1995 and other recent droughts

    SciTech Connect

    DeGaetano, A.T.

    1997-11-01

    This study is intended to provide information on drought impact on the major cities in the northeastern US. The effects of the 1995 drought on water resources, electric utilities, agriculture, forestry, recreation, and retail sales are analyzed for New York City and surrounding counties. Water resource related impacts associated with the most recent drought are also compared with those that occurred during the prolonged mid-1960s drought and shorter drought periods in the early and mid-1980s. The assessment of drought impacts from the 1995 drought in the New York metropolitan area showed the influence of this drought on water resources to be relatively minor with the exception of some show ground water problems and reduced flow on the Hudson River. There were also negative impacts on non-irrigated agriculture and fire prevention/control operations. In general, these impacts were relatively minor in comparison with prior droughts. Based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and precipitation deficit, a temporal comparison of droughts in New York City with respect to water supply indicates a general delay in the occurrence of drought impacts and responses. This may be a result of improved efforts to promote water conservation within the city or a reflection of increased reservoir capacity coupled with a declining urban population. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katusya; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Machida, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding the industrial potential of the fungus in biotechnology. Genes that have been newly discovered through genome research can be used for the production of novel valuable enzymes and chemicals, and are important for designing new industrial processes. This article describes recent progress of A . oryzae genomics and its impact on industrial production of enzymes, metabolites, and bioprocesses. PMID:16944282

  2. The Regeneration Challenge in the Developed World: Insights Generated from a Capabilities Approach Applied to the Understanding of Regeneration Efforts in Post-Industrial Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Nelarine; Trueman, Myfanwy

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of the urban story of many cities in the developed world is their "regeneration" after many years of long-term social, economic and environmental decline. This is especially so in cities that have sought to reverse a long-standing, negative reputation and pejorative image. Based on the context of post-industrial cities in the…

  3. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2014-02-01

    The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

  4. Risk assessment of atmospheric heavy metals exposure in Baotou, a typical industrial city in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing

    2016-06-01

    Industrial activities have led to serious air pollution and the potentially toxic elements in atmospheric particles can cause various health problems to humans. In this study, inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) were collected from four typical sites in Baotou, an industrial city in northern China. We investigated both the mass concentrations of particulate matter and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn) in the collected samples. We assessed the public health risks associated with atmospheric heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as these heavy metal concentrations varied notably influenced by the prevailing wind directions. Among the studied metals, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cr were the main metal pollutants in both PM10 and PM2.5. The results of the health assessment showed that the eight heavy metals studied pose significant non-carcinogenic risks and Cr, Cd, and Co pose lifetime lung cancer risks to local residents, especially to children. PMID:26350673

  5. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport. PMID:26625613

  6. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  7. Indicator-based assessment of environmental hazards and health effects in the industrial cities of upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Wcislo, Eleonora; Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Konczalik, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Using an indicator-based approach, we assessed environmental hazards and related health effects in populations of industrial cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Upper Silesia, Poland, and analyzed the relationship between environment and health. We adopted the method developed by Dutkiewicz et al. for assessing large geographic areas. Based on routinely collected environmental and health data, two groups of indicators, environmental indicators (EIs) and health status indicators (HSIs), related to environmental contamination were selected. The EI and HSI values were normalized and aggregated into synthetic measures using Strahl's taxonometric method. The synthetic measures indicated the intensity of environmental hazards and health outcomes. We used a three-level index scale to compare and rank the cities under the study and, consequently, to facilitate decision making. Findings of the assessment identified cities where actions aimed at reducing environmental hazards and improving population health status should be established as priorities. These cities included Chorzów, Katowice, Sosnowiec, Bytom, and Zabrze. We found a high correlation between the synthetic measures of environmental indicators and the synthetic measure of health status indicators (r = 0.77), as well as a high level of consistency between environmental hazard indices and environmental-related health status indices (73%). This may indicate the existence of a causal relationship between the environmental contamination within industrial cities and the health status of their inhabitants. PMID:12417485

  8. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, X.; Li, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-07-01

    spatial distribution of NOx emissions are consistent with NO2 vertical column density measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). In particular, the Nanjing city-scale emission inventory correlates better with satellite observations than the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) does when emissions from power plants are excluded. This indicates improvement in emission estimation for sectors other than power generation, notably industry and transportation. High-resolution emission inventory may also provide a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations. To further improve emission estimation and evaluation, more measurements of both emission factors and ambient levels of given pollutants are suggested; the uncertainties of emission inventories at city scale should also be fully quantified and compared with those at national scale.

  9. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: A Report to the Tri-Cities Community, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This booklet presents the 2000 Facts and Impacts report to the Tri-Cities community served by Columbia Basin College (CBC). It provides a snapshot of the college in the late 1990s. Following a message from CBC's president and a list of the members of the Board of Trustees, legislators (District 8), legislators (District 16), president, vice…

  10. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  11. Impact of the Efficacy Process on Students in Sacramento City USD Pilot Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, Rebecka A.

    Research related to the implementation and impact of the efficacy process on teachers and students in four Sacramento (California) City Unified School District pilot schools over a 4-year period is described. The study investigated three research evaluation questions: (1) the extent of teachers' implementation of the efficacy process; (2) the…

  12. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  13. FLUORIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN INDUSTRIALIZED BEVERAGES CONSUMED BY CHILDREN IN THE CITY OF BAURU, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    The increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil. Material and Methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. Fluoride concentrations were determined by HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (Orion 9409). Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 μg F/mL. It was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. There was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. Conclusions: Some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration. PMID:19089131

  14. The Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' Health Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela

    2011-07-15

    Aim: The short report reviews an experience of conducting a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the local government context. The aim of this review was to identify if carrying out an HIA would result in recommendations that could influence council planning and help establish ongoing working relationships between North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council. Methods: A process and impact evaluation was conducted on the Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' HIA, which focused on the Coffs Harbour City Council's strategic planning document. Information gained through the evaluation was themed and the findings were reviewed against published information on HIA experience. Main findings: HIA has reported benefits for both the Coffs Harbour City Council and NCAHS as it provides a tool to address many of the issues facing these organisations. Local council has increasing responsibilities including the environment, housing and urban planning, which all have health implications. HIA has been demonstrated as an effective tool for NCAHS staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council to engage and build relationships, increase the understanding of all planning aspects related to health, and most importantly utilise evidence to inform decision making. Conclusion: HIA should be adopted as a key tool to facilitate effective working partnerships between organisations. Improved engagement, partnerships and use of evidence to produce shared outcomes can result from utilising this tool.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  16. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2010-11-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (HFO combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (17% of PM2.5). Even though, industrial emissions contribute for only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dp<80 nm) and high concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. This result implies that CMB modelling should not be a straightforward exercise and one have to carefully investigate the marker behaviours and trends beforehand, especially in complex environments such as Marseille. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute health outcomes and should be regulated

  17. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dp<80 nm) and high concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute ill-health outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un

  18. Scientists Focus on Land Subsidence Impacts on Coastal and Delta Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Some coastal and delta cities around the world are sinking but not necessarily due only to sea level rise and impacts from extreme weather events. Land subsidence that is caused by anthropogenic processes—including the extraction of groundwater, oil, and gas and the drainage of soils—is a significant concern for Jakarta, Indonesia; Manila, Philippines; New Orleans, La.; and many other coastal and delta cities, according to scientists at a 28 April briefing held at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria.

  19. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  20. Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-30

    It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental impacts are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)

  1. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of

  2. An Impact Analysis of Regional Industry--University Interactions: The Case of Industrial PhD Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Linda; Nuur, Cali; Söderlind, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss Triple Helix collaborations in the context of regional competitiveness. Through an exploratory case study, they identify and analyse the impact of the establishment of industrial PhD schools for participating industry and universities. The study was conducted in Sweden in 2014 and focuses on three industry--university…

  3. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  4. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety. PMID:19778828

  5. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in an industrial city of India.

    PubMed

    Bhende, A A; Choe, M K; Rele, J R; Palmore, J A

    1991-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of contraceptive method choice in Jamshedpur, an industrial city in Bihar State, one of the few areas in India that enjoys a "cafeteria approach" to family planning method selection. While contraceptive prevalence in India is about 35%, Jamshedpur has a prevalence rate close to 60%. One of Jamshedpur's special programs is the Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) Family Welfare Programme, which provides an array of services to both employees and nonemployees. In 1983, TISCO commissioned the International Institute for Populations Studies (IIPS) to evaluate its programs. Based on the findings of an IIPS survey of 2376 currently married women between the ages of 15-44, this study attempts to identify determinants of contraceptive method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial logit regression, a model appropriate for studying the relationships between a number of covariates and a dependent variable (the contraceptive method used) that has more than 2 possible outcomes (female sterilization, male sterilization, condom, female temporary method, natural methods, or no method). The survey examined the following covariates: religion/caste, mother tongue, husband's occupation, place of employment, age at consummation of marriage, husband's education, wife's education, marriage duration, survival status of last child, number and sex of living children, and attitude variables. The study found that religion, mother tongue, and educational levels are important determinants of acceptance and method choice. The number of children -- especially sons -- also affected contraceptive use, rising as family size increases. The study revealed that the Jamshedpur population did exercise choice in clear patterns when the choices were made available. PMID:12284858

  6. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  7. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

  8. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Poursafa, Parinaz; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Ziarati, Mohammad; Ghoddousi, Hamid; Momeni, Seyyed Alireza; Rezaei, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3). According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2). Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37). Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application. PMID:22272210

  10. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the

  11. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  12. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. PMID:26841293

  13. Industry in Motion: Using Smart Phones to Explore the Spatial Network of the Garment Industry in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City’s garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geo-locative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City’s Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders. PMID:24505256

  14. PM10 mass concentration, chemical composition, and sources in the typical coal-dominated industrial city of Pingdingshan, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shushen; Shao, Longyi; Fan, Jingsen; Liu, Yanfei

    2016-11-15

    The atmospheric pollution created by coal-dominated industrial cities in China cannot be neglected. This study focuses on the atmospheric PM10 in the typical industrial city of Pingdingshan City in North China. A total of 44 PM10 samples were collected from three different sites (power plant, mining area, and roadside) in Pingdingshan City during the winter of 2013, and were analyzed gravimetrically and chemically. The Pingdingshan PM10 samples were composed of mineral matter (average of 118.0±58.6μg/m(3), 20.6% of the total PM10 concentration), secondary crystalline particles (338.7±122.0μg/m(3), 59.2%), organic matter (77.3±48.5μg/m(3), 13.5%), and elemental carbon (38.0±28.3μg/m(3), 6.6%). Different sources had different proportions of these components in PM10. The power plant pollutant source was characterized by secondary crystalline particles (377.1μg/m(3)), elemental carbon (51.5μg/m(3)), and organic matter (90.6μg/m(3)) due to coal combustion. The mining area pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (124.0μg/m(3)) due to weathering of waste dumps. The roadside pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (130.0μg/m(3)) and organic matter (81.0μg/m(3)) due to road dust and vehicle exhaust, respectively. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was performed for PM10 source apportionment to identify major anthropogenic sources of PM10 in Pingdingshan. Six factors-crustal matter, coal combustion, vehicle exhaust and abrasion, local burning, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting-were identified and their contributions to Pingdingshan PM10 were 19.0%, 31.6%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 9.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Compared to other major cities in China, the source of PM10 in Pingdingshan was characterized by coal combustion, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting. PMID:27450962

  15. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  16. 13 CFR 315.17 - Assistance to firms in import-impacted industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-impacted industries. 315.17 Section 315.17 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FIRMS Assistance to Industries § 315.17 Assistance to firms in import-impacted industries. (a) Whenever the International Trade Commission makes...

  17. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  18. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  19. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, J. . Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  20. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness. PMID:17321032

  1. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment. PMID:20005611

  2. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yan; Christensen, Thomas H.; Lu Wenjing; Wu Huayong; Wang Hongtao

    2011-04-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery. The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.

  4. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  5. Developing a model to estimate the potential impact of municipal investment on city health.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Malcolm; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes a process which exemplifies the potential impact of municipal investment on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in city populations. We report on Developing an evidence-based approach to city public health planning and investment in Europe (DECiPHEr), a project part funded by the European Union. It had twin objectives: first, to develop and validate a vocational educational training package for policy makers and political decision takers; second, to use this opportunity to iterate a robust and user-friendly investment tool for maximizing the public health impact of 'mainstream' municipal policies, programs and investments. There were seven stages in the development process shared by an academic team from Sheffield Hallam University and partners from four cities drawn from the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. There were five iterations of the model resulting from this process. The initial focus was CVD as the biggest cause of death and disability in Europe. Our original prototype 'cost offset' model was confined to proximal determinants of CVD, utilizing modified 'Framingham' equations to estimate the impact of population level cardiovascular risk factor reduction on future demand for acute hospital admissions. The DECiPHEr iterations first extended the scope of the model to distal determinants and then focused progressively on practical interventions. Six key domains of local influence on population health were introduced into the model by the development process: education, housing, environment, public health, economy and security. Deploying a realist synthesis methodology, the model then connected distal with proximal determinants of CVD. Existing scientific evidence and cities' experiential knowledge were 'plugged-in' or 'triangulated' to elaborate the causal pathways from domain interventions to public health impacts. A key product is an enhanced version of the cost offset model, named Sheffield Health Effectiveness Framework

  6. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from

  7. Variability in Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties at a Coastal Industrial City in India, deduced from OMI and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.

    2009-12-01

    Many cities in India have gone through industrial revolution due to the priorities put by the State and Central Governments for economical growth. Bhubaneswar is one of the cities in the eastern part of India (85.8 E and 20.2 N) that has been the center of industrial activities since 1990s. A number of industries such as thermal power plants, sponge iron plants and housing developments have resulted changes in the land cover and in the slow deterioration of air quality affecting public health and reduced visibility. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the variability in aerosol optical and physical properties in Bhubaneswar using remote sensing data produced by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). We have analyzed the data for Aerosol Extiction Optical Depth (AOD), Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD), UV Aerosol Index and Cloud Fraction from OMI and Aerosol Small Mode Fraction, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), Aerosol Mass over Land from MODIS. The analysis has been made for 4 years from 2005-2008. Variations in AOD and AAOD values are observed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods.

  8. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  9. Developing a functional model for cities impacted by a natural hazard: application to a city affected by flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambara, G.; Peyras, L.; Felix, H.; Serre, D.

    2015-03-01

    The experience feedback on a crisis that hit a city is frequently used as a "recollection" tool. To capitalize information about an experience feedback from the cities that have been affected by a natural hazard, the authors propose in this study a functional model to model scenarios of city crises. In this model, the city, considered as a complex system, was modelled using a functional analysis method. Based on such modelling, two risk analysis methods (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Event Tree Method) were deployed and adjusted. Lastly, a qualitative reasoning model was used for the scenario modelling of the urban crisis. By functional modelling performed on components of the cities, the objective of this model is to replicate the behaviour of a city affected by a crisis, highlighting the sequences of failure and non-failure modes that have operated during the crisis. This model constitutes a means of understanding the functional behaviour in a crisis of cities and capitalization of the experience feedback of the cities affected by crisis. Such functional modelling was deployed in a case study.

  10. POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COMPOUNDING AND FABRICATING INDUSTRIES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objectives of this research effort were to identify compounding and fabricating industries from a selected number of Standard Industrial Classification codes, and identify the environmental impact resulting from processing steps used by fabrication or compounding indu...

  11. Lung Function Impact from Working in the Pre-Revolution Libyan Quarry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Draid, Marwan M.; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M.; Ali, Ashraf M.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Gibbs, Shawn G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure. PMID:25961801

  12. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries. PMID:26219273

  13. Impact of home industries on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Harare: implications for urban water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvungi, A.; Hranova, R. K.; Love, D.

    Sustainable use of water resources requires the integration of demand management with source quality management. The City of Harare is a case in point, where wastewater and runoff from the city flow into its reservoirs. Little has yet been established on the quality of runoff from home industries in the high-density urban environment. In Harare, most of these are located close to streams draining into the city’s reservoirs. The impact of runoff from different land uses on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Kuwadzana high-density suburb, Harare, was assessed. The water quality from two sub-catchments, one of which contained home industries and residential areas and the other, which contained residential areas only, was compared over the 2001-2002 rainy season. It was found that phosphate (1.08 mg/l), TKN (3.2 mg/l), ammonia (1.14 mg/l), faecal coliforms (1000/100 ml), iron (6.9 mg/l), and lead (0.53 mg/l) were the major water quality pollutants. The SCS-SA model was used to estimate the runoff in different sampling points. Pollution loads for certain parameters were, on average, four times higher in the sub-catchment containing home industries (287 kg total phosphates, 319 kg TKN nitrate, 115 kg ammonia, 744 kg iron and 41 kg lead), than in the sub-catchment containing residential areas only (74kg total phosphates, 50 kg TKN nitrate, 21 kg ammonia, 138 kg iron and 12 kg lead). This is due to the higher runoff volumes from the area containing the home industries, while the pollution concentrations at both representative points where not statistically different. Accordingly, it is recommended that the City authorities should reassess current practice and make provision for sewer and drainage systems and adequate disposal of solid and hazardous wastes in areas zoned for home industries and to improve the solid waste management in high-density areas. Efforts should be made to control the storage of materials and scrap in these areas. Most importantly

  14. Electric Pole Maintenance in Nagoya City Science Museum as a Cooperative Activity of Industry, School and Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, Koichi

    The object of this paper is to suggest an education model as a cooperative activity of industry, school and local government in science museums. Nagoya City Science Museum has opened the new exhibit on electric pole maintenance since 2002, which makes a visitor a temporary electrician working at a height of 3 meters. The exhibit, named “Be an Electrician”, is focusing on stimulating young people's interest in industrial technology. The electric pole and equipments on the pole like transformer, electric wires and so forth were donated from an electric power company to the museum. The museum manages volunteers including an active electrician and students to study engineering, who instruct the visitors in the bucket how to change the insulator on the pole. The active electrician also instructs some technical high school students in practical works at height. This new exhibit indicates the science museum positioned between companies and schools will make it possible to extend internship.

  15. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  16. Industrial discharges of metals in Kigali, Rwanda, and the impact on drinking water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gasana, J.; Twagilimana, L.; Hallenbeck, W.; Brenniman, G.

    1997-04-01

    Rwanda is a landlocked country located in Africa`s Central-East Great Lakes region. It has a population of 7.5 million which occupies 26,338 km{sup 2}. Its population density (285/km{sup 2}) is one of the highest in the world and has prompted fear of a rapid degradation of the ecosystem. There are no central sewer systems in Rwanda. The use of pit latrines and septic tanks is common in urban and rural areas. People still defecate in the fields. Less than half of the urban population is served by a central water supply. The majority of people get their water untreated from rivers that have been polluted by chemicals and human excreta. In and around the capital city of Kigali, there is a concentration of people, farms, and industries which discharge wastewater into the Nyabarongo River and its tributaries. The Nyabarongo River, a tributary of the Nile, empties into the Akagera River which flows into Lake Victoria. Nyabarongo River water is used for drinking water, cooking, bathing, and agriculture in the Kigali area. There has been very little monitoring of the water quality of the Nyabarongo River and of industrial outfalls located on tributaries of the Nyabarongo River. As a first step in understanding the water quality of the Nyabarongo River, wastewater samples were collected in 1993 from industrial outfalls located on tributaries of the Nyabarongo River. Most of the facilities sampled had no wastewater treatment. The impact of these discharges on the water quality of the Nyabarongo River was evaluated. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  17. A regulatory perspective on the radiological impact of NORM industries: the case of the Spanish phosphate industry.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Matarranz, J L M; Salas, R; Ramos, L

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical risks coexist in NORM industries although they are usually addressed separately by regulations. The European Union (EU) has developed extensive legislation concerning both matters, which has been diversely reflected in national policies. We consider the case of the Spanish phosphate industry and analyse to which extent regulatory mandates have reduced the historical and ongoing radiological impact on the environment of phosphate facilities. Although no specific radiological constraints on effluent monitoring and release or on waste disposal have yet been imposed on NORM industries in Spain, other environmental regulations have achieved a substantial reduction on the phosphate industry impact. Nevertheless, a more efficient control could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks in NORM industries. We highlight research needs to accomplish so and propose shorter-term measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved. PMID:20952107

  18. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mónica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Núbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernández, Leonardo J; Rossetti, María Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martínez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los Ángeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Frías, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26035705

  19. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. PMID:26696604

  20. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  1. Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

  2. Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

  3. Internal exposure to trace elements in non-smoking residents living in a northern Taiwan industrial city.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tser-Sheng; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2011-12-01

    A total of 94 (54 males, 40 females) healthy adult residents living in an industrial city in northern Taiwan were recruited to study their exposure to industrial metals by measuring their blood levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W. All participants were non-smokers without obvious direct occupational exposure to these elements, although by working in administrative sectors in industrial facilities their indirect or potential exposure was increased. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W in blood were 0.30, 1.49, 15.1, 3.84, 2.73, 21.1, 204, 3.2, 0.76, 51.1, and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. These values were significantly higher than reference values reported for the general population, in some cases exceeding those of occupationally exposed workers. The principal component and correlation analyses among blood element levels suggested that the predominant sources of exposure were glass manufacturing and traffic-related sources. Despite of some limitations, the study demonstrates that the residents in this industrial area may suffer adverse chronic health effects attributable to exposures to these elements. PMID:21409473

  4. Adaptation to urbanization impacts on drainage in the city of Hohhot, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qianqian; Ren, Yi; Xu, Miaomiao; Han, Nini; Wang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative assessment of urbanization effects on hydrological runoff and drainage network in the city of Hohhot, China. The evolution of urban spatial morphology for the historical years (1987-2010) and projected year (2020) is described by changes in geographic information system (GIS)-based land use maps and further represented in hydrological parameters in the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulation. The results show the levels of service of historical drainage were too low to have dominant impacts on flood risks, and hence a significant upward trend in catchment runoff response was observed over time. Comparisons with changes in system overloading indicate that the relative increase in flood risk is greatest at the early stage of urbanization with relatively low levels of development. The proposed adaptation measures based on a cost-effective optimal approach was found feasible to significantly improve the drainage performance and mitigate the increasing flooding impacts. PMID:26744948

  5. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

  6. [Impact of lead pollution in environment on children's health in Shenyang City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunmei; Ouyang, Hua; Wang, Jinda; Liu, Jingshuang; Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Yan

    2003-09-01

    In this thesis, based on field sampling and indoor integrated analysis with GIS technology, the impact of lead pollution in the atmosphere, dust, soil on the children was explored systemically. Results showed that, Lead exposure in environment was widely distributed and Lead pollution was serious in Shenyang city. The spatial variations of Lead, with four high content centers in the soil, dust and atmosphere, were distinct in all the environmental media. Moreover, there were daily, seasonal and annual variations in the atmosphere. The impact of lead pollution in environment on children health was serious in Shenyang city. The blood lead content of the children (ZPP > 2.3 mumol/L) with the age of 0-10 ranged from 10.98 to 511.2 micrograms/L, and the average of 135.59 micrograms/L. The blood content of 40% children was beyond the normal standard. And correlative degree of lead contents between in blood and in atmosphere was highest, secondly in soil, and last in dust. With the implication of non-lead gasoline the lead content in the atmosphere had declined greatly. Along with the flying dust, the lead in the soil and dust was likely to entering into the atmosphere to bring out potential pollution risk. PMID:14719254

  7. Impact of wildfires on the air quality of Mexico City, 1992-1999.

    PubMed

    Bravo, A H; Sosa, E R; Sánchez, A P; Jaimes, P M; Saavedra, R M I

    2002-01-01

    Wildfires in Mexico increased in 1998, compared to information for the last 6 years. The average number of wildfires in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) for this year (1998) were 58% (1916 events) more events than the 1992-1997 (average cases 1217 events). Mexico City affected area corresponds to 1.3% of the national affected area. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact on the particles air quality due to the wildfire emissions at the MCMA and surrounding areas. Using the corresponding US EPA emission factors for wildfires, the tons of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons emitted by this source for the MCMA case were obtained. The calculated emissions during wildfires were correlated with the levels of particles present in the atmosphere. A comparison of the concentration levels of particles, both as PM10 as well as TSP, were made for the years 1992-1998, during wet and dry season, being March, April, and May the critical months due to the presence of wildfires. A good correlation is observed between particulate wildfire emissions and particulate air quality, being stronger for TSP. A clear impact on the particles air quality due to the increase of wildfires in 1998, is observed when this year is compared with 1997, presenting an increment of 200-300% for some monitoring stations. PMID:11924549

  8. A simple model for factory distribution: Historical effect in an industry city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Morita, Satoru; Maeda, Yasunobu; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2016-02-01

    The construction and discontinuance processes of factories are complicated problems in sociology. We focus on the spatial and temporal changes of factories at Hamamatsu city in Japan. Real data indicate that the clumping degree of factories decreases as the density of factory increases. To represent the spatial and temporal changes of factories, we apply "contact process" which is one of cellular automata. This model roughly explains the dynamics of factory distribution. We also find "historical effect" in spatial distribution. Namely, the recent factories have been dispersed due to the past distribution during the period of economic bubble. This effect may be related to heavy shock in Japanese stock market.

  9. Potential radiological impact of the phosphate industry on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Sweeck, Lieve

    2015-03-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We performed a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of environmental contamination resulting from the activities of 5 phosphate fertiliser plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil), a phosphate-mine and a phosphate-export platform in a harbour (both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the availability of information on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. Assessments were generally performed considering highest environmental concentrations reported in the studies. The ERICA Tool, operating in a Tier 2 assessment mode, was used to predict radiation dose rates and associated risk to the selected reference organisms using the ERICA default parameter setting. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a best estimate risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is considered unlikely to be at risk and further radiological assessment is not deemed necessary. Except for one of the cases assessed, the best estimate RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. Internal exposure covered for 90-100 % of the total dose. (226)Ra or (210)Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertiliser plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goiás (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted to be potentially most at risk. PMID:25500062

  10. Market impact of selected industrial energy efficient technologies. Final report Jun 81-May 82

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Salama, S.; Kothari, V.S.

