Science.gov

Sample records for industry process challenges

  1. In search of sustainability: process R&D in light of current pharmaceutical industry challenges.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Is there a need for a paradigm shift in the pharmaceutical industry? Many researchers think so and take as examples the eroding corporate reputation, a regulatory environment that is harsher than ever, and the request for cheaper drugs from patient organizations and authorities. Process R&D, which interfaces medicinal chemistry and production, has taken on this challenge by increasing the delivery focus early on to ensure timely availability of desired compounds. The quest for lower costs of goods has forced the design of best synthetic routes that, given the molecular complexity, often lead to catalytic methodologies. Applying these methodologies will enable not only the cost element, but also the increasingly important aspects of environmental friendliness, and atom and stage efficiency, to be addressed. PMID:17055405

  2. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  3. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a

  4. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  5. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  6. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  7. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  8. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

  9. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  10. Innovative industrial materials processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.; Abarcar, R.; Hauser, S.G.; Williams, T.A.

    1983-08-01

    This paper reviews innovative industrial materials processes that have the potential for significant improvements in energy use, yet require long-term research to achieve that potential. Potential revolutionary alternatives are reviewed for the following industries: iron and steel; aluminum; petroleum refining; paper and pulp; food and kindred products; stone, clay and glass; textiles; and chemicals. In total, 45 candidate processes were identified. Examples of these processes include direct steelmaking and ore-to-powder systems that potentially require 30% and 40% less energy, respectively, than conventional steelmaking systems; membrane separations and freeze crystallization that offer up to 90% reductions in energy use when compared with distillation; cold processing of cement that offers a 50% reduction in energy requirements; and dry forming of paper that offers a 25% reduction in the energy needed for papermaking.

  11. Industrial photogrammetry: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösemann, Werner

    2011-07-01

    Optical 3-D measurement systems based on photogrammetric methods are increasingly and successfully being applied in industrial applications, covering different sectors like automotive or aerospace industries, research facilities like particle accelerators but also emerging technologies like renewable energy. The systems are utilized throughout the whole product lifecycle - ranging from applications in R&D, development, testing, manufacturing and final quality control. Like the whole market for optical three-dimensional technologies it is a rapidly growing technology sector. As the boundaries to other optical technologies like laser triangulation sensors, white light scanning or even tactile measurement systems are narrowing, an overview of technologies used and the relevance of photogrammetric solutions in the different applications and sectors will be given.

  12. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert M.

    2004-07-01

    Industrial process tomography remains a multidisciplinary field with considerable interest for many varied participants. Indeed this adds greatly to its appeal. It is a pleasure and a privilege to once again act as guest editor for a special feature issue of Measurement Science and Technology on industrial process tomography, the last being in December 2002. Those involved in the subject appreciate the efforts of Measurement Science and Technology in producing another issue and I thank the journal on their behalf. It can be seen that there are considerable differences in the composition of material covered in this issue compared with previous publications. The dominance of electrical impedance and electrical capacitance techniques is reduced and there is increased emphasis on general utility of tomographic methods. This is encompassed in the papers of Hoyle and Jia (visualization) and Dierick et al (Octopus). Electrical capacitance tomography has been a core modality for industrial applications. This issue includes new work in two very interesting aspects of image reconstruction: pattern matching (Takei and Saito) and simulated annealing (Ortiz-Aleman et al). It is important to take advantage of knowledge of the process such as the presence of only two components, and then to have robust reconstruction methods provided by pattern matching and by simulated annealing. Although crude reconstruction methods such as approximation by linear back projection were utilized for initial work on electrical impedance tomography, the techniques published here are much more advanced. The paper by Kim et al includes modelling of a two-component system permitting an adaption-related approach; the paper by Tossavainen et al models free surface boundaries to enable the estimation of shapes of objects within the target. There are clear improvements on the previous crude and blurred reconstructions where boundaries were merely inferred rather than estimated as in these new developments

  13. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from < 0.003 to 0.803 mg l(-1) with a mean of 0.145 mg l(-1). Chlorate, however, can also be used as a pesticide, but authorisation was withdrawn in the European Union (EU), resulting in a default maximum residue limit (MRL) for foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes. PMID:27143443

  14. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  15. Industrial processes with animal cells.

    PubMed

    Kretzmer, G

    2002-07-01

    Industrial processes involving animal cells for the production of useful products still seem to be rather uncommon. Nevertheless, during the last four decades of the last century the number of relevant processes has increased from production of virus vaccines to monoclonal antibodies and finally complex structured glycoproteins. As soon as cell lines became permanent and culture medium changed from purely biological fluids to more or less defined chemical media, large-scale cultivation could begin. The developments of the 1970s - fusion of cells to form hybridomas, and genetic engineering - triggered a second wave of products. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins for diagnosis and therapy set new challenges for the inventors. Historically, there has been no straightforward process development since the product dictates the process operation. Therefore, the scale of production covers the whole range from small multiple-unit reactors (flasks or roller bottles) up to 10,000-l single-unit batch reactors. Products with high value and small demand can be produced in multiple-unit systems whereas "bulk" products for vaccination and therapy may need large-scale bioreactors to be cost effective. All the different systems have their advantages and disadvantages and significant challenges that curb the development of effective perfusion cultures still remain. PMID:12111138

  16. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  17. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  18. Industrial Health—Meeting the Challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1959-01-01

    are recognized as the growing points of the challenge to health by the Industrial Revolution. The means whereby the challenge was met are discussed. Towards the end of the nineteenth century scientists increasingly concentrated their studies on the elements. This culminated in the isolation of the atom. During the last 10 years atomic power has become a reality and the foundation of the second Industrial Revolution. While the potential hazards of ionizing radiations had long been known and proved at Hiroshima, the inherent dangers for the general population only became impressed on the public mind by a breakdown at the Windscale No. 1 plutonium pile on October 10, 1957. Radio-active iodine escaped, contaminating the atmosphere as far afield as western Europe. A committee under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Fleck was appointed to investigate the cause of the accident and its consequences and to make recommendations. The report, which laid special emphasis on safety and health, was published early in 1958. So by analogy, Windscale, Fleck, and atomic power are identified as the growing points of the challenge of the Second Industrial Revolution. How this challenge is to be met by doctors is discussed. It is submitted that the urgent need is to formulate now a basic philosophy for future development of industrial medicine. Continuation of the old order will not suffice: ideas must again become revolutionary. The responsibility for leadership rests on the Industrial Health Advisory Committee established in 1955 under the chairmanship of the Minister of Labour and National Service. PMID:13618514

  19. The evolution of and challenges for industrial radiation processing—2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berejka, A. J.; Cleland, M. R.; Walo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from Roentgen's discovery of X-radiation in 1895 by following the development of high current, electron beam accelerators (EB) throughout the twentieth century. Although Becquerel soon followed Roentgen with his discovery of what became to be known as radioactivity, electrical sources for ionizing radiation dominate industrial processing with there being more than ten times as many industrial installations using high current EB equipment than the facilities relying upon large concentrations of radioactive isotopes. In the 1950s, the discovery that ionizing radiation would enhance the value of what has become the world's largest volume commodity plastic, polyethylene (PE), opened the way for full scale commercial use of high current EB equipment. While the crosslinking of the PE insulation on wire became one of the first major industrial applications, other uses of EB processing soon followed. In the 1970s, low-energy, self-shielded EB equipment made the surface curing of inks, coatings and adhesives more industrially viable. In the early part of the twenty-first century, new market applications involving the low-energy EB surface decontamination of packaging materials emerged. This new area poses challenges for the metrology needed to control industrial processes, in that there is limited EB penetration into what have been used as dosimeters by industry. Major industrial use of radiation process is now over 50 years old. Because of the diversity of end-uses and the fact that the use of ionizing radiation in industry is a process technique, it is hard to quantify the value-added to numerous commercial products that benefit from this energy efficient process. It may be in excess of a trillion Euros in value-added to articles of commerce. In this milieu, there are some broad-based opportunities for research which are noted.

  20. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  1. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  2. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  3. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 26. TITANIUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The titanium industry produces two principal products, titanium metal and titanium dioxide. For purposes of analyses, therefore, the industry is considered in two segments: titanium metal production and titanium dioxide production. Two industrial process flow diagrams and eleven ...

  5. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  6. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  7. Robotics: A New Challenge For Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovedahl, Gerald G.

    1983-01-01

    The author argues that jobs in the future will depend less on manual skill and more on perceptual aptitude, formal knowledge, and precision. Industrial arts classes must include robotics in their curriculum if they intend to reflect accurately American industry. (Author/SSH)

  8. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  9. Industrial process heat market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  10. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  11. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  12. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185965

  13. Super-sensing through industrial process tomography.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2016-06-28

    In this introduction article, we present a brief overview of industrial process tomography. This will start by linking between the concept of industrial process tomography and super-sensing. This will follow with a brief introduction to various process tomography systems and in particular electrical tomography methods.This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185965

  14. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 13. PLASTICIZERS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plasticizer ...

