Science.gov

Sample records for industry impacted cities

  1. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  2. The impact of a large industrial city on the soil respiration in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorkalov, I. A.; Vorobeichik, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of soil respiration was measured in situ under native pine stands in a large industrial city (Yekaterinburg, Russia) and beyond it. The compared sites differed significantly in the two factors affecting soil respiration, i.e., in the degree of urbanization (including air pollution, changes in the microclimate, fragmentation of the biotopes, the appearance of introduced species, etc.) and in the character of recreation loads (primarily, trampling loads). The difference between soil respiration rates in the city and in the suburbs was significant; it reached its maximum in the summer, when the soil respiration in the city was 1.9-3.5 times lower than that in the suburbs. However, this difference was virtually absent in the spring and fall seasons. The impact of recreation loads on the soil respiration was relatively low; moreover, it could have both positive and negative signs, i.e., lead to the increase or decrease in the soil respirarion rate. The particular mechanisms explaining the influence of the considered factors on the rate of the CO2 emission from the soils are discussed.

  3. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  4. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents

    PubMed Central

    Golokhvast, Kirill; Vitkina, Tatyana; Gvozdenko, Tatyana; Kolosov, Victor; Yankova, Vera; Kondratieva, Elena; Gorkavaya, Anna; Nazarenko, Anna; Chaika, Vladimir; Romanova, Tatyana; Karabtsov, Alexander; Perelman, Juliy; Kiku, Pavel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%), while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%), including size 200–300 nm (7%). In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p ≤ 0.05) and DNA (12%, p ≤ 0.05), as well as changes in leukocytes' energy potential (53%, p ≤ 0.05). An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p ≤ 0.01) and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p ≤ 0.01; glutathione, 30%, p ≤ 0.01 with stable reductases levels) maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage. PMID:26064419

  5. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents.

    PubMed

    Golokhvast, Kirill; Vitkina, Tatyana; Gvozdenko, Tatyana; Kolosov, Victor; Yankova, Vera; Kondratieva, Elena; Gorkavaya, Anna; Nazarenko, Anna; Chaika, Vladimir; Romanova, Tatyana; Karabtsov, Alexander; Perelman, Juliy; Kiku, Pavel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%), while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%), including size 200-300 nm (7%). In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p ≤ 0.05) and DNA (12%, p ≤ 0.05), as well as changes in leukocytes' energy potential (53%, p ≤ 0.05). An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p ≤ 0.01) and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p ≤ 0.01; glutathione, 30%, p ≤ 0.01 with stable reductases levels) maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage. PMID:26064419

  6. Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  7. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  8. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  9. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  10. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment

    PubMed Central

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust. PMID:26217736

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment.

    PubMed

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust. PMID:26217736

  13. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  14. The economic impact of Mexico City's smoke-free law

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero López, Carlos Manuel; Jiménez Ruiz, Jorge Alberto; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic impact of Mexico City's 2008 smoke-free law—The Non-Smokers' Health Protection Law on restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Material and methods We used the Monthly Services Survey of businesses from January 2005 to April 2009—with revenues, employment and payments to employees as the principal outcomes. The results are estimated using a differences-in-differences regression model with fixed effects. The states of Jalisco, Nuevo León and México, where the law was not in effect, serve as a counterfactual comparison group. Results In restaurants, after accounting for observable factors and the fixed effects, there was a 24.8% increase in restaurants' revenue associated with the smoke-free law. This difference is not statistically significant but shows that, on average, restaurants did not suffer economically as a result of the law. Total wages increased by 28.2% and employment increased by 16.2%. In nightclubs, bars and taverns there was a decrease of 1.5% in revenues and an increase of 0.1% and 3.0%, respectively, in wages and employment. None of these effects are statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions There is no statistically significant evidence that the Mexico City smoke-free law had a negative impact on restaurants' income, employees' wages and levels of employment. On the contrary, the results show a positive, though statistically non-significant, impact of the law on most of these outcomes. Mexico City's experience suggests that smoke-free laws in Mexico and elsewhere will not hurt economic productivity in the restaurant and bar industries. PMID:21292808

  15. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  16. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city. PMID:24645262

  17. Manpower Impacts of Industrial Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany. Research and Statistics Office.

    The effects of technological change on the manpower and training needs of New York State industry were studied in a survey of 281 Industrial situations. The study was designed to help answer questions about the effects of factory and related technological change in displacing workers, in creating recruitment and training needs, and in altering the…

  18. Impact of energy availability on city traffic and development

    SciTech Connect

    Scheelhaase, K.

    1982-01-01

    The energy problem will continue to influence urban development. Given that the automobile consumes more energy than other systems of transportation, alternatives must be sought, which may be pedestrian zones, bicycle paths, and public passenger transport systems. The general public, the government, industry, and city planners are called upon to turn the cities again into what they once were, the cultural and economic centers of regions. 6 refs.

  19. 75 FR 15740 - Euclid Industries, Inc.: Bay City, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Euclid Industries, Inc.: Bay City, MI; Notice of Termination of... Euclid Industries, Inc., Bay City, Michigan. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  20. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  1. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  2. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  3. Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

  4. The Economic Impact of Industrialization on a Rural Town Economy; Wynne, Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Guy, Jr.

    The study investigated the economic impact of industrialization on the public and private sector of the community of Wynne, Arkansas. In the private sector, income, job opportunities and employment shifts, migration, commuting, and employee characteristics (age, sex, and education) were studied. In the public sector, the city government's…

  5. Incorporation of effluent trading in the city of Millville, NJ industrial pretreatment program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.T.; Dimino, M.A.; Tarasevich, A.

    1998-07-01

    The City of Millville, NJ recently updated its sewer use ordinance to incorporate technically defensible effluent limitations for industrial users of their POTW. These limitations were designed to protect the POTW from the potential inhibitory effects of pollutants in the waste stream, to protect the quality of the biosolids generated at the POTW, and to protect the quality of effluent discharged by the POTW. Along with these technically defensible limits, the City also developed a pollutant trading program which allows industries to set up agreements, under the City's supervision, which affect the allocation of pollutant loadings.

  6. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    PubMed

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium. PMID:25895249

  7. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  8. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders. PMID:24505256

  9. New employment regimes in cities: the impact on immigrant workers.

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1996-10-01

    "The major cities of highly developed countries exhibit marked changes in job supplies and employment relations. It is frequently held that post-industrial societies require plentiful supplies of highly educated workers and will hold no openings for the low skilled. It is this latter category of jobs that immigrants have tended to fill in recent decades. Empirical data on major cities in advanced economies negate this supposition, revealing that there is an ongoing demand for immigrant labour and a continuing stream of employment opportunities which do not require high educational levels and which pay low wages. The article examines whether this job supply is merely a residue, to some extent augmented by the supply of low wage workers themselves, or whether it is a feature of a reconfigured labour market in advanced urban economies, i.e. a systemic development." PMID:12179812

  10. The impact of (mega)-cities on the earth's gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, S.; Estrella, N.; Güntner, A.; Matiu, M.; Peterseim, N.; Menzel, A.

    2013-12-01

    The world population is constantly growing; today over 7 billion people populate the planet. This development has led to a strong urbanization and expanding cities. According to the United Nations, since 2007 more human beings have lived in urban areas than in rural areas, and by 2030 the urban share will be more than 60%. The challenges of fast growing cities lie in urban management, supply to inhabitants of resources (e.g. water, power, food), and strong environmental problems (e.g. pollution), i.e. their ecological footprint. In our study we address the question of another footprint, whether (mega)-cities have an impact on the earth's gravity field. Analyzing the possible triggers will help to understand the multiple footprints of big cities in various regions. We analyze several data sources. The main data sets are a) monthly solutions of the gravity satellite mission GRACE, detecting changes in the earth's gravity field over time, b) data of the hydrological model WGHM, estimating mass changes in terrestrial and ground water storage, c) urban population data of the United Nations, d) land cover information of the European Space Agency, e) different climate data sets and other auxiliary data. The results suggest a non-uniform pattern of gravity changes with variations in trends related to different clustering parameters.

  11. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  12. Simulated Climate Impacts of Mexico City's Historical Urban Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson-Lira, Valeria

    Urbanization, a direct consequence of land use and land cover change, is responsible for significant modification of local to regional scale climates. It is projected that the greatest urban growth of this century will occur in urban areas in the developing world. In addition, there is a significant research gap in emerging nations concerning this topic. Thus, this research focuses on the assessment of climate impacts related to urbanization on the largest metropolitan area in Latin America: Mexico City. Numerical simulations using a state-of-the-science regional climate model are utilized to address a trio of scientifically relevant questions with wide global applicability. The importance of an accurate representation of land use and land cover is first demonstrated through comparison of numerical simulations against observations. Second, the simulated effect of anthropogenic heating is quantified. Lastly, numerical simulations are performed using pre-historic scenarios of land use and land cover to examine and quantify the impact of Mexico City's urban expansion and changes in surface water features on its regional climate.

  13. Multilingualism in a Post-Industrial City: Policy and Practice in Manchester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matras, Yaron; Robertson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Manchester (England), one of the first industrial cities, is now home to over 150 languages. Ethnic minority and migrant communities take active steps to maintain heritage languages in commerce and through education. The paper introduces a model for a holistic approach to profiling urban multilingualism that relies on triangulating a variety of…

  14. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  15. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  16. Industries, Cities and People, Episode VI. Resource Material Development: Population Dynamics in Eighth Grade American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.; And Others

    This is the sixth unit in a series that introduces population concepts into the eighth grade American history curriculum. (See SO 013 782 for an overview of the guide.) In Episode VI, the history topic is the rise of the cities and industrialization. This unit has five segments. Objectives are to help the student to (1) examine the lifestyles of…

  17. Effects of local emission sources on the acidification of rainwater in an industrial city in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Der-Yuan Wu

    1996-12-31

    This study investigated the acidification of precipitation in an industrial city in Taiwan Island. The purposes of this study is two fold. The first is to characterize the status of add precipitation around the industrial city. Rainwater samples were collected by automatic rainwater samplers-located at five sampling sites which covered the entire city. The second is to investigate the potential sources of acidic species in the acid rainwater. Further study was taken to ascertain the effects of local emissions as well as long range transportation on the acidification of precipitation. Investigation of acid rain on the Island of Taiwan has been conducted since 1984. Most of these researches were short-term and/or large-scale investigations. Long-term sampling of acid rain at heavy polluted region has never been investigated yet. In this investigation, Kaohsiung was selected as the city for the intensive acid rain sampling since it is the largest industrial city as well as the largest harbor in Taiwan Island. Both dry and wet acid samples were collected daily by the automatic rainwater samplers. Major cations (H{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}), anions (F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO3{sup -}, and SO4{sup -2}), and conductivity of acid samples were measured simultaneously. Actually, both pH value and conductivity were measured on site. During the period of investigation, 325 collected rainwater samples demonstrated an average pH value of 5.2 with the range of 3.1 to 6.3. This investigation revealed that emissions from local sources such as power plants, petrochemical plants, and cement plants play important roles on the acidification of rainwater in the industrial city in Taiwan.

  18. Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Kevin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-10-01

    Most of industrial cities in developed countries use automatic station networks for monitoring of Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs), and the tremendous amount of data acquired are often used to verify that the concentrations are within safety levels and to warn the population in the other case. Furthermore, these data can be used to investigate the source-receptor relationship. In this study, the data were collected from automatic monitoring stations in Ulsan, the most industrialized city in South Korea. The dataset consists of hourly concentrations of five CAPs (SO2, CO, O3, NO2, and PM10) recorded at 13 monitoring stations in the city during a full year (March 2011-February 2012). Different types of sources were identified by studying the temporal (daily and seasonal) trends and spatial distributions of CAPs with wind directions. It was confirmed that SO2 pollution in Ulsan originated mostly from local industrial areas, whereas CO and NO2 were also substantially influenced by mobile sources. The high PM10 levels resulted from both local industries and traffic sources as well as from remote sources. The originality of this work comes from the study of the high episodes of pollutions on a case by case basis as well as on average data. Moreover, rather simple statistical tools developed in this study can be used for a real-time diagnosis of the local pollution in large urban and industrial areas.