    1982-09-01

    This analysis is designed to assist the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in evaluating technologies within the Industrial Utilization (IU) program. The main focus of the study is to assess the market impacts of selected projects designed by GRI to improve industrial sector energy efficiency and reduce energy-related cost. Market impacts examined for GRI include the energy savings and consumer savings that could result from these industrial technologies sponsored by GRI.

  11. IMPACT OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS ON MESOSCALE PRECIPITATION QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from an 'acid rain' field study around the city of Philadelphia are presented. The study involved the sampling of wet deposition at a network of 40 sites within a distance of 60 km from the Delaware River. Emphasis was placed on event-type rain sampling of frontal and pri...

  12. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2013-01-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase

  13. Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme Temperatures in New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between temperature and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme temperatures on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily temperature from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average temperature 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of temperature from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.

  14. Industrialization study. [impact of government incentives and barriers on decision making in the industrial production of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The investment process in U.S. industries was studied in order to characterize the critical elements in major high risk investment decisions. Because motivation was determined to be the greatest single factor force in inducing a company to invest in a high risk venture, the relative impact of alternative government programs and policies on personal and financial motivations were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to ascertain the effect on these programs and policies on photovoltaic industrialization. The government alternatives are ranked on the basis of their ease of implementation and their probable effect. The recommended sequence in which government policies would be applied to maximize the industrialization of the photovoltaic venture is discussed.

  15. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  16. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  17. In search of some R and R: Industries, cities gravitate toward wastewater recycling, reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Nichele, V.B.

    1996-02-01

    Although its advantages are touted highly by experts, wastewater recycling is still a relatively new and complex issue for environmental managers. Industries increasingly are seeking cost-effective, efficient ways to recycle their wastewater rather than merely treat it, and, as such, are beginning to realize some long-term benefits because of improved production processes and conservation of limited resources.

  18. Industrial shifts, female employment, and occupational differentiation: a dynamic model for American cities, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Semyonov, M; Scott, R I

    1983-05-01

    Sex-linked occupational differentiation has been seen as influenced by both the industrial structure of the economy and the sex composition of the labor force. Here, with a sample of 70 SMSAs, it was found (a) that the odds of men relative to women of joining professional and managerial occupations increased between 1960 and 1970, and (b) that this increase was dependent on the growth of tertiary industries and the greater number of women joining the cash economy. The observed effect of industrial shifts on sex-occupational differentiation, however, is argued to be a spurious consequence of the gender-composition of the work force. Specifically, the development of tertiary industries generates greater demand for female labor. Intensive recruitment of women to the labor force in turn increases occupational differentiation because females, in sex-typed labor markets, are likely to be channeled in disproportionate numbers away from upper-status occupations. The findings demonstrate that traditional modernization theory is unable to account for this. However, the results lend support to expectations derived from a labor market sex-segmentation approach. PMID:6862060

  19. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  20. The impact of market volatility on the cell therapy industry.

    PubMed

    Brindley, David A; Reeve, Brock C; Sahlman, William A; Bonfiglio, Greg A; Davie, Natasha L; Culme-Seymour, Emily J; Mason, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Stock market volatility in the cell therapy industry has greatly hindered the investment necessary to fund translational therapies. Here, we review the volatility of leading companies and suggest that a distinct industry is maturing to a point at which the volatility should subside, providing a more attractive environment for future growth. PMID:22056137

  1. Mössbauer study of contaminated soils by industrial activity in Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Angel; Fabián, Julio; De Los Santos, Luis; Barnes, C. H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    In this work we characterize soils from the Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces in Peru, which are contaminated by residual chemicals (Br, As and Sr) from sugar and paper industry in the city. Four samples were collected, labelled as S1, S2, S3 and S4 and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. For all the samples, the chemical analysis by EDXRF revealed the presence of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, K, Br, Sr. The XRD detected the presence of quartz as principal phase and copper sulfide and potassium magnesium as secondary phases. The Mössbauer spectra at room temperature (RT) for all the samples exhibit sextets which reveal the presence of an iron oxide or hydroxide. The fitting Mössbauer for both samples S1 and S4 have three doublets corresponding to iron in paramagnetic phases and a magnetic component of around 35.50 T corresponding to goethite, α-FeOOH. Sample S2 have two magnetic phases with internal fields of 37 T and 34.6 T which correspond to the goethite and other incorporated element in the structure. The sample S3 have three magnetic fields of H1 = 36.8 T, H2 = 33.6 T and H3 = 34.8 T which correspond to hydroxide iron, pyrrhotite and goethite respectively.

  2. Assessing the impact of science communication in the development of resilient cities to extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicari, Rosa; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for new solutions to achieve urban resiliency to extreme weather. The research projects carried out by the HM&Co team (LEESU & Chair 'Hydrology for Resilient Cities' sponsored by Veolia) need to be supported by communication activities aimed to support community capacity building and cooperation between scientists and their partners and stakeholders. While outreach activities are becoming an integral part of many research projects on climate adaptation, their evaluation is scarce, rather optional, very limited. This work aims to develop quantitative and qualitative evaluation of science communication and to design corresponding assessment tools. It will be examined how evaluation can eventually improve the quality, efficiency and impact of communication activities in enhancing collaboration between scientists, professionals (e.g. water managers, urban planners) and beneficiaries (e.g. concerned citizens, policy makers). The research takes hold on several case studies on projects and programs aiming to increase the resiliency of cities to extreme weather: French projects and programmes such as RadX@IdF and Chair "Hydrology for a resilient city", European projects such as Climate KIC Blue Green Dream and Interreg NWE IVB RainGain and worldwide collaborations (e.g. TOMACS). The evaluation techniques and tools developed in the framework of this work are intended to become a useful support for engineers and researchers involved in projects on urban hydrology where resilience to extreme weather events relies also on effective communication processes between the above mentioned social actors. In particular, one of the purposes of this work is to highlight how auto-evaluation can improve on-going communication activities and create a virtuous circle of planning/implementation/evaluation. This research has links with those on the development of exploration techniques of the unstructured social big data

  3. Variability of Aerosol and its Impact on Cloud Properties Over Different Cities of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan

    Interaction between aerosols and clouds is the subject of considerable scientific research, due to the importance of clouds in controlling climate. Aerosols vary in time in space and can lead to variations in cloud microphysics. This paper is a pilot study to examine the temporal and spatial variation of aerosol particles and their impact on different cloud optical properties in the territory of Pakistan using the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite data and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) data. We also use Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for trajectory analysis to obtain origin of air masses in order to understand the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. We validate data of MODIS and MISR by using linear correlation and regression analysis, which shows that there is an excellent agreement between data of these instruments. Seasonal study of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) shows that maximum value is found in monsoon season (June-August) over all study areas. We analyze the relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and some cloud parameters like water vapor (WV), cloud fraction (CF), cloud top temperature (CTT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). We construct the regional correlation maps and time series plots for aerosol and cloud parameters mandatory for the better understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction. Our analyses show that there is a strong positive correlation between AOD and water vapor in all cities. The correlation between AOD and CF is positive for the cities where the air masses are moist while the correlation is negative for cities where air masses are relatively dry and with lower aerosol abundance. It shows that these correlations depend on meteorological conditions. Similarly as AOD increases Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) is decreasing while Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) is increasing. Key Words: MODIS, MISR, HYSPLIT, AOD, CF, CTP

  4. Multimedia fate and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking industry city in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Xia, Z H; Liu, D; Qiu, W X; Duan, X L; Wang, R; Liu, W J; Zhang, Y H; Wang, D; Tao, S; Liu, W X

    2013-10-01

    A steady state Level III fate model was established and applied to quantify source-receptor relationship in a coking industry city in Northern China. The local emission inventory of PAHs, as the model input, was acquired based on energy consumption and emission factors. The model estimations were validated by measured data and indicated remarkable variations in the paired isomeric ratios. When a rectification factor, based on the receptor-to-source ratio, was calculated by the fate model, the quantitatively verified molecular diagnostic ratios provided reasonable results of local PAH emission sources. Due to the local ban and measures on small scale coking activities implemented from the beginning of 2004, the model calculations indicated that the local emission amount of PAHs in 2009 decreased considerably compared to that in 2003. PMID:23845769

  5. Impact of different urban structures on the microclimate in the city of Dresden, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbjuhn, Cornelia; Goldberg, Valeri; Westbeld, Anna; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Heat island intensity of cities and, therefore, urban warming mainly depends on the density of urban structures and sealing of urban areas. Against the background of a probable increase of summer temperature in Central Europe, actual urban planning strategies should consider the importance of open areas and vegetation in the centre of cities for the urban microclimate. This study deals with the interaction between open areas and vegetation structures in the urban micro climate of Dresden. Investigations are embedded in the project "city nature and open area structures under climate change" of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation which aims to demonstrate impacts of different urban structures based on climatic factors and to identify their capability for adaptation. Main topic of this research is the determination of the capabilities of given and potentially vegetated areas and open areas in the inner city of Dresden to attenuate microclimatic extremes. The diversity of impacts of vegetated and open areas on the urban microclimate is presented by mobile bicycle measurements and model simulations. Simulations were carried out with the coupled vegetation-boundary layer model HIRVAC-2D and the three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met. Model output was compared to measurements of air temperature and air humidity on sunny days in the year 2009 to quantify cooling effects of vegetated areas for summer heat periods. ENVI-met is designed to simulate the surface-plant-atmosphere interactions in urban environment and allows the derivation of bioclimatic factors like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) for different urban structures. PMV describes the thermal perception of a human body which can result in cold or heat stress. Simulations with ENVI-met were carried out to define the cooling effects of urban areas and to estimate microclimate effects on humans. HIRVAC quantifies the interactions of urban structures with the atmospheric boundary layer depending on area

  6. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  7. Sources of halogenated brominated retardants in house dust in an industrial city in southern China and associated human exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441 ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869 ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs. PMID:25282276

  8. The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  9. The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).

    PubMed

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  10. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Delle Monache, L; Stull, R

    2008-02-25

    With the worlds population becoming increasingly focused on coastal locations there is a need to better understand the interactions between anthropogenic emissions and marine atmospheres. Herein an atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. It is shown that the model can reasonably represent the average features of the gas phase and particle climate relative to in situ measurements. It is further demonstrated that reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate, but that the importance of these heterogeneous reactions is critically dependent on both the initial vertical profile of sea spray and the sea-spray source functions. The results emphasize the need for improved understanding of sea spray production and dispersion and further that model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield mis-leading results in terms of emission sensitivities of particle composition and concentrations. PMID:18061242

  11. Mutagenic and genotoxic potential of native air borne particulate matter from industrial area of Rourkela city, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Durgesh Nandini; Sinha, Niharika; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Sarangi, Itisam; Bhutia, Sujit K

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined potential adverse health effect of particulate matter (PM) collected from industrial areas of Rourkela, Odisha, India. Results indicate that PM in these areas contains benzo[a]pyrene in addition to other unidentified molecules. Ames test revealed the above PM to be highly mutagenic. Further studies of PM in HaCaT cells suggest its DNA damaging potential which may lead to apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following PM exposure may be an early event in the PM induced apoptosis. In addition, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the key xenobiotic metabolism enzyme, was found to be increased following PM exposure indicating its role in PM induced toxicity. To confirm this, we used genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of CYP450 like CYP1B1 siRNA and Clotrimazole. Interestingly, we found that the use of these inhibitors significantly suppressed the PM induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, which confirm the crucial role of CYP1B1 in the toxic manifestation of PM. For further analysis, blood samples were collected from the volunteer donor and analyzed for immunophenotypes and comet assay to survey any change in immune cells and DNA damage in blood cells respectively. The study was performed with 55 blood samples including 32 from industrial areas and 23 people from non-industrial zone of Rourkela city. Samples had a mean±SD age of 35±6.2years (35 men and 20 women). Our investigation did not observe any significant alteration in lymphocytes (P=0.671), B cell (P=0.104), cytotoxic T cell (P=0.512), helper T cell (P=0.396), NK cell (P=0.675) and monocytes (P=0.170) of blood cells from these two groups. Taken together; this study first time reports the possible health hazards of PM from industrial areas of Odisha, India. PMID:27458701

  12. Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday variations on NO2 columns above North American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, Benjamin; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been estimating NO2 columns from space for over 10 years, and these have been used to estimate emissions and emission trends for point and area sources all over the world. In this study we evaluate the trends in NO2 columns over 54 cities in the USA and Canada to identify the long term trends due to air quality policies, the impact of the Great Recession, and the weekday-weekend effect. A multiple linear regression model is used to fit annual, seasonal and weekly factors for individual swath retrievals along with the impact of temperature, wind speed and pixel size. For most cities, the correlation coefficients of the model fit ranges from 0.47 to 0.76. There have been strong reductions in NO2 columns, with annual decreases of up to 7% per year in most cities. During the years of the Great Recession, NO2 columns were as much as 30% lower than they would have been had they followed the linear annual trend. The analysis yielded insights into the timing of the reductions, with some cities in the northwest and in the east experiencing reductions in 2008 already, and most areas back to where they would have been based on the uniform trend by 2011. The analysis also finds that reductions in columns during the weekend vary significantly from city to city, with a range in reductions of 10%-30% on Saturdays, and 20%-50% on Sundays.

  13. Wyoming's industrial siting permit process and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of management of industrial residuals can be reduced through a rational system for siting and planning major industrial facilities. In the United States, Wyoming has moved in the direction of establishing a one-stop permitting system that provides important information for air and water quality planning and solid waste management with a minimum of regulatory overlap. This paper describes Wyoming's Industrial Development Information and Siting Act of 1975 and suggests ways in which the Wyoming permitting system can be improved and applied elsewhere.

  14. [Environmental impact of a public hospital in the city of Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Bambarén-Alatrista, Celso; Alatrista-Gutiérrez de Bambarén, María del Socorro

    2014-01-01

    The operation of hospitals produces negative effects on the environment which contributes to air pollution and climate change. The institution in this study is a category III health care facility located in the city of Lima. It generates 4.89 kg/bed/day of solid waste, and consumes 1.36 m3/bed/day of water; 25.22 kWh/bed/day of electricity, and 2.76 liters/bed/day of fuel. The level of PM10 and measured parameters of disposal to the public network are within legal limits, while mobile source noise exceeds the maximum allowable limit. The institution releases into the atmosphere 2,291 tons of CO2 equivalents per year. In conclusion, the institution studied generates a negative impact on the environment. PMID:25597723

  15. Immediate impact of Hurricane Sandy on people who inject drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Enrique R.; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the 8 months following Hurricane Sandy, of October 2012, we interviewed 300 people who inject drugs in New York City. During the week after the storm 28% rescued others or volunteered with aid groups; 60% experienced withdrawal; 27% shared drug injection or preparation equipment or injected with people they normally would not inject with; 70% of those in opioid maintenance therapy could not obtain sufficient doses; and 43% of HIV-positive participants missed HIV medication doses. Though relatively brief, a hurricane can be viewed as a Big Event that can alter drug environments and behaviors, and may have lasting impact. The study’s limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:25775259

  16. One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    consequences for urban residents. Public health impacts are assessed as the proportion of heat-related regional mortality estimated to be attributable to New York City's heat island effect during an average 1990's summer. Concentration-response functions describing the temperature-mortality relationship in NYC derived from the epidemiological literature are used to estimate numbers of deaths in a typical 1990s summer and those attributable to the city's heat island effect. The techniques and potential public health benefits of a pilot project to mitigate the heat island effect in NYC will be discussed.

  17. Impact of Shanghai urban land surface forcing on downstream city ozone chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Zhu, Tong; Su, Jifeng; Hou, Xuewei; Gao, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    The urban land surface has a significant impact on local urban heat island effects and air quality. In addition, it influences the atmospheric conditions and air quality in the downwind cities. In this study, the impact of Shanghai urban land surface forcing on weather conditions and air quality over Kunshan was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with a multilayer urban canopy model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Two simulations were conducted to identify the impact of upstream effects with and without upstream urban land surfaces in control and sensitivity experiments. The results show that the near-surface temperature and boundary layer height over Kunshan increased significantly with the appearance of the upstream urban land surface. Horizontal transport of O3 and its precursors, from Shanghai to Kunshan, are suppressed in the lower boundary layer but are strengthened in the upper boundary layer because of strong urban heat island circulation. As a result, O3 chemical production is decreased in the lower boundary layer of Kunshan but is increased in the upper boundary layer. On average, daytime O3 concentrations over Kunshan are decreased by approximately 2 ppbv in the lower boundary layer but are increased by as much as 40 ppbv in the upper air.

  18. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to analyze the impact on a given population's health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG)). Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3) was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3) would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects. PMID:27594794

  19. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to analyze the impact on a given population's health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m(3), and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m(3) (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG)). Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m(3)) was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m(3) would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m(3)) would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects. PMID:27594794

  20. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  1. Environmental impacts of antibiotic use in the animal production industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are routinely used in the livestock industry to treat and prevent disease. At subtherapeutic concentrations, antibiotics can select for resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of production animals, providing a potential reservoir for dissemination of drug resistant bacteria int...

  2. Future anthropogenic pollutant emissions in a Mediterranean port city with emphasis on the maritime sector emissions - Study of the impact on the city air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Markakis, Konstantinos; Giannaros, Theodoros; Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Melas, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of the future emissions in the area of the large urban center of Thessaloniki (Greece) with emphasis on the emissions originated from the maritime sector within the port area of the city which are presented in detail. In addition, the contribution of the future anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric pollution levels in Thessaloniki focusing on PM levels is studied. A 2km spatial resolution anthropogenic gaseous and particulate matter emission inventory has been compiled for the port city of Thessaloniki for the year 2010 with the anthropogenic emission model MOSESS, developed by Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. MOSESS was used for the estimation of emissions from several emission sources (road transport, central heating, industries, maritime sector etc) while the natural emission model NEMO was implemented for the calculation of dust, sea salt and biogenic emissions. Maritime emissions originated from the various processes inside the area of the port (harbor operations such as stockpiles, loading/unloading operations, machineries etc) as well as from the maritime transport sector including passenger ships, cargo shipping, inland waterways vessels (e.g. pleasure crafts) and fish catching ships. Ship emissions were estimated for the three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by local and national authorities (e.g.Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A.). Pollutant anthropogenic emissions were projected to the year 2020. The emissions from all the anthropogenic sources except for the maritime sector were projected using factors provided by the GAINS model. Future emissions from the maritime activities were estimated on the basis of the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and of the legislation for shipping in the future. Future maritime emissions are determined by the vessels

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  4. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  5. Characterization of leaf-level particulate matter for an industrial city using electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sgrigna, G; Baldacchini, C; Esposito, R; Calandrelli, R; Tiwary, A; Calfapietra, C

    2016-04-01

    This study reports application of monitoring and characterization protocol for particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves, using Quercus ilex as a case study species. The study area is located in the industrial city of Terni in central Italy, with high PM concentrations. Four trees were selected as representative of distinct pollution environments based on their proximity to a steel factory and a street. Wash off from leaves onto cellulose filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inferring the associations between particle sizes, chemical composition, and sampling location. Modeling of particle size distributions showed a tri-modal fingerprint, with the three modes centered at 0.6 (factory related), 1.2 (urban background), and 2.6μm (traffic related). Chemical detection identified 23 elements abundant in the PM samples. Principal component analysis recognized iron and copper as source-specific PM markers, attributed mainly to industrial and heavy traffic pollution respectively. Upscaling these results on leaf area basis provided a useful indicator for strategic evaluation of harmful PM pollutants using tree leaves. PMID:26802337

  6. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Elbagermi, M. A.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Alajtal, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011–May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from a multi-industrial city, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    We collected soil samples at 25 sites in Ulsan, Korea to investigate the levels, patterns, spatial distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the summer 2010. The target compounds were the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs. For the source identification of PAHs, diagnostic ratios and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were used. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 65 ng/g to 12,000 ng/g (mean: 960 ng/g, median 330 ng/g). The levels and distribution of PAHs indicated that industrial areas were more polluted than rural and urban areas. The diagnostic ratios suggested that the soil samples were contaminated by pyrogenic sources and traffic emission. According to the result of PMF, four factors were identified: gasoline and heavy oil combustion (14%), diesel combustion (54%), coke oven (23%), and coal/biomass burning (9%). Therefore, it was concluded that vehicles and industrial complexes were major sources of PAHs in Ulsan. PMID:24011990

  8. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.

    2012-09-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  9. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  10. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Distribution of Subterranean Termite Colonies (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of Hurricane Katrina on the distribution of subterranean termites in City Park, New Orleans, LA was determined in four sections of the park where termite activity had been continuously monitored since 2002. Monitoring stations were checked on a monthly basis. Twelve distinct C. formosanu...

  11. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Tivanski, Alexei V; Gilles, Marry K; Wang, Yan A; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, Luisa T; Abraham, Rodrigo G; Johnson, Kirsten S; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A

    2008-10-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Soils and their Health Risk and Hazard in an Industrial City in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhupander; Verma, Virendra Kumar; Singh, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Akolkar, Avinash B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic health effects. Background Residential soil from Korba, India, was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction procedure, cleaned on modified silica and quantified for PCBs. Soil ingestion was considered as the main exposure pathways of life-long intake of PCBs. Human health risk in terms of life time average daily dose, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated using established guidelines. Background The estimated average ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–8 and 1.1×10–7, respectively. ILCR from dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–6 and 1.1×10–5, respectively. The HQ for PCBs was 6.3×10–4 and 2.2×10–3, respectively for human adults and children. Study observed that ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs was lower than acceptable guideline range of 10–6-10–4, and ILCR from dioxin like PCBs was within the limit. HQ was lower than safe limit of 1. Background Study concluded that human population residing in Korba had low health risk due to PCBs in residential soils. Significance for public health The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils from an industrial city in India were measured for the assessment of human health risk. PCBs composition profiles were dominated with tri-chlorinated and tetra-chlorinated biphenyls. The possible sources of PCBs contamination can be attributed to local industrial

  13. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  14. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris & lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-12-31

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels.

  15. Impacts of Urban Economic Factors on Private Tutoring Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Park, Daekwon

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates both supply (the number of employees in the PT industry and the number of PT institutions) and demand (the number of middle and high school students, grade 7-12). Panel data are used for this research, making it possible to analyze market growth over time since it contains both cross-sectional and time-series information.…

  16. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  17. The Economic Impact of Vermont's Child Care Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report documents the relationship between the supply of reliable, affordable, accessible child care and the health of Vermont's economy. The child care industry is a growing part of the Vermont economy, pumping money into local communities by supporting working families, creating jobs, and generating taxes through employment and the purchase…

  18. Environmental impact of new feeding choices in the feedlot industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feedlot industry is adapting to an economic environment that has fundamentally changed because of high corn prices. Developing strategies to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and reduce costs are important. Uses of agricultural commodity products for alternative fuels are rapidly incr...

  19. The Impact of Industrial Robots on the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1986-01-01

    Despite falling prices and more varied applications, the diffusion of industrial robots is taking place at a slower pace than expected. There are not only technical snags but also social barriers to be overcome--displacement of workers, deskilling of certain operations, and changes in work methods. (Author/CT)

  20. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  1. Monitoring of Cd pollution in soils and plants irrigated with untreated sewage water in some industrialized cities of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V; Sidhu, S S

    2009-07-01

    The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils in excessive quantities on long term use and enter the food chain through absorption by the plants. Among the trace metals, Cd has received the greater attention because of its easy absorption and accumulation in plants and animals to levels toxic for their health. The objective of this study conducted in three industrially different cities viz., Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla was to monitor the extent of Cd accumulation in soils and plants receiving untreated sewage water. Plant and soil samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated areas. Soil samples were analysed for texture, pH, EC, organic carbon (OC), CaCO(3), bioavailable DTPA-Cd and plant samples were analysed for total Cd. In sewage irrigated soils, the mean values of pH were lower but organic carbon and electrical conductivity were generally higher both in surface and sub-surface layers of all the three cities as compared to tubewell irrigated soils. The mean DTPA- extractable Cd in sewage irrigated soil was 6.3- and 4.36-fold in Ludhiana, 3.38- and 1.71-fold in Jalandhar and 3.35- and 6.67-fold in Malerkotla in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively, compared with the values in tubewell irrigated soils. The accumulation of DTPA-Cd in sewage irrigated soils was restricted to 30 cm depth after which the values were generally close to values in tubewell irrigated soils. Soil pH, OC, CaCO(3), clay and silt collectively accounted for 37.1%, 65.1% and 53.9% DTPA-extractable bioavailable Cd in soils of Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Lower R(2) values in Ludhiana suggest that factors other than the ones

  2. The impact of heat, cold, and heat waves on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Although the impact of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat waves and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5 % (95 % confidence interval 0.7, 8.5 %) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2 %), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5 %), and 53.6 % (9.8, 114.9 %) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat waves compared with nonheat wave days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.

  3. Impact of Computers on Electrical Engineering Education--A View from Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Commission on Education.