  16. EUVL defect printability: an industry challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk Joo; Teki, Ranganath; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Cordes, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) patterning appears feasible using currently available EUV exposure tools, but some issues must still be resolved for EUV patterning to be used in production. Defects in EUV mask blanks are one such major issue, as evidenced by the research focused on defect printability. Inspection tools are needed to detect phase defects on EUV mask blanks that could possibly print on the wafer. Currently available inspection tools can capture defects on the mask, but they also need to be able to classify possible printable defects. Defect classification for repair and mitigation of printable defects is very difficult using DUV inspection tools; however, if the actinic inspection tool (AIT) could gather defect information from more multilayer stacks, it may be able to separate printable defects from unprintable defects. If unprintable defects could be eliminated, the defect information could be used for mask pattern shifts to reduce printable defects. Fewer defects would need to be repaired if there were a better chance of capturing printable defects using an actinic inspection tool. Being able to detect printable defects on EUV blanks is therefore critical in mask making. In this paper, we describe the characterization of native phase defects in the manufacturing of EUV mask blanks using the state-of-the-art mask metrology equipment in SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). Commercially available quartz substrates were used and Mo/Si multilayers were deposited on the substrates to characterize phase defects. Programmed defects of various dimensions were also prepared using e-beam patterning technology on which multilayers were deposited. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study multilayer profile changes, while SEMATECH's AIT was used to image defects and predict their printability. A defect library for native defects and printability of programmed phase defects is introduced. Finally technical challenges for EUV defect

  17. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment. PMID:27552808

  18. Seismic Survey Challenges and Solutions in Industrial And Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coueslan, M. L.; El-Kaseeh, G.; Totten, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon storage projects are often located in close proximity to anthropogenic sources of CO2. This means that the storage site location may be near industrial power plants, mining activity, or urban centers. Proximity to these environments can present unique challenges for the seismic survey design, acquisition, and processing teams in terms of acquiring surface seismic data that meets the site characterization objectives for a CO2 storage site. Seismic surveys in urban and industrial environments may have acquisition footprints that are severely constrained by surrounding infrastructure. The acquisition crew and survey design team must work closely together in real-time to add in-fill source and receiver locations to surveys in order to ensure that high fold coverage is maintained over the survey. High levels of seismic noise may be generated by the industrial plants themselves. Local and industrial traffic, as well as electrical noise may also be a cause for concern. Near surface conditions, such as water saturated soils, unconsolidated mine tailings, and mining cavities, may accelerate attenuation of the seismic signal and become sources of noise in the survey and further impact data quality. When dealing with such conditions, the acquisition and survey design teams must stay in constant communication to optimize survey parameters to account for noise issues. In some cases, the raw data can be so contaminated with noise that no coherent signal can be seen in the data. However, the use of high density-single sensors is one of the most effective options to deal with noisy acquisition environments as this method allows the recorded noise to be sampled without aliasing so that that it can be removed from the data without impacting the seismic signal. Removing noise and optimizing the final images obtained from the data is the job of the survey design and data processing teams. A final consideration when acquiring seismic surveys in urban areas is the visibility of

  19. Process modeling and industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Sparrow, F T

    1980-11-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy use is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Case study results from the pulp and paper model illustrate how process models can be used to analyze a variety of issues. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for energy end-use modeling and conservation analysis. Information on the current status of industry models at BNL is tabulated.

  20. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  1. Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 6. THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the U.S. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Industrial organic chemica...

  3. Novel Process Revolutionizes Welding Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Glenn Research Center, Delphi Corporation, and the Michigan Research Institute entered into a research project to study the use of Deformation Resistance Welding (DRW) in the construction and repair of stationary structures with multiple geometries and dissimilar materials, such as those NASA might use on the Moon or Mars. Traditional welding technologies are burdened by significant business and engineering challenges, including high costs of equipment and labor, heat-affected zones, limited automation, and inconsistent quality. DRW addresses each of those issues, while drastically reducing welding, manufacturing, and maintenance costs.

  4. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, R.N. ); Priebe, S.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  6. Opportunities and challenges for collaborative funding with industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The discovery and extraction of natural resources represents major challenges on both technical and socio-political fronts. Societal demand for commodities continues to increase as population, infrastructure, energy demands and standards of living increase. In parallel, society expects more efficient, cleaner and more sustainable practices. There are therefore multiple incentives for industry to invest in research and innovation to meet these fundamental goals. Natural resource companies fund research internally and externally but the focus, approach and level of funding varies considerably among sectors, companies and disciplines. The wide variety of philosophies creates difficulties for those who seek to work with industry. Most funding arrangement are built through extensive engagement, opportunities to leverage funds particularly in higher risk or less well defined areas (e.g., geoscience), and the attraction of meeting potential new high quality employees. Barriers to funding include unrealistic perceptions of confidentiality issues in industry, bureaucracy and unrealistic IP constraints in academia, and onerous overhead charges by universities that vastly exceed those charged by consulting and contract researchers. Academics and students can benefit immensely from productive research arrangements with industry, but understanding realistic expectations on both sides is critical. Although funding from industry may introduce constraints, some companies are willing to take a virtual hands-off approach in support of quality science. Selecting the appropriate researchers and methodology is important; it takes time for students to become effective and some problems are simply not suited to graduate research, or even academia. Some Governments play an enormous role in facilitating collaborative research with industry while others struggle to differentiate programs that encourage investment from those that unfairly subsidize industry. The traditional Government role

  7. Opportunities and challenges in application of ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2011-09-01

    The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included. PMID:21838554

  8. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, A.M.; Gross, K.C.; Kubic, W.L.; Wigeland, R.A.

    1996-12-17

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process are disclosed. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions. 10 figs.

  9. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  10. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  11. Semiconductor Industry Plasma Processing Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Richard; Panda, Siddhartha; Yan, Wendy

    2003-10-01

    The plasma requirements of dry etch equipment used for advanced semiconductor process development and low cost semiconductor manufacturing are reviewed. Introduction of ArF (193nm) photolithography has resulted in increased demands on resist selectivity, increased sensitivity to plasma induced or exacerbated line edge roughness, and the introduction of novel hard and soft mask schemes. State of the art plasma processing chambers must be able to deliver low DC bias due to line edge roughness requirements with adequate ion/radical density to prevent loss of critical dimension control in deep features. These same systems may be required to operate in a high DC bias, low plasma density regime to achieve adequate etch rate on different films, and in many cases the system must be able to switch between low and high DC bias modes. The acceptable plasma density is limited by that necessary to provide adequate production of passivation agents necessary to achieve selectivity to ArF photoresists. Further limits on plasma density may be needed due to device and etch profile sensitivity to differential charging. The allowable DC bias may be limited to avoid damage to shallow implanted regions and thin gate. Decreases in gate length have increased sensitivity to non-anisotropic profiles, which in turn requires a minimum of DC bias to provide anisotropy. Particle sensitivity has resulted in a migration toward integrated plasma processing, putting additional demands on the stability and flexibility of the plasma equipment. State of the art plasma tooling must be capable of operating over a wide range of plasma densities, delivering both high and low DC bias, and provide RF stability over a wide range of wafer/chamber impedances. The increased uniformity requirements of 300 mm tools requires the anode and cathode potential be uniformly distributed over the entire surface, and that the plasma generation be as uniform as possible. Extended wet clean cycles have driven the need for

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10A. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins processing industry, which includes operations that convert polymers and resins into consumer products. Analytical elements include industry definition, raw materials, products, manufacturers, environmental impact...

  13. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 2: Biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 2 include: aeration; aerobic biological oxidation; activated sludge system; biological oxidation: lagoons; biological oxidation: fixed film processes; aerobic digesters; anaerobic waste treatment, anaerobic sludge treatment; and sedimentation.

  14. Interface design in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  15. Enhancing probiotic stability in industrial processes

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Background Manufacture of probiotic products involves industrial processes that reduce the viability of the strains. This lost of viability constitutes an economic burden for manufacturers, compromising the efficacy of the product and preventing the inclusion of probiotics in many product categories. Different strategies have been used to improve probiotic stability during industrial processes. These include technological approaches, such as the modification of production parameters or the reformulation of products, as well as microbiological approaches focused on the strain intrinsic resistance. Among the later, both selection of natural strains with the desired properties and stress-adaptation of strains have been widely used. Conclusion During recent years, the knowledge acquired on the molecular basis of stress-tolerance of probiotics has increased our understanding on their responses to industrial stresses. This knowledge on stress-response may nowadays be used for the selection of the best strains and industrial conditions in terms of probiotic stability in the final product. PMID:23990824

  16. The industrial processing of unidirectional fiber prepregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, B.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in the industrial processing of preimpregnated composites with unidirectional fibers is discussed, with particular emphasis on applications within the aerospace industry. Selection of industrial materials is considered. Attention is given to the conditions justifying the use of composites and the properties required of industrial prepregs. The hardening cycle is examined for the cases of nonmodified and polymer modified resins, with attention given to the stabilization of flow, the necessary changes of state, viscosity control, and the elimination of porosity. The tooling necessary for the fabrication of a laminated plate is illustrated, and the influence of fabrication and prepreg properties on the mechanical characteristics of a laminate are indicated. Finally, the types of prepregs available and the processing procedures necessary for them are summarized.

  17. Course Development: Industrial or Social Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David

    The development of course materials at the Open Learning Institute, British Columbia, Canada, is examined from two perspectives: as an industrial process and as a social process. The public institute provides distance education through paced home-study courses. The course team model used at the Institute is a system approach. Course development…

  18. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  19. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  20. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Industrial Holography Combined With Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorner, J.; Rottenkolber, H.; Roid, W.; Hinsch, K.

    1988-01-01

    Holographic test methods have gained to become a valuable tool for the engineer in research and development. But also in the field of non-destructive quality control holographic test equipment is now accepted for tests within the production line. The producer of aircraft tyres e. g. are using holographic tests to prove the guarantee of their tyres. Together with image processing the whole test cycle is automatisized. The defects within the tyre are found automatically and are listed on an outprint. The power engine industry is using holographic vibration tests for the optimization of their constructions. In the plastics industry tanks, wheels, seats and fans are tested holographically to find the optimum of shape. The automotive industry makes holography a tool for noise reduction. Instant holography and image processing techniques for quantitative analysis have led to an economic application of holographic test methods. New developments of holographic units in combination with image processing are presented.

  2. Review of industry interest in space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The interest on the part of selected U.S. corporation in using the research facilities and capabilities for materials processing in space utilizing the Space Shuttle was assessed. The effectiveness of the interview techniques as a method for gaining insight into the complex array of issues related to materials processing in space was evaluated. The survey, conducted was intended as a random sample of individuals, representing industry, who were currently involved in materials processing in space.

  3. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  4. Scientific challenges underlying production document processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saund, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Field of Document Recognition is bipolar. On one end lies the excellent work of academic institutions engaging in original research on scientifically interesting topics. On the other end lies the document recognition industry which services needs for high-volume data capture for transaction and back-office applications. These realms seldom meet, yet the need is great to address technical hurdles for practical problems using modern approaches from the Document Recognition, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning disciplines. We reflect on three categories of problems we have encountered which are both scientifically challenging and of high practical value. These are Doctype Classification, Functional Role Labeling, and Document Sets. Doctype Classification asks, "What is the type of page I am looking at?" Functional Role Labeling asks, "What is the status of text and graphical elements in a model of document structure?" Document Sets asks, "How are pages and their contents related to one another?" Each of these has ad hoc engineering approaches that provide 40-80% solutions, and each of them begs for a deeply grounded formulation both to provide understanding and to attain the remaining 20-60% of practical value. The practical need is not purely technical but also depends on the user experience in application setup and configuration, and in collection and groundtruthing of sample documents. The challenge therefore extends beyond the science behind document image recognition and into user interface and user experience design.