  19. Impacts of classifying New York City students as overweight.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Lee, Ajin; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-03-29

    US schools increasingly report body mass index (BMI) to students and their parents in annual fitness "report cards." We obtained 3,592,026 BMI reports for New York City public school students for 2007-2012. We focus on female students whose BMI puts them close to their age-specific cutoff for categorization as overweight. Overweight students are notified that their BMI "falls outside a healthy weight" and they should review their BMI with a health care provider. Using a regression discontinuity design, we compare those classified as overweight but near to the overweight cutoff to those whose BMI narrowly earned them a "healthy" BMI grouping. We find that overweight categorization generates small impacts on girls' subsequent BMI and weight. Whereas presumably an intent of BMI report cards was to slow BMI growth among heavier students, BMIs and weights did not decline relative to healthy peers when assessed the following academic year. Our results speak to the discrete categorization as overweight for girls with BMIs near the overweight cutoff, not to the overall effect of BMI reporting in New York City. PMID:26976566

  20. High Comfort - Low Impact Concepts For Buildings and Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, Matthias

    2012-04-30

    This lecture provides an overview of what Transsolar is doing in the field of sustainable buildings and cities. Topics covered include: Why sustainability for buildings and cities; What does sustainability mean for buildings and cities; The company's "KlimaEngineering" approach; and Project examples.

  1. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  2. Nineteenth century flooding and pollutant loadings from the first industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James; Hurley, Rachel; Lewin, John

    2014-05-01

    Between 1750 and 1900 the city of Manchester was transformed. In the city and surrounding towns enormous volumes of fine-grained sediments (clays, silts and sands) were generated and much of this material, contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants, ended up in urban river channels that became choked with sediments. Water quality was dire. Urban channels were then periodically scoured by large floods from steep headwater catchments that evacuated sediments and deposited them on the wide rural floodplain downstream. The nature and extent of sediment pollution in the city and the volume of material transported by rivers can be established by studying floodplain deposits, a vital aspect of the history of the first industrial city that is now being explored. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) destroyed much of the valley floor of the Mersey-Irwell system downstream of the city. When the MSC opened at the beginning of 1894 it was the largest inland navigation of its kind in the world. We have identified well-preserved sedimentary records - that were not excavated or buried during the construction of the ship canal - that span this crucial period. High-resolution sampling of sediments has allowed reconstruction of large flood events, pollution history, and contaminant flux using detailed grain size and X-ray fluorescence analyses for the period up to 1887 when the construction of the MSC began. These constitute a geological archive of natural and anthropogenic environmental change before and during the Industrial Revolution. This paper presents natural baseline conditions for the Mersey-Irwell system, contaminant profiles for sediment-bound heavy metals, a record of exceptionally large floods for the nineteenth century, and the trajectory of change following the Industrial Revolution. This forms part of a larger project to establish the nature and extent of sediment pollution over the period of the Industrial Revolution in

  3. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  4. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  5. Functional and environmental assessment of the urboecosystems designed in the biologically reclamated landfill with industrial wastes (in Ryazan city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Alexey; Vasenev, Ivan; Karyakina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Regional environmental bodies' ability to understand, model and predict their soil cover environmental functions are especially important in case of landfill reclamation. The special attention has to be done to landfills with industrial wastes created earlier in frame of big city - comparatively closed to their residential areas. Dominated in Ryazan region sandy loam gray forest soils with not so high soil organic matter content and soil exchange capacity determine additional problems with landfill biological reclamation and continuous sustainable vegetation cover development. The modern environmental monitoring system has been developed in the big landfill with tanning industrial wastes from the biggest in Europe tannery to develop recommendation on the environmentally friendly reclamation technologies adapted to concrete landscape conditions and functional features of 2 m fresh soil-ground coating the landfill surface. More detailed monitoring system has to be developed to assess the regulatory environmental functions of the regenerated soil cover to minimize the reclamated landfill' negative impacts on the urban ecosystem air, surface and ground water quality. Obtained result will be useful for similar landfills with tanning industrial wastes environmental impact assessment and smart design.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

  7. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  8. The Nonfuel Minerals Industry: Regulatory Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex; Lacy, William

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an assessment of the effects of environmental and health and safety regulations on costs, competitiveness, and viability relative to the nation's metal mining and processing industry. (RE)

  9. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season, and the observations show emissions from BB impose viable yet highly variable impacts on organic aerosols (OA) in and around Mexico City. We have developed emission inventories for forest fires surrounding Mexico City based on measurement-estimated emission factors and MODIS fire counts, and for garbage fires in Mexico City based on in situ-measured emission factors and the population distribution and socioeconomic data. In this study, we will comprehensively assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosol loading, chemical composition, OA formation and photochemistry in Mexico City using WRF-Chem. Analysis of the model results, in conjunction with concurrent field measurements, will be presented.

  10. Industrial machinery noise impact modeling, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. H.; Kugler, B. A.

    1981-07-01

    The development of a machinery noise computer model which may be used to assess the effect of occupational noise on the health and welfare of industrial workers is discussed. The purpose of the model is to provide EPA with the methodology to evaluate the personnel noise problem, to identify the equipment types responsible for the exposure and to assess the potential benefits of a given noise control action. Due to its flexibility in design and application, the model and supportive computer program can be used by other federal agencies, state governments, labor and industry as an aid in the development of noise abatement programs.

  11. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  12. Biotechnology: Impact on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the nine key technology issues that affect the sustainability of the sugar- or bio-energy- cane industry, namely: land, fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and lately, information technology, growing the right varieties rema...

  13. The impact of corrosion on the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1996-08-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety, and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation, and refinery activities.

  14. The Impact of the University Education for an IT Career in Cluj-Napoca City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    Cluj-Napoca city is considered a major IT hub in Romania, and the leading exporter of IT services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of University education on the future careers of IT students in city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the University students in the IT field in…

  15. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28546) (Environmental Procedures), in... connection to the Twin Cities. A trip by automobile between the Twin Cities and Rochester is approximately 1... intercity travelers a reasonable alternative to automobile travel. Project Purpose and Need: The purpose...

  16. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  17. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  18. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High levels of ‘excess’ mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in ‘Sense of Coherence’ (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the ‘excess’. Setting Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. Participants A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). Primary and secondary outcome measures SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). Results SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (−5.1 (95% CI −6.0 to −4.1)) and 8.1 (−8.1 (−9.1 to −7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. Conclusions The reasons for the high levels of ‘excess’ mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation

  19. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  20. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a... of Transportation, will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with...

  1. Emerging Ohio alcohol industry: impacts on agriculture. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.; Ott, S.

    1981-01-01

    A modest alcohol industry using corn is now being developed in Ohio. Other Corn Belt states are also developing alcohol industries. Substantial changes in land use, livestock feeding, and commodity prices will result from the additional demands put on agriculture to meet food, feed, fiber, and now energy needs. Export demand, crop yield changes, and land availability will have important impacts on these changes. A close monitoring of this new industry will be needed to assist farmers, agro-industries, and policymakers to make the necessary adjustments, to take advantage of the opportunities presented, and to preserve and enhance the productivity of agriculture. 3 tables.

  2. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs. PMID:19136242

  3. Impact of foreign animal diseases at the industry level.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, P

    2006-01-01

    Industry-level impacts of highly contagious foreign animal diseases can be extensive and disruptive. These impacts are the sum of disease effects on the separate economic units that comprise the input supply, production, processing and marketing system of that industry. These industry-level effects would not include government costs or costs associated with disrupted travel or tourism or general economic activity. Direct impacts are those that are related to production and result in direct economic consequences for animal protein producers. Indirect impacts are consequences that include loss of trade, market and consumer confidence, among others. While it is prudent for governments to identify the costs of effective surveillance and prevention, these costs are often very small compared to the total cost of response and recovery associated with a disease outbreak. It is important that the effectiveness of those prevention programmes not be compromised because of other short-term priorities perceived to be more urgent. PMID:20429073

  4. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  5. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. PMID:21830135

  6. Source identification of PCDD/Fs for various atmospheric environments in a highly industrialized city.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Lin, Chieh

    2004-10-01

    This study set out to identify possible PCDD/F emission sources for different atmospheric environments in a highly industrialized city located in southern Taiwan. We collected stack flue gas samples from five main stationary emission sources of the municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), medical waste incinerators (MWIs), electric arc furnaces (EAFs), secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs), and sinter plants to assess the characteristics of their PCDD/F emissions. For mobile sources, congener profiles reported in U.S. EPA's database for unleaded gas-fueled vehicles (UGFV) and diesel-fueled vehicles (DFV) were directly adopted owing to lack of local data. The congener profiles of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs were selected as the signatures of these PCDD/F emission sources. We conducted PCDD/F samplings on atmospheric environments of four categories, including background, residential area, traffic area, and industrial area. Through PCA and cluster analyses, we found that traffic areas were most influenced by PCDD/F emissions from UGFV and DFV, while those of industrial areas were mainly influenced by metallurgical facilities and MWIs. The above results were further examined by using the methodology of the indicatory PCDD/Fs. We confirmed that traffic areas were contributed by traffic sources, but industrial areas were simply affected by metallurgical facilities rather than MWIs. In conclusion, besides the use of PCA and cluster analyses, the methodology of the indicatory PCDD/Fs should be conducted for further validation in order to prevent misjudgment. PMID:15506183

  7. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  8. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  9. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  10. A pilot demonstration project of technology application from the aerospace industry to city management (four cities program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, G. F.; Blomeyer, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    The Four Cities Program has completed the first year of the planned two-year program. At the beginning of the first year, a variety of program initiation activities were accomplished. Contracts were negotiated; science and technology advisors were interviewed, selected and assigned; general indoctrination and integration of the advisors into city affairs occurred; technical needs were identified and related projects pursued; pilot projects for the second year were identified; inter-city coordination on technical problems began to emerge; and the general soundness of the four cities program seems to have been established. Above all, the inter-personal relationships between the advisors and their interfaces in city government appear to be functioning smoothly. The establishment of such mutual respect, trusts, and confidences are believed essential to the success of the program.

  11. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

  12. Construction industry cost effectiveness; It does have an impact

    SciTech Connect

    Schappa, P.J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness (CICE) project. Northern States Power (NSP) decided to implement many suggestions proposed in the CICE report to improve labor productivity for their 800 MW project. With the project successfully completed in 1987 on time and within budget, this paper reviews the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness strategies employed by Northern States Power and their impact on the project.

  13. Man's Impact on the Environment: The City as an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This environmental education program emphasizes the cause and effect of change in a city ecosystem with special attention given to man and his role in environmental change. Concepts are employed from the natural and social sciences to investigate environmental problems. Unit activities are inquiry oriented and answer these questions: (1) What is…

  14. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    mass concentration, is also expected to scale the same way. Experimental data for five cities: Mexico City, Mexico; Las Vegas and Reno, NV, USA; Beijing, China; and Delhi, India (the data for the last two cities were obtained from the literature); are in reasonable accord with the model. The scaling relation provided by the model may be considered a useful metric depending on the assumption that specific city conditions (such as latitude, altitude, local meteorological conditions, degree of industrialization, population density, number of cars per capita, city shape, etc.) vary randomly, independent of city size. While more detailed studies (including data from more cities) are needed, we believe that this relatively weak dependence of the pollution concentration on the city population might help to explain why the worsening of urban air quality does not directly lead to a decrease in the rate of growth in city population.