    A two-day conference was held in 1969 with industrial representatives and COSINE members to examine the impact that computer technology has had upon the practice of engineering in industry and to assess the meaning of these changes upon the structure of electrical engineering education. The major conclusions and recommendations of the meeting may…

  4. Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students

  5. Black carbon (BC) of urban topsoil of steel industrial city (Anshan), Northeastern China: Concentration, source identification and environmental implication.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2016-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) concentrations in urban topsoils and vertical profiles from steel industrial city, Anshan, Northeastern China, were determined. A total of 115 topsoil samples and 4 soil profiles were collected, in which the BC concentrations were determined using chemical oxidation technique. The BC concentrations in urban topsoils are in the range of 1.86 to 246.46gkg(-1) with an average of 33.86gkg(-1). Both BC and TC concentrations decrease sharply with soil depth, whereas BC/TC ratio shows a little variation with depth. The spatial distribution of BC in urban topsoils reveals that the BC concentration is much higher in the northern part of the city, which is consistent with the steel production. The distribution factors (DF) of BC are the highest in 1000-500 and 500-250μm size fractions, while the lowest in 50-2μm fraction. The mass loading of BC in 250-50 and 50-2μm size fractions accounts for 76.2% of bulk soil, indicating these two size fractions responsible for BC accumulation in soils. Enrichment factor (EF) of BC in urban topsoils ranges from 0.92 to 122.01 with an average of 16.76, indicating that the urban topsoils studied are moderately or severely accumulated by the BC. Strong correlation is found between BC and pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals, indicating the possibility of similar sources of BC and heavy metals in soils. The BC/TC ratio in soils ranges from 0.45 to 0.97, with an average of 0.75. The BC/TC ratio shows the mixed sources of BC derived from fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions. The BC concentration and BC/TC ratio may reflect the degree of industrial activities and pollution sources in urban soils. The study demonstrated that BC is an effective indicator of degree and "hotspots" of heavy metals pollution in urban soils. PMID:27450257

  6. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  7. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  8. Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Impact of Nuchik, Inc. Poultry Processing Plant on the City of Artesia and the Artesia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brian

    The city of Artesia (New Mexico) was considering the issuance of $210 million in industrial revenue bonds (IRB) for construction of a new poultry processing plant 5 miles west of Artesia in Eddy County. Since property financed with IRB is exempt from all state and local property taxes for the life of the bonds, the city of Artesia requested an…

  9. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  10. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing. PMID:18713478

  11. Application of microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for environmental monitoring of industrially contaminated sites in Hyderabad city.

    PubMed

    Kamala C T; Balaram V; Dharmendra V; Satyanarayanan M; Subramanyam K S V; Krishnaiah A

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) represents yet another and very important addition to the existing array of modern instrumental analytical techniques. In this study, an attempt is made to summarize the performance characteristics of MP-AES and its potential as an analytical tool for environmental studies with some practical examples from Patancheru and Uppal industrial sectors of Hyderabad city. A range of soil, sediment, water reference materials, particulate matter, and real-life samples were chosen to evaluate the performance of this new analytical technique. Analytical wavelengths were selected considering the interference effects of other concomitant elements present in different sample solutions. The detection limits for several elements were found to be in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/g. The trace metals analyzed in both the sectors followed the topography with more pollution in the low-lying sites. The metal contents were found to be more in ground waters than surface waters. Since a decade, the pollutants are transfered from Patancheru industrial area to Musi River. After polluting Nakkavagu and turning huge tracts of agricultural lands barren besides making people residing along the rivulet impotent and sick, industrialists of Patancheru are shifting the effluents to downstream of Musi River through an 18-km pipeline from Patancheru. Since the effluent undergoes primary treatment at Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Patanchru and travels through pipeline and mixes with sewage, the organic effluents will be diluted. But the inorganic pollutants such as heavy and toxic metals tend to accumulate in the environmental segments near and downstreams of Musi River. The data generated by MP-AES of toxic metals like Zn, Cu, and Cr in the ground and surface waters can only be attributed to pollution from Patancheru since no other sources are available to Musi River. PMID:25086712

  12. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2013-10-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels from technological

  13. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  14. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    relationship to other standards from the fields of computer graphics and computer-aided architectural design and to the prospective INSPIRE model are discussed, as well as the impact CityGML has and is having on the software industry, on applications of 3D city models, and on science generally.

  15. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  16. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash burning. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash burning and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash burning contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the

  17. Impact of land use on solar industrial process heat for the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casamajor, A.B.

    1980-10-02

    A solar land use study of 1330 food processing plants located in the far-western United States (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington) has been conducted. Based upon estimates of each plant's annual energy consumption of process heat, derived from: annual sales figures, employment, and total energy consumption for that plant's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) group; and the available surface area at each plant, determined by a site inspection, an assessment of each plant's potential for solar energy was made. Those industries having the highest potential for applying solar energy to their process heat loads include: fruit and vegetable packing, sugar refining, meat packing, wine and brandy, bread, and dairy products. It has been further determined that about 25% of the energy used for food processing in the study area can be supplied by solar if all of the available surface area at and adjacent to these plants is devoted to solar collectors.

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  19. Health Impact in New York City During the Northeastern Blackout of 2003

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shao; Fletcher, Barbara A.; Luo, Ming; Chinery, Robert; Hwang, Syni-An

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the health effects of the 2003 Northeastern blackout, the largest one in history, on mortality and hospital admissions due to respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases in New York City (NYC), and compared the disease patterns and sociodemographic profiles of cases during the blackout with those on control days. Method We investigated the effects of the blackout on health using incidence rate ratios to compare the disease on blackout days (August 14 and 15, 2003) with those on normal and comparably hot days (controls). Normal days were defined as summer days (June–August) between the 25th and 75th percentiles of maximum temperature during 1991–2004. Comparably hot days were days with maximum temperatures in the same range as that of the blackout days. We evaluated the interactive effects of demographics and the blackout using a case-only design. Results We found that mortality and respiratory hospital admissions in NYC increased significantly (two- to eightfold) during the blackout, but cardiovascular and renal hospitalizations did not. The most striking increases occurred among elderly, female, and chronic bronchitis admissions. We identified stronger effects during the blackout than on comparably hot days. In contrast to the pattern observed for comparably hot days, higher socioeconomic status groups were more likely to be hospitalized during the blackout. Conclusions This study suggests that power outages may have important health impacts, even stronger than the effects of heat alone. The findings provide some direction for future emergency planning and public health preparedness. PMID:21553667

  20. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  1. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  2. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  3. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  4. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms and magnitude of the contribution of fires to ozone (O3) production is poorly understood. In this work we investigate the influence of fire on O3 abundances over the contiguous United States. Using co-located observations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We then compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each O3 monitor. We observe that the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days. The magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 0 to 37 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). We find that smoke is present on a non-negligible proportion of days when the 8-hour average O3 mixing ratio exceeds the EPA limit of 75 ppbv in regions and locations with significant O3 issues, including the Northeast urban corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedence days when they are held against a more stringent limit of 65 ppbv for an 8-hour average. We show that smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in U.S. cities with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX).

  5. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-02-10

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

  6. A toxicological study of inhalable particulates in an industrial region of Lanzhou City, northwestern China: Results from plasmid scission assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhenghui; Shao, Longyi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jing; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Deng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhen; BéruBé, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    The city of Lanzhou in northwestern China experiences serious air pollution episodes in the form of PM10 that is characterized by having high levels of heavy metals. The Xigu District represents the industrial core area of Lanzhou City and is denoted by having the largest petrochemical bases in western China. This study investigates heavy metal compositions and oxidative potential of airborne PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less) collected in Xigu District in the summer and winter of 2010. An in vitro plasmid scission assay (PSA) was employed to study the oxidative potential of airborne PM10 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine heavy metal compositions. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX) was used to investigate elemental compositions and mixing states of PM10. The average mass concentrations of PM10 collected in Xigu District were generally higher than the national standard for daily PM10 (150 μg/m3). Cr, Zn, Pb and Mn were the most abundant metals in the intact whole particles of PM10. Zn, Mn and As was the most abundant metal in the water-soluble fraction, while Cr, Pb, and V existed primarily in insoluble forms. TD20 values (i.e. toxic dosage of PM10 causing 20% of plasmid DNA damage) varied considerably in both winter and summer (from 19 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL) but were typically higher in summer, suggesting that the winter PM10 exhibited greater bioreactivity. In addition, the PM10 collected during a dust storm episode had a highest TD20 value and thus the least oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA, while the particles collected on a hazy day had a lowest TD20 value and thus the highest oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA. The particles collected on the first day after snow fall and on a day of cold air intrusion exhibited minor oxidative potential (i.e. caused limited DNA damage). The water-soluble Zn, Mn, As, and

  7. Education in Jersey City: An Assessment of the Impact of Robinson V. Cahill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Earl Preston

    Despite the New Jersey Public School Education Act of 1975, Jersey City remains one of the poorest municipalities in New Jersey in terms of per capita property wealth, and this is having a negative effect on its educational system. Even though the new law increased State aid to public education, conditions in Jersey City have worsened. Educational…

  8. Service and the City: Impacting First-Year Students via Town and Gown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiselt, April K.

    2011-01-01

    First-year students typically come to college with little knowledge about the city they will call home. Universities can unite with their local communities to provide opportunities for student involvement while giving students a chance to learn what their city has to offer. Learning outcomes from a Mississippi State University first-year…

  9. A method to estimate the environmental impact of an electric city car during six months of testing in an Italian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donateo, T.; Ingrosso, F.; Licci, F.; Laforgia, D.

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation describes the results of a research project (P.R.I.M.E.) aimed at testing the performance and the environmental impact of an electric city car in Italian cities. The vehicle considered in the project is the Daimler AG Smart ForTwo Electric Drive. A Smart ED vehicle was tested at the University of Salento for six months over different driving conditions (routes, traffic, use of auxiliaries). A data acquisition system has been designed on purpose and assembled on board to provide information about driving cycle and energy flows. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during recharges due to the battery cooling system. The experimental tests were used to identify the average, minimum and maximum consumption of electricity in the Smart ED in Lecce according to driving conditions and in particular according to the usage of auxiliaries. The measured data of electric consumption have been used to quantify the emissions of CO2 and pollution of the vehicle using information about the Italian electricity production mix of each recharging event and the emissions factors of the Italian power plants with an innovative and comprehensive methodology.

  10. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  11. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    observations. The interannual variability and spatial distribution of NOx emissions are consistent with NO2 vertical column density measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). In particular, the Nanjing city-scale emission inventory correlates better with satellite observations than the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) does when emissions from power plants are excluded. This indicates improvement in emission estimation for sectors other than power generation, notably industry and transportation. A high-resolution emission inventory may also provide a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations. To further improve emission estimation and evaluation, more measurements of both emission factors and ambient levels of given pollutants are suggested; the uncertainties of emission inventories at city scale should also be fully quantified and compared with those at national scale.

  12. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  13. Natural hazard impact on the infrastructure in large cities: the case study of Moscow and St.Petersburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    According to all forecasts, the severity of natural hazard impact on the cities of Russia is expected to increase in coming years and decades due to climate changes, on the one hand, and due to many social, economic and technical causes that reduce their protection and increase vulnerability, on the other hand. In particular, the frequency and severity of various natural-technological accidents will multiply. The highest damage from natural hazard impact will affect large densely populated cities with many technologically sophisticated objects, especially with dangerous ones. Moscow and St.Petersburg have the highest number of natural-technological accidents among all Russian cities. Moscow is prone to influence of various natural hazards such as strong winds, floods, landslides, karst, heavy rainfalls and snowfalls, heatwave, wild fires, storms and lightning, and others. These natural hazards cause many traffic accidents and disruptions in transportation, blackouts, breakdowns of communication lines, collapses of buildings, etc. The climatic and topographic conditions of St.Petersburg contribute to manifestation of many natural hazard types such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena occur the most often among them; more than 50 per cent are caused by storms and strong winds and about 25 per cent by floods. This situation can have serious consequences because a nuclear power plant and many chemical plants and other dangerous objects are located in this region. Power failures and transportation problems are the most frequent among all natural-technological accidents in St.Petersburg. The statistical analysis of data about natural-technological accidents in both large Russian cities have been done using information collected in data base that was created by author. Power lines and other infrastructure objects are especially vulrerable to the impacts of natural hazards both in Moscow

  14. Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world's large cities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Weber, Katherine F; Padowski, Julie; Boucher, Tim; Shemie, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Urban water systems are impacted by land use within their source watersheds, as it affects raw water quality and thus the costs of water treatment. However, global estimates of the effect of land cover change on urban water-treatment costs have been hampered by a lack of global information on urban source watersheds. Here, we use a unique map of the urban source watersheds for 309 large cities (population > 750,000), combined with long-term data on anthropogenic land-use change in their source watersheds and data on water-treatment costs. We show that anthropogenic activity is highly correlated with sediment and nutrient pollution levels, which is in turn highly correlated with treatment costs. Over our study period (1900-2005), median population density has increased by a factor of 5.4 in urban source watersheds, whereas ranching and cropland use have increased by a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively. Nearly all (90%) of urban source watersheds have had some level of watershed degradation, with the average pollutant yield of urban source watersheds increasing by 40% for sediment, 47% for phosphorus, and 119% for nitrogen. We estimate the degradation of watersheds over our study period has impacted treatment costs for 29% of cities globally, with operation and maintenance costs for impacted cities increasing on average by 53 ± 5% and replacement capital costs increasing by 44 ± 14%. We discuss why this widespread degradation might be occurring, and strategies cities have used to slow natural land cover loss. PMID:27457941

  15. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy. PMID:26763316

  16. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    DOWNEY, LIAM; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the U.S. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities. PMID:16259150

  17. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world's main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region's "phosphorus footprint" - the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident's annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  18. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City

    PubMed Central

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  19. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  20. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    PubMed

    Brey, Steven J; Fischer, Emily V

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influence of smoke on ozone (O3) abundances over the contiguous United States. Using colocated observations of particulate matter and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each monitor, while controlling for temperature. This analysis shows that (i) the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days, and (ii) the magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 3 to 36 ppbv. For each site, we present the percentage of days when the 8-h average O3 mixing ratio (MDA8) exceeds 75 ppbv and smoke is present. Smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in locations with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides. The Northeast corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City stand out as having smoke present 10-20% of the days when 8-h average O3 mixing ratios exceed 75 ppbv. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedance days when they are held against the new MDA8 limit of 70 ppbv. PMID:26720416

  1. Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

    2010-05-01

    The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 μg m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary

  2. Evaluating the Impact of the Healthy Beverage Executive Order for City Agencies in Boston, Massachusetts, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Erica L.; McHugh, Anne; Conley, Lisa; Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Reiner, Jennifer F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with negative health effects. Access to healthy beverages may be promoted by policies such as the Healthy Beverage Executive Order (HBEO) established by former Boston mayor Thomas M. Menino, which directed city departments to eliminate the sale of SSBs on city property. Implementation consisted of “traffic-light signage” and educational materials at point of purchase. This study evaluates the impact of the HBEO on changes in beverage availability. Methods Researchers collected data on price, brand, and size of beverages for sale in spring 2011 (899 beverage slots) and for sale in spring 2013, two years after HBEO implementation (836 beverage slots) at access points (n = 31) at city agency locations in Boston. Nutrient data, including calories and sugar content, from manufacturer websites were used to determine HBEO beverage traffic-light classification category. We used paired t tests to examine change in average calories and sugar content of beverages and the proportion of beverages by traffic-light classification at access points before and after HBEO implementation. Results Average beverage sugar grams and calories at access points decreased (sugar, −13.1 g; calories, −48.6 kcal; p<.001) following the implementation of the HBEO. The average proportion of high-sugar (“red”) beverages available per access point declined (−27.8%, p<.001). Beverage prices did not change over time. City agencies were significantly more likely to sell only low-sugar beverages after the HBEO was implemented (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 1.49–16.0). Discussion Policies such as the HBEO can promote community-wide changes that make healthier beverage options more accessible on city-owned properties. PMID:26355828

  3. The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

  4. The New Publishing: Technology's Impact on the Publishing Industry over the Next Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Gregory J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on the products, revenue sources, and distribution channels of the publishing industry over the next decade. Highlights include electronic books and copy protection; copyright; advantages of electronic books to users, libraries, and publishers; retailing schemes; changes in education; subscription publishing;…

  5. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  6. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

  7. Intensification of University-Industry Relationships and Its Impact on Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Dridi, Houssine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the intensification of university-industry relationships and its impact on university research. The paper consists of recent follow-up research to an international comparative research project conducted in the 1990s. It deals specifically with the Quebec (Canada) situation. Twenty-eight in-depth interviews were conducted in the…

  8. Source identification and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils of Changsha, a mine-impacted city in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Li, Lei; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The urban soils suffered seriously from heavy metal pollutions with rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. In this study, 54 urban soil samples were collected from Changsha, a mine-impacted city located in Southern China. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The pollution sources of heavy metals were discriminated and identified by the combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. Four main sources were identified according to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and spatial distribution patterns. Co and Mn were primarily derived from soil parent material. Cu, Pb, and Zn with significant positive relationships were associated with mining activities and traffic emissions. Cd and Ni might be affected by commercial activities and industrial discharges. As isolated into a single group was considered to have correlation with coal combustion and waste incineration. Risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils indicated an overall moderate potential ecological risk in the urban region of Changsha. PMID:27206756

  9. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  10. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  11. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  12. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-12-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada's largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world's largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s-1 in background air to 62 s-1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994-2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

  13. Trade in and Valuation of Virtual Water Impacts in a City: A Case Study Of Flagstaff, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    An increasingly intense component of the global coupled natural and human system (CNH) is the economic trade of various types of resources and the outsourcing of resource impacts between geographically distant economic systems. The human economy's trade arrangements allow specific localities, especially cities, to exceed spatially local resource stock sustainability and footprint constraints, as evidenced in the urban metabolism literature. Each movement or trade of a resource along a network is associated with an embedded or 'virtual' exchange of indirect impacts on the inputs to the production process. The networked trade of embedded resources, therefore, is an essential human adaptation to resource limitations. Using the Embedded Resource Impact Accounting (ERA) framework, we examine the network of embedded water flows created through the trade of goods and services and economic development in Flagstaff, Arizona, and associate these flows with the creation of value in sectors of the economy

  14. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities. PMID:21949948

  15. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. The effect of anthropogenic activity on BTEX, NO2, SO2, and CO concentrations in urban air of the spa city of Sopot and medium-industrialized city of Tczew located in North Poland.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Bielawska, Michalina; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2016-05-01

    The major goal of the present study is to compare the air quality of two urban locations situated in Northern Poland - the spa City of Sopot and the medium-industrialized city of Tczew using chemometric methods. As a criterion for the assessment of atmospheric air quality, measurements of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes were used (collected from atmospheric air using diffusion-type passive samplers) as well as measurements of inorganic compounds - CO, NO2 and SO2, which were subject to routine control and determined by means of automatic analysers. Studies related to determination of defined chemical compounds in the urban air in the monitored area were performed from January 2013 to December 2014. By interpreting the results obtained and using basic multivariate statistical tools (cluster analysis and principal components analysis), major sources of emissions of determined pollutants in the air in urbanized areas were defined. The study also shows the potential influence of the sea breeze on concentrations of chemical compounds in the atmospheric air in the spa city of Sopot. PMID:26990845

  17. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  19. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  20. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  1. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries. PMID:27372905

  2. Impact of Language Deficits on Maladaptive Behavior of Inner-City Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined language development as a precursor of maladaptive behavior in inner-city early adolescents. Participating were 256 adolescents from the graduation classes of 2000 and 2001 who had previously attended District of Columbia prekindergarten/Head Start and kindergarten. The sample was 98 percent African American and 56 percent…

  3. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma...

  4. The Impact of Hispanic Growth on the Racial/Ethnic Composition of New York City Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Arun Peter; Flores, Ronald J. O.; Salvo, Joseph J.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the process of neighborhood change between 1970-90, examining Hispanic co-residence with other major groups in New York City neighborhoods. Results suggest that race plays an important role in neighborhood transitions involving Hispanics, and the continuing flow of new Hispanic subgroups is likely to increase ethnic succession in many…

  5. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: A Report to the Tri-Cities Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Judi; LaGrange, Jill; Jones, Ty

    This fact book for Columbia Basin College (CBC) (Washington) covers seven subject areas: (1) mission statement; (2) access; (3) academics; (4) career and workforce development; (5) basic skills; (6) cultural enrichment; and (7) physical and emotional well-being. Report highlights include: (1) in 2001, CBC presented to the Tri-Cities community a…

  6. Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City's Aspiring Principals Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Weinstein, Meryle

    2012-01-01

    The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed…

  7. Destination Graduation: Sixth Grade Early Warning Indicators for Baltimore City Schools. Their Prevalence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Even with the declining number of dropouts in Baltimore City, a focus on dropout prevention is essential. Recent research has emphasized the utility of an early warning system to inform prevention efforts. With this in mind, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium examined the 2000-01 cohort of sixth grade students (Class of 2007) from the…

  8. Navigating a research partnership between academia and industry to assess the impact of personalized genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Kaufman, David J.; Sharp, Richard R.; Moreno, Tanya A.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the process of structuring a partnership between academic researchers and two personalized genetic testing companies that would manage conflicts of interest while allowing researchers to study the impact of this nascent industry. Methods We developed a transparent process of ongoing communication about the interests of all research partners to address challenges in establishing study goals, survey development, data collection, analysis, and manuscript preparation. Using the existing literature on conflicts of interest and our experience, we created a checklist for academic and industry researchers seeking to structure research partnerships. Results Our checklist includes questions about the risk to research participants, sponsorship of the study, control of data analysis, freedom to publish results, the impact of the research on industry customers, openness to input from all partners, sharing results before publication, and publication of industry-specific data. Transparency is critical to building trust between partners. Involving all partners in the research development enhanced the quality of our research and provided an opportunity to manage conflicts early in the research process. Conclusion Navigating relationships between academia and industry is complex and requires strategies that are transparent and responsive to the concerns of all. Employing a checklist of questions prior to beginning a research partnership may help to manage conflicts of interest. PMID:22241103

  9. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  10. 76 FR 29008 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... the economic impact of the Act on U.S. industries and U.S. consumers and on the economy of the... President regarding the economic impact of the Act on U.S. industries and consumers, and on the economy of.... Notice of institution of the investigation was published in the Federal Register of May 14, 1986 (51...

  11. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25966879

  13. The performance impact of context in TQM implementation: the nursing facility industry.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, R; Zinn, J E; Hamilton, R D

    2001-08-01

    This study develops a model and empirically assesses how# organizational context mediates the impact of total quality management (TQM) implementation on perceived performance in the nursing facility industry. Outcomes are analysed for financial, human resources and resident-care performance. Contextual factors related to TQM implementation include managerial control, reward systems, organizational structure and the extent of implementation. Duration of TQM implementation is included as a control variable. Benchmarking has a positive impact on financial outcomes, and the extent of TQM implementation and required reporting of quality improvement activity results have a positive impact on both financial and human resources performance. The presence of a Quality Steering Council has a positive impact on financial performance, but only among larger facilities. PMID:11507809

  14. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically. PMID:25233912

  15. Industriousness and Development of the School-System in the Eighteenth Century: The Experience of Norwegian Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Ida

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how the Norwegian urban school system was developed during the eighteenth century. In the cities, there were laws for Latin as well as Danish schools. During the eighteenth century, schools for poor children were established, while towards the end of the century the importance of the school system in relation to the economic…

  16. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    PubMed

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases. PMID:26421944

  17. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  18. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  19. Impact of a two-city community cancer prevention intervention on African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Fort, Jane G.; Ahmed, Nasar U.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Schreiber, George B.; Perry, Shelley; Guillory, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    We report the first multisite, multicomponent community intervention trial to focus on cancer prevention in African Americans. The project explored the potential of historically black medical schools to deliver health information to their local communities and used a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention consisted of culturally sensitive messages at appropriate educational levels delivered over an 18-month period and tested in predominantly black census tracts in Nashville, TN and Atlanta, GA. Chattanooga, TN and Decatur, GA served as comparison cities. Results were evaluated by pre- and postintervention random-digit dial telephone surveys. The intervention cities showed an increase in reported contact with or knowledge of the project. There was little or no effect on knowledge or attitudes in the intervention cities. Compared to Chattanooga, Nashville showed an increase in percentage of women receiving Pap smears. Compared to Decatur, Atlanta showed an increase in percentage of age-appropriate populations receiving digital rectal exams, colorectal cancer screenings and mammograms. The results of this community intervention trial demonstrated modest success and are encouraging for future efforts of longer duration. PMID:16334495

  20. Impact of dyeing industry effluent on germination and growth of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Piyush; Hali, Rajesh; Sharma, Neeru

    2012-11-01

    Dye industry effluent was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and its impact on germination and growth behaviour of Pea (Pisum sativum). The 100% effluent showed high pH (10.3) and TDS (1088 mg l(-1)). The germination parameters included percent germination, delay index, speed of germination, peak value and germination period while growth parameters comprised of root and shoot length, root and shootweight, root-shoot ratio and number of stipules. The study showed the maximum values of positive germination parameters viz. speed of germination (7.85), peak value (3.28), germination index (123.87) and all growth parameters at 20% effluent concentration while the values of negative germination parameters viz. delay index (-0.14) and percent inhibition (-8.34) were found to be minimum at 20% effluent concentration. The study demonstrated that at lower concentrations the dyeing industry effluent caused a positive impact on germination and growth of Pisum sativum. PMID:23741804

  1. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26524089

  2. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry. [Radiological impact of uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): North Bronson Industrial Area, Operable Unit 1, city of Bronson, Branch County, MI, June 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for the North Bronson Industrial Area Superfund site, Operable Unit 1 (OU 1). OU 1 is an interim action that addresses the eastern and western sludge lagoons, groundwater impacted by the sludge lagoons, exposure to area-wide groundwater contamination, and County Drain No. 30 (CD No. 30).