  5. Statistical process control for hospitals: methodology, user education, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Nikolas; Ogunbo, Samuel; Pennington, Gaither; Wood, Nell; Hart, Marilyn K; Hart, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry is slowly embracing the use of statistical process control (SPC) to monitor and study causes of variation in health care processes. While the statistics and principles underlying the use of SPC are relatively straightforward, there is a need to be cognizant of the perils that await the user who is not well versed in the key concepts of SPC. This article introduces the theory behind SPC methodology, describes successful tactics for educating users, and discusses the challenges associated with encouraging adoption of SPC among health care professionals. To illustrate these benefits and challenges, this article references the National Hospital Quality Measures, presents critical elements of SPC curricula, and draws examples from hospitals that have successfully embedded SPC into their overall approach to performance assessment and improvement. PMID:17627215

  6. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  7. Solar/gas industrial process heat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of solar/gas industrial process heat systems, including consideration of market applications, the status and cost of applicable solar technologies, potential technical barriers to the efficient interfacing of solar with conventional gas fired equipment, and a detailed evaluation comparing solar/gas systems to competing options.

  8. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Connie

    1986-01-01

    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  9. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  11. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  12. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  13. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  14. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  15. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.

    1998-06-01

    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  16. EDITORIAL: Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Masahiro; Xu, Lijun

    2011-10-01

    We are pleased to publish this special feature on the Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) in Measurement Science and Technology. The international congress was successfully held in the campus of Beihang University, Beijing, China, from 6-9 September 2010. It was jointly organized by International Society for Industrial Process Tomography (ISIPT), North China Electric Power University (NCEPU) and Beihang University (BUAA). Process tomography is a tangible tool to visualize and determine the material distribution inside a process non-intrusively in real time. The internal features that can be monitored by process tomography are frequently encountered and required in the design of processes and industrial plants in the fields of chemical, oil, power and metallurgical engineering as well as many other activities such as food, material handling and combustion systems. One of the key characteristics of process tomography is to provide a direct impression and instant and clear understanding of a complex phenomenon. From the viewpoint of practical applications, industries all over the world are currently facing a number of daunting challenges including many wide-range and complex technical problems. The innovative technology of process tomography consistently contributes to providing better and better solutions to the problems as 'seeing is believing'. As a regular event, WCIPT is playing a more and more important role in addressing the challenges to overcome these problems. We are glad to see that this special feature provides a great opportunity for world-wide top-level researchers to discuss and make further developments in process tomography and its applications. The 20 articles included in this issue cover a wide range of relevant topics including sensors and sensing mechanisms, data acquisition systems and instrumentation, electrical, optical, acoustic and hybrid systems, image reconstruction and system evaluation, data and sensor fusion

  17. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 8. PESTICIDES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The pesticides industry produces organic chemicals used: to control agricultural pests...

  18. Antibiotic resistance: the challenge from an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Glenn S

    2009-03-01

    Trained in medical microbiology and infectious diseases in the UK, Glenn Tillotson has over 20 years pharmaceutical experience in various areas, including clinical research, marketing, scientific communications, strategic development and global launch programs. Mainly in the field of anti-infectives, Tillotson has been instrumental in the development of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, as well as other drugs in the Bayer portfolio. After leaving Bayer, he worked as a consultant microbiologist and, in 2003, consulted with Genesoft to help with the commercialization and launch of gemifloxacin, leading to the development of Oscient following the merger of Genesoft and Genome Therapeutics. From late 2003 to early 2006, he focused his efforts on the launch of gemifloxacin into US clinical practice, as well as comarketing and business development deals globally. In April 2006, Tillotson joined Replidyne Inc. as Executive Director of Scientific Affairs working on faropenem, REP 8839 and REP 3123. Presently, Tillotson is Head of Medical Affairs at ViroPharma Inc., where he oversees educational, publication and other related activities for Vancocin(®), maribavir and Cinryze™. Most recently, Tillotson was a member of the Scientific Steering Committee for the International Society of Chemotherapy's Symposium on Clostridium difficile in Leipzig, Germany. Here, he talks with Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology about the challenge of antibiotic resistance from an industry perspective. PMID:24410641

  19. Iron and steel industry process model

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.; Dougherty, T.; McBreen, E.; Juang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The iron and steel industry process model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking, from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modeled: fully integrated mills and mini-mills. User-determined inputs into the model are as follows: projected energy and materials prices; projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; energy-conserving options, both operating modes and investments; the internal rate of return required on investment; and projected demand for finished steel. Nominal input choices in the model for the inputs listed above are as follows: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems Demand Panel nominal energy-price projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; new technologies added; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5%/y growth. The model reproduces the base-year (1975) actual performance of the industry; then, given the above nominal input choices, it projects modes of operation and capacity expansion that minimize the cost of meeting the given final demands for each of 5 years, each year being the midpoint of a 5-year interval. The output of the model includes the following: total energy use and intensity (Btu/ton) by type, by process, and by time period; energy conservation options chosen; utilization rates for existing capacity; capital-investment decisions for capacity expansion.

  20. Industrial Adoption of Model-Based Systems Engineering: Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Apoorv

    As design teams are becoming more globally integrated, one of the biggest challenges is to efficiently communicate across the team. The increasing complexity and multi-disciplinary nature of the products are also making it difficult to keep track of all the information generated during the design process by these global team members. System engineers have identified Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as a possible solution where the emphasis is placed on the application of visual modeling methods and best practices to systems engineering (SE) activities right from the beginning of the conceptual design phases through to the end of the product lifecycle. Despite several advantages, there are multiple challenges restricting the adoption of MBSE by industry. We mainly consider the following two challenges: a) Industry perceives MBSE just as a diagramming tool and does not see too much value in MBSE; b) Industrial adopters are skeptical if the products developed using MBSE approach will be accepted by the regulatory bodies. To provide counter evidence to the former challenge, we developed a generic framework for translation from an MBSE tool (Systems Modeling Language, SysML) to an analysis tool (Agent-Based Modeling, ABM). The translation is demonstrated using a simplified air traffic management problem and provides an example of a potential quite significant value: the ability to use MBSE representations directly in an analysis setting. For the latter challenge, we are developing a reference model that uses SysML to represent a generic infusion pump and SE process for planning, developing, and obtaining regulatory approval of a medical device. This reference model demonstrates how regulatory requirements can be captured effectively through model-based representations. We will present another case study at the end where we will apply the knowledge gained from both case studies to a UAV design problem.

  1. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  2. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  3. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  4. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Diffusion-Welded Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Denis E. Clark; Michael V. Glazoff; Michael G. McKellar; Ronald E. Mizia

    2013-03-01

    The goal of next generation reactors is to increase energy ef?ciency in the production of electricity and provide high-temperature heat for industrial processes. The ef?cient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process. The need for ef?ciency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more ef?cient industrial processes. Modern compact heat exchangers can provide high compactness, a measure of the ratio of surface area-to-volume of a heat exchange. The microchannel heat exchanger studied here is a plate-type, robust heat exchanger that combines compactness, low pressure drop, high effectiveness, and the ability to operate with a very large pressure differential between hot and cold sides. The plates are etched and thereafter joined by diffusion welding, resulting in extremely strong all-metal heat exchanger cores. After bonding, any number of core blocks can be welded together to provide the required ?ow capacity. This study explores the microchannel heat exchanger and draws conclusions about diffusion welding/bonding for joining heat exchanger plates, with both experimental and computational modeling, along with existing challenges and gaps. Also, presented is a thermal design method for determining overall design speci?cations for a microchannel printed circuit heat exchanger for both supercritical (24 MPa) and subcritical (17 MPa) Rankine power cycles.

  6. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  7. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed. PMID:23035919

  8. Minor Planet Center Data Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects.Over 2 million observations are received each month via the internet, and are validated and processed in near real time. The observations come in batches whose formats are checked and whose observations are run through a number of other routine checks such as departure from great circle motion, prior publication, single observations, near duplicates, etc. Some or all of a batch of observations may be returned to its sender if they fail one or more of the checks. After the observations have been validated, they are processed to produce orbits of newly discovered objects or used to update the orbits of known objects.Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges face the MPC. These include the following: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights (possibly at different apparitions) which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; determining and examining the range of possible variant orbits of newly discovered Near-Earth objects with very short observation arcs for cases which indicate an object is potentially on a collision course with Earth; linking observations to known artificial satellites and/or booster stages and other space "junk"; prioritizing newly

  9. Neural networks in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Ben, L.R.; Heavner, L.

    1996-12-01

    Neural networks, or more precisely, artificial neural networks (ANNs), are rapidly gaining in popularity. They first began to appear on the process-control scene in the early 1990s, but have been a research focus for more than 30 years. Neural networks are really empirical models that approximate the way man thinks neurons in the human brain work. Neural-net technology is not trying to produce computerized clones, but to model nature in an effort to mimic some of the brain`s capabilities. Modeling, for the purposes of this article, means developing a mathematical description of physical phenomena. The physics and chemistry of industrial processes are usually quite complex and sometimes poorly understood. Our process understanding, and our imperfect ability to describe complexity in mathematical terms, limit fidelity of first-principle models. Computational requirements for executing these complex models are a further limitation. It is often not possible to execute first-principle model algorithms at the high rate required for online control. Nevertheless, rigorous first principle models are commonplace design tools. Process control is another matter. Important model inputs are often not available as process measurements, making real-time application difficult. In fact, engineers often use models to infer unavailable measurements. 5 figs.

  10. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, M; Bairavi, V G; Sasikumar, K C

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20(th) century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.. PMID:21430959

  11. Impact of land use on solar industrial process heat for the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casamajor, A.B.

    1980-10-02

    A solar land use study of 1330 food processing plants located in the far-western United States (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington) has been conducted. Based upon estimates of each plant's annual energy consumption of process heat, derived from: annual sales figures, employment, and total energy consumption for that plant's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) group; and the available surface area at each plant, determined by a site inspection, an assessment of each plant's potential for solar energy was made. Those industries having the highest potential for applying solar energy to their process heat loads include: fruit and vegetable packing, sugar refining, meat packing, wine and brandy, bread, and dairy products. It has been further determined that about 25% of the energy used for food processing in the study area can be supplied by solar if all of the available surface area at and adjacent to these plants is devoted to solar collectors.