  15. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (<0 μg/m(3)) that in surrounding areas in only 41 prefectures, which were located in western China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.05), and between [Formula: see text] and urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  16. Microzonation Mapping Of The Yanbu Industrial City, Western Saudi Arabia: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Sayed, Sr.; Alarifi, Nassir S.; Lashin, Aref A.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas along the western coast of Saudi Arabia are susceptible to natural disasters and environmental damages due to lack of planning. To produce a site-specific microzonation map of the rapidly growing Yanbu industrial city, spatial distribution of different hazard entities are assessed using the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP) together with Geographical Information System (GIS). For this purpose six hazard parameter layers are considered, namely; fundamental frequency, site amplification, soil strength in terms of effective shear-wave velocity, overburden sediment thickness, seismic vulnerability index and peak ground acceleration. The weight and rank values are determined during AHP and are assigned to each layer and its corresponding classes, respectively. An integrated seismic microzonation map was derived using GIS platform. Based on the derived map, the study area is classified into five hazard categories: very low, low, moderate high, and very high. The western and central parts of the study area, as indicated from the derived microzonation map, are categorized as a high hazard zone as compared to other surrounding places. The produced microzonation map of the current study is envisaged as a first-level assessment of the site specific hazards in the Yanbu city area, which can be used as a platform by different stakeholders in any future land-use planning and environmental hazard management.

  17. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  18. Meningococcal meningitis in an industrial area adjoining Surat City--some clinico-epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, B S; Saxena, D M; Kantharia, S L; Somasunderam, C; Mehta, N R

    1989-06-01

    An industrial area with poor sanitation and inhabited by migrant, male predominant population, situated South to Surat City, experienced an outbreak of pyogenic meningitis during 1985-87. A total of 197 cases of meningitis with 34 deaths were reported during a period of 1 1/2 years. Neisseria meningitidis was the predominant pathogen isolated from 66 out of 138 CSF samples. Recently migrated males of productive age groups drawn from the States of Uttar Pradesh and Orissa were predominantly affected. Male to female ratio was found to be 7.2:1. Nearly 2/3rd of the cases were reported during the dry colder months of winter and spring. Pregnancy and childbirth appeared to be important predisposing factors in females. Nine cases were reported from the family contacts of cases. Majority of the cases were labourers doing manual work. PMID:2809153

  19. Drought impacts in the New York City metropolitan area: A comparison of impacts between 1995 and other recent droughts

    SciTech Connect

    DeGaetano, A.T.

    1997-11-01

    This study is intended to provide information on drought impact on the major cities in the northeastern US. The effects of the 1995 drought on water resources, electric utilities, agriculture, forestry, recreation, and retail sales are analyzed for New York City and surrounding counties. Water resource related impacts associated with the most recent drought are also compared with those that occurred during the prolonged mid-1960s drought and shorter drought periods in the early and mid-1980s. The assessment of drought impacts from the 1995 drought in the New York metropolitan area showed the influence of this drought on water resources to be relatively minor with the exception of some show ground water problems and reduced flow on the Hudson River. There were also negative impacts on non-irrigated agriculture and fire prevention/control operations. In general, these impacts were relatively minor in comparison with prior droughts. Based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and precipitation deficit, a temporal comparison of droughts in New York City with respect to water supply indicates a general delay in the occurrence of drought impacts and responses. This may be a result of improved efforts to promote water conservation within the city or a reflection of increased reservoir capacity coupled with a declining urban population. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

    This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

  1. Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katusya; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Machida, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding the industrial potential of the fungus in biotechnology. Genes that have been newly discovered through genome research can be used for the production of novel valuable enzymes and chemicals, and are important for designing new industrial processes. This article describes recent progress of A . oryzae genomics and its impact on industrial production of enzymes, metabolites, and bioprocesses. PMID:16944282

  2. The Regeneration Challenge in the Developed World: Insights Generated from a Capabilities Approach Applied to the Understanding of Regeneration Efforts in Post-Industrial Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Nelarine; Trueman, Myfanwy

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of the urban story of many cities in the developed world is their "regeneration" after many years of long-term social, economic and environmental decline. This is especially so in cities that have sought to reverse a long-standing, negative reputation and pejorative image. Based on the context of post-industrial cities in the…

  3. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2014-02-01

    The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

  4. Risk assessment of atmospheric heavy metals exposure in Baotou, a typical industrial city in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing

    2016-06-01

    Industrial activities have led to serious air pollution and the potentially toxic elements in atmospheric particles can cause various health problems to humans. In this study, inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) were collected from four typical sites in Baotou, an industrial city in northern China. We investigated both the mass concentrations of particulate matter and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn) in the collected samples. We assessed the public health risks associated with atmospheric heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as these heavy metal concentrations varied notably influenced by the prevailing wind directions. Among the studied metals, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cr were the main metal pollutants in both PM10 and PM2.5. The results of the health assessment showed that the eight heavy metals studied pose significant non-carcinogenic risks and Cr, Cd, and Co pose lifetime lung cancer risks to local residents, especially to children. PMID:26350673

  5. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport. PMID:26625613

  6. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  7. Indicator-based assessment of environmental hazards and health effects in the industrial cities of upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Wcislo, Eleonora; Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Konczalik, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Using an indicator-based approach, we assessed environmental hazards and related health effects in populations of industrial cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Upper Silesia, Poland, and analyzed the relationship between environment and health. We adopted the method developed by Dutkiewicz et al. for assessing large geographic areas. Based on routinely collected environmental and health data, two groups of indicators, environmental indicators (EIs) and health status indicators (HSIs), related to environmental contamination were selected. The EI and HSI values were normalized and aggregated into synthetic measures using Strahl's taxonometric method. The synthetic measures indicated the intensity of environmental hazards and health outcomes. We used a three-level index scale to compare and rank the cities under the study and, consequently, to facilitate decision making. Findings of the assessment identified cities where actions aimed at reducing environmental hazards and improving population health status should be established as priorities. These cities included Chorzów, Katowice, Sosnowiec, Bytom, and Zabrze. We found a high correlation between the synthetic measures of environmental indicators and the synthetic measure of health status indicators (r = 0.77), as well as a high level of consistency between environmental hazard indices and environmental-related health status indices (73%). This may indicate the existence of a causal relationship between the environmental contamination within industrial cities and the health status of their inhabitants. PMID:12417485

  8. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, X.; Li, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-07-01

    spatial distribution of NOx emissions are consistent with NO2 vertical column density measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). In particular, the Nanjing city-scale emission inventory correlates better with satellite observations than the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) does when emissions from power plants are excluded. This indicates improvement in emission estimation for sectors other than power generation, notably industry and transportation. High-resolution emission inventory may also provide a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations. To further improve emission estimation and evaluation, more measurements of both emission factors and ambient levels of given pollutants are suggested; the uncertainties of emission inventories at city scale should also be fully quantified and compared with those at national scale.

  9. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  10. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: A Report to the Tri-Cities Community, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This booklet presents the 2000 Facts and Impacts report to the Tri-Cities community served by Columbia Basin College (CBC). It provides a snapshot of the college in the late 1990s. Following a message from CBC's president and a list of the members of the Board of Trustees, legislators (District 8), legislators (District 16), president, vice…

  11. Impact of the Efficacy Process on Students in Sacramento City USD Pilot Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, Rebecka A.

    Research related to the implementation and impact of the efficacy process on teachers and students in four Sacramento (California) City Unified School District pilot schools over a 4-year period is described. The study investigated three research evaluation questions: (1) the extent of teachers' implementation of the efficacy process; (2) the…

  12. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  13. FLUORIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN INDUSTRIALIZED BEVERAGES CONSUMED BY CHILDREN IN THE CITY OF BAURU, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    The increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil. Material and Methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. Fluoride concentrations were determined by HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (Orion 9409). Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 μg F/mL. It was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. There was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. Conclusions: Some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration. PMID:19089131

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  15. The Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' Health Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela

    2011-07-15

    Aim: The short report reviews an experience of conducting a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the local government context. The aim of this review was to identify if carrying out an HIA would result in recommendations that could influence council planning and help establish ongoing working relationships between North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council. Methods: A process and impact evaluation was conducted on the Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' HIA, which focused on the Coffs Harbour City Council's strategic planning document. Information gained through the evaluation was themed and the findings were reviewed against published information on HIA experience. Main findings: HIA has reported benefits for both the Coffs Harbour City Council and NCAHS as it provides a tool to address many of the issues facing these organisations. Local council has increasing responsibilities including the environment, housing and urban planning, which all have health implications. HIA has been demonstrated as an effective tool for NCAHS staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council to engage and build relationships, increase the understanding of all planning aspects related to health, and most importantly utilise evidence to inform decision making. Conclusion: HIA should be adopted as a key tool to facilitate effective working partnerships between organisations. Improved engagement, partnerships and use of evidence to produce shared outcomes can result from utilising this tool.

  16. Scientists Focus on Land Subsidence Impacts on Coastal and Delta Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Some coastal and delta cities around the world are sinking but not necessarily due only to sea level rise and impacts from extreme weather events. Land subsidence that is caused by anthropogenic processes—including the extraction of groundwater, oil, and gas and the drainage of soils—is a significant concern for Jakarta, Indonesia; Manila, Philippines; New Orleans, La.; and many other coastal and delta cities, according to scientists at a 28 April briefing held at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria.

  17. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2010-11-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (HFO combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (17% of PM2.5). Even though, industrial emissions contribute for only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dp<80 nm) and high concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. This result implies that CMB modelling should not be a straightforward exercise and one have to carefully investigate the marker behaviours and trends beforehand, especially in complex environments such as Marseille. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute health outcomes and should be regulated

  18. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dp<80 nm) and high concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute ill-health outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un

  19. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of

  20. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  1. Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-30

    It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental impacts are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)

  2. An Impact Analysis of Regional Industry--University Interactions: The Case of Industrial PhD Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Linda; Nuur, Cali; Söderlind, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss Triple Helix collaborations in the context of regional competitiveness. Through an exploratory case study, they identify and analyse the impact of the establishment of industrial PhD schools for participating industry and universities. The study was conducted in Sweden in 2014 and focuses on three industry--university…

  3. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  4. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety. PMID:19778828

  5. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in an industrial city of India.

    PubMed

    Bhende, A A; Choe, M K; Rele, J R; Palmore, J A

    1991-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of contraceptive method choice in Jamshedpur, an industrial city in Bihar State, one of the few areas in India that enjoys a "cafeteria approach" to family planning method selection. While contraceptive prevalence in India is about 35%, Jamshedpur has a prevalence rate close to 60%. One of Jamshedpur's special programs is the Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) Family Welfare Programme, which provides an array of services to both employees and nonemployees. In 1983, TISCO commissioned the International Institute for Populations Studies (IIPS) to evaluate its programs. Based on the findings of an IIPS survey of 2376 currently married women between the ages of 15-44, this study attempts to identify determinants of contraceptive method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial method choice. For its analysis, the study used a multinomial logit regression, a model appropriate for studying the relationships between a number of covariates and a dependent variable (the contraceptive method used) that has more than 2 possible outcomes (female sterilization, male sterilization, condom, female temporary method, natural methods, or no method). The survey examined the following covariates: religion/caste, mother tongue, husband's occupation, place of employment, age at consummation of marriage, husband's education, wife's education, marriage duration, survival status of last child, number and sex of living children, and attitude variables. The study found that religion, mother tongue, and educational levels are important determinants of acceptance and method choice. The number of children -- especially sons -- also affected contraceptive use, rising as family size increases. The study revealed that the Jamshedpur population did exercise choice in clear patterns when the choices were made available. PMID:12284858

  6. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  7. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

  8. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Poursafa, Parinaz; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Ziarati, Mohammad; Ghoddousi, Hamid; Momeni, Seyyed Alireza; Rezaei, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3). According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2). Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37). Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application. PMID:22272210

  10. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the

  11. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  12. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. PMID:26841293

  13. Industry in Motion: Using Smart Phones to Explore the Spatial Network of the Garment Industry in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City’s garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geo-locative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City’s Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders. PMID:24505256