  4. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  5. Impact of meteorological changes on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhang, Qi; Dang, Yue-wen; Wang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Studies on scarlet fever with meteorological factors included were few. We aimed to illustrate meteorological factors' effects on monthly incidence of scarlet fever. Cases of scarlet fever were collected from the report of legal infectious disease in Hefei City from 1985 to 2006; the meteorological data were obtained from the weather bureau of Hefei City. Monthly incidence and corresponding meteorological data in these 22 years were used to develop the model. The model of auto regressive integrated moving average with covariates was used in statistical analyses. There was a highest peak from March to June and a small peak from November to January. The incidence of scarlet fever ranges from 0 to 0.71502 (per 105 population). SARIMAX (1,0,0)(1,0,0)12 model was fitted with monthly incidence and meteorological data optimally. It was shown that relative humidity (β = -0.002, p = 0.020), mean temperature (β = 0.006, p = 0.004), and 1 month lag minimum temperature (β = -0.007, p < 0.001) had effect on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei. Besides, the incidence in a previous month (AR(β) = 0.469, p < 0.001) and in 12 months before (SAR(β) = 0.255, p < 0.001) was positively associated with the incidence. This study shows that scarlet fever incidence was negatively associated with monthly minimum temperature and relative humidity while was positively associated with mean temperature in Hefei City, China. Besides, the ARIMA model could be useful not only for prediction but also for the analysis of multiple correlations.

  6. Secondary Particulate Matter Originating from an Industrial Source and Its Impact on Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health impact of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations originating from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health impact was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the impact of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the impact of industrial emissions on population health. PMID:26184247

  7. Secondary Particulate Matter Originating from an Industrial Source and Its Impact on Population Health.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health impact of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations originating from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health impact was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the impact of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the impact of industrial emissions on population health. PMID:26184247

  8. The impact of the 1975 New York City financial crisis on public sector unionism.

    PubMed

    Kruger, D H; Rodgers, R C

    1978-01-01

    Using New York City's 1975 financial crisis as an example, this article argues that the classic inelastic theory of wage demand for public sector employment (higher wages do not lead to reductions in employment) has been supplanted in the mid-1970s by a kinked demand relationship (the idea that higher wages can and do lead to reductions in employment), wherein unions can improve wages for their respective memberships only by implementing strategies that lend themselves to facilitating an increase in overall demand for government services. PMID:10318417

  9. 3-D Real Time Lidar scanning measurements to assess and determine the impact of aerosol sources in highly densely-populated cities in south France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.; Guinot, B.; Fofana, M.

    2009-12-01

    EZ Lidar, produced by LEOSPHERE, was deployed in several measurement campaigns from November 2008 to July 2009 in densely-populated cities of south of France to assess the impact of tunnels, highways, airports, industries and other pollution sources on aerosol emissions. PM2.5 and PM1 are particularly harmful on the population. The study and the fully characterization of pollution sources is then crucial to reduce these emission to improve air quality in large metropolitan areas. EZ Lidar is capable to produce 3-D scan almost instantaneously. The backscattered power is then range corrected and transformed in false colors from blue to red that are proportional to the aerosol density (Blue low aerosol density, red high aerosol density). Each scan can be considered as a frame, and it is superimposed to the site satellite map. The temporal sequence of the frames fully characterize the pollution sources. The paper shows the 3-D scan analysis over the selected sites and the individuation of principal emission sources and their temporal evolution.

  10. The Impact of Peer Effects on Student Outcomes in New York City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Jeffrey E.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of peers on student outcomes has important policy implications for how students are organized into classes and the overall impact of education interventions. But it is difficult to accurately measure peer effects because of the nonrandom sorting of students and teachers into classrooms and the endogeneity of peers' achievement. In this…

  11. Identify the impacts of climate on the regional transportation of haze pollution and inter-cities correspondence within the Yangtze River Delta Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hang; Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Regional haze pollution has become an important environmental issue in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. Aerosol samples from Nanjing, Shanghai, Ningbo and Li'an were collected and analyzed for their chemical compositions and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. The routine air monitoring data reported from national atmospheric monitoring networks was also collected to identify the impacts of the subtropical monsoon. Regional PM2.5 pollution was confirmed in the YRD region by significant correlations and similar cyclical characteristics of PM2.5 among study cities. The analysis of backward trajectory reveals that northerly is the prevailing wind from October to March, while the prevailing wind direction is from southeast for the other time. The Granger causality test results indicate that strong causal correlations exist between the cities along the pathways of seasonal monsoons. Variance decomposition of the multiple time series of PM2.5 from study area also indicated the upwind area cities contribute significantly to that of downwind area cities, which suggested the regional transportation of aerosol is governed by the prevailing air mass movement, i.e. the seasonal monsoons. Moreover, the variations of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of particle samples from the cities downwind direction demonstrate significant lag behind that of upwind direction city. Eventually, these statistical methodologies can be applied to forecast the daily PM2.5 concentrations in each city on a regional scale, and as well serve as an important reference for the regional air pollutant control during the policy making process.

  12. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  13. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  14. The impact of 9/11 on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs: a study of program administrators.

    PubMed

    Frank, Blanche; Dewart, Tracey; Schmeidler, James; Demirjian, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    Given the far-reaching effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, a study was conducted under the supervision of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services to assess the impact on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs. A stratified, random sample of 15 treatment programs was selected to represent the system's major modalities. Administrators representing these programs were interviewed face-to- face using a structured interview schedule. The questions mainly probed the problems experienced on 9/11 and afterwards, patient issues and the lessons learned. The findings show major concerns for the mental health of both staff members and patients, the failure of the telephone communication system, the particular sensitivity of drug-free outpatient clinics, the challenges experienced by methadone programs, and the need to update disaster planning. A host of problems came to the fore now requiring another level of thinking. PMID:16597568

  15. Impact of the 1979 gasoline shortage on the state's tourism industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This report is an account of the impact of the 1979 fuel shortage on the tourism industry in Washington State. Data indicate that a reduction in supplies of three percent was accompanied by reductions in state and national park use and in vehicle miles traveled. Retail sales, however, increased (in real dollars) although at a rate well off the average increase for the late seventies. Changes in tourist travel had a distinct regional pattern. While the industry did quite well in the Puget Sound area, it suffered losses in each of the other regions of the state. In some cases these were sharp losses, amounting to millions of dollars. Some counties (King, Kitsap, Mason, San Juan, Ferry, and Snohomish) had very strong years. For others (Clark, Lewis, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, and Whitman) the outlook was nothing short of abject.

  16. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  17. The impact of industry/university consortia programs on space education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, John R.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on space education in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, space education is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.

  18. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Estimated Energy Savings and Financial Impacts of Nanomaterials by Design on Selected Applications in the Chemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, Gary R.; Roach, J. Fred; Dauelsberg, Lori

    2006-03-01

    This study provides a preliminary analysis of the potential impact that nanotechnology could have on energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, waste reduction, and productivity, in the chemical and related industries.

  20. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  1. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity

  2. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  3. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  4. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  5. The emergence and potential impact of medicine 2.0 in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Stump, Terra; Zilch, Sarah; Coustasse, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Medicine 2.0 has emerged within healthcare information technology to enable more defined relationships among providers and patients. Physicians, hospitals, and patients are using Medicine 2.0 through social networking to maintain their foothold in the evolution of medical technologies. The authors' purpose was to determine potential improvements that Medicine 2.0 has on communication and collaboration of healthcare information. Research has shown that Medicine 2.0 has integrated into the healthcare industry and is enabling an increase in communication in healthcare matters. The provider-patient relationship is improving through the use of Medicine 2.0 and has positively impacted society so far. PMID:22671433

  6. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster. PMID:23787337

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Sand Creek Industrial Site, operable units 3 and 6, Commerce City, CO, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Units 3 and 6 (OU3/OU6), the 48th and Holly Landfill (the Landfill), at the Sand Creek Industrial Superfund Site in Commerce City, Colorado. The remedial action selected for OU3/OU6 will address the principal threats existing at the Landfill and will ensure that: (1) emissions of landfill gas are controlled to present inhalation at levels that pose an endangerment to human health or the environment, (2) accumulation of landfill gas is minimized in order to prevent explosion hazards, (3) dermal contact with the landfill contents is prevented, and (4) the use of ground water underlying the Landfill as a drinking water source is prevented.

  8. Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

    In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

  9. Environmental impact of heavy metals on the soils and plants around a coke-making factory of Jiyuan city, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun Leung, Kwun

    2010-05-01

    The combustion of coal usually leads to many different kinds of pollution around coke-making factories. Among these pollutions, the heavy metal contamination in the soil and plants is one of the major concerns by people living around. Heavy metals are highly attracted to the biological tissue, and can stay in bodies of organisms for long period of time, causing a lot of hazardous diseases to human beings, animal and plants. In the developing regions of China, developing of industries has been based on the sacrifices of environments and human health. In order to evaluate the danger of heavy metal contamination from a coke factory to citizens of close inhabitants, a survey on soil and plants was conducted in the region around a coke-making factory in Jiyuan city, which is a major electricity supplying city for the Henan Province in China. In this study, 8 surface soil samples and 11 plant samples were collected from 8 different places around the coke-making factory in Jiyuan city. The collected samples are then treated in the laboratory, and 8 types of heavy metals, which include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The concentration data of heavy metals that collected from the analysis are then used to evaluate their toxicity towards living organisms and ecology by applying several biological effect standards, such as effect-range low (ERL), effect-range median (ERM) and several maximum allowances standards of heavy metal concentrations in soils and plants that established by different countries. Moreover, the relationship between the distance from the factory and the concentration of heavy metals in soils and plants are also evaluated in order to find out the contamination ranges of those heavy metals from the source. The result shows that the concentration of these 8 types of heavy metals in the

  10. Systematic impact of institutional pressures on safety climate in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Dong, Shuang; Rose, Timothy; Li, Heng; Yin, Qin; Cao, Dongping

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores how three types of institutional pressure (i.e., coercive, mimetic and normative pressures) systematically impact on the safety climate of construction projects. These impacts are empirically tested by survey data collected from 186 questionnaires of construction companies operating in Shanghai, China. The results, obtained by partial least squares analysis, show that organizational management commitment to safety and employee involvement is positively related to all three institutional pressures, while the perception of responsibility for safety and health is significantly influenced by coercive and mimetic pressure. However, coercive and normative pressures have no significant effect on the applicability of safety rules and work practices, revealing the importance of external organizational pressures in improving project safety climate from a systematic view. The findings also provide insights into the use of institutional forces to facilitate the improvement of safety climate in the construction industry. PMID:26706434

  11. Energy, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technology in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The spreadsheet-based economic model shown here has been successfully used to analyze the impacts of technology used in a variety of industrial areas. It generates projections on energy, waste, and production cost savings that can be used to gauge the potential benefits that may result from technology adoption. The model is highly flexible, and can be used to incorporate unique benefits that fall outside the realm of energy savings. Although only aggregated results are shown here to protect developer confidentially, it is obvious that when the same information is viewed on the project level it can be invaluable to the research program manager. With the data provided by the model the value of a project can be assessed in terms of the federal investment as well as national impacts. This is a distinct advantage for government research managers who much allocate very scarce federal research funds among a multitude of potentially important research projects.

  12. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort. PMID:22962798

  13. [Assessment of sources, spatial distribution and ecological risk of heavy metals in soils in a typical industry-based city of Shandong Province, Eastern China].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Lü, Jian-Shu; Zhan, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Zu-Lu; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ru-Jia

    2015-02-01

    A total of 106 samples were collected from surface soils in Gangcheng District, Laiwu city (a Typical industry-based city of Shandong Province, Eastern China), and the contents of 9 heavy metals including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. Multivariate analysis and geostatistics were,applied to examine the sources and spatial distributions of heavy metals in soils; and the assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method. The average concentrations of 9 heavy metals were higher than the background values of Shandong Province; in particular, the mean contents of Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn were 2.42, 4.69, 1.74 and 1.54 times of their respective background values, which indicated there were obvious accumulations of these heavy metals in surface soils. The results from multivariate analysis suggested that all the 9 heavy metals could be classified as 3 Principal Components (PCs). Cd, Pb and Zn, having high loads in PC1, were dominated by industrial, agricultural and traffic sources. PC2 including Co, Cr and Ni came from natural sources, and were controlled by parent materials. As and Hg with high loads in PC3, were originated from coal combustion and smelting. Cu had some loads on different PCs, and was affected by both natural and human sources. Assessment on ecological risk indicated that the study area suffered from a critical level between high and moderate risks. Hg was at the high ecological risk level, and Cd was at the moderate ecological risk level, while other metals had low ecological risk level. PMID:26031076

  14. Urban/industrial pollution for the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor, 1996-1998: 1. Providing independent verification of CO and PCE emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Diana H.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Fehlau, Brian P.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Elkins, James W.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Montzka, Stephen A.

    2003-03-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and perchloroethylene (PCE, C2Cl4) were measured above the canopy at Harvard forest, MA every half-hour for 3 years starting in January 1996. Pollution enhancements are strongly correlated with winds from the southwest, the direction of the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor, as compared to background levels observed during northwest winds traveling from Canada. We establish the ratio of CO to PCE pollution enhancements by wind direction, by season, and by year and use these results to test the quality of county-level and national source emission inventories for these two gases. The EPA carbon monoxide emission county-level inventories and the McCulloch and Midgley sales-based national-level PCE release estimates are found to be in accord with our independent observations of urban/industrial releases. For the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor the inventory-based COI/PCEI emissions ratio of 584 (kg/kg) for 1996 falls well within the range of observationally-based ΔCO/ΔPCE pollution plume ratios of 388 to 706 (kg/kg) and is only 11% higher than the observed mean of 521 ± 90 (kg/kg). On the basis of this agreement, PCE emission estimates for 1997 and 1998 are derived from the CO inventory emissions values and the observed ΔCO/ΔPCE ratios in pollution plumes for those years; despite the call for voluntary cutbacks, urban/industrial emissions of PCE appear to be on the rise.

  15. Testimony on the Economic and Social Impact of Immigrants in New York City by Elizabeth Bogen, New York City Department of City Planning, Office of Immigrant Affairs, before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    New York City (New York) has the longest continuous immigration history of any American city, and the largest and most varied foreign-born population, according to testimony presented in 1986 to the Joint Economic Committee of the United States Congress. Using data from the 1980 census, information in the following areas is provided: (1)…

  16. Observation of Dust and Smoke Plume Transport and Impact on Remote Sensing of Air Quality in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshary, F.; Wu, Y.; Han, Z. T.; Nazmi, C.; Gross, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of aloft aerosol plumes affects both air quality and climate on regional and continental scales. Asian dust impacts on the western US and Canada have been extensively analyzed, yet such quantitative demonstrations are not well documented in the northeastern US. Similarly, episodes of continental transport of smoke plumes from forest fires in western US and Canada impact visibility and air quality in the US east coast. In this study, we present the synergistic observation of transported dust and smoke aerosol plumes in New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW), using a combination of a ground-based multiple-wavelength lidar, a CIMEL sunphotometer/radiometer, satellite sensors such as CALIOP and MODIS/VIIRS, and NAAPS aerosol forecast model. We show case studies of trans-Pacific Asian dust transport to the northeast US driven by the strong western or polar jets. The potential impact of the plumes on the local air quality is indicated by the plumes mixing down into boundary layer and the coincident increase of the ground PM measurement. Using multi-year lidar and sunphotometer observations, range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency of aloft aerosol plumes and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The transport paths and the optical properties of aerosol for each clustered path are characterized. We further demonstrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the surface PM2.5 estimates from MODIS and VIIRS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD), and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation between AOD-PM2.5 is much improved.

  17. Defining temporal spatial patterns of mega city Istanbul to see the impacts of increasing population.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Fusun Balik; Balcik, Filiz Bektas; Goksel, Cigdem

    2008-11-01

    Rapid land use change has taken place over the last few decades in Istanbul. As most of the metropolitan areas, Istanbul faces increasing problems connected to increasing population and urbanisation. In this study, temporal changes of Istanbul's land use/cover were defined using remotely sensed data and post classification change detection method. For the aim of the study, relevant information was derived from different dated Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data by using Unsupervised Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) and results were examined with matrix analysis method. Ground truth data were used for the classification and accuracy assessment of the classification. Temporal changes of land use/cover classes of the mega city Istanbul between the years of 1992, 1997 and 2005 were examined for the management and decision making process. Landsat TM images were classified into six land use/cover types: forest-green area, bare land, water surface, road, urban area, and mining area. The results show that urban areas and road categories are increased greatly by 13,630 and 5,018ha, respectively, but forest-green areas decreased by 77,722ha over 13years between 1992 and 2005. The reason for the decrease in green areas is mainly because of development of unplanned urbanization and unavoidable migration. PMID:18157736

  18. Impact of urbanization patterns on the local climate of a tropical city, Singapore: An ensemble study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Panda, Jagabandhu; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of urbanization and urbanization pattern on the thermal environment and local rainfall is investigated in the tropical coastal city, Singapore. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed with 5 one-way nested domains and the highest horizontal resolution is 300 m. The urban effect is taken into account by a single-layer urban canopy model. Several scenarios with idealized urbanization patterns are designed and simulated for an ensemble of 28 members. In the asymmetric urbanization scenarios, in which either the southern or northern part of Singapore is urbanized while the other part is forest, the magnitude of urban heat island (UHI) intensity is higher than that in the symmetric urbanization scenario, in which the urban and forest land use is homogeneously distributed in Singapore. The anthropogenic heat (AH) associated with the urban areas will exacerbate the UHI intensity. Most of the rainfall in the examined cases occurs from late morning to afternoon when the sea breeze blows northeastward. The results suggest that sea breezes have stronger influence on the rainfall than the urbanization pattern since the downwind part always gets more rainfall than the upwind part. The urbanization and associated AH can have two opposite effects on the rainfall amount: increasing rainfall through increasing buoyancy by AH and decreasing rainfall through reducing evaporation by converting greenery to impervious surfaces. The ultimate effect is dependent on the relative strength of these two influences.

  19. Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Couch, Stephen; Hartig, Ellen K.

    2001-12-01

    The greater New York City region, with over 2400 km of shoreline, will be vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to anticipated climate warming. Accelerated SLR would exacerbate historic trends of beach erosion and attrition of highly productive coastal salt marshes. Coastal populations in the region have swelled by around 17% (av.) and over 100% in some localities between 1960 and 1995. The coastal zone will thus be increasingly at risk to episodic flood events superimposed on a more gradual rise in mean sea level. Projections of sea level rise based on a suite of climate change scenarios suggest that sea levels will rise by 18-60 cm by the 2050s, and 24-108 cm by the 2080s over late 20th century levels. The return period of the 100-yr storm flood could be reduced to 19-68 years, on average, by the 2050s, and 4-60 years by the 2080s. Around 50% of the land surface of salt marsh islands have disappeared in Jamaica Bay since 1900. While losses prior to stricter environmental protection starting in 1972 can largely be attributed to anthropogenic activities, such as landfilling, dredging, and urbanization, further investigation is needed to explain more recent shrinkage. Given projected rates of SLR, and plausible accretion rates, these wetlands may not keep pace with SLR beyond several decades, resulting in severe loss.

  20. The Impact of a Holistic Conditional Cash Transfer Program in New York City on Parental Financial Investment, Student Time Use, and Educational Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the United States, on parental financial investments in children, and high school students' academic time use, motivations and self-beliefs, and achievement outcomes. Family Rewards, launched by the…

  1. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared grantmaking…

  2. The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructuredelectri city industry: Issues and options for regulators andlegislators

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Goldman, Charles; Nadel, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Electric industry restructuring requires state regulators and legislators to re-examine the purposes served by and the continuing need for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, as well as the mechanisms to collect funds for these programs and the institutions appropriate to administer them. This paper offers background to these issues and a series of recommendations based on analysis of recent state experiences. Our recommendations are summarized.

  5. Urban Expansion Dynamic and its Impact on Water Infiltration and Stream-flow in Huntsville City, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagaw, M. F.; Gabre, T.; Kebede, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A rapid change of land use from prime agricultural and forest covered land into housing units, manufacturing, retail and office space development is observed especially in the East-West, and North areas of the Huntsville city. This permanent land use change entails a change in surface moisture, hydrodynamics pattern and flush-runoff behavior of the surrounding streams and rivers on the receiving side of the stream network. This by itself leads to change in hydrologic runoff and infiltration properties leading to a completely new set of micro-hydrologic pattern. In this study we are going to assess the impact of the land use change on the future water infiltration and stremflow change of land surface using Landsat TM images from 1980 to year 2006 and map the increase of the proportion of impervious surfaces as a result of the above activities, and meteorological data over the past 100 years. Different image enhancing and classification technologies based on statistical, Adaptive Neural Network, and Fuzzy Logic Models will be used. Different handling approaches at the pixel level will be implemented. The result will be compiled into a collection of maps and discussed by correlating with the ground truth in the investigation area. As a result of this investigation the economic, ecologic, and institutional impacts over the coming three and decades will be modeled.

  6. U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

    2008-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environ¬mental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its pro¬grams, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP pro¬gram benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commer¬cialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technolo¬gies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of the most recent PNNL review (conducted in 2007). From 1976-2006, the commercialized technologies from ITP’s research and development (R&D) programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 5.65 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $37.8 billion.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technology Program and Its Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

    2010-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environ-mental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its pro-grams, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP pro-gram benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commer-cialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technolo¬gies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of PNNL’s most recent review (conducted in 2009). From 1976-2008, the commercialized technologies from ITP’s research and development programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 9.27 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $63.91 billion.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technology Program and Its Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

    2009-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environ-mental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its pro-grams, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP pro-gram benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commer-cialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technolo¬gies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of PNNL’s most recent review (conducted in 2008). From 1976-2007, the commercialized technologies from ITP’s research and development programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 6.17 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $63.0 billion.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

    2007-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environ¬mental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its pro¬grams, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP pro¬gram benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commer¬cialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technolo¬gies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of the most recent PNNL review (conducted in 2006). From 1976-2005, the commercialized technologies from ITP’s research and development (R&D) programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 5.13 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $29.3 billion.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and Its Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Brown, Scott A.

    2011-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environ-mental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its pro-grams, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP pro-gram benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commer-cialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technolo-gies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of PNNL’s most recent review (conducted in 2010). From 1976-2009, the commercialized technologies from ITP’s research and development programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 10.0 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $61.82 billion.

  11. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Fazzo, Lucia; Carere, Mario; Tisano, Francesco; Bruno, Caterina; Cernigliaro, Achille; Cicero, Maria Rita; Comba, Pietro; Contrino, Maria Luisa; De Santis, Marco; Falleni, Fabrizio; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Madeddu, Anselmo; Marcello, Ida; Regalbuto, Carlo; Sciacca, Giovanna; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Zona, Amerigo

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs) present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern. PMID:27087035

  12. Exposure and health impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between air pollution and health effects on human. The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on variation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentration and the impact of PM on the health of people living in Tabriz city. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. The concentration of particulate matter were measured at urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high volume samplers. PM2.5 and PM1 were measured by Haz-Dust EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. The annual average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in the urban site were 142.2 ± 76.3, 85.3 ± 43.9, 39 ± 19.1, and 28.4 ± 14.9 μg/m3 (mean ± SD), respectively. Also in industrial suburban, the total average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were measured as 178.7 ± 52.7, 109.9 ± 30.2, 40.0 ± 10.9, and 31.4 ± 9.1 μg/m3, respectively. The PM10/TSP ratio for the whole study period ranged between 0.35-0.91 and 0.32-0.79 in the urban and suburban sites, respectively. Total mortalities associated with TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 327, 363, and 360, respectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular mortalities for TSP and PM10 were 202 and 227 individual, respectively. According to the attributable respiratory mortalities of 99 and 67 associated respectively with TSP and PM10, it is clear that cardiovascular mortality resulted from PM might attributed to total mortality. The maximum 24-hour concentration of PM was observed during winter followed by autumn and the lowest one was during spring. PMID:24411011

  13. Residents' yard choices and rationales in a desert city: social priorities, ecological impacts, and decision tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelli L; Casagrande, David; Harlan, Sharon L; Yabiku, Scott T

    2009-11-01

    As a dominant land use in urban ecosystems, residential yards impact water and other environmental resources. Converting thirsty lawns into alternative landscapes is one approach to water conservation, yet barriers such as cultural norms reinforce the traditional lawn. Meanwhile, the complex social and ecological implications of yard choices complicate programs aimed at changing grass and other yard features for particular purposes. In order to better understand individual landscape decisions, we qualitatively examined residents' rationales for their preferred yard types in the desert metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona. After briefly presenting landscape choices across two survey samples, the dominant reasons for preferences are discussed: appearance, maintenance, environment, recreation, microclimate, familiarity, and health/safety. Three broader analytical themes emerged from these descriptive codes: (1) residents' desires for attractive, comfortable landscapes of leisure encompassing pluralistic tastes, lifestyles, and perceptions; (2) the association of environmental benefits and impacts with different landscape types involving complex social and ecological tradeoffs; and (3) the cultural legacies evident in modern landscape choices, especially in terms of a dichotomous human-nature worldview among long-time residents of the Phoenix oasis. Given these findings, programs aimed at landscape change must recognize diverse preferences and rationalization processes, along with the perceived versus actual impacts and tradeoffs of varying yard alternatives. PMID:19777295

  14. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

  15. Understanding the socio-demographic and climate impacts on total and landscape water use in the City of Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization has environmental impacts that modify ecosystem services associated with vegetation. Semi-arid urban forests also have costs related to irrigation that are difficult to evaluate. In the face of climate change and population growth, quantifying and predicting ecosystems costs and benefits are important and challenging. In urban areas, residential water consumption includes both domestic needs and landscaping irrigation, yet accurate partitioning of each of these uses is rare in most environments. The goal of the current research is to quantify outdoor landscape water use in order to have a better understanding of urban water footprints and the dynamics of water consumption patterns within semi-arid cities. Data is being collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) to evaluate household water use by ZIP code and by census tract. Neighborhoods were selected to represent city characteristics based on socio-demographic factors such as density, ethnicity, income level, education level and housing types. Initial studies are focusing on the correlation between residential water use and socio-demographic factors at the ZIP code level inside each neighborhood over the 2000-2010 period. Other variables predicting water use include climate variability and vegetation type. As expected, monthly water use patterns follow seasonal temperature and precipitation variability across the study neighborhoods. Results also show that education, ethnicity, per capita income, and the number of persons per household are linearly related to water use per capita and per area. A positive correlation is also observed between landscape area, vegetation indices and outdoor water use. A multiple regression model is developed that integrates these fundamental factors controlling indoor and outdoor water use across the region. Estimates of urban landscape water use will ultimately be compared to a remotely-sensed evapotranspiration model with high spatial (250 m