  12. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  13. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  14. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  15. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  16. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field. PMID:12747542

  17. A Course in Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Riestra, J. Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to expose neophytes to methodology used in chemical process industries to evaluate commercial feasibility of proposed projects. Previously acquired disciplines are integrated to facilitate process synthesis, gain appreciation of nature of industrial projects and industrial viewpoint in managing them, and to become adept…

  18. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  19. Human Resource Planning: Challenges for Industrial/Organizational Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Susan E.; Schuler, Randall S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes activities that industrial/organizational psychologists engage in as they seek to improve the competitiveness of organizations through effective human resource planning. Presents a model for describing human resource short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term planning. (JS)

  20. Challenges and Benefits of Chemical Information Service in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary E.; Curtis, Jan M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses chemical information services offered in industrial chemical libraries, based on experiences at the 3M Library. Topics include qualifications of chemical information professionals; corporate culture; clients; services, including reference, current awareness, confidentiality, and end-user support; and information resources, including…

  1. Industrialization of the ion plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    A new process referred to as ion plating by induction heating (IPIH) is described, which combines the advantages of both ion plating and induction heating. The IPIH apparatus consists of the specimen (cathode) to be coated and the evaporation heating source, which is a ceramic crucible containing the metal to be heated. The specimen is an internal part of the high-voltage ceramic-metal vacuum feedthrough and is connected to the negative terminal of the high-voltage power supply, the positive terminal of the power supply being grounded. The plating conditions are the same as those most commonly used in industrial ion plating. A number of metals - such as nickel, iron, platinum - which were practically impossible to deposit by resistance heating evaporation can now be effectively evaporated and deposited to any desired thickness. Excellent adherence is observed for many metals deposited on various metal surfaces in thicknesses from 0.15 to 50 microns, regardless of the materials selected for coating and substrate.

  2. The Democratic Process: Promises and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragaw, Donald, Ed.

    When the Berlin Wall (East Germany) came down, it symbolically foretold the end of the Soviet Union domination of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This resource guide examines the process toward democratization occurring in those regions. The guide updates the available classroom material on the democratic process. It is divided into three…

  3. Industrial waste reduction: The process problem

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

  4. Analysis of the physiotherapy industry: challenges for marketing.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, L

    1996-01-01

    The physiotherapy industry can be analysed using Porter's (1979) five forces. Physiotherapy uses medical, geographic and funding segmentation. The power of the buyers in these segments is considerable. Substitutes are posing a threat to physiotherapy with few barriers to entry to operate in the health care environment. The suppliers, particularly doctors, have significant power in referring clients. Competitive rivalry for these clients can exist between individual physiotherapists and multi-disciplinary clinics. The difference in orientation of private and public physiotherapy can also be a basis for rivalry. Repositioning to view the client as both the supplier and recipients enables the physiotherapy industry to gain competitive advantage and ensures long term growth. PMID:10164446

  5. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    PubMed

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products. PMID:26986880

  6. Challenges for pharmaceutical industry: new partnerships for sustainable human health.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jackie

    2011-05-13

    The healthcare burden is increasing in both the developed and the developing world and there is widespread acceptance that the historical pharmaceutical business model is not sustainable. In order to meet the healthcare challenge, companies and academia need to develop new business models to increase the probability of success and decrease the cost of failure. New partnerships have already emerged in the area of neglected diseases and other models for diseases of the developed world are emerging. PMID:21464073

  7. Paediatricians and the pharmaceutical industry: an industry perspective of the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Leather, David A; Davis, Sarah C

    2006-03-01

    The relationship between healthcare professionals and the pharmaceutical industry is under intense scrutiny. Accusations of corrupt practices have been levelled at the industry by both the professional and the lay press. The environment is changing, with rising expectations of transparency and ethical standards. In addition, society is becoming increasingly risk averse. There have been examples of poor practice by industry in the past, and industry is learning from these. Equally, there are many examples of excellent practice where industry has worked effectively and ethically with clinicians. The goal of industry is to bring new medicines to benefit patients and shareholders. Commercial success is dependent upon putting the patient at the centre of activity. It also allows re-investment into research and development. This allies industry and healthcare professionals with a common and key ethical arbitrator--the patient. Industry is changing as an acknowledgement of the need to adapt to the culture change demanded by society. Self regulation is increasingly active and transparent; guidelines, laws and internal/external regulators exist to examine industry. However, for the changes in regulations, behaviour and practices to be fully effective, there is a need for dialogue between industry and healthcare professionals. Commitment is needed from both sides to work together to manage the relationship. PMID:16473819

  8. Current Computational Challenges for CMC Processes, Properties, and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James

    2008-01-01

    In comparison to current state-of-the-art metallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer a variety of performance advantages, such as higher temperature capability (greater than the approx.2100 F capability for best metallic alloys), lower density (approx.30-50% metal density), and lower thermal expansion. In comparison to other competing high-temperature materials, CMC are also capable of providing significantly better static and dynamic toughness than un-reinforced monolithic ceramics and significantly better environmental resistance than carbon-fiber reinforced composites. Because of these advantages, NASA, the Air Force, and other U.S. government agencies and industries are currently seeking to implement these advanced materials into hot-section components of gas turbine engines for both propulsion and power generation. For applications such as these, CMC are expected to result in many important performance benefits, such as reduced component cooling air requirements, simpler component design, reduced weight, improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, higher blade frequencies, reduced blade clearances, and higher thrust. Although much progress has been made recently in the development of CMC constituent materials and fabrication processes, major challenges still remain for implementation of these advanced composite materials into viable engine components. The objective of this presentation is to briefly review some of those challenges that are generally related to the need to develop physics-based computational approaches to allow CMC fabricators and designers to model (1) CMC processes for fiber architecture formation and matrix infiltration, (2) CMC properties of high technical interest such as multidirectional creep, thermal conductivity, matrix cracking stress, damage accumulation, and degradation effects in aggressive environments, and (3) CMC component life times when all of these effects are interacting in a complex stress and service

  9. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  10. Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpehongwa, Gasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

  11. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essig, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  12. Possibilities and challenges for biosurfactants use in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Perfumo, Amedea; Rancich, Ivo; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid/liquid (e.g., oil/water), solid/ liquid (e.g., rock/oil and rock/water) and gas/liquid. Therefore, the possibilities of exploiting these bioproducts in oil-related sciences are vast and made petroleum industry their largest possible market at present. The role of biosurfactants in enhancing oil recovery from reservoirs is certainly the best known; however they can be effectively applied in many other fields from transportation of crude oil in pipeline to the clean-up of oil storage tanks and even manufacturing of fine petrochemicals. When properly used, biosurfactants are comparable to traditional chemical analogues in terms of performances and offer advantages with regard to environment protection/conservation. This chapter aims at providing an up-to-date overview of biosurfactant roles, applications and possible future uses related to petroleum industry. PMID:20545279

  13. Four challenges in medical image analysis from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Weese, Jürgen; Lorenz, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    Today's medical imaging systems produce a huge amount of images containing a wealth of information. However, the information is hidden in the data and image analysis algorithms are needed to extract it, to make it readily available for medical decisions and to enable an efficient work flow. Advances in medical image analysis over the past 20 years mean there are now many algorithms and ideas available that allow to address medical image analysis tasks in commercial solutions with sufficient performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and speed. At the same time new challenges have arisen. Firstly, there is a need for more generic image analysis technologies that can be efficiently adapted for a specific clinical task. Secondly, efficient approaches for ground truth generation are needed to match the increasing demands regarding validation and machine learning. Thirdly, algorithms for analyzing heterogeneous image data are needed. Finally, anatomical and organ models play a crucial role in many applications, and algorithms to construct patient-specific models from medical images with a minimum of user interaction are needed. These challenges are complementary to the on-going need for more accurate, more reliable and faster algorithms, and dedicated algorithmic solutions for specific applications. PMID:27344939

  14. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  15. Energy conservation in industry and heating. A challenge to the oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rojey, A.

    1981-05-01

    Efforts undertaken in the field of energy conservation which should result in annual saving of 60 million toe in 1990 demand a thorough reconversion on the part of the oil industry at all stages from production to utilization. As concerns production, prospecting for new resources takes place on 2 levels: (1) better management of known resources by gradual implementation of enhanced recovery methods and recovery of gas from marginal fields or associated gas; and (2) in addition to oil resources, the use of new substrates, such as coal. With respect to transport, refining and distribution, the internal consumption involved in these different stages must be reduced by using new equipment, and considerable adaptation efforts also must be made: (1) adaptation to modifications in the upstream production structure which increasingly involves heavy crude which is difficult to process; and (2) adaptation to modifications in the downstream consumption structure requiring, in particular, the implementation of extensive heavy product conversion equipment, given the decrease in the demand for heavy fuel.

  16. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  17. Operational performance comparisons in the gas processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Salahor, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Comparison and benchmarking of operational performance measures in the natural gas processing and gathering industry has helped operators to identify and prioritize improvement initiatives and has led to direct and tangible improvements in operating efficiency. However, proper interpretation and utilization of performance benchmarking data in a complex operation such as gas processing must reflect due consideration of the technical factors which influence the overall economic performance and resource requirements. Plant operators must be able to use the data to understand the key technical influences reflected in their results, and thereby set performance targets commensurate with the structural considerations particular to their facility. Ernst and Young has developed an analytical framework for gas processing and gathering operations incorporating such considerations, and conducted a study involving North American and international participants for the past four years. The information obtained form this work has revealed a wide range of performance results across plants, and has served to challenge much of the conventional wisdom regarding what levels of performance are attainable, and to provide understanding as to how gas processing operational resource requirements are influenced by technical parameters.

  18. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  19. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 20. THE MICA INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Mica is a group ...

  20. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 21. THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The cement indus...

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 15. BRINE AND EVAPORITE CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Brine and Ev...

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 17. THE GYPSUM AND WALLBOARD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The gypsum and w...

  3. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 25. PRIMARY ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary alum...

  4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 19. THE CLAY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The clay industr...

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 4. CARBON BLACK INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The carbon black ...

  6. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 2. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The oil and gas ...

  7. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 12. THE EXPLOSIVES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The explosives i...

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 24. THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The Iron and Steel Industry encompasses a variety of processes for transforming iron o...

  9. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 16. THE FLUOROCARBON-HYDROGEN FLORIDE INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The materials of...

  10. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 18. THE LIME INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The lime industr...

  11. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 9. THE SYNTHETIC RUBBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The synthetic ru...

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 7. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The organic dyes...

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 10. PLASTICS AND RESINS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plastics and...

  14. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 29 PRIMARY COPPER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary copp...

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 11. THE SYNTHETIC FIBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Synthetic fibers...