  14. PM10 mass concentration, chemical composition, and sources in the typical coal-dominated industrial city of Pingdingshan, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shushen; Shao, Longyi; Fan, Jingsen; Liu, Yanfei

    2016-11-15

    The atmospheric pollution created by coal-dominated industrial cities in China cannot be neglected. This study focuses on the atmospheric PM10 in the typical industrial city of Pingdingshan City in North China. A total of 44 PM10 samples were collected from three different sites (power plant, mining area, and roadside) in Pingdingshan City during the winter of 2013, and were analyzed gravimetrically and chemically. The Pingdingshan PM10 samples were composed of mineral matter (average of 118.0±58.6μg/m(3), 20.6% of the total PM10 concentration), secondary crystalline particles (338.7±122.0μg/m(3), 59.2%), organic matter (77.3±48.5μg/m(3), 13.5%), and elemental carbon (38.0±28.3μg/m(3), 6.6%). Different sources had different proportions of these components in PM10. The power plant pollutant source was characterized by secondary crystalline particles (377.1μg/m(3)), elemental carbon (51.5μg/m(3)), and organic matter (90.6μg/m(3)) due to coal combustion. The mining area pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (124.0μg/m(3)) due to weathering of waste dumps. The roadside pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (130.0μg/m(3)) and organic matter (81.0μg/m(3)) due to road dust and vehicle exhaust, respectively. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was performed for PM10 source apportionment to identify major anthropogenic sources of PM10 in Pingdingshan. Six factors-crustal matter, coal combustion, vehicle exhaust and abrasion, local burning, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting-were identified and their contributions to Pingdingshan PM10 were 19.0%, 31.6%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 9.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Compared to other major cities in China, the source of PM10 in Pingdingshan was characterized by coal combustion, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting. PMID:27450962

  15. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  16. 13 CFR 315.17 - Assistance to firms in import-impacted industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-impacted industries. 315.17 Section 315.17 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FIRMS Assistance to Industries § 315.17 Assistance to firms in import-impacted industries. (a) Whenever the International Trade Commission makes...

  17. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  18. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  19. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, J. . Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  20. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness. PMID:17321032

  1. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment. PMID:20005611

  2. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yan; Christensen, Thomas H.; Lu Wenjing; Wu Huayong; Wang Hongtao

    2011-04-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery. The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.

  4. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  5. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from

  6. Developing a model to estimate the potential impact of municipal investment on city health.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Malcolm; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes a process which exemplifies the potential impact of municipal investment on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in city populations. We report on Developing an evidence-based approach to city public health planning and investment in Europe (DECiPHEr), a project part funded by the European Union. It had twin objectives: first, to develop and validate a vocational educational training package for policy makers and political decision takers; second, to use this opportunity to iterate a robust and user-friendly investment tool for maximizing the public health impact of 'mainstream' municipal policies, programs and investments. There were seven stages in the development process shared by an academic team from Sheffield Hallam University and partners from four cities drawn from the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. There were five iterations of the model resulting from this process. The initial focus was CVD as the biggest cause of death and disability in Europe. Our original prototype 'cost offset' model was confined to proximal determinants of CVD, utilizing modified 'Framingham' equations to estimate the impact of population level cardiovascular risk factor reduction on future demand for acute hospital admissions. The DECiPHEr iterations first extended the scope of the model to distal determinants and then focused progressively on practical interventions. Six key domains of local influence on population health were introduced into the model by the development process: education, housing, environment, public health, economy and security. Deploying a realist synthesis methodology, the model then connected distal with proximal determinants of CVD. Existing scientific evidence and cities' experiential knowledge were 'plugged-in' or 'triangulated' to elaborate the causal pathways from domain interventions to public health impacts. A key product is an enhanced version of the cost offset model, named Sheffield Health Effectiveness Framework

  7. Developing a functional model for cities impacted by a natural hazard: application to a city affected by flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambara, G.; Peyras, L.; Felix, H.; Serre, D.

    2015-03-01

    The experience feedback on a crisis that hit a city is frequently used as a "recollection" tool. To capitalize information about an experience feedback from the cities that have been affected by a natural hazard, the authors propose in this study a functional model to model scenarios of city crises. In this model, the city, considered as a complex system, was modelled using a functional analysis method. Based on such modelling, two risk analysis methods (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Event Tree Method) were deployed and adjusted. Lastly, a qualitative reasoning model was used for the scenario modelling of the urban crisis. By functional modelling performed on components of the cities, the objective of this model is to replicate the behaviour of a city affected by a crisis, highlighting the sequences of failure and non-failure modes that have operated during the crisis. This model constitutes a means of understanding the functional behaviour in a crisis of cities and capitalization of the experience feedback of the cities affected by crisis. Such functional modelling was deployed in a case study.

  8. Variability in Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties at a Coastal Industrial City in India, deduced from OMI and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.

    2009-12-01

    Many cities in India have gone through industrial revolution due to the priorities put by the State and Central Governments for economical growth. Bhubaneswar is one of the cities in the eastern part of India (85.8 E and 20.2 N) that has been the center of industrial activities since 1990s. A number of industries such as thermal power plants, sponge iron plants and housing developments have resulted changes in the land cover and in the slow deterioration of air quality affecting public health and reduced visibility. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the variability in aerosol optical and physical properties in Bhubaneswar using remote sensing data produced by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). We have analyzed the data for Aerosol Extiction Optical Depth (AOD), Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD), UV Aerosol Index and Cloud Fraction from OMI and Aerosol Small Mode Fraction, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), Aerosol Mass over Land from MODIS. The analysis has been made for 4 years from 2005-2008. Variations in AOD and AAOD values are observed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods.

  9. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  10. POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COMPOUNDING AND FABRICATING INDUSTRIES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objectives of this research effort were to identify compounding and fabricating industries from a selected number of Standard Industrial Classification codes, and identify the environmental impact resulting from processing steps used by fabrication or compounding indu...

  11. Lung Function Impact from Working in the Pre-Revolution Libyan Quarry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Draid, Marwan M.; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M.; Ali, Ashraf M.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Gibbs, Shawn G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure. PMID:25961801

  12. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries. PMID:26219273

  13. Impact of home industries on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Harare: implications for urban water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvungi, A.; Hranova, R. K.; Love, D.

    Sustainable use of water resources requires the integration of demand management with source quality management. The City of Harare is a case in point, where wastewater and runoff from the city flow into its reservoirs. Little has yet been established on the quality of runoff from home industries in the high-density urban environment. In Harare, most of these are located close to streams draining into the city’s reservoirs. The impact of runoff from different land uses on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Kuwadzana high-density suburb, Harare, was assessed. The water quality from two sub-catchments, one of which contained home industries and residential areas and the other, which contained residential areas only, was compared over the 2001-2002 rainy season. It was found that phosphate (1.08 mg/l), TKN (3.2 mg/l), ammonia (1.14 mg/l), faecal coliforms (1000/100 ml), iron (6.9 mg/l), and lead (0.53 mg/l) were the major water quality pollutants. The SCS-SA model was used to estimate the runoff in different sampling points. Pollution loads for certain parameters were, on average, four times higher in the sub-catchment containing home industries (287 kg total phosphates, 319 kg TKN nitrate, 115 kg ammonia, 744 kg iron and 41 kg lead), than in the sub-catchment containing residential areas only (74kg total phosphates, 50 kg TKN nitrate, 21 kg ammonia, 138 kg iron and 12 kg lead). This is due to the higher runoff volumes from the area containing the home industries, while the pollution concentrations at both representative points where not statistically different. Accordingly, it is recommended that the City authorities should reassess current practice and make provision for sewer and drainage systems and adequate disposal of solid and hazardous wastes in areas zoned for home industries and to improve the solid waste management in high-density areas. Efforts should be made to control the storage of materials and scrap in these areas. Most importantly

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Electric Pole Maintenance in Nagoya City Science Museum as a Cooperative Activity of Industry, School and Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, Koichi

    The object of this paper is to suggest an education model as a cooperative activity of industry, school and local government in science museums. Nagoya City Science Museum has opened the new exhibit on electric pole maintenance since 2002, which makes a visitor a temporary electrician working at a height of 3 meters. The exhibit, named “Be an Electrician”, is focusing on stimulating young people's interest in industrial technology. The electric pole and equipments on the pole like transformer, electric wires and so forth were donated from an electric power company to the museum. The museum manages volunteers including an active electrician and students to study engineering, who instruct the visitors in the bucket how to change the insulator on the pole. The active electrician also instructs some technical high school students in practical works at height. This new exhibit indicates the science museum positioned between companies and schools will make it possible to extend internship.

  16. Industrial discharges of metals in Kigali, Rwanda, and the impact on drinking water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gasana, J.; Twagilimana, L.; Hallenbeck, W.; Brenniman, G.

    1997-04-01

    Rwanda is a landlocked country located in Africa`s Central-East Great Lakes region. It has a population of 7.5 million which occupies 26,338 km{sup 2}. Its population density (285/km{sup 2}) is one of the highest in the world and has prompted fear of a rapid degradation of the ecosystem. There are no central sewer systems in Rwanda. The use of pit latrines and septic tanks is common in urban and rural areas. People still defecate in the fields. Less than half of the urban population is served by a central water supply. The majority of people get their water untreated from rivers that have been polluted by chemicals and human excreta. In and around the capital city of Kigali, there is a concentration of people, farms, and industries which discharge wastewater into the Nyabarongo River and its tributaries. The Nyabarongo River, a tributary of the Nile, empties into the Akagera River which flows into Lake Victoria. Nyabarongo River water is used for drinking water, cooking, bathing, and agriculture in the Kigali area. There has been very little monitoring of the water quality of the Nyabarongo River and of industrial outfalls located on tributaries of the Nyabarongo River. As a first step in understanding the water quality of the Nyabarongo River, wastewater samples were collected in 1993 from industrial outfalls located on tributaries of the Nyabarongo River. Most of the facilities sampled had no wastewater treatment. The impact of these discharges on the water quality of the Nyabarongo River was evaluated. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  17. A regulatory perspective on the radiological impact of NORM industries: the case of the Spanish phosphate industry.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Matarranz, J L M; Salas, R; Ramos, L

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical risks coexist in NORM industries although they are usually addressed separately by regulations. The European Union (EU) has developed extensive legislation concerning both matters, which has been diversely reflected in national policies. We consider the case of the Spanish phosphate industry and analyse to which extent regulatory mandates have reduced the historical and ongoing radiological impact on the environment of phosphate facilities. Although no specific radiological constraints on effluent monitoring and release or on waste disposal have yet been imposed on NORM industries in Spain, other environmental regulations have achieved a substantial reduction on the phosphate industry impact. Nevertheless, a more efficient control could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks in NORM industries. We highlight research needs to accomplish so and propose shorter-term measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved. PMID:20952107

  18. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mónica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Núbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernández, Leonardo J; Rossetti, María Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martínez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los Ángeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Frías, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26035705

  19. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  20. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. PMID:26696604

  1. Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

  2. Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

  3. Internal exposure to trace elements in non-smoking residents living in a northern Taiwan industrial city.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tser-Sheng; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2011-12-01

    A total of 94 (54 males, 40 females) healthy adult residents living in an industrial city in northern Taiwan were recruited to study their exposure to industrial metals by measuring their blood levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W. All participants were non-smokers without obvious direct occupational exposure to these elements, although by working in administrative sectors in industrial facilities their indirect or potential exposure was increased. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W in blood were 0.30, 1.49, 15.1, 3.84, 2.73, 21.1, 204, 3.2, 0.76, 51.1, and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. These values were significantly higher than reference values reported for the general population, in some cases exceeding those of occupationally exposed workers. The principal component and correlation analyses among blood element levels suggested that the predominant sources of exposure were glass manufacturing and traffic-related sources. Despite of some limitations, the study demonstrates that the residents in this industrial area may suffer adverse chronic health effects attributable to exposures to these elements. PMID:21409473