  16. Epidemiologic Impact of Rapid Industrialization on Head Injury Based on Traffic Accident Statistics in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, You Nam; Park, Young Seok; Min, Kyung Soo; Lee, Mou Seop; Kim, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence trend of head injury and the mortality based on traffic accident statistics and to investigate the impacts of rapid industrialization and economic growth on epidemiology of head injury in Korea over the period 1970–2012 including both pre-industrialized and post-industrialized stages. Methods We collected data of head injury estimated from traffic accident statistics and seven hospital based reports to see incidence trends between 1970 and 2012. We also investigated the population structure and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of Korea over the same period. The age specific data were investigated from 1992 to 2012. Results The incidence of head injury gradually rose in the 1970s and the 1980s but stabilized until the 1990s with transient rise and then started to decline slowly in the 2000s. The mortality grew until 1991 but gradually declined ever since. However, the old age groups showed rather slight increase in both rates. The degree of decrease in the mortality has been more rapid than the incidence on head injury. Conclusion In Korea during the low income stage, rapid industrialization cause considerable increase in the mortality and the incidence of head injury. During the high income stage, the incidence of head injury gradually declined and the mortality dropped more rapidly than the incidence due to preventive measures and satisfactory medical care. Nevertheless, the old age groups revealed rather slight increase in both rates owing to the large population structure and the declining birth rate. PMID:26962421

  17. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  18. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy. PMID:24520699

  19. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  20. Health impact and monetary cost of exposure to particulate matter emitted from biomass burning in large cities.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis Α; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kermenidou, Marianthi V

    2015-08-15

    The study deals with the assessment of health impact and the respective economic cost attributed to particulate matter (PM) emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning for space heating, focusing on the differences between the warm and cold seasons in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 in Thessaloniki (Greece). Health impact was assessed based on estimated exposure levels and the use of established WHO concentration-response functions (CRFs) for all-cause mortality, infant mortality, new chronic bronchitis cases, respiratory and cardiac hospital admissions. Monetary cost was based on the valuation of the willingness-to-pay/accept (WTP/WTA), to avoid or compensate for the loss of welfare associated with illness. Results showed that long term mortality during the 2012-2013 winter increased by 200 excess deaths in a city of almost 900,000 inhabitants or 3540 years of life lost, corresponding to an economic cost of almost 200-250m€. New chronic bronchitis cases dominate morbidity estimates (490 additional new cases corresponding to a monetary cost of 30m€). Estimated health and monetary impacts are more severe during the cold season, despite its smaller duration (4 months). Considering that the increased ambient air concentrations (and the integral of outdoor/indoor exposure) are explained by shifting from oil to biomass for domestic heating purposes, several alternative scenarios were evaluated. Policy scenario analysis revealed that significant public health and monetary benefits (up to 2b€ in avoided mortality and 130m€ in avoided illness) might be obtained by limiting the biomass share in the domestic heat energy mix. Fiscal policy affecting fuels/technologies used for domestic heating needs to be reconsidered urgently, since the net tax loss from avoided oil taxation due to reduced consumption was further compounded by the public health cost of increased mid-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25911543

  1. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2015-02-01

    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

  2. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Bárbara Cassu; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Hoshina, Márcia Miyuki; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a

  3. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) concurring with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) It was determined that Brigham City’s Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant upgrade would have no effect to federally listed or candidate species. However Brigham City has contributed a onetime lump sum towards Bonneville cutthroat trout conservation in the Northern Bonneville Geographic Management Unit with the intention to offset any impacts from the Upper Hydro Project needed to move forward with design and construction and is sufficient for NEPA compliance. No work was done in the river or river bank. During construction, the penstock was disconnected and water was diverted through and existing system around the powerhouse and back into the water system. The penstock, which is currently a 30-inch steel pipe, would be removed and replaced with a new section of 30-inch pipe. Brigham City worked with the DOE and was awarded a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III of our Hydro Project in Dec. 2013; with the exception to the modification of the award for the construction phase. Brigham City developed and issued a Request for Proposal for Engineer and Design vendor. Sunrise Engineering was selected for the Design and throughout the Construction Phase of the Upper Hydroelectric Power Plant. Brigham City conducted a Kickoff Meeting with Sunrise June 28, 2013 and received a Scope of Work Brigham City along with engineering firm sent out a RFP for Turbine, Generator and Equipment for Upper Hydro. We select Turbine/Generator Equipment from Canyon Industries located in Deming, WA. DOE awarded Brigham City a new modification and the permission to proceed with Phase III Construction of our Hydro Project. Brigham City Crews removed existing turbine/generator and old equipment alone with feeder wires coming into the building basically giving Caribou Construction an empty shell to begin demolition. Brigham City contracted with Caribou Construction

  4. The Industrialization of Southern Rural Areas. A Study of Industry and Federal Assistance in Small Towns with Recommendations for Future Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Incorporating field studies and literature reviews, 2 cities and 2 towns in Mississippi and South Carolina were investigated to determine the socioeconomic impact of Southern rural industrialization and to aid the Economic Development Administration (EDA) in developing policy relative to allocation of funds. Visiting each town/city 3 times and…

  5. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years

  6. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  7. Impact of permitflation upon the United States mining industry and small mines in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Rife, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of mining upon the environment has been the focus of increasing attention from the public and a number of special-interest groups not altogether altruistic in their endeavors. Concern regarding this impact has fostered an incredible number of laws, executive orders and regulations dealing with the nonfuel minerals. Regulations are to a certain extent necessary in the mining industry; however, the imposing number of permits and their cumulative effects have given rise to PERMITFLATION. Permitflation has punitively impeded the small miner in Colorado, and has ultimately compelled the United States to become dangerously dependent upon foreign resources. A game plan can be formulated that can decrease the procedural impact of permit compliance upon the small miner. Such a plan includes early personal contact by the applicant miner with the particular permit agency representative prior to actual submittal of the application. Determine what specific baseline data is required, plan ahead, include an area of interest where possible, and follow to the letter each application as completely and accurately as possible: this approach will facilitate the permit process and encourage timely agency approvals.

  8. CITY IN A BOX: A NEW PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global carbon emissions generated by buildings are estimated at between 40 to 50 percent, 25 percent from transportation and about 25 percent from industrial sources. In addition, cities are estimated to be responsible for as much as 70 percent of the waste impacting the envir...

  9. A review of downscaling procedures - a contribution to the research on climate change impacts at city scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smid, Marek; Costa, Ana; Pebesma, Edzer; Granell, Carlos; Bhattacharya, Devanjan

    2016-04-01

    Human kind is currently predominantly urban based, and the majority of ever continuing population growth will take place in urban agglomerations. Urban systems are not only major drivers of climate change, but also the impact hot spots. Furthermore, climate change impacts are commonly managed at city scale. Therefore, assessing climate change impacts on urban systems is a very relevant subject of research. Climate and its impacts on all levels (local, meso and global scale) and also the inter-scale dependencies of those processes should be a subject to detail analysis. While global and regional projections of future climate are currently available, local-scale information is lacking. Hence, statistical downscaling methodologies represent a potentially efficient way to help to close this gap. In general, the methodological reviews of downscaling procedures cover the various methods according to their application (e.g. downscaling for the hydrological modelling). Some of the most recent and comprehensive studies, such as the ESSEM COST Action ES1102 (VALUE), use the concept of Perfect Prog and MOS. Other examples of classification schemes of downscaling techniques consider three main categories: linear methods, weather classifications and weather generators. Downscaling and climate modelling represent a multidisciplinary field, where researchers from various backgrounds intersect their efforts, resulting in specific terminology, which may be somewhat confusing. For instance, the Polynomial Regression (also called the Surface Trend Analysis) is a statistical technique. In the context of the spatial interpolation procedures, it is commonly classified as a deterministic technique, and kriging approaches are classified as stochastic. Furthermore, the terms "statistical" and "stochastic" (frequently used as names of sub-classes in downscaling methodological reviews) are not always considered as synonymous, even though both terms could be seen as identical since they are

  10. A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  11. A tale of two cities? The heterogeneous impact of Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Marton, James; Yelowitz, Aaron; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2014-07-01

    Evaluating Accountable Care Organizations is difficult because there is a great deal of heterogeneity in terms of their reimbursement incentives and other programmatic features. We examine how variation in reimbursement incentives and administration among two Medicaid managed care plans impacts utilization and spending. We use a quasi-experimental approach exploiting the timing and county-specific implementation of Medicaid managed care mandates in two contiguous regions of Kentucky. We find large differences in the relative success of each plan in reducing utilization and spending that are likely driven by important differences in plan design. The plan that capitated primary care physicians and contracted out many administrative responsibilities to an experienced managed care organization achieved significant reductions in outpatient and professional utilization. The plan that opted for a fee-for-service reimbursement scheme with a group withhold and handled administration internally saw a much more modest reduction in outpatient utilization and an increase in professional utilization. PMID:24747920

  12. New drug regulations in France: what are the impacts on market access? Part 2 – impacts on market access and impacts for the pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Access to the French drug market is being impacted by an ongoing dramatic shift in practice as well as by two laws that came into force in December 2011. This new environment has been described and analyzed in two separate articles. This second article analyzes how this new environment will actually impact the access to French drug market. French drug market access will be increasingly driven by comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data, and an increased role of postmarketing studies in the years to come. This access is evolving in a more complex environment for stakeholders due to the uncertainties surrounding these changes and it will be more complex and difficult for the pharmaceutical industry to address. The main issue faced by the pharmaceutical companies will be to minimize uncertainty at the time of a drug's launch to narrow the decision window. This is a major change of paradigm for the pharmaceutical business, in which pre- and postlaunch risks are directed toward the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27226829

  13. Observational studies and a statistical early warning of surface ozone pollution in Tangshan, the largest heavy industry city of North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Bai, Xiaoping; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Shigong; Liu, Shixi; Feng, Xiaoxin

    2013-03-01

    Continuous measurements of surface ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) at an urban site (39°37'N, 118°09'E) in Tangshan, the largest heavy industry city of North China during summertime from 2008 to 2011 are presented. The pollution of O3 was serious in the city. The daily maximum 1 h means (O3_1-hr max) reached 157 ± 55, 161 ± 54, 120 ± 50, and 178 ± 75 μg/m3 corresponding to an excess over the standard rates of 21%, 27%, 10%, and 40% in 2008-2011, respectively. The total oxidant level (OX = O3 + NO2) was high, with seasonal average concentrations up to 100 μg/m3 in summer. The level of OX at a given location was made up of NOX-independent and NOX-dependent contributions. The independent part can be considered as a regional contribution and was about 100 μg/m3 in Tangshan. Statistical early warning analysis revealed that the O3 levels would exceed the standard rate by 50% on the day following a day when the daily average ozone concentration (O3_mean) exceeded 87 μg/m3 and the daily maximum temperature (T_max) exceeded 29 °C. The exceed-standard rate would reach 80% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 113 μg/m3 and 31 °C. Similarly, the exceed-standard rate would reach 100% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 127 μg/m3 and 33 °C, respectively. PMID:23485953

  14. Observational Studies and a Statistical Early Warning of Surface Ozone Pollution in Tangshan, the Largest Heavy Industry City of North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Bai, Xiaoping; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Shigong; Liu, Shixi; Feng, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Continuous measurements of surface ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) at an urban site (39°37′N, 118°09′E) in Tangshan, the largest heavy industry city of North China during summertime from 2008 to 2011 are presented. The pollution of O3 was serious in the city. The daily maximum 1 h means (O3_1-hr max) reached 157 ± 55, 161 ± 54, 120 ± 50, and 178 ± 75 μg/m3 corresponding to an excess over the standard rates of 21%, 27%, 10%, and 40% in 2008–2011, respectively. The total oxidant level (OX = O3 + NO2) was high, with seasonal average concentrations up to 100 μg/m3 in summer. The level of OX at a given location was made up of NOX-independent and NOX-dependent contributions. The independent part can be considered as a regional contribution and was about 100 μg/m3 in Tangshan. Statistical early warning analysis revealed that the O3 levels would exceed the standard rate by 50% on the day following a day when the daily average ozone concentration (O3_mean) exceeded 87 μg/m3 and the daily maximum temperature (T_max) exceeded 29 °C. The exceed-standard rate would reach 80% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 113 μg/m3 and 31 °C. Similarly, the exceed-standard rate would reach 100% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 127 μg/m3 and 33 °C, respectively. PMID:23485953

  15. Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Supakankunti, S.; Janjaroen, W. S.; Tangphao, O.; Ratanawijitrasin, S.; Kraipornsak, P.; Pradithavanij, P.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property. It is intended to implement these standards globally through a WTO enforcement mechanism. The present article proposes a strategy for alleviating the potentially negative impact of TRIPS in Thailand in relation to the following: purchasers; prescribers and dispensers; producers; products; price control; patent-to-third-party; parallel imports; power of the customer; patentable new drugs; personnel; and prevention policies. The following TRIPS provisions are pertinent to the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand: the limited term of product and process patents; the conditions of protection; and the broad scope for compulsory licensing and enforcement procedures in the national patent system. PMID:11417042

  16. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  17. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. PMID:26164780

  18. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk assessment in the surface sediments of the coastal area surrounding the industrial complex of Gabes city, Gulf of Gabes, SE Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Castet, Sylvie; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla

    2015-12-30

    In the present study, the concentrations of 6 trace metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn) were assessed in the surface sediments of the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf to determine their contamination status, source, spatial distribution and ecological risks. The ranking of metal contents was found to be Zn>Cd>Cr>Pb>Cu>Hg. Correlation analysis indicated that Cd and Zn derived mainly from the Tunisian Chemical Group phosphogypsum. The other pollutants may originate from other industrial wastes. Metallic contamination was detected in the south of chemical complex, especially in the inter-harbor zone, where the ecological risk of surface sediments is the highest, implying potential negative impacts of industrial pollutants. The spatial distribution of pollutants seems to be due to the effect of harbor installations and coastal currents. The metallic pollution status of surface sediments of Gabes Gulf is obvious, very worrying and requires rapid intervention. PMID:26526855

  19. Electric Industry Restructuring in Ohio: Residential and Low Income Customer Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    Throughout the country the long standing administratively based regulatory structure for determining the cost and service parameters for electric utilities is changing. More and more market elements are coming into the structure. There is a push by many players to eliminate much of the current regulation. For the production side of electricity at least, these players argue that a market approach will do a better n job of pricing power and making it available to customers. However, the electricity industry currently has a large base of investment in power production equipment, some of which may have difficulty competing in a market-based system. What to do about this potentially uneconomic existing investment is an important question receiving a great deal of attention at the policy discussion level. Some argue that if the investment in existing facilities is uneconomic in a new market based system, that is too bad for the owners of the above-market cost facilities, and customers should bear no responsibility to help make those owners whole. Others argue that the owners of above-market cost facilities invested in those facilities in good faith and should not be made to bear the cost of a changing underlying industry structure. The arguments on both sides are long and involved, and this paper is not the place to explore them. However, it is clear that the result of the debate is uncertain, and both approaches must be explored. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current electric utility cost structure in Ohio, estimate the expected changes in that structure and cost levels under various restructuring proposals, and determine the likely impact on low income and other residential customers. The report analyzes the likely cost impacts of a variety of approaches to the above-market cost facility problem. The range of potential outcomes is very wide.

  20. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  1. A Study into the Impact of Physical Structures on the Runway Velocity Field at the Atlantic City International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David, Jr.; Manson, Russell; Trout, Joseph; Decicco, Nicholas; Rios, Manny

    2015-04-01

    Wake vortices are generated by airplanes in flight. These vortices decay slowly and may persist for several minutes after their creation. These vortices and associated smaller scale turbulent structures present a hazard to incoming flights. It is for this reason that incoming flights are timed to arrive after these vortices have dissipated. Local weather conditions, mainly prevailing winds, can affect the transport and evolution of these vortices; therefore, there is a need to fully understand localized wind patterns at the airport-sized mircoscale. Here we have undertaken a computational investigation into the impacts of localized wind flows and physical structures on the velocity field at Atlantic City International Airport. The simulations are undertaken in OpenFOAM, an open source computational fluid dynamics software package, using an optimized geometric mesh of the airport. Initial conditions for the simulations are based on historical data with the option to run simulations based on projected weather conditions imported from the Weather Research & Forcasting (WRF) Model. Sub-grid scale turbulence is modeled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The initial results gathered from the WRF Model simulations and historical weather data analysis are presented elsewhere.

  2. The impact of sports mega-events on health and environmental rights in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilani, Rodrigo Machado; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city's historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City's Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016. PMID:26648362

  3. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-08-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature-disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature-disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes ( I2= 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  4. The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Childhood HFMD Incidence in Inland and Coastal Area: A Two-City Study in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Xianjun; Li, Jie; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yunxia; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a substantial burden throughout the Asia-Pacific countries over the past decades. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is important to understand the temperature–disease association for HFMD in different geographical locations. This study aims to assess the impact of temperature on HFMD incidence in an inland city and a coastal city and investigate the heterogeneity of temperature–disease associations. Daily morbidity data and meteorological variables of the study areas were collected for the period from 2007 to 2012. A total of 108,377 HFMD cases were included in this study. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution was used to examine the nonlinear lagged effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. After controlling potential confounders, temperature showed significant association with HFMD incidence and the two cities demonstrated different impact modes (I2 = 96.1%; p < 0.01). The results highlight the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence and the impact pattern may be modified by geographical localities. Our findings can be a practical reference for the early warning and intervention strategies of HFMD. PMID:26213955

  5. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrialized city, Kocaeli, Turkey: study of seasonal variations, influence of meteorological parameters and health risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Gaga, Eftade O; Ari, Akif; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Çakırca, E Emel; Machin, Nesrin E

    2012-08-01

    Ambient gas and particle phase samples were collected during two sampling periods from a residential area of an industrialized city, Kocaeli, Turkey. The sampling occurred during winter months when structures were being heated, and summer months when structures were not being heated. Σ(13)PAH (gas + particle) concentrations ranged between 6.2 ng m(-3) (DahA) and 98.6 ng m(-3) (Phe) in the heating (winter) period and 3.0 ng m(-3) (BaA) and 35.1 ng m(-3) (Phe) in the non-heating (summer) period. Phe, Flt and Pyr were found to be at high concentrations in both sampling periods. Winter time to summer time concentration ratios for individual ambient PAH concentration ratios ranged between 1.2 (DahA) and 17.5 (Flu), indicating the effect of the emissions from residential heating on measured concentrations of PAHs, but great industrial plants and the only incinerator facility of Turkey are other important pollution sources around the city. Temperature dependence of gas phase PAHs was investigated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. A high slope obtained (5069.7) indicated the effect of the local sources on measured gas phase PAHs. Correlation of the supercooled vapor pressure (P) with the gas particle partitioning coefficient (K(p)) and particle phase fraction was also evaluated. The relationship between the meteorological parameters and individual PAH (gas + particle) concentrations was investigated further by multiple linear regression analysis. It was found that the temperature had a significant effect on all of the measured PAH concentrations, while the effects of the wind speed and direction were not significant on the individual PAHs. On the other hand, PAH concentrations showed a strong linear relationship with the ventilation coefficient (VC) which showed the influence of local sources on measured PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent (BaP(eq.)) concentrations were used for health risk assessment purposes. The winter period risk level (2.92 × 10(-3)) due to

  6. Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

  7. Economic interrelationships and impacts of the aviation/aerospace industry in the state of Florida using input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whealan George, Kelly

    The study provided a detailed description of the interrelatedness of the aviation and aerospace industry with principal industries in Florida and Volusia County (VC) using Input-Output (IO) analysis. Additionally, this research provided an economic impact analysis of the creation of a university research park in Daytona Beach (DB). The economic impact measures included not only direct economic output and industry employment descriptions but also described the multiplier effects in the form of indirect and induced impacts using data for 2012. This research concluded the average labor income of the aviation and aerospace industry was higher than average labor income in Florida and VC. A substantive difference between the Florida and VC average labor income for the aviation and aerospace industry existed because VC's aerospace sector was only concentrated in the search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing sector. VC's transport by air sector was one-fifth the size of Florida's. Differences in the aviation and aerospace industry composition between Florida and VC are important because the economic impacts from a shock to the entire aviation and aerospace industry will be distributed differently. Since the aviation and aerospace average labor income is higher than the average labor income in Florida and VC, it would be a positive move for Florida's economy to attract and grow the aviation and aerospace industry. It would be highly unlikely that the entirety of newly created jobs would be resourced from the local population. Nonetheless, growing the aviation and aerospace industry jobs would have a positive influence on the region's economy and tax revenues. It would be a desirable course of action to spur the growth of this sector, as its direct effect would culminate with additional jobs in Florida that would bring higher wage jobs to the state. The interdependencies of the aviation and aerospace industry in Florida and VC with other industries had a

  8. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    downstream, especially in infiltrated urban catchments. We conclude that, apart from artificial regulation, groundwater has significant impacts on surface water quality in the polders. Especially in low-lying urban catchments surface water solute concentrations like TP, TN, NH4+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Ca2+ can be predicted by groundwater characteristics. These results suggest that groundwater quality plays a crucial role in understanding and improving surface water quality in regulated lowland catchments.

  9. A Balanced Scorecard for Open Innovation: Measuring the Impact of Industry-University Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Myrna; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Magyar, Andrea

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) can be considered as a strategic measurement tool. Since its first publication by Norton and Kaplan in the early 1990’s, many companies have applied it to measure four key aspects of their organisations’ performance: Financial, Customer, Internal Business Process, Learning and Growth. Although it is widely used in the business arena, this original BSC was not developed to assess the impact of collaborative research projects under an open innovation strategy, where the outputs of research and development (R&D) developed by collaborative projects undertaken by industry and universities should be measured in a different way. In fact, many companies are losing important opportunities to spur their R&D results by not being able to quantify the results of such collaborations. Therefore, this paper will propose a Scorecard to measure the outcomes of collaborative research. It is important to recall that this scorecard has been developed during a collaborative research project by CEMEX Research Group AG (Switzerland) and Cranfield University (UK). During such project, a survey was developed to carry out eleven face-to-face interviews in a sample of ten companies in UK, which provided important inputs to design such strategic scorecard. It was confirmed that a collaborative balanced scorecard is a very useful tool to measure, track and improve the impact of conducting collaborative projects with universities.

  10. Sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at a residential neighborhood impacted by industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Helen Manolopoulos; David C. Snyder; James J. Schauer; Jason S. Hill; Jay R. Turner; Mark L. Olson; David P. Krabbenhoft

    2007-08-15

    Speciated measurements of atmospheric mercury plumes were obtained at an industrially impacted residential area of East St. Louis, IL. These plumes were found to result in extremely high mercury concentrations at ground level that were composed of a wide distribution of mercury species. Ground level concentrations as high as 235 ng m{sup -3} for elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and 38,300 pg m{sup -3} for reactive mercury species (reactive gaseous (RGM) plus particulate (PHg) mercury) were measured. The highest mercury concentrations observed during the study were associated with plumes that contained high concentrations of all mercury species (Hg{sup 0}, RGM, and PHg) and originated from a source located southwest of the sampling site. Variations in proportions of Hg{sup 0}/RGM/PHg among plumes, with Hg{sup 0} dominating some plumes and RGM and/or PHg dominating others, were attributed to differences in emissions from different sources. Correlations between mercury plumes and elevated NOx were not observed; however, a correlation between elevated SO{sub 2} and mercury plumes was observed during some but not all plume events. Despite the presence of six coal-fired power plants within 60 km of the study site, wind direction data along with Hg/SO{sub 2} and Hg/NOx ratios suggest that high-concentration mercury plumes impacting the St. Louis-Midwest Particle Matter Supersite are attributable to local point sources within 5 km of the site. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at a residential neighborhood impacted by industrial sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manolopoulos, H.; Snyder, D.C.; Schauer, J.J.; Hill, J.S.; Turner, J.R.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Speciated measurements of atmospheric mercury plumes were obtained at an industrially impacted residential area of East St. Louis, IL. These plumes were found to result in extremely high mercury concentrations at ground level that were composed of a wide distribution of mercury species. Ground level concentrations as high as 235 ng m-3 for elemental mercury (Hg 0) and 38 300 pg m-3 for reactive mercury species (reactive gaseous (RGM) plus particulate (PHg) mercury) were measured. The highest mercury concentrations observed during the study were associated with plumes that contained high concentrations of all mercury species (Hg 0, RGM, and PHg) and originated from a source located southwest of the sampling site. Variations in proportions of Hg0/RGM/PHg among plumes, with Hg0 dominating some plumes and RGM and/or PHg dominating others, were attributed to differences in emissions from different sources. Correlations between mercury plumes and elevated NOx were not observed; however, a correlation between elevated SO2 and mercury plumes was observed during some but not all plume events. Despite the presence of six coal-fired power plants within 60 km of the study site, wind direction data along with Hg/SO2 and Hg/NOx ratios suggest that high-concentration mercury plumes impacting the St. Louis-Midwest Particle Matter Supersite are attributable to local point sources within 5 km of the site. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  12. The predicted impact of increased formaldehyde emissions from industrial flares on ozone concentrations in Houston, TX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.

    2015-12-01

    Houston features one of the largest concentrations of the petrochemical industry in all of North America and flares are widely used there as the final treatment process for unwanted volatile organic compounds. These flares have the potential to produce formaldehyde as the result of incomplete combustion. Formaldehyde emissions are an important precursor to producing hydroxyl radicals and thus can impact atmospheric chemistry and the formation of ozone. Formaldehyde emissions from flares, however, are difficult to measure in situ. Recently, alternative measurement techniques have been developed, like open path optical methods, that allow the direct measurement of flare emissions from the facility's fence line (Johansson et al., 2014; Pikelnaya, Flynn, Tsai, & Stutz, 2013). This observational data indicates that the emission rate of formaldehyde from flares is about 10-20 times greater than those found in the regulatory models developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ). This research will use air quality models to quantify the impact that increased formaldehyde emission from flares will have on Houston ozone concentrations. This study relies on the CAMx model (version 6.1) and emission data developed by Alpine Geophysics LLC (AG) and Climate & Atmospheric Research Associates (CARA) based on the combined databases from TCEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and National Emission Inventory (NEI2008). This model also used meteorology data from the results of WRF-ARW dynamics. The CAMx generated process analysis data will also be used to quantify changes in radical budgets and NOx budgets critical to ozone production.