  16. Profit opportunities for the chemical process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Papers given at a seminar designed to assist industry in the utilization of NASA-developed technology are presented. The topics include the following: the Technology Utilization program, NASA patent policy changes, transfer of Hysttl resin technology, nonflammable cellulosic materials development, nonflammable paper technology, circuit board laminates and construction, polymide resins and other polymers, and intumescent coatings.

  17. Rubber Plastics Processing Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The training adviser's role is changing from trainer to problem analyst. Some of the problems being dealt with include: (1) the school to industry transition, (2) new training methods for the 16 to 18 year old entry worker, (3) foreign language training, (4) safety programs, and (5) tire-fitter training. (MW)

  18. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovation in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-04

    Under the Recovery Act, AMO provided cost-shared funding for early-stage, low-cost, "concept definition studies" of 47 promising innovations for next-generation manufacturing, energy-intensive processes, advanced materials, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The brochure provides information on each of these projects.

  19. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  20. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Vilim, Rick B.; White, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT.

  1. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Vilim, R.B.; White, A.M.

    1998-06-30

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT. 49 figs.

  2. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  3. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    PubMed

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination. PMID:23903035

  4. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  5. Process models: analytical tools for managing industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Balzer, C; Sparrow, F T

    1980-01-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy systems is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for managing industrial energy systems.

  6. Deep water challenges: Oil industry moves off continental shelf; meets new oceanographic data-gathering challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Mardell, G.; Flynn, J.

    1995-08-01

    While offshore oil industry activities move from the continental shelves to the continental slope and even onto the abyssal plains of the deep oceans, new oceanographic problems arise - from riser-deforming internal waves to ocean-floor avalanches. As well as soliton-induced currents, other subsurface flows need to be monitored to provide data in support of wide ranging underwater activities, including exploration drilling, deployment of subsea systems, diver and ROV operations, and pipe design, lay and inspection. This article examines some of the work carried out over the past year or so with data-gathering deep water moorings.

  7. Processing of Aluminum Dross: The Birth of a Closed Industrial Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2014-11-01

    This is the history of a modern aluminum dross recycling company, from its beginnings in the last years of the twentieth century to the present day. The vision of the founders was to build a local recycling plant and take full responsibility for sensitive environmental issues by recycling aluminum dross locally rather than shipping it abroad. The paper tells the history of the company from the environmental perspective, and gives an overview of some of the challenges and the decisions that followed from this vision, for instance the selection of technology. The company developed a closed industrial process for the recycling of aluminum dross, and the paper discusses some of their laboratory experiments and industrial trials. An important milestone has now been reached as the process in its present form is recognized by the environmental authorities in the country. Furthermore, it seems realistic that in the near future the final product from this process will be comparable to the product delivered in the processing of salt cake in specialized chemical plants, but at a fraction of the cost.

  8. Processing of Aluminum Dross: The Birth of a Closed Industrial Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2014-09-01

    This is the history of a modern aluminum dross recycling company, from its beginnings in the last years of the twentieth century to the present day. The vision of the founders was to build a local recycling plant and take full responsibility for sensitive environmental issues by recycling aluminum dross locally rather than shipping it abroad. The paper tells the history of the company from the environmental perspective, and gives an overview of some of the challenges and the decisions that followed from this vision, for instance the selection of technology. The company developed a closed industrial process for the recycling of aluminum dross, and the paper discusses some of their laboratory experiments and industrial trials. An important milestone has now been reached as the process in its present form is recognized by the environmental authorities in the country. Furthermore, it seems realistic that in the near future the final product from this process will be comparable to the product delivered in the processing of salt cake in specialized chemical plants, but at a fraction of the cost.

  9. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2013-04-19

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  10. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2013-04-01

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  11. Induced radioactivity from industrial radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lone, M. A.

    1990-12-01

    Analytic expressions are developed for quantitative analysis of radioactivity induced by radiation processing of products with electrons or photons. These expressions provide reasonable estimates of induced activity much faster than Monte Carlo simulations. Analysis of radioactivity from processing of meat with 10 MeV electrons shows an induced activity of less than 10 mBq/(kgkGy) just after irradiation. This is 4 orders of magnitude less than the natural background activity of about 100 Bq/kg found in meat. Five days after processing the induced activity will reduce by a factor of 300.

  12. EMISSIONS FORECASTS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives national and regional air emissions forecasts from several sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide (SOx and NOx) emissions control Process Model Projection Technique (PROMPT) test runs. PROMPT, one of a number of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission fo...

  13. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  14. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  15. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 30. THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, a...

  17. Process challenges in rotary kiln-based incinerators in soil remediation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, P.; Fogo, D.; McBride, C.

    1996-12-31

    Most Superfund sites undergoing thermal remediation consist of high-moisture content (15 to 40 percent) soils having light organic contamination (low-heat content). In the early 1980s, the rotary kiln incinerators employed at these Superfund sites were relatively small mobile hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) built on standard-size semi-trailers. As the industry matured over the past ten years, competition has driven the industry to larger and more efficient rotary kiln systems that minimize the cost per ton of soil treated by increasing the throughput rates and shortening on-site processing time. Because these units are transported from site to site by truck or a combination of rail and truck, the rotary kiln outside shell diameters have peaked to approximately 13.5 feet. Now the focus has shifted to increasing the processing capacity of these existing, maximized fixed-sized systems. Such actions include the use of oxygen-based combustion systems, which increase the throughput and efficiency by improving heat transfer and reducing the volume of combustion gas requiring treatment. However, despite the experience and expertise gained by the participants in the thermal remediation industry, many of the same process challenges still remain. This article discusses these process challenges facing the industry and potential solutions, based on data from IT`s Hybrid Thermal Treatment System{reg_sign} HTTS{reg_sign} and other sources. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T; Carvalho, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  19. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  20. FEL for the polymer processing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Polymers are everywhere in modern life because of their unique combination of end-use functionalities, ease of processing, recycling potential and modest cost. The physical and economic scope of the infrastructure committed to present polymers makes the introduction of entirely new chemistry unlikely. Rather, the breadth of commercial offerings more likely to shrink in the face of the widening mandate for recycling, especially of packaging. Improved performance and new functionality must therefore come by routes such as surface modification. However they must come with little environmental impact and at painfully low cost. Processing with strongly absorbed light offers unique advantages. The journal and patent literatures disclose a number of examples of benefits that can be achieved, principally by use of excimer lasers or special UV lamps. Examples of commercialization are few, however, because of the unit cost and maximum scale of existing light sources. A FEL, however, offers unique advantages: tunability to the optimum wavelength, potential for scale up to high average power, and a path to attractively low unit cost of light. A business analysis of prospective applications defines the technical and economic requirements a FEL for polymer surface processing must meet. These are compared to FEL technology as it now stands and as it is envisioned.

  1. Challenges Towards Employability: Higher Education's Engagement to Industrial Needs in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges and strategies of twenty-three Japanese universities working towards the improvement of employability skills. These universities have been selected for the national project "Improving Higher Education for Meeting Industrial Needs" funded by Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and…

  2. Meeting the Challenge: Between Depopulation and New Industrialization. Innovations in VET in Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heavy investments in the economic development of East German industry, the region still faces immanent structural challenges that affect the provision of vocational education and training (VET), in particular apprenticeships, and the availability of a well skilled workforce. In this article the situation of the economy as well as new…

  3. Agricultural and Industrial Process-Heat-Market Sector workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, M. J.; Kannan, N. P.; deJong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook summarizes the preliminary data and assumptions of the Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Market Sector prepared in conjunction with the development of inputs for a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy.

  4. Inspection effectiveness and risk in process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, M.J.; Tallin, A.G.

    1996-12-01

    Failures occasionally occur in refinery and petrochemical process equipment due to in-service damage such as internal corrosion, external corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Many of these failures should be preventable by detection of the damage prior to failure. However, selection of an inspection method for detection of damage has not always been based upon an evaluation of the required inspection effectiveness. Resources can be wasted by using an inspection method that is incapable of detecting damage, or is so unlikely to detect damage that it may be considered to be ineffective. Another waste of resources is excessive inspection, where the amount of inspection effort is not matched to the benefit. This paper outlines an approach to quantify the effectiveness of the complete inspection method, here defined as all of the elements that determine the mechanical integrity of an equipment item. This paper demonstrates the use of simple statistical tools or experimental techniques for estimating the effectiveness of an inspection method, and using this estimate in a risk evaluation. The approach is used to update the estimated severity of damage in process equipment after an inspection has been performed. The result of the analysis can be used in a risk assessment to estimate the risk associated with equipment failure before and after an inspection, thus providing a powerful tool to realistically set priorities for inspection planning.

  5. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  6. Imaging spectrometer for process industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrala, Esko; Okkonen, Jukka T.; Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Aikio, Mauri; Lammasniemi, Jorma

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an imaging spectrometer principle based on a novel prism-grating-prism (PGP) element as the dispersive component and advanced camera solutions for on-line applications. The PGP element uses a volume type holographic plane transmission grating made of dichromated gelatin (DCG). Currently, spectrographs have been realized for the 400 - 1050 nm region but the applicable spectral region of the PGP is 380 - 1800 nm. Spectral resolution is typically between 1.5 and 5 nm. The on-axis optical configuration and simple rugged tubular optomechanical construction of the spectrograph provide a good image quality and resistance to harsh environmental conditions. Spectrograph optics are designed to be interfaced to any standard CCD camera. Special camera structures and operating modes can be used for applications requiring on-line data interpretation and process control.

  7. Targeting industrial processes for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    Before investing in pollution prevention projects, companies need to focus on the processes that have the potential to result in the greatest payback. All too often, companies hire outside consultants to conduct one-time, isolated opportunity assessments in response to state or Federal planning requirements but do not continue to seek opportunities as operations are modified. As a result, companies may end up investing in projects to meet their immediate needs while missing opportunities for savings that may result from broader, longer term solutions. Similarly, departments may implement projects independently and end up missing opportunities to take advantage of economies of scale or internal reuse/recycling possibilities. The companies that have profited the most from pollution prevention strategies are those that have fully integrated the concept into their major business decisions at all levels within the organization. In this respect, pollution prevention is one of several possible tools to minimize projected environmental impacts.

  8. Interference Analysis Process in Military Aircraft Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenhaeusler, M.; Poisel, W.