  4. Adaptation to urbanization impacts on drainage in the city of Hohhot, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qianqian; Ren, Yi; Xu, Miaomiao; Han, Nini; Wang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative assessment of urbanization effects on hydrological runoff and drainage network in the city of Hohhot, China. The evolution of urban spatial morphology for the historical years (1987-2010) and projected year (2020) is described by changes in geographic information system (GIS)-based land use maps and further represented in hydrological parameters in the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulation. The results show the levels of service of historical drainage were too low to have dominant impacts on flood risks, and hence a significant upward trend in catchment runoff response was observed over time. Comparisons with changes in system overloading indicate that the relative increase in flood risk is greatest at the early stage of urbanization with relatively low levels of development. The proposed adaptation measures based on a cost-effective optimal approach was found feasible to significantly improve the drainage performance and mitigate the increasing flooding impacts. PMID:26744948

  5. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

  6. [Impact of lead pollution in environment on children's health in Shenyang City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunmei; Ouyang, Hua; Wang, Jinda; Liu, Jingshuang; Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Yan

    2003-09-01

    In this thesis, based on field sampling and indoor integrated analysis with GIS technology, the impact of lead pollution in the atmosphere, dust, soil on the children was explored systemically. Results showed that, Lead exposure in environment was widely distributed and Lead pollution was serious in Shenyang city. The spatial variations of Lead, with four high content centers in the soil, dust and atmosphere, were distinct in all the environmental media. Moreover, there were daily, seasonal and annual variations in the atmosphere. The impact of lead pollution in environment on children health was serious in Shenyang city. The blood lead content of the children (ZPP > 2.3 mumol/L) with the age of 0-10 ranged from 10.98 to 511.2 micrograms/L, and the average of 135.59 micrograms/L. The blood content of 40% children was beyond the normal standard. And correlative degree of lead contents between in blood and in atmosphere was highest, secondly in soil, and last in dust. With the implication of non-lead gasoline the lead content in the atmosphere had declined greatly. Along with the flying dust, the lead in the soil and dust was likely to entering into the atmosphere to bring out potential pollution risk. PMID:14719254

  7. Impact of wildfires on the air quality of Mexico City, 1992-1999.

    PubMed

    Bravo, A H; Sosa, E R; Sánchez, A P; Jaimes, P M; Saavedra, R M I

    2002-01-01

    Wildfires in Mexico increased in 1998, compared to information for the last 6 years. The average number of wildfires in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) for this year (1998) were 58% (1916 events) more events than the 1992-1997 (average cases 1217 events). Mexico City affected area corresponds to 1.3% of the national affected area. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact on the particles air quality due to the wildfire emissions at the MCMA and surrounding areas. Using the corresponding US EPA emission factors for wildfires, the tons of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons emitted by this source for the MCMA case were obtained. The calculated emissions during wildfires were correlated with the levels of particles present in the atmosphere. A comparison of the concentration levels of particles, both as PM10 as well as TSP, were made for the years 1992-1998, during wet and dry season, being March, April, and May the critical months due to the presence of wildfires. A good correlation is observed between particulate wildfire emissions and particulate air quality, being stronger for TSP. A clear impact on the particles air quality due to the increase of wildfires in 1998, is observed when this year is compared with 1997, presenting an increment of 200-300% for some monitoring stations. PMID:11924549

  8. A simple model for factory distribution: Historical effect in an industry city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Morita, Satoru; Maeda, Yasunobu; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2016-02-01

    The construction and discontinuance processes of factories are complicated problems in sociology. We focus on the spatial and temporal changes of factories at Hamamatsu city in Japan. Real data indicate that the clumping degree of factories decreases as the density of factory increases. To represent the spatial and temporal changes of factories, we apply "contact process" which is one of cellular automata. This model roughly explains the dynamics of factory distribution. We also find "historical effect" in spatial distribution. Namely, the recent factories have been dispersed due to the past distribution during the period of economic bubble. This effect may be related to heavy shock in Japanese stock market.

  9. Potential radiological impact of the phosphate industry on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Sweeck, Lieve

    2015-03-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We performed a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of environmental contamination resulting from the activities of 5 phosphate fertiliser plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil), a phosphate-mine and a phosphate-export platform in a harbour (both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the availability of information on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. Assessments were generally performed considering highest environmental concentrations reported in the studies. The ERICA Tool, operating in a Tier 2 assessment mode, was used to predict radiation dose rates and associated risk to the selected reference organisms using the ERICA default parameter setting. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a best estimate risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is considered unlikely to be at risk and further radiological assessment is not deemed necessary. Except for one of the cases assessed, the best estimate RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. Internal exposure covered for 90-100 % of the total dose. (226)Ra or (210)Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertiliser plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goiás (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted to be potentially most at risk. PMID:25500062

  10. Market impact of selected industrial energy efficient technologies. Final report Jun 81-May 82

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Salama, S.; Kothari, V.S.

    1982-09-01

    This analysis is designed to assist the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in evaluating technologies within the Industrial Utilization (IU) program. The main focus of the study is to assess the market impacts of selected projects designed by GRI to improve industrial sector energy efficiency and reduce energy-related cost. Market impacts examined for GRI include the energy savings and consumer savings that could result from these industrial technologies sponsored by GRI.

  11. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2013-01-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase

  12. IMPACT OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS ON MESOSCALE PRECIPITATION QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from an 'acid rain' field study around the city of Philadelphia are presented. The study involved the sampling of wet deposition at a network of 40 sites within a distance of 60 km from the Delaware River. Emphasis was placed on event-type rain sampling of frontal and pri...

  13. Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme Temperatures in New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between temperature and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme temperatures on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily temperature from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average temperature 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of temperature from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.

  14. Industrialization study. [impact of government incentives and barriers on decision making in the industrial production of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The investment process in U.S. industries was studied in order to characterize the critical elements in major high risk investment decisions. Because motivation was determined to be the greatest single factor force in inducing a company to invest in a high risk venture, the relative impact of alternative government programs and policies on personal and financial motivations were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to ascertain the effect on these programs and policies on photovoltaic industrialization. The government alternatives are ranked on the basis of their ease of implementation and their probable effect. The recommended sequence in which government policies would be applied to maximize the industrialization of the photovoltaic venture is discussed.

  15. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  16. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  17. Assessing the impact of science communication in the development of resilient cities to extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicari, Rosa; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for new solutions to achieve urban resiliency to extreme weather. The research projects carried out by the HM&Co team (LEESU & Chair 'Hydrology for Resilient Cities' sponsored by Veolia) need to be supported by communication activities aimed to support community capacity building and cooperation between scientists and their partners and stakeholders. While outreach activities are becoming an integral part of many research projects on climate adaptation, their evaluation is scarce, rather optional, very limited. This work aims to develop quantitative and qualitative evaluation of science communication and to design corresponding assessment tools. It will be examined how evaluation can eventually improve the quality, efficiency and impact of communication activities in enhancing collaboration between scientists, professionals (e.g. water managers, urban planners) and beneficiaries (e.g. concerned citizens, policy makers). The research takes hold on several case studies on projects and programs aiming to increase the resiliency of cities to extreme weather: French projects and programmes such as RadX@IdF and Chair "Hydrology for a resilient city", European projects such as Climate KIC Blue Green Dream and Interreg NWE IVB RainGain and worldwide collaborations (e.g. TOMACS). The evaluation techniques and tools developed in the framework of this work are intended to become a useful support for engineers and researchers involved in projects on urban hydrology where resilience to extreme weather events relies also on effective communication processes between the above mentioned social actors. In particular, one of the purposes of this work is to highlight how auto-evaluation can improve on-going communication activities and create a virtuous circle of planning/implementation/evaluation. This research has links with those on the development of exploration techniques of the unstructured social big data

  18. Variability of Aerosol and its Impact on Cloud Properties Over Different Cities of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan

    Interaction between aerosols and clouds is the subject of considerable scientific research, due to the importance of clouds in controlling climate. Aerosols vary in time in space and can lead to variations in cloud microphysics. This paper is a pilot study to examine the temporal and spatial variation of aerosol particles and their impact on different cloud optical properties in the territory of Pakistan using the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite data and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) data. We also use Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for trajectory analysis to obtain origin of air masses in order to understand the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. We validate data of MODIS and MISR by using linear correlation and regression analysis, which shows that there is an excellent agreement between data of these instruments. Seasonal study of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) shows that maximum value is found in monsoon season (June-August) over all study areas. We analyze the relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and some cloud parameters like water vapor (WV), cloud fraction (CF), cloud top temperature (CTT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). We construct the regional correlation maps and time series plots for aerosol and cloud parameters mandatory for the better understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction. Our analyses show that there is a strong positive correlation between AOD and water vapor in all cities. The correlation between AOD and CF is positive for the cities where the air masses are moist while the correlation is negative for cities where air masses are relatively dry and with lower aerosol abundance. It shows that these correlations depend on meteorological conditions. Similarly as AOD increases Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) is decreasing while Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) is increasing. Key Words: MODIS, MISR, HYSPLIT, AOD, CF, CTP

  19. In search of some R and R: Industries, cities gravitate toward wastewater recycling, reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Nichele, V.B.

    1996-02-01

    Although its advantages are touted highly by experts, wastewater recycling is still a relatively new and complex issue for environmental managers. Industries increasingly are seeking cost-effective, efficient ways to recycle their wastewater rather than merely treat it, and, as such, are beginning to realize some long-term benefits because of improved production processes and conservation of limited resources.

  20. Industrial shifts, female employment, and occupational differentiation: a dynamic model for American cities, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Semyonov, M; Scott, R I

    1983-05-01

    Sex-linked occupational differentiation has been seen as influenced by both the industrial structure of the economy and the sex composition of the labor force. Here, with a sample of 70 SMSAs, it was found (a) that the odds of men relative to women of joining professional and managerial occupations increased between 1960 and 1970, and (b) that this increase was dependent on the growth of tertiary industries and the greater number of women joining the cash economy. The observed effect of industrial shifts on sex-occupational differentiation, however, is argued to be a spurious consequence of the gender-composition of the work force. Specifically, the development of tertiary industries generates greater demand for female labor. Intensive recruitment of women to the labor force in turn increases occupational differentiation because females, in sex-typed labor markets, are likely to be channeled in disproportionate numbers away from upper-status occupations. The findings demonstrate that traditional modernization theory is unable to account for this. However, the results lend support to expectations derived from a labor market sex-segmentation approach. PMID:6862060

  1. The impact of market volatility on the cell therapy industry.

    PubMed

    Brindley, David A; Reeve, Brock C; Sahlman, William A; Bonfiglio, Greg A; Davie, Natasha L; Culme-Seymour, Emily J; Mason, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Stock market volatility in the cell therapy industry has greatly hindered the investment necessary to fund translational therapies. Here, we review the volatility of leading companies and suggest that a distinct industry is maturing to a point at which the volatility should subside, providing a more attractive environment for future growth. PMID:22056137

  2. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  3. Mössbauer study of contaminated soils by industrial activity in Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Angel; Fabián, Julio; De Los Santos, Luis; Barnes, C. H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    In this work we characterize soils from the Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces in Peru, which are contaminated by residual chemicals (Br, As and Sr) from sugar and paper industry in the city. Four samples were collected, labelled as S1, S2, S3 and S4 and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. For all the samples, the chemical analysis by EDXRF revealed the presence of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, K, Br, Sr. The XRD detected the presence of quartz as principal phase and copper sulfide and potassium magnesium as secondary phases. The Mössbauer spectra at room temperature (RT) for all the samples exhibit sextets which reveal the presence of an iron oxide or hydroxide. The fitting Mössbauer for both samples S1 and S4 have three doublets corresponding to iron in paramagnetic phases and a magnetic component of around 35.50 T corresponding to goethite, α-FeOOH. Sample S2 have two magnetic phases with internal fields of 37 T and 34.6 T which correspond to the goethite and other incorporated element in the structure. The sample S3 have three magnetic fields of H1 = 36.8 T, H2 = 33.6 T and H3 = 34.8 T which correspond to hydroxide iron, pyrrhotite and goethite respectively.