  13. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron) and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè). The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC) in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678) were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November) but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September). In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98%) and Anopheles arabiensis (2%). At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs) and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs) were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF) than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF) (p < 0.05.). However, there were no significant differences in HBRs or EIRs between HCFV and HFVF during the rainy seasons at these sites (p > 0.05). The knock-down resistance (kdr) mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91) in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency (< 0.1). Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas

  14. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles. PMID:15047086

  15. Distribution, compositional pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of an industrial city, Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Yves, Uwamungu J; Sun, Hang; Hu, Xuefei; Zhan, Huiying; Wu, Yingqin

    2016-04-01

    The level, distribution, compositional pattern and possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou urban soil of Northwest China were investigated in this study. The total level of 22 PAHs ranged from 115 to 12,100µgkg(-1) and that of 16 priority PAHs from 82.4 to 10,900µgkg(-1). Seven carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 6.18-57.4% of total 22 PAHs. Compared with data from those reported about urban areas, PAH contamination in Lanzhou urban soils was moderate. Among different functional areas, higher level of PAHs was found along roadsides and in the industrial district (p<0.01), while lower levels were detected in the commercial, park and residential districts. The composition of PAHs was characterized by high molecular weight PAHs (≥4 rings), among which fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene and phenanthrene were the most dominant components. Correlation analysis suggested that low molecular weight PAHs and high molecular weight PAHs originated from different sources and further corroborated that TOC was an important factor in the accumulation of PAHs in soil. Isomer ratios and principal component analysis indicated that PAHs in urban soil derived primarily from emissions resulting from the combustion of biomass, coal and petroleum products. Toxic equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) of soil PAHs ranged from 6.12 to 1302µgBaPeqkg(-1), with a mean of 138µgBaPeqkg(-1). The results suggested that human exposure to those soils which polluted by high concentrations of PAHs through direct ingestion or inhalation of suspended soil particles probably poses a significant risk to human health from the carcinogenic effects of PAHs. PMID:26748595

  16. Surface water quality in a water run-off canal system: A case study in Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Zia Mahmood; Saleem, Mohammad; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2016-06-01

    Water quality in a run-off canal system in an industrial area was evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties comprising trace metals (including mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), salinity, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and dissolved oxygen). High concentrations of potassium (K) (1.260-2.345 mg/l) and calcium (Ca) (19.170-35510 mg/l) demonstrated that the salinity in the water was high, which indicates that industrial effluents from fertilizer manufacturing and Chlor-alkali units are being discharged into the canal system. Almost all the metal concentrations in water and sediment were within the thresholds established by the local regulatory body. Concentrations of Cr (0.0154-0.0184 mg/l), Mn (0.0608-0.199 mg/l), Fe (0.023-0.035 mg/l), COD (807-916 mg/l), and turbidity (633 ± 15-783 ± 22 NTU) were high where the canal discharges into the Persian Gulf; these discharges may compromise the health of the aquatic ecosystem. There is concern about the levels of Hg in water (0.00135-0.0084 mg/l), suspended sediment (0.00308-0.0096 mg/l), and bed sediment (0.00172-0.00442 mg/l) because of the bio-accumulative nature of Hg. We also compared the total Hg concentrations in fish from Jubail, and two nearby cities. Hg contents were highest in fish tissues from Jubail. This is the first time that heavy metal pollution has been assessed in this water run-off canal system; information about Hg is of particular interest and will form the basis of an Hg database for the area that will be useful for future investigations. PMID:27441298

  17. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  18. Lessons learned from the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: Impact on industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.; Affeltranger, B.

    2009-04-01

    The earthquake that shook Wenchuan County in China's Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008 was a major event with a moment magnitude of MW = 7.9 and a depth of only 19 km. It caused a fault rupture of 270 km length and affected a total area of about 500,000 km2. With the intensity reaching XI in the region near the epicentre and peak ground acceleration values as high as 0.63g the earthquake killed almost 70,000 people, injured over 374,000 and rendered 5,000,000 homeless. Over 18,000 are still listed as missing. Prior to the earthquake the area was considered a region of moderate seismicity with a design intensity of 7. Sichuan Province is home to a significant proportion of Chinese chemical and nuclear industry and consequently has a very strong economy. The direct economic loss due to the earthquake amounts to over 1.1 billion Euros. In addition to economic damage there is also concern about earthquake-triggered damage to and destruction of industrial facilities housing or processing hazardous substances and the potential consequences of their release to man or the environment. In order to understand how well the chemical industry fared in the earthquake-affected areas a reconnaissance field trip was organised from 15-21 November, 2008, which included visits to industry in Deyang, Shifang, Mianzhu, Mianyang, Anxian and Dujiangyan. In total we collected information on earthquake effects at 18 industrial facilities. Lessons learned from this reconnaissance field trip confirm the devastating consequences that natural disasters can have on industrial facilities. In addition to casualties and environmental harm the economic losses due to damage, prolonged shut-down periods and business interruption are often ruinous and may result in lay-off of workers. In the case of the visited facilities the shut-down time was up to 6 months. Two facilities were damaged beyond repair and have resulted in significant ammonia, sulphuric acid and other releases that in addition to

  19. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  20. Long-Run Impact of the Thirty Cent Revision in Ontario's Minimum Wage on Five Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ian B.

    To determine the effect of a legislated increase in the minimum wage in Ontario, 219 establishments in five industries were surveyed. The industries were shoe factories; luggage, handbag, and small leather goods manufacturers; hosiery mills, children's clothing industry; and the foundation garment industry. Data were gathered at three different…

  1. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb. PMID:26886426

  2. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  3. Impact of exporting dependence on livestock production systems, industry structure, and research.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K L; Kirton, A H

    1997-02-01

    From 84 to 93% of New Zealand's annual production from livestock is exported to over 100 markets throughout the world. This export dependence has produced production systems that are low-cost because the Mediterranean maritime climate allows animals to graze outdoors throughout the year without provision for housing and with minimal requirements for cropping, harvesting, and forage storage. These systems exploit the inherent tendencies for ruminants to have annual production cycles that can be synchronized to use the seasonal availability of pasture, but this means that processing facilities must handle peak supply for brief periods. Processing technology can reduce the impact of peaks in supply that may not match market demand. The disadvantages of seasonality in processing costs are outweighed by lower production costs, as well as by the opportunity to manage large numbers of animals per labor unit. Cooperative structures that are owned by livestock producers are a common feature, especially in New Zealand's dairy industry. This continued preference for cooperatives may reflect the need to have a guaranteed processor for a perishable product such as milk, as well as sharing the risk in an export industry that has scant control over prices received. In addition, management systems for ruminant livestock can only respond slowly to changes in market demand because their production cycles last at least 12 mo and only one or two offspring are produced in each cycle. Export marketing of livestock products is complicated by trade barriers and by dumping of subsidized surpluses. Negotiations to eliminate these practices may mean that livestock production systems in many countries will have to adopt some principles similar to those developed in New Zealand, not because of export dependence but because this dependence has created low-cost systems. PMID:9051476

  4. The impact of incentive regulation on the quality of service in the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Anna M.

    Incentive regulation has increasingly replaced rate of return regulation in the U.S. electricity industry. By weakening the link between the utility's rates and its unit cost of service, the shift to incentive regulation encourages the regulated utility to reduce its costs, which might result in quality cuts. With the focus of regulatory reforms currently shifting to the distribution level, it becomes more important to examine how regulatory regimes influence the quality of service in distribution. In the theoretical part of this dissertation I develop a model that can be used to analyze how regulation affects quality provision by the firm. The interaction between the firm and the regulator is modeled as a Stackelberg game in which the regulator is the leader. The model shows that the firm's investment in quality is increasing in the fine for low quality and decreasing in the power of incentive contract. It also shows that investment in quality increases with the power of the contract in the subsequent period. In the empirical part of this dissertation, which is its main focus, I examine the impact of state incentive regulation on two dimensions of quality of service, the average duration and the frequency of electric outages in the U.S. electric utility industry between 1993 and 1999. The study is based on a unique panel data set for 78 major utilities from 23 states. I find that incentive regulation is associated with an increase in the average duration of electric outages, but the implementation of explicit quality benchmarks reduces the average duration of outages per customer. I also find that incentive regulation reduces the utility's operational and maintenance expenses per customer at the distribution level, which engenders an increase in the duration of electric outages.

  5. The Impact of Pre-Industrial Land Use Change on Atmospheric Composition and Aerosol Radiative Forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. S.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.; Folberth, G.; Kaplan, J. O.; Pringle, K.; Scott, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use change (LUC) has had a major impact on the climate by altering the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, changing surface albedo and modifying the levels of both biogenic and pyrogenic emissions. While previous studies of LUC have largely focused on the first two components, there has recently been a recognition that changes to aerosol and related pre-cursor gas emissions from LUC are equally important. Furthermore, it has also recently been recognised that the pre-industrial (PI) to present day (PD) radiative forcing (RF) of climate from aerosol cloud interactions (ACI) due to anthropogenic emissions is highly sensitive to the amount of natural aerosol that was present in the PI. This suggests that anthropogenic RF from ACI may be highly sensitive to land-use in the PI. There are currently two commonly used baseline reference years for the PI; 1750 and 1860. Rapid LUC occurred between 1750 and 1860, with large reductions in natural vegetation cover in Eastern Northern America, Europe, Central Russia, India and Eastern China as well as lower reductions in parts of Brazil and Africa. This LUC will have led to significant changes in biogenic and fire emissions with implications for natural aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF. The focus of this study is therefore to quantify the impact of LUC between 1750 and 1860 on aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF calculations from ACI. We use the UK Met Office HadGEM3-UKCA coupled-chemistry-climate model to calculate the impacts of anthropogenic emissions and anthropogenic LUC on aerosol size distributions in both 1750 and 1860. We prescribe LUC using the KK10 historical dataset of land cover change. Monoterpene emissions are coupled directly to the prescribed LUC through the JULES land surface scheme in HadGEM3. Fire emissions from LUC were calculated offline using the fire module LPJ-LMfire in the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model. To separate out the impacts of LUC from

  6. Optical properties of PM2.5 and the impacts of chemical compositions in the coastal city Xiamen in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junjun; Zhang, Yanru; Hong, Youwei; Xu, Lingling; Chen, Yanting; Du, Wenjiao; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Continuous in situ measurements of optical properties of fine aerosols (PM2.5) were conducted in the urbanized coastal city Xiamen in Southeast China from November 2013 to January 2014. PM2.5 samples were also collected and chemical compositions including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ions were determined to investigate the impacts of chemical compositions on aerosol optical properties. Average values of scattering coefficient (bscat), absorption coefficient (babs), extinction coefficient (bext) and single scattering albedo (SSA) were 164.0Mm(-1), 22.4Mm(-1), 187.0Mm(-1) and 0.88, respectively. bscat, babs and bext showed obvious bi-modal diurnal variations with high values in the morning and at night while low value in the early afternoon, whereas SSA exhibited an opposite diurnal variation. Average bscat and babs were largest in the wind direction of southwest and were larger with slower wind. babs was mainly affected by EC, while bscat was affected by ammonium, sulfate, nitrate and OC. The IMPROVE formula was applied to estimate bext based on the chemical species. Results shows that ammonium sulfate was the largest contributor, accounting for 36.4% of bext, followed by organic matter (30.6%), ammonium nitrate (20.1%), EC (9.0%) and sea salt (3.9%). The deterioration in visibility was mainly led by increases in secondary aerosols including sulfate and nitrate. Backward trajectories analysis showed that during the sampling period Xiamen was significantly affected by the air masses originating from the Northern and Northeastern areas. Air masses from the Northern associated with relative higher bext and less relative contribution from ammonium sulfate and more relative contribution from ammonium nitrate, organic matter and sea salt. PMID:27037888

  7. Loss of a lake system in a megacity: The impact of urban expansion on seasonal meteorology in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson-Lira, V.; Georgescu, M.; Kaplan, S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2016-04-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has undergone significant urban expansion in a closed basin that once supported a large lacustrine system. While urbanization has been mentioned as a factor in observed meteorological trends, a systematic study of the effects of land use-land cover change (LULCC) on seasonal meteorology is lacking. In this study, we utilize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system to determine the spatiotemporal changes in near-surface air temperature, precipitation, and boundary layer conditions induced by the modern-day urban landscape relative to presettlement conditions. We capture the MCMA extent through an improved Landsat-based multicategory urban classification and therefore account for intraurban spatial heterogeneity and further conduct additional experiments to examine the sensitivity to anthropogenic heating within WRF. We find that accounting for these factors produced the best simulations of thermal conditions, with RMSE values less than 1.5°C at all measurement stations, and an improved diurnal cycle of air temperature and precipitation. We then assessed the impacts of LULCC in the MCMA, finding that thermal changes were largest during daytime hours, with temperature increasing, on average, by more than 4°C. Furthermore, we utilize these simulations to mechanistically link the built environment-induced increase in air temperature to simulated increases in rainfall during the evening hours. To our knowledge, this study provides the first dynamical and thermodynamical evidence to support the rainfall enhancements documented through observations in the MCMA and link it quantitatively to the warming effects associated with urbanization. These results have important implications for understanding the meteorological conditions leading to widespread urban flooding in the MCMA.

  8. Impact of an Unusual Dry Spell on the Energy Balance of a Residential Neighbourhood in a Tropical City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Harshan, S.; Roth, M.

    2014-12-01

    Singapore experienced an unprecedented 2-month dry spell at the beginning of 2014. A paltry 0.2 mm of rain in February, compared to the long-term monthly average of 161 mm, resulted in the driest month since 1869. Clear symptoms of water stress were observed in the evergreen vegetation of Singapore's garden city, a number of bush fires broke out in vegetated areas, water reservoirs shrank substantially in size, and the dry weather in the region triggered wildfires in neighboring countries. The fires in peninsular Malaysia combined with the prevailing north-easterly winds generated hazy conditions with subsequent deterioration of the local air quality. In response to this rare climatological event, and contrary to other countries in the region, little action was taken to preserve water in Singapore. Water consumption actually increased 5%, likely due to increased bathing for relief during the hot and hazy days and increased watering of managed green spaces. The reasons which resulted in increased water consumption are investigated in this paper from a climatological point of view. Using eddy covariance flux measurements of the different radiative and non-radiate (latent and sensible heat) fluxes conducted over a low-rise neighborhood, the changes in the components of the energy balance associated with the dry spell are investigated. An increase of 17% in net radiation and drier daytime conditions produced an increase of 45% in sensible and reduction of 14% in latent heat fluxes, respectively. The heat stored in the urban canopy increased by 3% compared to previous years. Although the projected impacts of climate change for Singapore are uncertain, an increase in frequency of dry periods like the 2014 episode are possible in Southeast Asia. A holistic approach, which includes aspects of the urban microclimate, is necessary to implement effective measures to reduce water demand and assure the water resilience of Singapore.

  9. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children. PMID:25543546

  10. Educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop on 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M A; Villaseñor-Ovies, P; Harfush, L A; Navarro-Zarza, J E; Canoso, J J; Cruz-Domínguez, P; Vargas, A; Hernández-Díaz, C; Chiapas-Gasca, K; Camacho-Galindo, J; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Kalish, R A

    2016-05-01

    We aim to study the educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop in 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. First-year rheumatology fellows (N = 17) and a convenience sample of 1st-year orthopedic fellows (N = 14) from Mexico City in the 9th month of training participated in the study. The pre- and the post- workshop tests included the same 20 questions that had to be answered by identification or demonstration of relevant anatomical items. The questions, arranged by anatomical regions, were asked in five dynamic stations. Overall, the 31 participants showed an increase of correct answers, from a median of 6 (range 1 to 12) in the pre-workshop test, to a median of 14 (range 7 to 19) in the post-workshop test. In the pre-workshop test, the correct median answers were 7 (range 2 to 12) in the orthopedic fellows and 5 (range 1 to 10) in the rheumatology fellows (p = 0.297). Corresponding scores in the post-workshop were 15 (range 10 to 19) and 12 (range 7 to 18) (p = 0.026) showing a significant difference favoring the orthopedic group. Our clinical anatomy workshop was efficacious, in the short term, as a teaching instrument for 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. The post-workshop scores, although significantly improved in both groups, particularly in the orthopedic fellows, were still suboptimal. Further refinements of our workshop might yield better results. PMID:26400643

  11. Impact of the 11 March, 2011, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011, at 14:46:23 Japan Standard Time (5:46:23 UTC). It generated a tsunami 130 km off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan, which inundated over 400 km2 of land. The death toll has reached >15,800 according to the Japan National Policy Agency with over 3,700 still missing as of 26 October 2011. Significant damage to or complete collapse of houses also resulted. The earthquake generated strong ground motion; nevertheless most damage was caused by the tsunami, which is a tribute to the effectiveness of Japan's earthquake damage reduction measures in saving lives and property. Nonetheless, the direct losses amount to more than 200 billion US dollars (not counting the costs of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant). The earthquake and tsunami had a significant impact on all types of industry, and in particular on the petrochemical and chemical industry in the affected areas, resulting in hazardous-materials releases, fires and explosions and forcing businesses to interrupt production. These so-called Natech accidents pose an immediate or even long-term threat to the population and the environment, and can also interrupt the supply chain. Overall, the earthquake and tsunami took over 30% of Japan's oil production offline, and two refineries are still not or only partially in operation to repair the damage caused by the fires and explosions. The fire-fighting efforts could only be started 4 days after the disaster due to the absence of personnel that had been evacuated and because of the continuing tsunami alerts. In one of the affected refineries the fires could only be extinguished 10 days after the disasters. Many petrochemical and chemical companies reported problems either due to damage to facilities or because of power outages. In fact, in facilities that suffered no or only minor damage the resuming of operations was hampered by continuous

  12. High impact biowastes from South European agro-industries as feedstock for second-generation biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Rebecchi, Stefano; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Availability of bio-based chemicals, materials and energy at reasonable cost will be one of the forthcoming issues for the EU economy. In particular, the development of technologies making use of alternative resources to fossil fuels is encouraged by the current European research and innovation strategy to face the societal challenge of natural resource scarcity, fossil resource dependence and sustainable economic growth. In this respect, second- generation biorefineries, i.e. biorefineries fed with biowastes, appear to be good candidates to substitute and replace the present downstream processing scheme. Contrary to first-generation biorefineries, which make use of dedicated crops or primary cultivations to achieve such a goal, the former employ agricultural, industrial, zootechnical, fishery and forestry biowastes as the main feedstock. This leaves aside any ethical and social issue generated by first-generation approaches, and concomitantly prevents environmental and economical issues associated with the disposal of the aforementioned leftovers. Unfortunately, to date, a comprehensive and updated mapping of the availability and potential use of bioresources for second-generation biorefineries in Europe is missing. This is a lack that severely limits R&D and industrial applications in the sector. On the other hand, attempts at valorizing the most diverse biowastes dates back to the nineteenth century and plenty of information in the literature on their sustainable exploitation is available. However, the large majority of these investigations have been focused on single fractions of biowastes or single steps of biowaste processing, preventing considerations on an integrated and modular (cascade) approach for the whole valorization of organic leftovers. This review aims at addressing these issues by gathering recent data on (a) some of the main high-impact biowastes located in Europe and in particular in its Southern part, and (b) the bio-based chemicals, materials

  13. [Measuring the impact of an "age-friendly city" approach on a territory by setting up cross-cutting indicators].

    PubMed

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Lefebvre, Pierre-Olivier; Philipona, Angélique; Finot, Floria

    2015-06-01

    The "Age-friendly cities" program has been developing in France since 2010. So far the existing protocols had not allowed cities to assess actions taken in favor of elderly people comprehensively. The work done with the Francophone network of age-friendly cities (RFVAA) has led to the definition of an indicator consisting of 12 points; the relative importance of each target was weighted using a decision-making tool. This work has demonstrated the major role of governance in the implementation of cross-cutting policies for the benefit of older people. PMID:26103108

  14. Impact on and use of health services by international migrants: questionnaire survey of inner city London A&E attenders

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Sally; Friedland, Jon S; Gothard, Philip; Saxena, Sonia; Millington, Hugh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Le Feuvre, Peter; Holmes, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Background Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP) services. Methods We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. Results 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%). 720 (44.7%) were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9%) were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years). Overseas born were over-represented in comparison to local estimates (44.7% vs 33.6%; p < 0.001; proportional difference 0.111 [95% CI 0.087–0.136]). Dominant immigration status' were: work permit (24.4%), EU citizens (21.5%), with only 21 (1.3%) political asylum seekers/refugees. 178 (11%) reported nationalities from refugee-generating countries (RGCs), eg, Somalia, who were less likely to speak English. Compared with RGCs, and after adjusting for age and sex, the Australians, New Zealanders, and South Africans (ANS group; OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.71]; p = 0.008) and the Other Migrant (OM) group comprising mainly Europeans (0.13 [0.06 to 0.30]; p = 0.000) were less likely to have GP registration and to have made prior contact with GPs, yet this did not

  15. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  16. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1) Preindustrial…

  17. The Impact of New Technology on Skills and Skill Formation in the Banking and Textile Industries. NCEE Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; Noyelle, Thierry

    The subject of this report is the impact of microelectronic technology on the process of skill formation with particular reference to two industries: banking and textiles. A recent research effort sought to identify and understand how changes in the structure and nature of skills were affecting the process of skill formation and the balance of…

  18. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management. PMID:22267026

  19. Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Weber, Katherine F.; Padowski, Julie; Boucher, Tim; Shemie, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Urban water systems are impacted by land use within their source watersheds, as it affects raw water quality and thus the costs of water treatment. However, global estimates of the effect of land cover change on urban water-treatment costs have been hampered by a lack of global information on urban source watersheds. Here, we use a unique map of the urban source watersheds for 309 large cities (population > 750,000), combined with long-term data on anthropogenic land-use change in their source watersheds and data on water-treatment costs. We show that anthropogenic activity is highly correlated with sediment and nutrient pollution levels, which is in turn highly correlated with treatment costs. Over our study period (1900–2005), median population density has increased by a factor of 5.4 in urban source watersheds, whereas ranching and cropland use have increased by a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively. Nearly all (90%) of urban source watersheds have had some level of watershed degradation, with the average pollutant yield of urban source watersheds increasing by 40% for sediment, 47% for phosphorus, and 119% for nitrogen. We estimate the degradation of watersheds over our study period has impacted treatment costs for 29% of cities globally, with operation and maintenance costs for impacted cities increasing on average by 53 ± 5% and replacement capital costs increasing by 44 ± 14%. We discuss why this widespread degradation might be occurring, and strategies cities have used to slow natural land cover loss. PMID:27457941

  20. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO2 and O3 levels of the Mexico megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emission sources on both global and regional scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and at ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is about 2 kg s-1. To the best of our knowledge, sulfur dioxide emissions from the Tizayuca region have not been considered in previous studies. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the state of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico. It was found that they can contribute to the SO2 levels in the northeast (NE) region of the basin (about 42%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41%) and that at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than the contribution from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of the Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 to 4 ppb) and slightly higher contribution at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the state of Hidalgo. In addition, the results indicated that the ozone plume could also be transported to northwest

  1. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO₂ and O₃ levels of the Mexico megacity

    SciTech Connect

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome D.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-22

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO₂ peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 10 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kgs-¹. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked"emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 15 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be 20 as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. 25 Finally, the influence in SO₂ levels

  2. The application of the European heat wave of 2003 to Korean cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. Scott; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Kim, Kyu Rang; Choi, Young-Jean; Lee, Dae-Geun

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this research is to transpose the unprecedented 2003 European excessive heat event to six Korean cities and to develop meteorological analogs for each. Since this heat episode is not a model but an actual event, we can use a plausible analog to assess the risk of increasing heat on these cities instead of an analog that is dependent on general circulation (GCM) modeling or the development of arbitrary scenarios. Initially, the 2003 summer meteorological conditions from Paris are characterized statistically and these characteristics are transferred to the Korean cites. Next, the new meteorological dataset for each Korean city is converted into a daily air mass calendar. We can then determine the frequency and character of "offensive" air masses in the Korean cities that are historically associated with elevated heat-related mortality. One unexpected result is the comparative severity of the very hot summer of 1994 in Korea, which actually eclipsed the 2003 analog. The persistence of the offensive air masses is considerably greater for the summer of 1994, as were dew point temperatures for a majority of the Korean cities. For all the Korean cities but one, the summer of 1994 is associated with more heat-related deaths than the analog summer, in some cases yielding a sixfold increase over deaths in an average summer. The Korean cities appear less sensitive to heat-related mortality problems during very hot summers than do large eastern and Midwestern US cities, possibly due to a lesser summer climate variation and efficient social services available during extreme heat episodes.