    2012-05-01

    As flying platforms do have limited space for integration and increasing demands for antennas, interference and EMC analysis becomes ever more relevant for optimised antenna concepts. Of course aerodynamic and operational aspects are still important and can not be neglected, but interference can also be a performance killer if it is not analysed in a proper way. This paper describes an interference analysis process which is based on the electrical data of all transmitters and receivers, in- and out-of-band numerical simulation of the decoupling values of all involved antennas and includes EMC relevant data of conducted and radiated emissions, based on EMC standards like MIL-STD-461. Additionally hardware based interference cancellation is also taken into account as the last opportunity for the antenna engineer to reach the required decoupling for undisturbed communication.

  9. Corporate Universities in China: Processes, Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, June Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is intended to investigate the current status of corporate universities in China. It aims to explore the processes and practices of corporate universities in China, and discover the issues and challenges involved in building and running a corporate university in China. Design/methodology/approach: The heads of 11 well-known…

  10. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

  11. The Challenge of Change. National Printing Industry Training Council Training Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesnich, J.; And Others

    Principally concerned with printing, publishing, and paper and paper products, the Australian printing industry is segmented into two sectors: general production and specialist (concerned with a variety of processes and products.) Current arrangements for entry-level training in the industry generally consist of off-the-job training usually…

  12. Preliminary overview of innovative industrial-materials processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eakin, D.E.; Gurwell, W.E.; Williams, T.A.; Abarcar, R.; Szekely, J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    In evaluating the potential for industrial energy conservation, 45 candidate processes were identified. The chemical and the iron and steel industries presented the most well-developed candidates, whereas those processes identified in the pulp and paper and textiles industries were the most speculative. Examples of the candidate processes identified include direct steelmaking and ore-to-powder systems, which potentially require 30 to 40% less energy, respectively, than conventional steelmaking systems; membrane separations and freeze crystallization, which offer up to 90% reductions in energy use when compared with distillation; the cold processing of cement, which offers a 50% reduction in energy requirements; and the dry forming of paper, which offers a 25% reduction in the energy needed for papermaking. A review of all the industries revealed that the revolutionary alternatives often use similar concepts in avoiding current process inefficiencies. These concepts include using chemical, physical, or biological processes to replace thermally intensive processes; using specific forms of energy to minimize wasteful thermal diffusion; using chemical, biological, or ultrasonic processes to replace physical reduction; combining multiple processing steps into a single reactor; using a dry processing to eliminate energy needed for evaporation; and using sterilization or biotechnology to reduce the need for refrigeration.

  13. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26674549

  14. Facing chirality in the 21st century: Approaching the challenges in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    How is process R&D organized and operated in today's pharmaceutical industry at the dawn of the 21st century? A way to respond to the challenges with regard to reduced time to market is to build on early involvement and a front-loading approach. This means that activities are initiated during the lead optimization phase starting up to 2 years ahead of candidate drug nomination and a model built on this concept covering the stages through to commercial launch is advocated as the appropriate way forward. However, given the high attrition rate in a pharma R&D pipeline focused risk management needs to be applied and options judiciously evaluated. From a molecular perspective, the chemical targets in many instances present a formidable complexity both with regard to the overall structure but increasingly also when it comes to their stereochemical features. Thus, a novel triazolo pyrimidine compound with six stereogenic centers requiring 28 transformations for its assembly is examined to underscore this, but also the difficulties in designing a feasible route for the relatively simple (S)-azetidinecarboxylic acid are highlighted. Furthermore, the successful development of a unique and highly efficient catalytic asymmetric sulfide oxidation to the corresponding (S)-sulfoxide esomeprazole is discussed, together with the remarkable effect that normal sea sand has on the stereoselectivity of a steroid trans-acetalization. PMID:12884384

  15. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  16. Society of the plastic industry process emission initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    At first view, plastics process emissions research may not seem to have much bearing on outgassing considerations relative to advanced composite materials; however, several parallel issues and cross currents are of mutual interest. The following topics are discussed: relevance of plastics industry research to aerospace composites; impact of clean air act amendment requirements; scope of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. activities in thermoplastic process emissions and reinforced plastics/composites process emissions; and utility of SPI research for advanced polymer composites audiences.

  17. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  18. Optimizing the availability of a buffered industrial process

    DOEpatents

    Martz, Jr., Harry F.; Hamada, Michael S.; Koehler, Arthur J.; Berg, Eric C.

    2004-08-24

    A computer-implemented process determines optimum configuration parameters for a buffered industrial process. A population size is initialized by randomly selecting a first set of design and operation values associated with subsystems and buffers of the buffered industrial process to form a set of operating parameters for each member of the population. An availability discrete event simulation (ADES) is performed on each member of the population to determine the product-based availability of each member. A new population is formed having members with a second set of design and operation values related to the first set of design and operation values through a genetic algorithm and the product-based availability determined by the ADES. Subsequent population members are then determined by iterating the genetic algorithm with product-based availability determined by ADES to form improved design and operation values from which the configuration parameters are selected for the buffered industrial process.

  19. APPLICATIONS OF PULSE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL AND INCINERATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a recently developed approach for using a tunable pulse combustor (PC) to improve the performance of energy intensive industrial processes (e. g., drying, calcining, and incineration) by retrofitting the process with a tunable PC that is operated at a frequenc...

  20. online Surveillance of Industrial Processes with Correlated Parameters

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    SMP is a system for online surveillance of industrial processes or machinery for determination of the incipience or onset of abnormal operating conditions. SMP exploits the cross correlation between all of the sensors that are available on the system under surveillance to provide an extremely high sensitivity for annunciation of subtle disturbances in process variables.

  1. REVIEW OF COMPUTER PROCESS SIMULATION TO INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this report is to provide environmental professionals with an understanding of the power and utility of state-of-the-art process simulation software for industrial pollution prevention (P2) analysis. rocess simulators are process design tools that were once used ...

  2. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  3. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  4. The international aerospace industry - New challenges and opportunities for translation suppliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, T.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the recent trend toward internationalization in the aerospace industry and its effects on commercial and governmental translation programs. The aerospace industry, once dominated by organizations from a small number of countries, is now widely international in scope. In effect, there has been in increase in the demand for translations from German, Japanese, Chinese, French and Spanish source material while that for translation from Russian source material has remained constant. The impact of the Challenger disaster on aerospace translation programs is discussed as well as the impact of international participation in Space Station research.

  5. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  6. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement are discussed. Potential annual fuel savings, with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries, is nearly 9,000,000 bbl of oil.

  7. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  8. Meeting the societal need for new antibiotics: the challenges for the pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Seamus

    2015-01-01

    The rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to clinicians being increasingly faced with clinical failure due to the lack of effective and safe treatment options. New antibiotics are needed now for current multi-drug resistant infections but also in preparation for emerging and anticipated threats. There are significant challenges for the pharmaceutical industry to discover and develop new antibiotics including a business model that balances reasonable reimbursement with appropriate use. This summary reviews the key challenges and collaborative interventions that may contribute to addressing a societal problem. PMID:25601037

  9. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: chapter 27 primary lead industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The primary lead industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of lead, co-products, and by-products. The report summarizes the various commercial routes practiced domestically for lead production in a series of process flow diagrams and detailed process descriptions. Each process description includes available data regarding input materials, operating conditions, energy and utility requirements, waste streams produced (air, water, and solid waste), and control technology practices and problems.

  10. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: Chapter 30. The electronic component manufacturing industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, and solid waste emissions from industries which employ similar technologies, have common types of environmental impacts, and supply their products for further processing or consumption to the same general population of customers. This report addresses the following segments of the electronic component manufacturing industry: semiconductors, SIC 3674; capacitors, SIC 3675; resistors, SIC 3676; transformer and inductors, SIC 3677; printed circuit boards, SIC 3679052; electron tubes, SIC 36711, 36713; and cathode ray tubes, SIC 36712, 3671385.

  11. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Martinková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Francová, Michaela; Šípková, Adéla; Čuřík, Jan; Myška, Oldřich; Mižič, Lukáš

    2016-01-25

    Our study represents ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 values of 1.0±0.2, 0.2±0.2, 1.3±0.1, -2.3±0.2 and -0.1±0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values. The heaviest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of 58.6±0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of -23±2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products. PMID:26452089

  12. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Singer, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  13. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

  14. Industrial grand challenges: A competitiveness strategy for the DOE national laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Werne, R.W.

    1993-10-14

    The Cold War has been won; won in part by superior technology; superior technology such as that found in the DOE national laboratories. However, new challenges face the country, for it is clear that our historic notions of national security have changed to include economic security as well as defense. Economic security means that our industries are able to successfully compete in international markets in order to provide a high domestic standard of living. It is also recognized that US industries must achieve and maintain a leadership in technology and that the technology base of the DOE national laboratories must now be mobilized to support US industry. Once again the laboratories are called upon to support the country in a time of need. Because of this need we are seeing a significant change in mission for the Department of Energy national laboratories in their role as problem solvers for the nation. In particular, the Defense Programs (DP) national labs (Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia National Laboratories, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems Y-12) are moving from dosed institutions to open centers with significant resources ready to support US industry more vigorously than ever before. The DP laboratories are enthusiastic about their new mission and are reaching out to industry in an effort to understand industries` needs and find applications for Laboratory skills and technologies.

  15. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  16. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  17. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  18. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  19. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  20. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 4. The aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Coward, H.; Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.A.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US aluminum industry. The model consists of the major process steps in the manufacture of milled and cast aluminum products and is designed to select modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting projected demands for the industry's products. Domestic refineries and primary smelters are represented individually in the model. Industry structure in terms of plant ownership and allowed transfers of aluminum-bearing materials is explicitly modeled. With a growth in product demand of 4.2% per year, model results show a decline in electricity intensity of primary production.

  1. Practical Use of Operation Data in the Process Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Manabu

    This paper aims to reveal real problems in the process industry and introduce recent development to solve such problems from the viewpoint of effective use of operation data. Two topics are discussed: virtual sensor and process control. First, in order to clarify the present state and problems, a part of our recent questionnaire survey of process control is quoted. It is emphasized that maintenance is a key issue not only for soft-sensors but also for controllers. Then, new techniques are explained. The first one is correlation-based just-in-time modeling (CoJIT), which can realize higher prediction performance than conventional methods and simplify model maintenance. The second is extended fictitious reference iterative tuning (E-FRIT), which can realize data-driven PID control parameter tuning without process modeling. The great usefulness of these techniques are demonstrated through their industrial applications.

  2. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  3. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate... subject to such terms and conditions, and to the furnishing of any bond, that the appropriate TTB...

  4. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate... subject to such terms and conditions, and to the furnishing of any bond, that the appropriate TTB...