  4. Impact of different urban structures on the microclimate in the city of Dresden, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbjuhn, Cornelia; Goldberg, Valeri; Westbeld, Anna; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Heat island intensity of cities and, therefore, urban warming mainly depends on the density of urban structures and sealing of urban areas. Against the background of a probable increase of summer temperature in Central Europe, actual urban planning strategies should consider the importance of open areas and vegetation in the centre of cities for the urban microclimate. This study deals with the interaction between open areas and vegetation structures in the urban micro climate of Dresden. Investigations are embedded in the project "city nature and open area structures under climate change" of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation which aims to demonstrate impacts of different urban structures based on climatic factors and to identify their capability for adaptation. Main topic of this research is the determination of the capabilities of given and potentially vegetated areas and open areas in the inner city of Dresden to attenuate microclimatic extremes. The diversity of impacts of vegetated and open areas on the urban microclimate is presented by mobile bicycle measurements and model simulations. Simulations were carried out with the coupled vegetation-boundary layer model HIRVAC-2D and the three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met. Model output was compared to measurements of air temperature and air humidity on sunny days in the year 2009 to quantify cooling effects of vegetated areas for summer heat periods. ENVI-met is designed to simulate the surface-plant-atmosphere interactions in urban environment and allows the derivation of bioclimatic factors like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) for different urban structures. PMV describes the thermal perception of a human body which can result in cold or heat stress. Simulations with ENVI-met were carried out to define the cooling effects of urban areas and to estimate microclimate effects on humans. HIRVAC quantifies the interactions of urban structures with the atmospheric boundary layer depending on area

  5. Multimedia fate and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking industry city in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Xia, Z H; Liu, D; Qiu, W X; Duan, X L; Wang, R; Liu, W J; Zhang, Y H; Wang, D; Tao, S; Liu, W X

    2013-10-01

    A steady state Level III fate model was established and applied to quantify source-receptor relationship in a coking industry city in Northern China. The local emission inventory of PAHs, as the model input, was acquired based on energy consumption and emission factors. The model estimations were validated by measured data and indicated remarkable variations in the paired isomeric ratios. When a rectification factor, based on the receptor-to-source ratio, was calculated by the fate model, the quantitatively verified molecular diagnostic ratios provided reasonable results of local PAH emission sources. Due to the local ban and measures on small scale coking activities implemented from the beginning of 2004, the model calculations indicated that the local emission amount of PAHs in 2009 decreased considerably compared to that in 2003. PMID:23845769

  6. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  7. Sources of halogenated brominated retardants in house dust in an industrial city in southern China and associated human exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441 ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869 ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs. PMID:25282276

  8. The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).

    PubMed

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  9. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Delle Monache, L; Stull, R

    2008-02-25

    With the worlds population becoming increasingly focused on coastal locations there is a need to better understand the interactions between anthropogenic emissions and marine atmospheres. Herein an atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. It is shown that the model can reasonably represent the average features of the gas phase and particle climate relative to in situ measurements. It is further demonstrated that reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate, but that the importance of these heterogeneous reactions is critically dependent on both the initial vertical profile of sea spray and the sea-spray source functions. The results emphasize the need for improved understanding of sea spray production and dispersion and further that model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield mis-leading results in terms of emission sensitivities of particle composition and concentrations. PMID:18061242

  10. The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  11. Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday variations on NO2 columns above North American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, Benjamin; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been estimating NO2 columns from space for over 10 years, and these have been used to estimate emissions and emission trends for point and area sources all over the world. In this study we evaluate the trends in NO2 columns over 54 cities in the USA and Canada to identify the long term trends due to air quality policies, the impact of the Great Recession, and the weekday-weekend effect. A multiple linear regression model is used to fit annual, seasonal and weekly factors for individual swath retrievals along with the impact of temperature, wind speed and pixel size. For most cities, the correlation coefficients of the model fit ranges from 0.47 to 0.76. There have been strong reductions in NO2 columns, with annual decreases of up to 7% per year in most cities. During the years of the Great Recession, NO2 columns were as much as 30% lower than they would have been had they followed the linear annual trend. The analysis yielded insights into the timing of the reductions, with some cities in the northwest and in the east experiencing reductions in 2008 already, and most areas back to where they would have been based on the uniform trend by 2011. The analysis also finds that reductions in columns during the weekend vary significantly from city to city, with a range in reductions of 10%-30% on Saturdays, and 20%-50% on Sundays.

  12. Mutagenic and genotoxic potential of native air borne particulate matter from industrial area of Rourkela city, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Durgesh Nandini; Sinha, Niharika; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Sarangi, Itisam; Bhutia, Sujit K

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined potential adverse health effect of particulate matter (PM) collected from industrial areas of Rourkela, Odisha, India. Results indicate that PM in these areas contains benzo[a]pyrene in addition to other unidentified molecules. Ames test revealed the above PM to be highly mutagenic. Further studies of PM in HaCaT cells suggest its DNA damaging potential which may lead to apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following PM exposure may be an early event in the PM induced apoptosis. In addition, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the key xenobiotic metabolism enzyme, was found to be increased following PM exposure indicating its role in PM induced toxicity. To confirm this, we used genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of CYP450 like CYP1B1 siRNA and Clotrimazole. Interestingly, we found that the use of these inhibitors significantly suppressed the PM induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, which confirm the crucial role of CYP1B1 in the toxic manifestation of PM. For further analysis, blood samples were collected from the volunteer donor and analyzed for immunophenotypes and comet assay to survey any change in immune cells and DNA damage in blood cells respectively. The study was performed with 55 blood samples including 32 from industrial areas and 23 people from non-industrial zone of Rourkela city. Samples had a mean±SD age of 35±6.2years (35 men and 20 women). Our investigation did not observe any significant alteration in lymphocytes (P=0.671), B cell (P=0.104), cytotoxic T cell (P=0.512), helper T cell (P=0.396), NK cell (P=0.675) and monocytes (P=0.170) of blood cells from these two groups. Taken together; this study first time reports the possible health hazards of PM from industrial areas of Odisha, India. PMID:27458701

  13. [Environmental impact of a public hospital in the city of Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Bambarén-Alatrista, Celso; Alatrista-Gutiérrez de Bambarén, María del Socorro

    2014-01-01

    The operation of hospitals produces negative effects on the environment which contributes to air pollution and climate change. The institution in this study is a category III health care facility located in the city of Lima. It generates 4.89 kg/bed/day of solid waste, and consumes 1.36 m3/bed/day of water; 25.22 kWh/bed/day of electricity, and 2.76 liters/bed/day of fuel. The level of PM10 and measured parameters of disposal to the public network are within legal limits, while mobile source noise exceeds the maximum allowable limit. The institution releases into the atmosphere 2,291 tons of CO2 equivalents per year. In conclusion, the institution studied generates a negative impact on the environment. PMID:25597723

  14. Immediate impact of Hurricane Sandy on people who inject drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Enrique R.; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the 8 months following Hurricane Sandy, of October 2012, we interviewed 300 people who inject drugs in New York City. During the week after the storm 28% rescued others or volunteered with aid groups; 60% experienced withdrawal; 27% shared drug injection or preparation equipment or injected with people they normally would not inject with; 70% of those in opioid maintenance therapy could not obtain sufficient doses; and 43% of HIV-positive participants missed HIV medication doses. Though relatively brief, a hurricane can be viewed as a Big Event that can alter drug environments and behaviors, and may have lasting impact. The study’s limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:25775259

  15. One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    consequences for urban residents. Public health impacts are assessed as the proportion of heat-related regional mortality estimated to be attributable to New York City's heat island effect during an average 1990's summer. Concentration-response functions describing the temperature-mortality relationship in NYC derived from the epidemiological literature are used to estimate numbers of deaths in a typical 1990s summer and those attributable to the city's heat island effect. The techniques and potential public health benefits of a pilot project to mitigate the heat island effect in NYC will be discussed.

  16. Wyoming's industrial siting permit process and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of management of industrial residuals can be reduced through a rational system for siting and planning major industrial facilities. In the United States, Wyoming has moved in the direction of establishing a one-stop permitting system that provides important information for air and water quality planning and solid waste management with a minimum of regulatory overlap. This paper describes Wyoming's Industrial Development Information and Siting Act of 1975 and suggests ways in which the Wyoming permitting system can be improved and applied elsewhere.

  17. Impact of Shanghai urban land surface forcing on downstream city ozone chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Zhu, Tong; Su, Jifeng; Hou, Xuewei; Gao, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    The urban land surface has a significant impact on local urban heat island effects and air quality. In addition, it influences the atmospheric conditions and air quality in the downwind cities. In this study, the impact of Shanghai urban land surface forcing on weather conditions and air quality over Kunshan was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with a multilayer urban canopy model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Two simulations were conducted to identify the impact of upstream effects with and without upstream urban land surfaces in control and sensitivity experiments. The results show that the near-surface temperature and boundary layer height over Kunshan increased significantly with the appearance of the upstream urban land surface. Horizontal transport of O3 and its precursors, from Shanghai to Kunshan, are suppressed in the lower boundary layer but are strengthened in the upper boundary layer because of strong urban heat island circulation. As a result, O3 chemical production is decreased in the lower boundary layer of Kunshan but is increased in the upper boundary layer. On average, daytime O3 concentrations over Kunshan are decreased by approximately 2 ppbv in the lower boundary layer but are increased by as much as 40 ppbv in the upper air.

  18. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to analyze the impact on a given population's health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG)). Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3) was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3) would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects. PMID:27594794

  19. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to analyze the impact on a given population's health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m(3), and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m(3) (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG)). Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m(3)) was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m(3) would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m(3)) would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects. PMID:27594794

  20. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  1. Environmental impacts of antibiotic use in the animal production industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are routinely used in the livestock industry to treat and prevent disease. At subtherapeutic concentrations, antibiotics can select for resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of production animals, providing a potential reservoir for dissemination of drug resistant bacteria int...

  2. Future anthropogenic pollutant emissions in a Mediterranean port city with emphasis on the maritime sector emissions - Study of the impact on the city air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Markakis, Konstantinos; Giannaros, Theodoros; Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Melas, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of the future emissions in the area of the large urban center of Thessaloniki (Greece) with emphasis on the emissions originated from the maritime sector within the port area of the city which are presented in detail. In addition, the contribution of the future anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric pollution levels in Thessaloniki focusing on PM levels is studied. A 2km spatial resolution anthropogenic gaseous and particulate matter emission inventory has been compiled for the port city of Thessaloniki for the year 2010 with the anthropogenic emission model MOSESS, developed by Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. MOSESS was used for the estimation of emissions from several emission sources (road transport, central heating, industries, maritime sector etc) while the natural emission model NEMO was implemented for the calculation of dust, sea salt and biogenic emissions. Maritime emissions originated from the various processes inside the area of the port (harbor operations such as stockpiles, loading/unloading operations, machineries etc) as well as from the maritime transport sector including passenger ships, cargo shipping, inland waterways vessels (e.g. pleasure crafts) and fish catching ships. Ship emissions were estimated for the three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by local and national authorities (e.g.Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A.). Pollutant anthropogenic emissions were projected to the year 2020. The emissions from all the anthropogenic sources except for the maritime sector were projected using factors provided by the GAINS model. Future emissions from the maritime activities were estimated on the basis of the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and of the legislation for shipping in the future. Future maritime emissions are determined by the vessels

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  4. Characterization of leaf-level particulate matter for an industrial city using electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sgrigna, G; Baldacchini, C; Esposito, R; Calandrelli, R; Tiwary, A; Calfapietra, C

    2016-04-01

    This study reports application of monitoring and characterization protocol for particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves, using Quercus ilex as a case study species. The study area is located in the industrial city of Terni in central Italy, with high PM concentrations. Four trees were selected as representative of distinct pollution environments based on their proximity to a steel factory and a street. Wash off from leaves onto cellulose filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inferring the associations between particle sizes, chemical composition, and sampling location. Modeling of particle size distributions showed a tri-modal fingerprint, with the three modes centered at 0.6 (factory related), 1.2 (urban background), and 2.6μm (traffic related). Chemical detection identified 23 elements abundant in the PM samples. Principal component analysis recognized iron and copper as source-specific PM markers, attributed mainly to industrial and heavy traffic pollution respectively. Upscaling these results on leaf area basis provided a useful indicator for strategic evaluation of harmful PM pollutants using tree leaves. PMID:26802337

  5. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Elbagermi, M. A.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Alajtal, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011–May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

  6. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from a multi-industrial city, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    We collected soil samples at 25 sites in Ulsan, Korea to investigate the levels, patterns, spatial distribution, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the summer 2010. The target compounds were the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs. For the source identification of PAHs, diagnostic ratios and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were used. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 65 ng/g to 12,000 ng/g (mean: 960 ng/g, median 330 ng/g). The levels and distribution of PAHs indicated that industrial areas were more polluted than rural and urban areas. The diagnostic ratios suggested that the soil samples were contaminated by pyrogenic sources and traffic emission. According to the result of PMF, four factors were identified: gasoline and heavy oil combustion (14%), diesel combustion (54%), coke oven (23%), and coal/biomass burning (9%). Therefore, it was concluded that vehicles and industrial complexes were major sources of PAHs in Ulsan. PMID:24011990

  8. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.