  3. The application of the European heat wave of 2003 to Korean cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Greene, J Scott; Kalkstein, Laurence S; Kim, Kyu Rang; Choi, Young-Jean; Lee, Dae-Geun

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this research is to transpose the unprecedented 2003 European excessive heat event to six Korean cities and to develop meteorological analogs for each. Since this heat episode is not a model but an actual event, we can use a plausible analog to assess the risk of increasing heat on these cities instead of an analog that is dependent on general circulation (GCM) modeling or the development of arbitrary scenarios. Initially, the 2003 summer meteorological conditions from Paris are characterized statistically and these characteristics are transferred to the Korean cites. Next, the new meteorological dataset for each Korean city is converted into a daily air mass calendar. We can then determine the frequency and character of "offensive" air masses in the Korean cities that are historically associated with elevated heat-related mortality. One unexpected result is the comparative severity of the very hot summer of 1994 in Korea, which actually eclipsed the 2003 analog. The persistence of the offensive air masses is considerably greater for the summer of 1994, as were dew point temperatures for a majority of the Korean cities. For all the Korean cities but one, the summer of 1994 is associated with more heat-related deaths than the analog summer, in some cases yielding a sixfold increase over deaths in an average summer. The Korean cities appear less sensitive to heat-related mortality problems during very hot summers than do large eastern and Midwestern US cities, possibly due to a lesser summer climate variation and efficient social services available during extreme heat episodes. PMID:26076864

  4. Spectroscopic evaluation of the environmental impact on black crusted modern mortars in urban-industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Maguregui, M; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Arana, G; Madariaga, J M

    2011-03-01

    A multianalytical characterisation of black crusted modern construction materials from buildings located in the Bilbao Metropolitan area (North Spain) was carried out. According to the mineral composition determined by Raman spectroscopy, calcite and hematite were the major compounds found while aragonite, limonite, rutile, quartz and some aluminosilicates such as obsidian or amazonite (KAlSi(3)O(8)) were also present in minor percentages. As deterioration products, gypsum and anhydrite were widely found not only in the surface but also in the inner part of strongly deteriorated samples. Coquimbite (Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·9H(2)O) was identified as well in the most protected facade where high amounts of Fe, having probably an anthropogenic origin, were measured by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). Zn was found to be in high amounts while Cu, Pb, Ti, Mn, Sr and K were identified as minor elements. Considering the non-expected concentrations found for some anthropogenic elements, a sequential extraction was carried out in order to determine their chemical form by means of ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The orientation of the facades, which had a different influence from rain washing and industrial and traffic impact, was shown to affect the accumulation of different compounds in the black crust. Finally, the MEDUSA software was used to simulate the reactions among the original compounds, deposited pollutants and the atmospheric acid gases in order to explain the presence of the decaying species found. PMID:21057778

  5. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  6. The impact of using kiosk on enterprise systems in service industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jengchung V.; Yen, David; Dunk, Kimberly; Widjaja, Andree E.

    2015-11-01

    The hospitality industry services many types of travellers. Each of them needs to be analysed differently in order to accurately determine their respective service quality attributes and customer delight. The effective and efficient enterprise information systems (EISs) play a significant role in traveller's experience and in the competitive advantages that hotels can gain. For this study, self-service kiosks and guest service agents as part of hotel's EISs are used to investigate the impact each has on the experience of business and leisure travellers. This study provides empirical results that further investigate how to improve the service quality for both types of travellers during the registration process. This process is the first physical interaction between the travellers and the hotel. Any problem in registering would generate a long-lasting negative first impression on the travellers, thus diminishing the customer delight. In the light of our findings, this study will contribute to the effective and efficient design of self-service kiosk systems, hotel's EISs, and improved front office management to better accommodate the specific needs of both types of travellers.

  7. Electric industry restructuring, ancillary services, and the potential impact on wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Parsons, B.; Porter, K.

    1997-12-31

    The new competitive electric power environment raises increased challenges for wind power. The DOE and EPRI wind programs have dealt extensively with the traditional vertically integrated utility planning and operating environment in which the host utility owns the generation (or purchases the power) and provides dispatch and transmission services. Under this traditional environment, 1794 MW of wind power, principally in California, have been successfully integrated into the U.S. electric power system. Another 4200 MW are installed elsewhere in the world. As issues have arisen, such as intermittency and voltage regulation, they have been successfully addressed with accepted power system procedures and practices. For an intermittent, non-dispatchable resource such as wind, new regulatory rules affecting power transmission services, raise questions about which ancillary services wind plants will be able to sell, which they will be required to purchase, and what the economic impacts will be on individual wind projects. This paper begins to look at issues of concern to wind in a restructured electric industry. The paper first briefly looks at the range of unbundled services and comments on their unique significance to wind. To illustrate the concerns that arise with restructuring, the paper then takes a more detailed look at a single service: regulation. Finally, the paper takes a brief look at technologies and strategies that could improve the competitive position of wind.

  8. The impact of improved sparse linear solvers on industrial engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, M.; Baddourah, M.; Poole, E.L.; Yang, Chao Wu

    1996-12-31

    There are usually many factors that ultimately determine the quality of computer simulation for engineering applications. Some of the most important are the quality of the analytical model and approximation scheme, the accuracy of the input data and the capability of the computing resources. However, in many engineering applications the characteristics of the sparse linear solver are the key factors in determining how complex a problem a given application code can solve. Therefore, the advent of a dramatically improved solver often brings with it dramatic improvements in our ability to do accurate and cost effective computer simulations. In this presentation we discuss the current status of sparse iterative and direct solvers in several key industrial CFD and structures codes, and show the impact that recent advances in linear solvers have made on both our ability to perform challenging simulations and the cost of those simulations. We also present some of the current challenges we have and the constraints we face in trying to improve these solvers. Finally, we discuss future requirements for sparse linear solvers on high performance architectures and try to indicate the opportunities that exist if we can develop even more improvements in linear solver capabilities.

  9. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  10. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  11. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  12. Urban Shrinkage as a Performance of Whiteness: Neoliberal Urban Restructuring, Education, and Racial Containment in the Post-Industrial, Global Niche City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Although Detroit is not a centre of global finance, and plays a declining role in global production, it nevertheless participates in the present remediation of the relationship between cities and the globe. Manoeuvring to reposition the city as the global hub of mobility technology, metropolitan Detroit's neoliberal leadership advances particular…

  13. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenskjold Moeslund, Jesper; Klith Bøcher, Peder; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Mølhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution (~2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  14. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

  15. Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

  16. Fluorine concentration in snow cover within the impact area of aluminium production plant (Krasnoyarsk city) and coal and gas-fired power plant (Tomsk city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Osipova, N. A.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Polikanova, S. A.; Samokhina, N. P.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The fluorine contents in snow melt water find in the impact areas of aluminum production plant and coal and gas-fired power plant are compared. In melt water, soluble fluoride is found in the form of fluoride ion, the content of which was determined by the potentiometric method using ion-selective electrode. According to the measurements of 2013-2014, fluoride content in melt water ranges 10.6-15.4 mg/dm3 at the distance 1-3 km from the borders of Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant with the mean value 13.1 mg/dm3. Four-year monitoring from 2012 to 2015 in the impact area of Tomsk coal and gas-fired power plant showed that fluoride content in melt water in vicinity of the thermal power plant is significantly lower than in the samples from the impact area of the aluminum plant. But higher content of fluoride ion (0.2 - 0.3 mg/dm3) in snow samples in vicinity of coal and gas-fired power plant was revealed in winter of 2015. Intake of soluble fluoride is mostly explained by dust-aerosol emissions of study plants and deposition of fluorine compounds from air.

  17. Monitoring the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the agricultural land and environment of the Torbali, Izmir region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurucu, Yusuf; Chiristina, Nilüfer Küçükyilmaz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine agricultural land loss and environmental pollution caused by industrialization and urban sprawl using the Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique (RS). Remotely sensed data is the most powerful tool for monitoring land use changes and GIS is the best way to store and reproduce various kinds of integrated data. Considering the rapid increase of population the loss of fertile agricultural soils is a very dangerous situation for the future of the country. Thus, people are living in the cities in (with adverse) conditions of insufficient drinking water, infrastructure problems, inadequate landscape and many unsolved (extreme) environmental problems. During the last 36 years, unplanned urbanization and industrialization have led to the use of agricultural areas for non-agricultural purposes in the Torbali (Izmir) region, which has the most fertile soils of the Aegean Region. Within this study, a database was created on the parameters of land loss and environmental pollution by means of field observation, interpretation of satellite images (ASTER), aerial photos(1/25.000 scale), topographic map, soil map, and 1/5.000 scale cadastral map. Results of previous researches and the archives of Torbali municipality were used as ancillary data. In the research, urbanization and industrialization of the town was studied by (using) GIS and RS between 1965 and 2001. Since 1965, 4,742,357 m2 agricultural land, mostly of first and second land use capability classes, has been lost due to unplanned urban and industrial developments. Urbanization and industrialization involved an area of which 58% was being used as irrigated lands, 25 % rain feed (rain fed lands)and 17 % for olive growing. PMID:17370130

  18. Potential impact of acid-rain legislation on the domestic aluminum-smelting industry: methodology and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvic, D.R.

    1988-10-01

    This report describes the methodology and documentation employed in a detailed assessment of the potential economic impact of proposed federal acid-rain legislation for reducing sulfur oxide emissions on the U.S. aluminum-smelting industry, an energy-intensive industry which relies on coal combustion for electric power generation. The report documents the method and assumptions used in estimating the increased costs of electric power generation due to the proposed legislation, and the results of this estimation. Information is included on smelter activities, cost estimation procedures, model assumptions, and analysis approaches.

  19. Socioeconomic impacts of natural gas curtailments: a study of the textile industry in the southeastern United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the effects of fuel curtailments in the textile industry in North and South Carolina. Regional economic and social structures were affected with natural gas curtailments in 1976 and 1977. This document presents results of the effects of production shutdown resulting from the curtailments. Chapter II presents background information on the pipelines that service the region. Chapters III and IV describe the affected communities and the observed increase in government expenditures to counteract the impacts. Chapter V contains a complete list of textile plants in the study area that had to either work under abbreviated schedules or close entirely during the winter of 1976-1977. Attention was given to economic impacts at the industrial level that may have been attributable to the curtailment. Chapter VI covers these topics. In some instances, textile mills have relocated their plant facilities because they could not be guaranteed continuous fuel service at their original site. These data are the main concern of Chapter VII. Chapter VIII concentrates on social impacts; many facilities which provide services essential to human needs were subjected to gas curtailments so that the critical energy supplies could be diverted to industry. Chapter VIII also discusses an interesting geographic separation between social and economic impacts.

  20. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and

  1. Evaluation of radiological impacts of tenorm in the Tunisian petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Hrichi, Hajer; Baccouche, Souad; Belgaied, Jamel-Eddine

    2013-01-01

    The health impacts associated with uncontrolled release of TENORM in products and wastes released in the petroleum industry are of great concern. In this study, evaluation of TENORM in the Tunisian petroleum products and wastes is presented. Fourteen products samples, twelve waste samples and three samples from the surrounding environment were collected from the Tunisian Refinery STIR site and from two onshore production oilfields. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K for all samples were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of (224)Ra were calculated only for scale samples. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, absorbed doses rates in air and annual effective dose were also estimated. It was noticed that maximum value of Ra(eq) activity was found to be 398 Bq/kg in scale (w8) collected from an onshore production oilfield which exceeds the maximum Ra(eq) value of 370 Bq/kg recommended for safe use. All hazard indices indicated that scale samples (w6, w7, w8 and w11) could be a significant waste problem especially sample (w8). In this study, the radium isotopic data were used to provide an estimate of scale samples ages by the use of the (224)Ra/(228)Ra activity ratio dating method. Ages of collected scales were found to be in the range 0.91-2.4 years. In this work, radioactivity (NORM contamination) in samples collected from the refinery STIR are showed to be insignificant if compared to those from onshore oilfield production sites. PMID:22902311

  2. Information highway: Alliances and their impact on the gas industry. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The report describes the major developments in digital information networks, the key industry players and their alliances and technologies, and the significance of their activities to the gas industry. The newly-integrated industries involved in creating the 'information highway' are likely to promote standards based on open protocols and accelerate the pace of technology implementation in new products that link home systems and external network systems. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Factors leading to the development of a new communications infrastructure and the alliances driving it were analyzed in order to best define opportunities and interests for the gas industry.

  3. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead

  4. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  5. Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Zhane; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Urban pluvial flood are attracting growing public concern due to rising intense precipitation and increasing consequences. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient urban pluvial flood management, particularly in transportation sector. This paper describes an integrated methodology, which initially makes use of high resolution 2D inundation modeling and flood depth-dependent measure to evaluate the potential impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on road network in the city center of Shanghai, China. Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships of Shanghai rainstorm and Chicago Design Storm are combined to generate ensemble rainfall scenarios. A hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) is used to simulate overland flow and flood inundation for each scenario. Furthermore, road impact and risk assessment are respectively conducted by a new proposed algorithm and proxy. Results suggest that the flood response is a function of spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and local characteristics (i.e. drainage and topography), and pluvial flash flood is found to lead to proportionate but nonlinear impact on intra-urban road inundation risk. The approach tested here would provide more detailed flood information for smart management of urban street network and may be applied to other big cities where road flood risk is evolving in the context of climate change and urbanization.

  6. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  7. Computer-Assisted Guidance in New York City High Schools: A Demonstration of Feasibility and Impact on Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.; Chitayat, Linda

    This report covers three time periods during which students in five New York City high schools had use of a Computer Assisted Guidance (CAG) system. The basic objectives of the CAG project were to demonstrate the feasibility of using an automated system to provide high school students with factual and current information on colleges and careers,…

  8. Injustice under the Law: The Impact of the "Grove City College" Decision on Civil Rights in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The ramifications of the Supreme Court ruling on "Grove City College v. Bell," which narrowly interpreted Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 are discussed. Title IX protects the rights of women and girls in educational programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. In the case, the Supreme Court held that a college whose…

  9. Impact of the Biofuels Industry on Alternative Ingredients Available to Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biofuels industry has exhibited astonishing production advances in the past decade and, in its wake, has lead to a wide diversity of co-products available to the livestock industry. During times of historically high prices for grains, proteins, minerals, and fats, this has lead to a rapid increa...

  10. Impact of United States biofuels co-products on the feed industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 140 biodiesel plants produced 1.2 billion liters of biodiesel in 2010, very little crude glycerol has been used in animal feeds in the U.S. due to relatively low volume produced compared to ethanol industry co-products, and its higher value for consumer products and industrial manufacturing...

  11. New trends in the commercial IC industry and the impact on defense electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.; Jorgenson, J.L.; Winokur, P.S.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    The unprecedented rate and scope of change in the commercial microelectronics industry presents a significant challenge to, and a significant opportunity for, achieving affordable superiority in defense electronics. A proactive approach to making the industry inherently more leveragable is discussed. Defense microelectronics is inexorably linked to the commercial semiconductor industry. This is obvious in the case of COTS (Commercial Off the Shelf parts) and MOTS (Modified--e.g., upscreened--Off the Shelf parts) as these parts are produced by the commercial industry. However, even captive defense integrated circuit lines building specialized parts are being forced by their dependence on a commercial-industry-driven supplier base to follow commercial product/process/design trends. The just released 1997 version of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS) describes the unprecedented changes occurring in the commercial industry. The industry is evolving from a more stable pre-1994 technology evolution to a discontinuous post-1997 technology evolution. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these changes present both major challenges and major opportunities, for defense microelectronics, especially for applications involving long lifetimes, harsh environments and/or high consequences of failures.

  12. Potential impacts of Title I nonattainment on the electric power industry: A Chicago case study (Phase 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernau, M.E.; Makofske, W.J.; South, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This study uses version IV of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) to examine the potential impacts of Title I (nonattainment) and Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) on the utility industry. The UAM is run for a grid that covers the Commonwealth Edison Power Pool and encompasses the greater Chicago area and surrounding rural areas. Meteorological conditions are selected from an ozone (O{sub 3}) episode on July 5 and 6, 1988.

  13. The impact of new and emerging technologies in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul industry a Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Janet

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify new or emerging technological trends and events that are likely to occur between now and 2017 that will have an impact on the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Further, it was the purpose of this study to examine those technological trends and events believed to provide the greatest impact and, given the experts' analysis, identify the feasibility of implementation. Methodology. This descriptive study utilized the Delphi method with a panel of twenty-four experts comprised of practitioners, theorists, and futurists. A priority matrix was utilized to determine the impact and feasibility of trend and events. Findings. The experts identified fifty-three trends and events that will impact the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Analysis of the priority matrix revealed eighteen trends and events were of high priority and high feasibility. Conclusions. The responses from the expert panel were examined and the findings analyzed. The following are the conclusions constructed from the data provided by the Delphi panel of experts: (1) the need to respond to the demands of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry such as down time, efficiency, cost, and environmental concerns by implementing new technology, (2) the demand to integrate and implement new technology as indicative of the priority matrix scoring high importance/high feasibility, (3) to proactively address the inadequate professional development in new technologies, and (4) the consensus reached by the panel of experts of importance and feasibility of implementation of new technologies encompass eighteen trends and events. Implications and recommendations for action. The implementation of new and emerging technological advances in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry between now and 2017 will be dependent on the technologies' capacity to reduce

  14. Impact of pharmaceutical industry versus university sponsorship on survey response: A randomized trial among Canadian hepatitis C care providers

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Robert P; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M; Lee, Samuel S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surveys originating from universities appear to have higher response rates than those from commercial sources. In light of the growing scrutiny placed on physician-industry relations, the present study aimed to determine the impact of the pharmaceutical industry versus university sponsorship on response to a postal survey completed by Canadian hepatitis C virus (HCV) care providers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present controlled trial, 229 physicians and nurses involved in HCV treatment were randomly assigned to receive a survey with sponsorship from a pharmaceutical company or university. The primary outcome was the proportion of completed surveys returned. The secondary outcomes included the response rate after the first mailing and the number of days taken to respond. RESULTS: One hundred fifteen participants were randomly assigned to receive the pharmaceutical industry survey and 114 were assigned to receive the university survey. The final response rate was 72.9% (167 of 229), which did not differ between the industry and university groups (RR=0.91; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.07). Nurses (OR=2.20; 95% CI 1.08 to 4.48) and participants from an academic centre (OR=3.14; 95% CI 1.64 to 6.00) were more likely to respond. The response rate after the first mailing (RR=0.85; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.07) and the median number of days taken to respond (21 days in both groups; P=0.20) did not differ between the industry and university groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship does not appear to negatively impact response rates to a postal survey completed by Canadian HCV care providers. PMID:17377646

  15. Potential hydrologic impacts of a tar-sand industry in 11 special tar sand areas in eastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    About 93 percent of the Nation 's estimated 30 billion barrels of crude oil in tar sand deposits is in 11 tar-sand deposits in eastern Utah that were chosen for leasing by the Federal government. The Tar Sand Triangle area, which contains about 15 billion barrels of oil, is the largest. This area and the Sunnyside and P R Springs areas contain more than three-fourths of the Utah reserves. About 88,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 365,000 barrels per day. At this rate, most of the recoverable oil would be mined within 30 years. About 22,000 acre-feet of water per year would be required for a commercial tar-sand industry producing about 83,000 barrels per day. Impacts on local hydrology would be greatest in the Tar Sand Triangle, Sunnyside, and P R Springs areas. Impacts could be minimized with proper construction of surface facilities to decrease erosion, sediment transport, and impoundment of mining and retort water. Increases in salinity of the Colorado River at Imperial Dam, Ariz.-Calif., could be about 3 milligrams per liter, with a peak of 9 milligrams per liter, for a 365 ,000-barrel-per-day industry and less than 1 milligram per liter , with a peak of 2 milligrams per liter, for an 83 ,000-barrel-per-day industry. (USGS)

  16. Economic impact study of proposed site-specific changes to water-pollution regulations affecting the city of Tuscola, Douglas County, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    John, S.F.; Skelton, L.W.; Kane, D.N.; Hinesly, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    The City of Tuscola petitioned the Illinois Pollution Control Board for a site-specific rule change for its North Sewage Plant and South Sewage Plant, to obtain relief from certain provisions of the Ill. Admin. Code, Title 35, Subtitle C, Water Pollution Rules and Regulations of the Pollution Control Board. Included in the petition were requests for relief from the following regulations: Section 304.120 Deoxygenating Waste and Suspended Solids; Section 303.205 Phosphorus; Section 306.103 Treatment Plant Bypasses; and Section 303.212 Ammonia Nitrogen and Unionized Ammonia. The City maintained that compliance would require the construction of 5.1 millio dollar plant (1983 estimate) and result in no environmental benefit. As an alternative the City proposed to construct a 2.5 million dollar facility and request site specific exemption to the existing standards. In addition to the two alternatives proposed by Tuscola, the report examines two other wastewater management strategies. These strategies included a slow rate land treatment system and the construction of conventional facilities with a level of treatment falling between the two conventional options proposed by Tuscola. Impacts related to a wide variety of wastewater constituents were evaluated in qualitative terms.

  17. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  18. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over

  19. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  20. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  1. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  2. PBL Aerosols SE of Mexico City in the dry Season: Biomass Burning and Windblown Dust and its Impact on Photolysis Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Grutter, M.; Baumgardner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2007-05-01

    During the dry season in March 2006 airborne investigations on aerosol distributions, ultraviolet actinic radiation and ozone profiles were performed southeast of Mexico City using an ultralight aircraft as a mobile platform. The area investigated covered the rural area southeast of Mexico City, the Chalco Valley, Huexca and Atlixco south of the volcano Popocatepetl, east of Paso de Cortés to the airport of Puebla and the pass between Puebla and Mexico City north of the volcano Ixtachiuatl. The Chalco valley is the main venting valley of the Mexico City basin to the south. Intense biomass burning was observed on both slopes of the volcanoes leading to strong pyrocumulus cloud production in the northern part of the national reserve and above the motorway Puebla-Mexico. Fine particle (> 10 nm) numbers reached up to 80000/cm3 close to the burning plumes with significant reduction to ~ 30-40000/cm3 in the Chalco valley where coarse particles (> 300 nm) dominated the total mass. Dust devils transporting coarse soil particles up to elevations of more than 4000 m a.s.l. were frequently observed. Particles and air masses of pollution sources in the area can be characterized by aerosol size distributions and/or spectral absorption from multi-wavelength aethalometer measurements as well as from ozone mixing ratios and meteorological data measured onboard. The aerosol impact on photolysis rates and air chemistry is derived from vertical profiles of actinic radiation in the JO1D and JNO2 spectral regimes at 300 nm and 380 nm, respectively. Profiles were flown on both sides of the volcano ridge, south of Popocatepetl and above Tenango del Aire where aircraft measurements were supported by ceilometer aerosol vertical profiles.

  3. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Methods Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. Results As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005) in 2006 and have increased since then. Conclusion The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy. PMID:22151884

  4. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers.

  5. Analysis on the Impact of Tax Policy over China's New Energy Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bin; Li, Yang

    Energy is a kind of resource which can be used directly or offer people what they need by some conversions, the development of energy is the headspring of economic growth With the development of our national economy, new energy industry has become China's current vigorously the mainstream of development The analysis on influence of tax policy on the development of national new energy industry is mainly discussed, as well as the alternative analysis on the production output and sales tax aspects in the areas of new energy, and based on this, some tax policy suggestions on how to promote the development of national new energy industry are given finally.

  6. Industrial Wireless Sensors: A User's Perspective on the Impact of Standards on Wide-spread Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Cyrus W.; Manges, Wayne W; Sorge, John N

    2012-01-01

    The role of wireless sensing technologies in industrial instrumentation will undoubtedly become more important in the years ahead. . Deployment of such instrumentation in an industrial setting with its heightened security and robustness criteria hinges on user acceptance of verified performance as well as meeting cost requirements. Today, industrial users face many choices when specifying a wireless sensor network, including radio performance, battery life, interoperability, security, and standards compliance. The potential market for industrial wireless sensors is literally millions of wireless instruments and it is imperative that accurate information for applying the technology to real-world applications be available to the end-user so that they can make informed deployment decisions. The majority of industrial wireless automation designs now being deployed or being considered for deployment are based on three different standards . The HART Communications Foundation s WirelessHART (IEC 62591), the International Society of Automation s ISA100.11a, and the offering from the Industrial Wireless Alliance of China known as WIA-PA (IEC 62601). Aside from these industrial automation standards, users must also be cognizant of the underlying wireless network standards IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.3a and their interactions with the three principal industrial automation protocols mentioned previously. The crucial questions being asked by end users revolve around sensor network performance, interoperability, reliability, and security. This paper will discuss potential wireless sensor applications in power plants, barriers to the acceptance of wireless technology, concerns related to standards, and provide an end user prospective on the issues affecting wide-spread deployment of wireless sensors. Finally, the authors conclude with a discussion of a recommended path forward including how standards organizations can better facilitate end user decision making and

  7. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures--integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  8. Impact of air quality in Mexico City due to particles smaller than ten microns (PM10) by wildland fire in "Cumbres del Ajusco Park" for the year 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, A.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; Padilla Barrera, Z. V.; Mar, B.; Carbajal, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    A forest fire is a natural process of combustion in a specific geographical area, its occurrence depends on meteorological variables, topography and vegetation type, the wildland fires are potential sources of large amounts of pollutants. The main air pollutants are in a wildland fires particles (PM10 and PM2.5) Carbon Monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and a negligible amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) (Chow 1995), Was performed a study of the environmental impact on air quality in Mexico city for a wildland fire. The fire was presented in Cumbres del Ajusco Park on April 14 for the year 2013, with a duration of 26 hours and consuming an extension 150 ha of pasture, WRF-Chem and WRF-fire model were used to conduct the study, two modeling scenarios were made, one including emissions from wildfire and other without emission-fire, comparison is made between the two modeling scenarios in order to calculate on air quality in Mexico cityPM10 concentrations have a larger impact on the air quality of Mexico city, when fire emission were included, a plume of PM10 coming from fire increase ambient concentration up to 350ug/m3 and it was obtained by modeling similar to the concentration measured by a monitoring station (320ug/m3).The current limit is 120ug/m3 24 hours average. (Mexican standard NOM-025-SSA1-1993)This system for setting emissions from fire is working properly whoever further development is required.