  5. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate... subject to such terms and conditions, and to the furnishing of any bond, that the appropriate TTB...

  6. 27 CFR 19.37 - Application for industrial processes waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial processes waiver. (a) Application for waiver. If the producer of a nonpotable chemical mixture... of the producer; (2) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (3) Approximate... subject to such terms and conditions, and to the furnishing of any bond, that the appropriate TTB...

  7. Computer simulation program is adaptable to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, F. E.

    1966-01-01

    The Reaction kinetics ablation program /REKAP/, developed to simulate ablation of various materials, provides mathematical formulations for computer programs which can simulate certain industrial processes. The programs are based on the use of nonsymmetrical difference equations that are employed to solve complex partial differential equation systems.

  8. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  9. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Annie L. Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-04-15

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  10. Microscale technology and biocatalytic processes: opportunities and challenges for synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Plazl, Igor; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Gernaey, Krist V; Woodley, John M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the expanding presence of microscale technology in chemical synthesis and energy production as well as in biomedical devices and analytical and diagnostic tools, its potential in biocatalytic processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals, as well as related industries, has not yet been fully exploited. The aim of this review is to shed light on the strategic advantages of this promising technology for the development and realization of biocatalytic processes and subsequent product recovery steps, demonstrated with examples from the literature. Constraints, opportunities, and the future outlook for the implementation of these key green engineering methods and the role of supporting tools such as mathematical models to establish sustainable production processes are discussed. PMID:25836031

  11. Gaia: organisation and challenges for the data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignard, F.; Bailer-Jones, C.; Bastian, U.; Drimmel, R.; Eyer, L.; Katz, D.; van Leeuwen, F.; Luri, X.; O'Mullane, W.; Passot, X.; Pourbaix, D.; Prusti, T.

    2008-07-01

    Gaia is an ambitious space astrometry mission of ESA with a main objective to map the sky in astrometry and photometry down to a magnitude 20 by the end of the next decade. While the mission is built and operated by ESA and an industrial consortium, the data processing is entrusted to a consortium formed by the scientific community, which was formed in 2006 and formally selected by ESA one year later. The satellite will downlink around 100 TB of raw telemetry data over a mission duration of 5 years from which a very complex iterative processing will lead to the final science output: astrometry with a final accuracy of a few tens of microarcseconds, epoch photometry in wide and narrow bands, radial velocity and spectra for the stars brighter than 17 mag. We discuss the general principles and main difficulties of this very large data processing and present the organization of the European Consortium responsible for its design and implementation.

  12. Assessment of critical-fluid extractions in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The potential for critical-fluid extraction as a separation process for improving the productive use of energy in the process industries is assessed. Critical-fluid extraction involves the use of fluids, normally gaseous at ambient conditions, as extraction solvents at temperatures and pressures around the critical point. Equilibrium and kinetic properties in this regime are very favorable for solvent applications, and generally allow major reductions in the energy requirements for separating and purifying chemical component of a mixture.

  13. Weaknesses in Applying a Process Approach in Industry Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučerová, Marta; Mĺkva, Miroslava; Fidlerová, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with a process approach as one of the main principles of the quality management. Quality management systems based on process approach currently represents one of a proofed ways how to manage an organization. The volume of sales, costs and profit levels are influenced by quality of processes and efficient process flow. As results of the research project showed, there are some weaknesses in applying of the process approach in the industrial routine and it has been often only a formal change of the functional management to process management in many organizations in Slovakia. For efficient process management it is essential that companies take attention to the way how to organize their processes and seek for their continuous improvement.

  14. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  15. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  16. A discussion paper on challenges and limitations to water reuse and hygiene in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Casani, Sandra; Rouhany, Mahbod; Knøchel, Susanne

    2005-03-01

    Drinking water is becoming a scarce resource in many areas and both use of water and wastewater outlet are of major ecological and economical importance in many countries. Consumption and discharge may be considerably minimized by means of water reuse. The food industry has a large consumption of water, but until now very limited reuse has taken place due to legislations constraints and hygienic concerns. Legal space for use of water of qualities other than drinking water has been opened with the current legislation. This will, however, in many cases require careful analyses of individual cases based on a thorough understanding of the hazards involved in order to avoid compromising the safety of the food product and thereby the health of consumers. Implementation of water reuse practices in the food industry presents a great challenge for both companies and public health authorities regarding knowledge, technical expertise and documentation. Regulatory, technological, monitoring, verification and ethical aspects associated with microbiologically safe reuse of water in the food industry are discussed and some examples of the challenges ahead and possible approaches are given. PMID:15766968

  17. Statistical process control in the hybrid microelectronics manufacturing industry: A Navy view point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azu, Charles C., Jr.

    1993-04-01

    The U.S. Navy is concerned with receiving high quality hybrid microelectronic circuits. The Navy recognizes that in order to obtain high quality circuits a manufacturer must have an effective statistical process control (SPC) program implemented. The implementation of effective SPC programs is an objective of the military hybrid microelectronics industry. Often the smaller sized manufacturers in the industry have little SPC implementation, while the larger manufacturers have practices originally developed for the control of other product lines outside the hybrid technology area. The industry recognizes that SPC programs will result in high quality hybrid microcircuits which the U.S. Navy requires. In the past, the goal of the industry had not been to put in effective process control methods, but to merely meet the government military standards on the quality of the hybrids they produce. This practice, at best, resulted in a 'hit or miss' situation when it comes to hybrid microcircuit assemblies meeting military standards. The U.S. Navy through its MicroCIM program has been challenging and working with the industry in the area of SPC practice methods. The major limitations so far have been a lack of available sensors for the real-time collection of effective SPC data on the factory floor. This paper will discuss the Navy's efforts in bringing about effective SPC programs in the military hybrid manufacturing industry.

  18. Applications and systems studies for solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    The program has been highlighted by the development of analytical computer programs, engineering case studies in specific industries, applications and market studies and the assessment of operating experience in actual solar installations. For example, two analytical computer codes (known as PROSYS and ECONMAT) have been assembled and used for the large-scale matching of industrial processes with different types of solar equipment. Verification of the results of this large-scale matching have resulted in a program of detailed case studies of solar and conservation options in local dairies, metal can manufacturing plants, meatpacking plants, and other factories.

  19. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  20. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  1. Technology, Applications, and Process Challenges of Dual Chamber Systems.

    PubMed

    Werk, Tobias; Ludwig, Imke S; Luemkemann, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Huwyler, Joerg; Hafner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Dual-chamber systems provide an option as a drug and device combination product, when home care and emergency lyophilized products are intended. Nevertheless, until today, there are only a few products on the market, due to the challenges and limitations in manufacturability, product formulation, and product stability in a dual-chamber configuration, as well as economic considerations. This review serves to describe currently available dual-chamber systems and to discuss factors to be considered for appropriate selection and establishing fill-finish processes. PMID:26852837

  2. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  3. From research to industry — The establishment of a radiation processing industry in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessis, T. A. Du; Stevens, RCB

    In the late sixties the South African Atomic Energy Board in pursuing its objectives to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy in general, established a research group with the specific purpose of investigating and developing radiation processing as a new technique. During the early years it was realised that the economic and technological facets of establishing a new industry were equally important and, in addition to fundamental research, strong emphasis was placed on the necessity of marketing this new technology. Although the initial emphasis was put on gamma sterilization, and today still forms the backbone of the radiation processing industry, the promising fields of polymer modification and food irradiation hold a lot of promise in the radiation processing industry. Following ten years of successfully introducing and providing a radiation service, the South African Atomic Energy Board in 1980 decided to transfer its service to the private sector. These developments in South Africa are a good sample of how a small country, through initial government envolvement, can acquire a sophisticated new private industry.

  4. Hazardous waste incineration in industrial processes: cement and lime kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Mournighan, R.E.; Peters, J.A.; Branscome, M.R.; Freeman, H.

    1985-07-01

    With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the disposal of hazardous wastes with heating value. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) is currently evaluating the disposal of hazardous wastes in a wide range of industrial processes. The effort includes sampling stack emissions at cement, lime and aggregate plants, asphalt plants and blast furnaces, which use waste as a supplemental fuel. This research program is an essential part of EPA's determination of the overall environmental impact of various disposal options available to industry. This paper summarizes the results of the HWERL program of monitoring emissions from cement and lime kilns burning hazardous wastes as fuel.

  5. Solar industrial process heat: A study of applications and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, V.

    1981-04-01

    Data were gathered through site visits to 100 industrial plants. The site specific data suggests several possible near term market opportunities for solar thermal energy systems. Plants using electricity as their primary fuel for industrial process heat were identified, on the basis of their high fuel prices, as attractive early entry markets for solar energy. Additional opportunities were reflected in plants that had accomplished much of their conservation plans, or bad sizeable percentages of their operating budgets committed to energy expenses. A suitability analysis identified eleven industrial plants as highly suitable for solar thermal applications, they included producers of fluid milk, pottery, canned and bottled soft drinks, fabricated structural metal, refined petroleum, aluminum cans, chrome and nickel plating and stamped frame metal and metal finishings.

  6. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 2. The pulp and paper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Pilati, D.A.; Chang, J.; Sparrow, F.T.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US pulp and paper industry. The model is based on data from economic and engineering analyses of the major manufacturing processes in pulp and papermaking and includes Standard Industrial Classifications 2611, 2621, 2631, and 2661. Energy conserving alternatives to conventional technologies are included. The pulp and paper model is a dynamic and regional process optimization model incorporating the Bureau of Census defined regions of the Northeast, North Central, South and West. It is dynamic in that it analyzes a 25-year time horizon. Given fuel prices and product demand projections, the model selects modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting the projected demands. With a projected average annual growth rate of 3.3% for paper products, model results show a decline in the energy intensity of paper production and an increase in the demand for electricity.

  7. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  8. Asymmetric Aldol Reaction with Formaldehyde: a Challenging Process.