    2012-09-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  9. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  10. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Distribution of Subterranean Termite Colonies (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of Hurricane Katrina on the distribution of subterranean termites in City Park, New Orleans, LA was determined in four sections of the park where termite activity had been continuously monitored since 2002. Monitoring stations were checked on a monthly basis. Twelve distinct C. formosanu...

  11. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Tivanski, Alexei V; Gilles, Marry K; Wang, Yan A; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, Luisa T; Abraham, Rodrigo G; Johnson, Kirsten S; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A

    2008-10-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Soils and their Health Risk and Hazard in an Industrial City in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhupander; Verma, Virendra Kumar; Singh, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Akolkar, Avinash B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic health effects. Background Residential soil from Korba, India, was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction procedure, cleaned on modified silica and quantified for PCBs. Soil ingestion was considered as the main exposure pathways of life-long intake of PCBs. Human health risk in terms of life time average daily dose, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated using established guidelines. Background The estimated average ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–8 and 1.1×10–7, respectively. ILCR from dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10–6 and 1.1×10–5, respectively. The HQ for PCBs was 6.3×10–4 and 2.2×10–3, respectively for human adults and children. Study observed that ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs was lower than acceptable guideline range of 10–6-10–4, and ILCR from dioxin like PCBs was within the limit. HQ was lower than safe limit of 1. Background Study concluded that human population residing in Korba had low health risk due to PCBs in residential soils. Significance for public health The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils from an industrial city in India were measured for the assessment of human health risk. PCBs composition profiles were dominated with tri-chlorinated and tetra-chlorinated biphenyls. The possible sources of PCBs contamination can be attributed to local industrial

  13. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  14. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris & lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-12-31

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels.

  15. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  16. Impacts of Urban Economic Factors on Private Tutoring Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Park, Daekwon

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates both supply (the number of employees in the PT industry and the number of PT institutions) and demand (the number of middle and high school students, grade 7-12). Panel data are used for this research, making it possible to analyze market growth over time since it contains both cross-sectional and time-series information.…

  17. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  18. The Impact of Industrial Robots on the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1986-01-01

    Despite falling prices and more varied applications, the diffusion of industrial robots is taking place at a slower pace than expected. There are not only technical snags but also social barriers to be overcome--displacement of workers, deskilling of certain operations, and changes in work methods. (Author/CT)

  19. The Economic Impact of Vermont's Child Care Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report documents the relationship between the supply of reliable, affordable, accessible child care and the health of Vermont's economy. The child care industry is a growing part of the Vermont economy, pumping money into local communities by supporting working families, creating jobs, and generating taxes through employment and the purchase…

  20. Environmental impact of new feeding choices in the feedlot industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feedlot industry is adapting to an economic environment that has fundamentally changed because of high corn prices. Developing strategies to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and reduce costs are important. Uses of agricultural commodity products for alternative fuels are rapidly incr...

  1. The impact of heat, cold, and heat waves on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Although the impact of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat waves and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5 % (95 % confidence interval 0.7, 8.5 %) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2 %), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5 %), and 53.6 % (9.8, 114.9 %) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat waves compared with nonheat wave days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.

  2. Impact of Computers on Electrical Engineering Education--A View from Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Commission on Education.

    A two-day conference was held in 1969 with industrial representatives and COSINE members to examine the impact that computer technology has had upon the practice of engineering in industry and to assess the meaning of these changes upon the structure of electrical engineering education. The major conclusions and recommendations of the meeting may…

  3. Monitoring of Cd pollution in soils and plants irrigated with untreated sewage water in some industrialized cities of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V; Sidhu, S S

    2009-07-01

    The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils in excessive quantities on long term use and enter the food chain through absorption by the plants. Among the trace metals, Cd has received the greater attention because of its easy absorption and accumulation in plants and animals to levels toxic for their health. The objective of this study conducted in three industrially different cities viz., Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla was to monitor the extent of Cd accumulation in soils and plants receiving untreated sewage water. Plant and soil samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated areas. Soil samples were analysed for texture, pH, EC, organic carbon (OC), CaCO(3), bioavailable DTPA-Cd and plant samples were analysed for total Cd. In sewage irrigated soils, the mean values of pH were lower but organic carbon and electrical conductivity were generally higher both in surface and sub-surface layers of all the three cities as compared to tubewell irrigated soils. The mean DTPA- extractable Cd in sewage irrigated soil was 6.3- and 4.36-fold in Ludhiana, 3.38- and 1.71-fold in Jalandhar and 3.35- and 6.67-fold in Malerkotla in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively, compared with the values in tubewell irrigated soils. The accumulation of DTPA-Cd in sewage irrigated soils was restricted to 30 cm depth after which the values were generally close to values in tubewell irrigated soils. Soil pH, OC, CaCO(3), clay and silt collectively accounted for 37.1%, 65.1% and 53.9% DTPA-extractable bioavailable Cd in soils of Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Lower R(2) values in Ludhiana suggest that factors other than the ones

  4. Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students

  5. Black carbon (BC) of urban topsoil of steel industrial city (Anshan), Northeastern China: Concentration, source identification and environmental implication.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2016-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) concentrations in urban topsoils and vertical profiles from steel industrial city, Anshan, Northeastern China, were determined. A total of 115 topsoil samples and 4 soil profiles were collected, in which the BC concentrations were determined using chemical oxidation technique. The BC concentrations in urban topsoils are in the range of 1.86 to 246.46gkg(-1) with an average of 33.86gkg(-1). Both BC and TC concentrations decrease sharply with soil depth, whereas BC/TC ratio shows a little variation with depth. The spatial distribution of BC in urban topsoils reveals that the BC concentration is much higher in the northern part of the city, which is consistent with the steel production. The distribution factors (DF) of BC are the highest in 1000-500 and 500-250μm size fractions, while the lowest in 50-2μm fraction. The mass loading of BC in 250-50 and 50-2μm size fractions accounts for 76.2% of bulk soil, indicating these two size fractions responsible for BC accumulation in soils. Enrichment factor (EF) of BC in urban topsoils ranges from 0.92 to 122.01 with an average of 16.76, indicating that the urban topsoils studied are moderately or severely accumulated by the BC. Strong correlation is found between BC and pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals, indicating the possibility of similar sources of BC and heavy metals in soils. The BC/TC ratio in soils ranges from 0.45 to 0.97, with an average of 0.75. The BC/TC ratio shows the mixed sources of BC derived from fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions. The BC concentration and BC/TC ratio may reflect the degree of industrial activities and pollution sources in urban soils. The study demonstrated that BC is an effective indicator of degree and "hotspots" of heavy metals pollution in urban soils. PMID:27450257

  6. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  7. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  8. Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Impact of Nuchik, Inc. Poultry Processing Plant on the City of Artesia and the Artesia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brian

    The city of Artesia (New Mexico) was considering the issuance of $210 million in industrial revenue bonds (IRB) for construction of a new poultry processing plant 5 miles west of Artesia in Eddy County. Since property financed with IRB is exempt from all state and local property taxes for the life of the bonds, the city of Artesia requested an…

  9. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  10. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing. PMID:18713478

  11. Application of microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for environmental monitoring of industrially contaminated sites in Hyderabad city.

    PubMed

    Kamala C T; Balaram V; Dharmendra V; Satyanarayanan M; Subramanyam K S V; Krishnaiah A

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) represents yet another and very important addition to the existing array of modern instrumental analytical techniques. In this study, an attempt is made to summarize the performance characteristics of MP-AES and its potential as an analytical tool for environmental studies with some practical examples from Patancheru and Uppal industrial sectors of Hyderabad city. A range of soil, sediment, water reference materials, particulate matter, and real-life samples were chosen to evaluate the performance of this new analytical technique. Analytical wavelengths were selected considering the interference effects of other concomitant elements present in different sample solutions. The detection limits for several elements were found to be in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/g. The trace metals analyzed in both the sectors followed the topography with more pollution in the low-lying sites. The metal contents were found to be more in ground waters than surface waters. Since a decade, the pollutants are transfered from Patancheru industrial area to Musi River. After polluting Nakkavagu and turning huge tracts of agricultural lands barren besides making people residing along the rivulet impotent and sick, industrialists of Patancheru are shifting the effluents to downstream of Musi River through an 18-km pipeline from Patancheru. Since the effluent undergoes primary treatment at Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Patanchru and travels through pipeline and mixes with sewage, the organic effluents will be diluted. But the inorganic pollutants such as heavy and toxic metals tend to accumulate in the environmental segments near and downstreams of Musi River. The data generated by MP-AES of toxic metals like Zn, Cu, and Cr in the ground and surface waters can only be attributed to pollution from Patancheru since no other sources are available to Musi River. PMID:25086712

  12. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2013-10-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels from technological

  13. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  14. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    relationship to other standards from the fields of computer graphics and computer-aided architectural design and to the prospective INSPIRE model are discussed, as well as the impact CityGML has and is having on the software industry, on applications of 3D city models, and on science generally.

  15. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  16. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash burning. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash burning and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash burning contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the

  17. Health Impact in New York City During the Northeastern Blackout of 2003

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shao; Fletcher, Barbara A.; Luo, Ming; Chinery, Robert; Hwang, Syni-An

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the health effects of the 2003 Northeastern blackout, the largest one in history, on mortality and hospital admissions due to respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases in New York City (NYC), and compared the disease patterns and sociodemographic profiles of cases during the blackout with those on control days. Method We investigated the effects of the blackout on health using incidence rate ratios to compare the disease on blackout days (August 14 and 15, 2003) with those on normal and comparably hot days (controls). Normal days were defined as summer days (June–August) between the 25th and 75th percentiles of maximum temperature during 1991–2004. Comparably hot days were days with maximum temperatures in the same range as that of the blackout days. We evaluated the interactive effects of demographics and the blackout using a case-only design. Results We found that mortality and respiratory hospital admissions in NYC increased significantly (two- to eightfold) during the blackout, but cardiovascular and renal hospitalizations did not. The most striking increases occurred among elderly, female, and chronic bronchitis admissions. We identified stronger effects during the blackout than on comparably hot days. In contrast to the pattern observed for comparably hot days, higher socioeconomic status groups were more likely to be hospitalized during the blackout. Conclusions This study suggests that power outages may have important health impacts, even stronger than the effects of heat alone. The findings provide some direction for future emergency planning and public health preparedness. PMID:21553667

  18. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  19. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  20. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  1. Impact of land use on solar industrial process heat for the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casamajor, A.B.