  9. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures – Integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe

    PubMed Central

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  10. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  11. Study on the Characteristics and Impacts of the Spatial-temporal Urban Sprawl in Chinese Coastal Cities using Ocelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Lo Seen, D.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The urban population is expected to rise 67% in developing countries and 86% in developed regions by 2050. As the most populous country in the world, China has been experiencing a remarkable urbanization process since the initialization of the reform and opening-up policies in the late 1970s. During the past several decades, the coastal zone undergone the highest urbanization and motst rapid economic development in China. Accurately understanding the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl is helpful for urban planning on optimal land use in the future. Ocelet is an interactive visual interpretation and dynamic coding method that has been designed for studying issues related to space, time and multiple scales that are raised when dynamic landscapes are modelled. Using Ocelet, we aim to study the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities and how urban sprawl affects the surrounding land changes. Landsat MSS/TM/ETM/OLI, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Chinese HJ-1A data are adopted to acquire urban built-up areas and their dynamic changes from 1979 to 2013. The results show that the urban built-up area increased gradually from 1979 to 2002 (~105 km²/yr), then accelerated about four times from 2002 to 2010 (~396 km²/yr) in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities. Although the expansion slowed down since 2010, the urban built-up area still increased at a fairly high rate (~210 km²/yr) from 2010 to 2013. The urban sprawl speed and pattern in each coastal city has also been analyzed, and has been grouped in three costal zones geographically. As a result of urban sprawl, large areas of arable land, rural settlements and forests were lost in these coastal cities. The lost non-urban land types and areas are different in the three costal zones and quantified respectively.

  12. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  13. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  14. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  15. "Learning City" Summer Migrant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presson, Johnny E.; Baker, Wilbur L.

    "Learning City" is the theme of a summer education project that provides a unique teaching atmosphere for migrant children. For 2 summers, 130 students have participated in this program that sustains and enforces reading and math skills, as well as helps develop self-concept. Industries in Learning City are the various branches of study: reading…

  16. The impact of TRIPS on innovation and exports: a case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Prabodh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is a debate on what impact the implementation of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in India would have on its pharmaceutical industry and health care. The debate hinges primarily on two major questions. First, will the new patent regime provide an impetus for innovation in the pharmaceutical industry? Second, how far will India's pharmaceutical exports of copied versions of patented drugs to developing countries be restricted under the new regime? The first question seeks to find out if TRIPS will increase India's innovative capabilities to fill the current vacuum to develop drugs for tropical diseases. The large multinational companies (MNCs) that dominate the global pharmaceutical industry have no interest in commercial ventures that have little potential for great returns on investment. The second question attempts to find a solution to the lack of access to medicine in most developing countries. Indian manufacturers' supply of reverse-engineered drugs, which cost only a fraction of the prices charged by MNCs, may be coming to an end under the new regime. Against this backdrop, this article attempts to analyse the impact of strengthening intellectual property rights in India. PMID:18624153

  17. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  18. EVALUATING THE IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT: THE CASE OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper looks at the impact of enforcement activity on facility-level behavior and derives quantitative estimates of the impact. We measure facility-level behavior as the levels of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) pollutant discharges generated b...

  19. Noise in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

  20. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  1. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  2. Ecological impact and recovery of a Mediterranean river after receiving the effluent from a textile dyeing industry.

    PubMed

    Colin, Nicole; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Flor-Arnau, Núria; Mora, Josep; Fortuño, Pau; Vieira, Cristiana; Prat, Narcís; Cambra, Jaume; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    The textile industry is one of the largest sectors globally, representing up to 20% of industrial water pollution. However, there is limited insight into how fluvial ecosystems respond and recover from this impact. From summer 2012 to spring 2013, we examined water quality and ecological status upstream and 1.5km downstream the input of a textile industry wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Ripoll River, NE Spain. The ecological status was determined via diversity measures and 10 biotic indices based on diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish. Our results showed that the WWTP severely deteriorated water quality and biological communities at the discharge site, but that they improved at 1.5km downstream. Severity also varied across taxa and seasons, being fish the most affected taxa and spring the season with the best ecological status. The strong correlation amongst water quality variables and many biotic indices across taxa indicated that this is a chronic pollution event affecting multiple trophic levels. Thus, this study suggests that there is an urgent need to invest in wastewater treatment in this industry to preserve the ecological integrity of Ripoll River and especially its fish fauna. Likewise, it illustrates the diagnostic power of biotic indices based on diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish, as driven by the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:27344397

  3. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. New Oil Pollution Act of 1990 will impact facilities, terminals, and transports in the oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude of the Exxon Valdez spill galvanized the opinion of both the public and Congress on the need for new oil spill legislation. Consequently, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - a comprehensive prevention, response, liability, and compensation system for dealing with oil production - was passed by the 101st Congress. This book describes in detail the new law and the liabilities it imposes; the new financial responsibility requirements placed on oil-related facilities and vessels; oil spill prevention and response obligations; and the oil industry's activities to prevent and mitigate oil spills. Also discussed are the compliance problems faced by both fixed facilities and the transportation industry.

  5. Land use changes and its impact on land surface temperature of Yancheng City from 2000 to 2009 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinghan

    2014-02-01

    In the paper, based on the technology of remote sensing and geographic information system, and according to the Landsat TM images obtained the land use database and land surface temperature of Yancheng city in the year of 2000 and 2009. Five land use types were identified, namely: farmland, building site, forest and grassland, water, and beach wetland. And then analysis of the urban expansion model based on the Defense Meteorological satellite data. The results show that: (1) In the five kinds of land use types, the largest rate of land use change is beach wetland, which is -8.23, followed by water as -5.17, forest and grassland is 3.27, building site is 2.24, farmland is 0.69. (2) During the 2000-2009, the towns of Yancheng city continuous outward expansion. In the old town, the expansion model is similar to the concentric circles spread to the periphery, but in the new district, which mainly concentrated in the northeast and southeast, the expansion model is re-planning, development and construction. (3) The land use structure change, especially the changes of beach wetland have a largest influence on the land surface temperature of Yancheng city. Among them, the average land surface temperature has increased over 8 degrees. However, the farmland change due to the overall land surface temperature decreased. And the increase of building site, making the urban heat island effect has been enhanced, while the town where the land surface temperature increases in value added in 0 to 5 degrees. At the same time, the water changes, this due to the land surface temperature increases and the added value in the range of 5 to 8 degrees.

  6. Assessment of the environmental impact of management measures for the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mara Regina; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing concern about landfilling of biodegradable wastes. Therefore, biological treatment processes such as composting and biogasification have been considered as alternative strategies for managing those wastes. In this work, life cycle assessment was employed to compare the environmental impacts of landfilling, composting, and biological treatment of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City, Brazil. Energy consumption, recovered resources, and emissions to air and water were quantified and analyzed in terms of their potential contribution to global warming, acidification, and nutrient enrichment impact. The results demonstrated that processes that require high levels of energy consumption, such as wastewater treatment, play an important role in the outcome of environmental impact potentials. It was found that the landfilling of all waste is generally the worst strategy from an environmental point of view. However, significant reductions in the resulting impacts can be accomplished through biogasification and composting of the biodegradable fraction. Regarding composting, the application of a biofilter for gas treatment reduced significantly the gaseous emissions. PMID:12893012

  7. Environmental Impacts of China's Urbanization from 2000 to 2010 and Management Implications.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yu; Li, Feng; Crittenden, John C; Lu, Zhongming; Sun, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Rapid urbanization in China during the first decade of the twenty first century has brought about profound environmental changes at citywide and regional scales. In this paper, we present a comprehensive set of indicators and put forward a new evaluation method for measuring environmental impacts of urbanization from 2000 to 2010. We compared these impacts among 286 cities in mainland China and found that the overall quantity of pollutant discharge decreased as cities became more economically developed during the years 2000-2010. However, larger and denser cities, and wealthier cities in the eastern part of China tended to have larger quantities of pollutant discharge, resource consumption, and changes in land use (i.e., expansion of the built environment). The discharge increase occurred despite these cities having increased their investment in pollution control and construction of municipal environmental infrastructure. The negative impact from the intensity of pollutant discharge (i.e., discharge per unit of economic output) was generally less in more developed cities, although this was not always the case. Some cities, such as resource-based cities and old industrial cities, had both larger quantities of pollutant discharge and greater pollution intensity compared to other types of cities, indicating that environmental impacts did not necessarily decrease with increasing urbanization. The results of this study provide a promising basis for decision-making to reduce the impacts for different types of cities in the decades to come. PMID:26404432

  8. Environmental Impacts of China's Urbanization from 2000 to 2010 and Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Li, Feng; Crittenden, John C.; Lu, Zhongming; Sun, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Rapid urbanization in China during the first decade of the twenty first century has brought about profound environmental changes at citywide and regional scales. In this paper, we present a comprehensive set of indicators and put forward a new evaluation method for measuring environmental impacts of urbanization from 2000 to 2010. We compared these impacts among 286 cities in mainland China and found that the overall quantity of pollutant discharge decreased as cities became more economically developed during the years 2000-2010. However, larger and denser cities, and wealthier cities in the eastern part of China tended to have larger quantities of pollutant discharge, resource consumption, and changes in land use (i.e., expansion of the built environment). The discharge increase occurred despite these cities having increased their investment in pollution control and construction of municipal environmental infrastructure. The negative impact from the intensity of pollutant discharge (i.e., discharge per unit of economic output) was generally less in more developed cities, although this was not always the case. Some cities, such as resource-based cities and old industrial cities, had both larger quantities of pollutant discharge and greater pollution intensity compared to other types of cities, indicating that environmental impacts did not necessarily decrease with increasing urbanization. The results of this study provide a promising basis for decision-making to reduce the impacts for different types of cities in the decades to come.

  9. The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibieyi, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their…

  10. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  11. Industrial Free Zones in the Dominican Republic: National vs. Local Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagawe, Thorsten

    1996-01-01

    Provides a concise overview on export-based, free zone development in the Dominican Republic by examining its influence on three spatial levels: national, regional, and town. Although industrial free zones contribute to job creation and foreign exchange earnings, local authorities are often unable to control urban development. (MJP)

  12. The Impact of University-Industry Research on Doctoral Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malfroy, Janne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the doctorate and the desirable outcomes of doctoral education are the focus of debates in the UK, the USA, Australia and other Organisation for Economic Development countries. Part of that reconceptualisation of the doctorate includes a growing international interest in university-industry research, which, as a consequence, has…

  13. FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

  14. The Impact of Basic Skills on Human Resource Management in the Retailing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Alice Bird

    A recent survey of retailing firms, ranging from single stores to nationwide chains, showed that the most significant human resources challenge facing these organizations is how to attract and retain qualified employees. Faced with the many changes in the retailing industry and in the composition of the work force that have taken place over the…

  15. Innovation with Impact: Industry-Education Partnerships in Massachusetts. Publication #15311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Susan; Aschheim, Barbara

    This document describes six industry-education partnerships in Massachusetts selected as exemplary and 14 selected as outstanding. They represent innovative and collaborative ways to address dropout prevention, at-risk and special needs students, adult literacy, basic skill development, and enrichment needs of students. Each entry provides this…

  16. Impact of large industrial emission sources on mortality and morbidity in Chile: A small-areas study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo; Arias, Nelson; Pardo, Sandra; Meyer, Marianne; Mesías, Stephanie; Galleguillos, Claudio; Schiattino, Irene; Gutiérrez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile suffers significant pollution from large industrial emitters associated with the mining, metal processing, paper production, and energy industries. The aim of this research was to determine whether the presence of large industrial facilities (i.e. coal- and oil-fired power plants, pulp and paper mills, mining facilities, and smelters) affects mortality and morbidity rates in Chile. For this, we conducted an ecological study that used Chilean communes as small-area observation units to assess mortality and morbidity. Public databases provided information on large pollution sources relevant to Chile. The large sources studied were oil- and coal-fired power plants, copper smelters, pulp and paper mills, and large mining facilities. Large sources were filtered by first year of production, type of process, and size. Mortality and morbidity data were acquired from public national databases, with morbidity being estimated from hospitalization records. Cause-specific rates were calculated for the main outcomes: cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer; and other more specific health outcomes. The impact of the large pollution sources was estimated using Bayesian models that included spatial correlation, overdispersion, and other covariates. Large and significant increases in health risks (around 20%-100%) were found for communes with power plants and smelters for total, cardiovascular, respiratory, all-cancer, and lung cancer mortality. Higher hospitalization rates for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer, and pneumonia (20-100%) were also found for communes with power plants and smelters. The impacts were larger for men than women in terms of both mortality and hospitalizations. The impacts were also larger when the sources were analyzed as continuous (production volume) rather than dichotomous (presence/absence) variables. In conclusion, significantly higher rates of total cardiovascular, respiratory, all-cancer and lung cancer mortality and

  17. Dynamic Impact of Fluoride Dust on Industrial Workers in Thermal Power Plant and its Feasibility Study on Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Swati; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-07-01

    Fluorine is a common element that does not occur in the elemental state in nature because of its high reactivity. It accounts for about 0.3 g kg-1 of the Earth's crust and exists in the form of fluorides in a number of minerals, of which fluorspar, cryolite and fluorapatite are the most common. This paper focuses on the analysis of flouride on the industrial workers in various working conditions on troposphere. To check the impact of flouride on workers various samples were taken from different conditions of aluminum plant industries like pot room workers and non-pot room workers as fluoride has both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health. 50 workers in pot room and 10 workers in non pot room were chosen for taking urine and serum samples. 0.09 to 3.77 mg Kg -1 and 0.39 to 1.15 mg Kg-1 (of ash weight) was recorded in the nails of pot room and non pot room workers respectively. The average flouride content was recorded as 1.10 mg Kg -1 and 0.65 mg Kg -1 in pot room and non pot room workers respectively. The outcome results clearly indicated the ill effect and dangerous for the dental health as well as physical health of the workers. A preventive measure or precaution should be taken by the management or persons to avoid the impact of flouride on the body. The clinical significance lie in the maintaining hygienic condition while preventing the any possible effect of flouride on the workers of the industries, as this will affect the production as well as the human value in term of physical capabilities and social aspects in providing medical facilities. Keywords: Fluoride, Ecosystem, Dynamic impact, Air pollutant, detrimental effects.

  18. A tale of two cities: Comparison of impacts on CO2 emissions, the indoor environment and health of home energy efficiency strategies in London and Milton Keynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrubsole, C.; Das, P.; Milner, J.; Hamilton, I. G.; Spadaro, J. V.; Oikonomou, E.; Davies, M.; Wilkinson, P.

    2015-11-01

    Dwellings are a substantial source of global CO2 emissions. The energy used in homes for heating, cooking and running electrical appliances is responsible for a quarter of current total UK emissions and is a key target of government policies for greenhouse gas abatement. Policymakers need to understand the potential impact that such decarbonization policies have on the indoor environment and health for a full assessment of costs and benefits. We investigated these impacts in two contrasting settings of the UK: London, a predominantly older city and Milton Keynes, a growing new town. We employed SCRIBE, a building physics-based health impact model of the UK housing stock linked to the English Housing Survey, to examine changes, 2010-2050, in end-use energy demand, CO2 emissions, winter indoor temperatures, airborne pollutant concentrations and associated health impacts. For each location we modelled the existing (2010) housing stock and three future scenarios with different levels of energy efficiency interventions combined with either a business-as-usual, or accelerated decarbonization of the electricity grid approach. The potential for CO2 savings was appreciably greater in London than Milton Keynes except when substantial decarbonization of the electricity grid was assumed, largely because of the lower level of current energy efficiency in London and differences in the type and form of the housing stock. The average net impact on health per thousand population was greater in magnitude under all scenarios in London compared to Milton Keynes and more beneficial when it was assumed that purpose-provided ventilation (PPV) would be part of energy efficiency interventions, but more detrimental when interventions were assumed not to include PPV. These findings illustrate the importance of considering ventilation measures for health protection and the potential variation in the impact of home energy efficiency strategies, suggesting the need for tailored policy

  19. Urban policy, economic policy, and the growth of large cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that despite a Chinese national urban policy large cities are still growing rapidly. Policy implementation is considered weak. It is suggested that a better strategy for increased urbanization in large Chinese cities would include integrating urban with economic policy, improving urban facilities, and planning and managing large cities. A short review is given of theories on city size and development in developing countries. Chinese economic reforms and their impact on urban growth are described. During 1978-90 the level of urbanization rose from 17.9% to 26.4%. Five periods during 1949 to present are identified as exhibiting distinct development profiles. Over the 40 year period, policies pertaining to cities of a particular population size changed constantly. During the early 1950s, development focused on major coastal cities and newly expanding industrial centers. After the 1950s and the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), rural areas and small urban places were the focus of Maoist development. Large cities were de-emphasized. The early 1970s emphasized the development of rural industries and small urban places in order to reduce rural-urban inequalities. A national urban policy was prepared in the early 1980s. The aim was to control the size of large cities, to develop medium sized cities, and to develop small cities. This policy was amended later and is now China's Urban Planning Law. However, the percentage of the nonagricultural population (NAP) living in cities of a million or more persons increased from 37.5% in 1978 to 41.6% in 1990. The share of NAP living in small cities increased to 21.5% in 1990. Temporary migrants were an estimated 5-15% of large city populations. Most cities were beyond their population control limit. Large cities had served important roles in development: greater efficiency in the industrial labor force and more profits; centers for culture, education, politics, and transportation; and links to foreign countries. Economic

  20. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area. PMID:26342476

  1. The Impact of Cost and Network Topology on Urban Mobility: A Study of Public Bicycle Usage in 2 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Jurdak, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of urban mobility is vital for epidemiology, urban planning, and communication networks. Human movements have so far been studied by observing people's positions in a given space and time, though most recent models only implicitly account for expected costs and returns for movements. This paper explores the explicit impact of cost and network topology on mobility dynamics, using data from 2 city-wide public bicycle share systems in the USA. User mobility is characterized through the distribution of trip durations, while network topology is characterized through the pairwise distances between stations and the popularity of stations and routes. Despite significant differences in station density and physical layout between the 2 cities, trip durations follow remarkably similar distributions that exhibit cost sensitive trends around pricing point boundaries, particularly with long-term users of the system. Based on the results, recommendations for dynamic pricing and incentive schemes are provided to positively influence mobility patterns and guide improved planning and management of public bicycle systems to increase uptake. PMID:24236127

  2. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  3. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  4. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  5. Investigating industrial investigation: examining the impact of a priori knowledge and tunnel vision education.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Carla L; Brimacombe, C A Elizabeth; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The current study addressed tunnel vision in industrial incident investigation by experimentally testing how a priori information and a human bias (generated via the fundamental attribution error or correspondence bias) affected participants' investigative behavior as well as the effectiveness of a debiasing intervention. Undergraduates and professional investigators engaged in a simulated industrial investigation exercise. We found that participants' judgments were biased by knowledge about the safety history of either a worker or piece of equipment and that a human bias was evident in participants' decision making. However, bias was successfully reduced with "tunnel vision education." Professional investigators demonstrated a greater sophistication in their investigative decision making compared to undergraduates. The similarities and differences between these two populations are discussed. PMID:24295062

  6. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  7. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  8. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  9. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ramesh C.; Jamison, Keith; Thomas, Daniel E.

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations—leading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies—that will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  10. Space industrialization. Volume 1: An overview. [Marekt research, technology assessment, and economic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Benefits accruing to the United States from the investment of public and private resources in space industralization are projected. The future was examined to characterize resource pressures, requirements and supply (population, energy, materials, food). The backdrop of probable events, attitudes, and trends against which space industralization will evolve were postulated. The opportunities for space industry that would benefit earth were compiled and screened against terrestrial alternatives. A cursory market survey was conducted for the selected services and products provided by these initiatives.

  11. Anti-competitive impacts of secret strategic pricing in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.G.

    1997-02-15

    Strategic price discrimination in the electric power industry is the topic of the article. In particular, long-term and secret price discounts are discussed in terms of their effect on utility competition. It is stated that such discounts may arrest or block movement toward competition, allowing many or most private utilities to remain near monopolies. Regulatory action is identified as a mean to control anti-competitive pricing tactics.

  12. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  13. 77 FR 1973 - Environmental Impact Statement: In the Vicinity of the City and Borough of Juneau, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...The FHWA, in cooperation with DOT&PF, will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for Juneau Access Improvements, a project to improve surface transportation to and from Juneau within the Lynn Canal...

  14. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  15. The impact of earthquakes on the city of Aigio in Greece. Urban planning as a factor in mitigating seismic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasopoulou, Evanthia; Despoiniadou, Varvara; Dritsos, Stefanos

    2008-07-08

    This paper examines the effects of the mortal earthquake on the city of Aigio in Greece in 1995, with particular focus on urbanization and planning policies. It is based on interviews with experts and surveys on damage to buildings following this earthquake. The analysis takes into account several factors, such as exact location, land use, construction period and the height of damaged buildings. Furthermore, the relationship between the seismic damage and the postseismic construction development of Aigio is examined and the conclusion is reached that the Greek urban planning system needs to be better organized to prepare for seismic damage. To this end, the paper recommends a five-point discussion agenda for applying local planning to seismic mitigation.

  16. Field survey on water supply, sanitation and associated health impacts in urban poor communities--a case from Mumbai City, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar Karn, S; Harada, H

    2002-01-01

    A field survey was conducted on four slum, squatter and pavement dweller communities of Mumbai City, India with a total sample size of 1,070 households. Study revealed extremely low water consumption pattern averaging merely 30 l/c x d, no sewerage and safe excreta disposal facilities manifested by high occurrence of water-borne diseases. The annual diarrhoeal, typhoid and malaria cases were estimated to 614, 68 and 126 per thousand populations respectively. At point prevalence scale, at least 30% of all morbidity can be accounted for by water-related infections. In addition to the impacts of neighborhood water pollution and sanitation, such diseases were also found positively correlated with low water consumption and poverty related factors as, poor housing and family income. Analysis of variance also revealed intra-poor gradient both in living standards and health conditions on which the pavement dwellers were observed to be the greatest sufferers of all. PMID:12523765

  17. Impact of Urbanization on Spatial Variability of Rainfall-A case study of Mumbai city with WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, M.; Paul, S.; Devanand, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban precipitation enhancement has been identified over many cities in India by previous studies conducted. Anthropogenic effects such as change in land cover from hilly forest areas to flat topography with solid concrete infrastructures has certain effect on the local weather, the same way the greenhouse gas has on climate change. Urbanization could alter the large scale forcings to such an extent that it may bring about temporal and spatial changes in the urban weather. The present study investigate the physical processes involved in urban forcings, such as the effect of sudden increase in wind velocity travelling through the channel space in between the dense array of buildings, which give rise to turbulence and air mass instability in urban boundary layer and in return alters the rainfall distribution as well as rainfall initiation. A numerical model study is conducted over Mumbai metropolitan city which lies on the west coast of India, to assess the effect of urban morphology on the increase in number of extreme rainfall events in specific locations. An attempt has been made to simulate twenty extreme rainfall events that occurred over the summer monsoon period of the year 2014 using high resolution WRF-ARW (Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF) model to assess the urban land cover mechanisms that influences precipitation variability over this spatially varying urbanized region. The result is tested against simulations with altered land use. The correlation of precipitation with spatial variability of land use is found using a detailed urban land use classification. The initial and boundary conditions for running the model were obtained from the global model ECMWF(European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) reanalysis data having a horizontal resolution of 0.75 °x 0.75°. The high resolution simulations show significant spatial variability in the accumulated rainfall, within a few kilometers itself. Understanding the spatial

  18. Impacts of public transit improvements on ridership, and implications for physical activity, in a low-density Canadian city.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Public transit ridership offers valuable opportunities for modest amounts of daily physical activity (PA). Transit is a more feasible option for most Canadian commuters who live too far from work to walk or cycle, yet public transit usage in midsized Canadian cities has historically remained low due to inefficient transit service. The objectives of this longitudinal study were threefold: to assess whether the introduction of express transit service in the low-density city of Kingston, Ontario, has translated to greater transit use among a targeted employee group; to document the characteristics of those employees that have shifted to transit; and to examine the PA levels of employees using transit compared to other commute modes. An online survey was administered in October 2013 and October 2014 to all non-student employees at Queen's University. 1356 employees completed the survey in 2013, and 1123 in 2014; 656 of these employees completed the survey both years, constituting our longitudinal sample. Year-round transit ridership increased from 5.5% in 2013 to 8.5% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Employees who shifted to transit had fewer household-level opportunities to drive to work and more positive attitudes toward transit. Transit commuters accrued an average of 80 minutes/week of commute-related PA, and 50 minutes/week more total PA than those that commuted entirely passively. Kingston Transit's express service has stimulated an increase in transit ridership among one of their target employers, Queen's University. The findings from this study suggest that shifting to transit from entirely passive commuting can generate higher overall PA levels. PMID:26844163

  19. Impacts of public transit improvements on ridership, and implications for physical activity, in a low-density Canadian city

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Public transit ridership offers valuable opportunities for modest amounts of daily physical activity (PA). Transit is a more feasible option for most Canadian commuters who live too far from work to walk or cycle, yet public transit usage in midsized Canadian cities has historically remained low due to inefficient transit service. The objectives of this longitudinal study were threefold: to assess whether the introduction of express transit service in the low-density city of Kingston, Ontario, has translated to greater transit use among a targeted employee group; to document the characteristics of those employees that have shifted to transit; and to examine the PA levels of employees using transit compared to other commute modes. An online survey was administered in October 2013 and October 2014 to all non-student employees at Queen's University. 1356 employees completed the survey in 2013, and 1123 in 2014; 656 of these employees completed the survey both years, constituting our longitudinal sample. Year-round transit ridership increased from 5.5% in 2013 to 8.5% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Employees who shifted to transit had fewer household-level opportunities to drive to work and more positive attitudes toward transit. Transit commuters accrued an average of 80 minutes/week of commute-related PA, and 50 minutes/week more total PA than those that commuted entirely passively. Kingston Transit's express service has stimulated an increase in transit ridership among one of their target employers, Queen's University. The findings from this study suggest that shifting to transit from entirely passive commuting can generate higher overall PA levels. PMID:26844163

  20. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.