    1980-10-02

    A solar land use study of 1330 food processing plants located in the far-western United States (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington) has been conducted. Based upon estimates of each plant's annual energy consumption of process heat, derived from: annual sales figures, employment, and total energy consumption for that plant's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) group; and the available surface area at each plant, determined by a site inspection, an assessment of each plant's potential for solar energy was made. Those industries having the highest potential for applying solar energy to their process heat loads include: fruit and vegetable packing, sugar refining, meat packing, wine and brandy, bread, and dairy products. It has been further determined that about 25% of the energy used for food processing in the study area can be supplied by solar if all of the available surface area at and adjacent to these plants is devoted to solar collectors.

  2. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  3. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  4. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms and magnitude of the contribution of fires to ozone (O3) production is poorly understood. In this work we investigate the influence of fire on O3 abundances over the contiguous United States. Using co-located observations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We then compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each O3 monitor. We observe that the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days. The magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 0 to 37 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). We find that smoke is present on a non-negligible proportion of days when the 8-hour average O3 mixing ratio exceeds the EPA limit of 75 ppbv in regions and locations with significant O3 issues, including the Northeast urban corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedence days when they are held against a more stringent limit of 65 ppbv for an 8-hour average. We show that smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in U.S. cities with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX).

  5. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-02-10

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

  6. A toxicological study of inhalable particulates in an industrial region of Lanzhou City, northwestern China: Results from plasmid scission assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhenghui; Shao, Longyi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jing; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Deng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhen; BéruBé, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    The city of Lanzhou in northwestern China experiences serious air pollution episodes in the form of PM10 that is characterized by having high levels of heavy metals. The Xigu District represents the industrial core area of Lanzhou City and is denoted by having the largest petrochemical bases in western China. This study investigates heavy metal compositions and oxidative potential of airborne PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less) collected in Xigu District in the summer and winter of 2010. An in vitro plasmid scission assay (PSA) was employed to study the oxidative potential of airborne PM10 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine heavy metal compositions. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX) was used to investigate elemental compositions and mixing states of PM10. The average mass concentrations of PM10 collected in Xigu District were generally higher than the national standard for daily PM10 (150 μg/m3). Cr, Zn, Pb and Mn were the most abundant metals in the intact whole particles of PM10. Zn, Mn and As was the most abundant metal in the water-soluble fraction, while Cr, Pb, and V existed primarily in insoluble forms. TD20 values (i.e. toxic dosage of PM10 causing 20% of plasmid DNA damage) varied considerably in both winter and summer (from 19 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL) but were typically higher in summer, suggesting that the winter PM10 exhibited greater bioreactivity. In addition, the PM10 collected during a dust storm episode had a highest TD20 value and thus the least oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA, while the particles collected on a hazy day had a lowest TD20 value and thus the highest oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA. The particles collected on the first day after snow fall and on a day of cold air intrusion exhibited minor oxidative potential (i.e. caused limited DNA damage). The water-soluble Zn, Mn, As, and

  7. Education in Jersey City: An Assessment of the Impact of Robinson V. Cahill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Earl Preston

    Despite the New Jersey Public School Education Act of 1975, Jersey City remains one of the poorest municipalities in New Jersey in terms of per capita property wealth, and this is having a negative effect on its educational system. Even though the new law increased State aid to public education, conditions in Jersey City have worsened. Educational…

  8. Service and the City: Impacting First-Year Students via Town and Gown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiselt, April K.

    2011-01-01

    First-year students typically come to college with little knowledge about the city they will call home. Universities can unite with their local communities to provide opportunities for student involvement while giving students a chance to learn what their city has to offer. Learning outcomes from a Mississippi State University first-year…

  9. A method to estimate the environmental impact of an electric city car during six months of testing in an Italian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donateo, T.; Ingrosso, F.; Licci, F.; Laforgia, D.

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation describes the results of a research project (P.R.I.M.E.) aimed at testing the performance and the environmental impact of an electric city car in Italian cities. The vehicle considered in the project is the Daimler AG Smart ForTwo Electric Drive. A Smart ED vehicle was tested at the University of Salento for six months over different driving conditions (routes, traffic, use of auxiliaries). A data acquisition system has been designed on purpose and assembled on board to provide information about driving cycle and energy flows. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during recharges due to the battery cooling system. The experimental tests were used to identify the average, minimum and maximum consumption of electricity in the Smart ED in Lecce according to driving conditions and in particular according to the usage of auxiliaries. The measured data of electric consumption have been used to quantify the emissions of CO2 and pollution of the vehicle using information about the Italian electricity production mix of each recharging event and the emissions factors of the Italian power plants with an innovative and comprehensive methodology.

  10. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  11. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    observations. The interannual variability and spatial distribution of NOx emissions are consistent with NO2 vertical column density measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). In particular, the Nanjing city-scale emission inventory correlates better with satellite observations than the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) does when emissions from power plants are excluded. This indicates improvement in emission estimation for sectors other than power generation, notably industry and transportation. A high-resolution emission inventory may also provide a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations. To further improve emission estimation and evaluation, more measurements of both emission factors and ambient levels of given pollutants are suggested; the uncertainties of emission inventories at city scale should also be fully quantified and compared with those at national scale.

  12. Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world's large cities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Weber, Katherine F; Padowski, Julie; Boucher, Tim; Shemie, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Urban water systems are impacted by land use within their source watersheds, as it affects raw water quality and thus the costs of water treatment. However, global estimates of the effect of land cover change on urban water-treatment costs have been hampered by a lack of global information on urban source watersheds. Here, we use a unique map of the urban source watersheds for 309 large cities (population > 750,000), combined with long-term data on anthropogenic land-use change in their source watersheds and data on water-treatment costs. We show that anthropogenic activity is highly correlated with sediment and nutrient pollution levels, which is in turn highly correlated with treatment costs. Over our study period (1900-2005), median population density has increased by a factor of 5.4 in urban source watersheds, whereas ranching and cropland use have increased by a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively. Nearly all (90%) of urban source watersheds have had some level of watershed degradation, with the average pollutant yield of urban source watersheds increasing by 40% for sediment, 47% for phosphorus, and 119% for nitrogen. We estimate the degradation of watersheds over our study period has impacted treatment costs for 29% of cities globally, with operation and maintenance costs for impacted cities increasing on average by 53 ± 5% and replacement capital costs increasing by 44 ± 14%. We discuss why this widespread degradation might be occurring, and strategies cities have used to slow natural land cover loss. PMID:27457941

  13. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  14. Natural hazard impact on the infrastructure in large cities: the case study of Moscow and St.Petersburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    According to all forecasts, the severity of natural hazard impact on the cities of Russia is expected to increase in coming years and decades due to climate changes, on the one hand, and due to many social, economic and technical causes that reduce their protection and increase vulnerability, on the other hand. In particular, the frequency and severity of various natural-technological accidents will multiply. The highest damage from natural hazard impact will affect large densely populated cities with many technologically sophisticated objects, especially with dangerous ones. Moscow and St.Petersburg have the highest number of natural-technological accidents among all Russian cities. Moscow is prone to influence of various natural hazards such as strong winds, floods, landslides, karst, heavy rainfalls and snowfalls, heatwave, wild fires, storms and lightning, and others. These natural hazards cause many traffic accidents and disruptions in transportation, blackouts, breakdowns of communication lines, collapses of buildings, etc. The climatic and topographic conditions of St.Petersburg contribute to manifestation of many natural hazard types such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena occur the most often among them; more than 50 per cent are caused by storms and strong winds and about 25 per cent by floods. This situation can have serious consequences because a nuclear power plant and many chemical plants and other dangerous objects are located in this region. Power failures and transportation problems are the most frequent among all natural-technological accidents in St.Petersburg. The statistical analysis of data about natural-technological accidents in both large Russian cities have been done using information collected in data base that was created by author. Power lines and other infrastructure objects are especially vulrerable to the impacts of natural hazards both in Moscow

  15. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy. PMID:26763316

  16. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    DOWNEY, LIAM; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the U.S. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities. PMID:16259150

  17. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world's main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region's "phosphorus footprint" - the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident's annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  18. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City

    PubMed Central

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  19. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  20. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    PubMed

    Brey, Steven J; Fischer, Emily V

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influence of smoke on ozone (O3) abundances over the contiguous United States. Using colocated observations of particulate matter and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each monitor, while controlling for temperature. This analysis shows that (i) the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days, and (ii) the magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 3 to 36 ppbv. For each site, we present the percentage of days when the 8-h average O3 mixing ratio (MDA8) exceeds 75 ppbv and smoke is present. Smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in locations with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides. The Northeast corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City stand out as having smoke present 10-20% of the days when 8-h average O3 mixing ratios exceed 75 ppbv. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedance days when they are held against the new MDA8 limit of 70 ppbv. PMID:26720416

  1. Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

    2010-05-01

    The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 μg m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary

  2. Evaluating the Impact of the Healthy Beverage Executive Order for City Agencies in Boston, Massachusetts, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Erica L.; McHugh, Anne; Conley, Lisa; Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Reiner, Jennifer F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with negative health effects. Access to healthy beverages may be promoted by policies such as the Healthy Beverage Executive Order (HBEO) established by former Boston mayor Thomas M. Menino, which directed city departments to eliminate the sale of SSBs on city property. Implementation consisted of “traffic-light signage” and educational materials at point of purchase. This study evaluates the impact of the HBEO on changes in beverage availability. Methods Researchers collected data on price, brand, and size of beverages for sale in spring 2011 (899 beverage slots) and for sale in spring 2013, two years after HBEO implementation (836 beverage slots) at access points (n = 31) at city agency locations in Boston. Nutrient data, including calories and sugar content, from manufacturer websites were used to determine HBEO beverage traffic-light classification category. We used paired t tests to examine change in average calories and sugar content of beverages and the proportion of beverages by traffic-light classification at access points before and after HBEO implementation. Results Average beverage sugar grams and calories at access points decreased (sugar, −13.1 g; calories, −48.6 kcal; p<.001) following the implementation of the HBEO. The average proportion of high-sugar (“red”) beverages available per access point declined (−27.8%, p<.001). Beverage prices did not change over time. City agencies were significantly more likely to sell only low-sugar beverages after the HBEO was implemented (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 1.49–16.0). Discussion Policies such as the HBEO can promote community-wide changes that make healthier beverage options more accessible on city-owned properties. PMID:26355828

  3. The New Publishing: Technology's Impact on the Publishing Industry over the Next Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Gregory J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on the products, revenue sources, and distribution channels of the publishing industry over the next decade. Highlights include electronic books and copy protection; copyright; advantages of electronic books to users, libraries, and publishers; retailing schemes; changes in education; subscription publishing;…

  4. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  5. The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

  6. Intensification of University-Industry Relationships and Its Impact on Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Dridi, Houssine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the intensification of university-industry relationships and its impact on university research. The paper consists of recent follow-up research to an international comparative research project conducted in the 1990s. It deals specifically with the Quebec (Canada) situation. Twenty-eight in-depth interviews were conducted in the…

  7. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

  8. Source identification and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils of Changsha, a mine-impacted city in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Li, Lei; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The urban soils suffered seriously from heavy metal pollutions with rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. In this study, 54 urban soil samples were collected from Changsha, a mine-impacted city located in Southern China. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The pollution sources of heavy metals were discriminated and identified by the combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. Four main sources were identified according to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and spatial distribution patterns. Co and Mn were primarily derived from soil parent material. Cu, Pb, and Zn with significant positive relationships were associated with mining activities and traffic emissions. Cd and Ni might be affected by commercial activities and industrial discharges. As isolated into a single group was considered to have correlation with coal combustion and waste incineration. Risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils indicated an overall moderate potential ecological risk in the urban region of Changsha. PMID:27206756

  9. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  10. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.