    PubMed

    Meninno, Sara; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    The asymmetric aldol reaction with formaldehyde is a fundamental carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction in organic synthesis, as well as in the quest of the origin of life, as it is thought to have been the first "molecular brick" involved in the synthetic path to complex sugars. Products of aldol reactions, i.e., the β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, are versatile building blocks used to access a great variety of functionalised molecules. The employment of formaldehyde, as a C1 symmetric electrophile, in aldol reactions can be likely considered the most challenging, yet simplest, process to introduce a hydroxymethyl group in an asymmetric fashion. In this account, an overview of the progress achieved in the asymmetric metal- and organocatalysed aldol reaction, using readily available formalin or paraformaldehyde sources, is illustrated. Our recent contribution to this area, with the application of asymmetric hydroxymethylation in cascade processes for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactones, is also shown. PMID:27328802

  9. New challenges in signal processing in astrophysics: the SKA case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Andrew; Zarb-Adami, Kristian; Geralt Bij de Vaate, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Signal processing and communications are driving the latest generation of radio telescopes with major developments taking place for use on the Square Kilometre Array, SKA, the next generation low frequency radio telescope. The data rates and processing performance that can be achieved with currently available components means that concepts from the earlier days of radio astronomy, phased arrays, can be used at higher frequencies, larger bandwidths and higher numbers of beams. Indeed it has been argued that the use of dishes as a mechanical beamformer only gained strong acceptance to mitigate the processing load from phased array technology. The balance is changing and benefits in both performance and cost can be realised. In this paper we will mostly consider the signal processing implementation and control for very large phased arrays consisting of hundreds of thousands of antennas or even millions of antennas. They can use current technology for the initial deployments. These systems are very large extending to hundreds of racks with thousands of signal processing modules that link through high-speed, but commercially available data networking devices. There are major challenges to accurately calibrate the arrays, mitigate power consumption and make the system maintainable.

  10. The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.

    2012-10-20

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

  11. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  12. Summary of the government/industry workshop on new materials and processing technologies for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the 1-day workshop conducted at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 16, 1992, between the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) and the US Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Materials Program (DOE AIM). The workshop objectives were to: (1) encourage collaboration between DOE, the DOE national laboratories, and NCMS material manufacturers and (2) assist the DOE AIM program in targeting research and development (R&D) more effectively. During the workshop, participants from industry and DOE laboratories were divided into three working groups. Representatives from the DOE national laboratories currently conducting major research programs for AIM were asked to be working group leaders. The groups developed recommendations for NCMS and AIM managers using a six-step process. As a result of the workshop, the groups identified problems of key concern to NCMS member companies and promising materials and processes to meet industry needs. Overall, the workshop found that the research agenda of DOE AIM should include working with suppliers to develop manufacturing technology. The agenda should not be solely driven by energy considerations, but rather it should be driven by industry needs. The role of DOE should be to ensure that energy-efficient technology is available to meet these needs.

  13. Summary of the government/industry workshop on new materials and processing technologies for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J K

    1992-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the 1-day workshop conducted at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 16, 1992, between the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) and the US Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Materials Program (DOE AIM). The workshop objectives were to: (1) encourage collaboration between DOE, the DOE national laboratories, and NCMS material manufacturers and (2) assist the DOE AIM program in targeting research and development (R D) more effectively. During the workshop, participants from industry and DOE laboratories were divided into three working groups. Representatives from the DOE national laboratories currently conducting major research programs for AIM were asked to be working group leaders. The groups developed recommendations for NCMS and AIM managers using a six-step process. As a result of the workshop, the groups identified problems of key concern to NCMS member companies and promising materials and processes to meet industry needs. Overall, the workshop found that the research agenda of DOE AIM should include working with suppliers to develop manufacturing technology. The agenda should not be solely driven by energy considerations, but rather it should be driven by industry needs. The role of DOE should be to ensure that energy-efficient technology is available to meet these needs.

  14. COEX - process: cross-breeding between innovation and industrial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Emin, J.L.; Vinoche, R.; Baron, P.

    2008-07-01

    Recycling used nuclear fuel at an industrial scale has been a reality for over 40 years. Since it was founded in 1976, AREVA has designed and built two used fuel treatment plants in La Hague, France. These plants, named UP2-800 and UP3, use the PUREX process. UP3 began operations at the end of the 80's and UP2-800 in the mid 90's. The plutonium extracted in UP2-800 and UP3 is then processed in MELOX plant which started operation in 1995, to be recycled under the form of MOX fuel in LWR. This technology has been selected by JNFL for its reprocessing and recycling plants. Rokkasho-Mura reprocessing plant incorporates also some Japanese technologies and is being commissioned soon. Over 23,000 tons of LWR used fuels have been treated in La Hague plants and over 1200 tons of MOX fuels have been produced by MELOX plant. Innovations have been constantly incorporated to these plants to improve process efficiency and to reduce the activity and volume of waste. During these years, AREVA has acquired an invaluable experience in industrializing processes and technologies developed in the laboratory. In the frame of its continuous improvement policy, AREVA has developed jointly with CEA (French Atomic Energy Agency) a new process, COEX{sup TM} process, offering significant improvement in term of proliferation resistance, process performance and investment and operating cost. The present paper recalls the process principles applied in French and Japanese recycling plants. Then it describes the main steps of COEX{sup TM} process, the status of its development and the improvements compared to PUREX process. The possible evolution of COEX{sup TM} process to cope with needs of future nuclear fuel cycles using fast reactors and possible recycling of minor actinides is presented. (authors)

  15. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1997-05-13

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  16. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1995-10-17

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor are disclosed. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  17. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  18. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  19. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  20. Coastal Altimetry, From Data Processing To Industrial Applications: Some Illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, M.; Jeansou, E.; Lamouroux, J.; Crespon, F.; Birol, F.; Lyard, F.; Morrow, R.; Bronner, E.; Benveniste, J.

    2013-12-01

    During the last ten years, many efforts were made to develop corrections and processing strategies dedicated to the coastal altimetry observations. Ever since, the coastal altimetry data has proved to be of high value in many scientific and industrial applications. This paper gives an overview of some of NOVELTIS recent projects related to coastal altimetry, from the products improvement and assessment to the promotion of coastal altimetry through the development of new added-value products.

  1. Statistical Modeling of the Industrial Sodium Aluminate Solutions Decomposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Živković, Živan; Mihajlović, Ivan; Djurić, Isidora; Štrbac, Nada

    2010-10-01

    This article presents the results of the statistical modeling of industrial sodium aluminate solution decomposition as part of the Bayer alumina production process. The aim of this study was to define the correlation dependence of degree of the aluminate solution decomposition on the following parameters of technological processes: concentration of the Na2O (caustic), caustic ratio and crystallization ratio, starting temperature, final temperature, average diameter of crystallization seed, and duration of decomposition process. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the tools for the mathematical analysis of the indicated problem. On the one hand, the attempt of process modeling, using MLRA, resulted in a linear model whose correlation coefficient was equal to R 2 = 0.731. On the other hand, ANNs enabled, to some extent, better process modeling, with a correlation coefficient equal to R 2 = 0.895. Both models obtained using MLRA and ANNs can be used for the efficient prediction of the degree of sodium aluminate solution decomposition, as the function of the input parameters, under industrial conditions of the Bayer alumina production process.

  2. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  3. The geothermal partnership: Industry, utilities, and government meeting the challenges of the 90's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal community. This year's conference, Program Review IX, was held in San Francisco on March 19--21, 1991. The theme of this review was The Geothermal Partnership -- Industry, Utilities, and Government Meeting the Challenges of the 90's.'' The importance of this partnership has increased markedly as demands for improved technology must be balanced with available research resources. By working cooperatively, the geothermal community, including industry, utilities, DOE, and other state and federal agencies, can more effectively address common research needs. The challenge currently facing the geothermal partnership is to strengthen the bonds that ultimately will enhance opportunities for future development of geothermal resources. Program Review IX consisted of eight sessions including an opening session. The seven technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy and the progress associated with the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

  5. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  6. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  7. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. PMID:20863690

  8. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. PMID:25245525

  9. Picosecond and femtosecond lasers for industrial material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, R.; Serbin, J.; Deeg, F. W.

    2016-03-01

    Cold laser materials processing using ultra short pulsed lasers has become one of the most promising new technologies for high-precision cutting, ablation, drilling and marking of almost all types of material, without causing unwanted thermal damage to the part. These characteristics have opened up new application areas and materials for laser processing, allowing previously impossible features to be created and also reducing the amount of post-processing required to an absolute minimum, saving time and cost. However, short pulse widths are only one part of thee story for industrial manufacturing processes which focus on total costs and maximum productivity and production yield. Like every other production tool, ultra-short pulse lasers have too provide high quality results with maximum reliability. Robustness and global on-site support are vital factors, as well ass easy system integration.

  10. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  11. Challenges and Solutions for Clinical Development of New Antibacterial Agents: Results of a Survey among Pharmaceutical Industry Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wetherington, Jeffrey D.; Schmitt, Nicola; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    As the number of antibacterial medicines in the pipeline remains low, we anonymously surveyed pharmaceutical industry professionals on challenges and solutions for clinical development of these agents. Challenges were reported primarily as financial and regulatory. For multidrug-resistant organisms, there are needs for rapid diagnostic tests, new regulatory guidance, and adaptation of endpoints/trial designs. Regulators and public/private initiatives are addressing these challenges to help ensure that proposed solutions have the support of all involved stakeholders. PMID:25918147

  12. Strategic Coupling of Advanced Induction Heating with Magnetic Field Processing Technologies Provides Innovative Solutions for Elevated Industries Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Mackiewicz-Ludtka; Pfaffmann, George; Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    2013-01-01

    Industry s relentless pursuit of product performance improvements is now challenging the capability of available/existing Thermal processing technologies, i.e., Heat Treating. In fact, the EPA-mandated requirement for light-weighting vehicles underscores the urgent US need for achieving higher product strength improvements.

  13. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Owen Evans

    2011-10-13

    Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

  14. Operation of an industrial radiation processing facility in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres C., Gilberto

    A 10 years old JS-6500 industrial Cobalt 60 irradiator was installed in 1980 at the ININ Nuclear Center in Mexico with 960 kGy. The facility was commissioning in August with some minor changes with respect to the original AECL design, in order to give services to different industries and also to do research in several fields. During that year promotional activities were done to increase interest from industry in the use of radiation processing. In 1981, an interruption due to pool's leakage and its reparation, put the facility out of operation. During the next three years the demand increases but never reach more than 50% if the capacity. In that time, the potential users did not show confidence in the process, even knowing that health authorities approved with no restrictions radiation sterilization. Actually, there are 34 different companies irradiating 48 different products. Even those within the same grouping, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses, so the facility has been operated combining products and valumes. The experiences are presented in this paper. Also, maintenance of the irradiator is discussed and some modifications to the original programme have been done due to the necessity to use local spare parts instead of imported ones.

  15. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran

    2014-07-01

    Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes. PMID:24987578

  16. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes. PMID:24987578

  17. Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

    2012-07-01

    This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

  18. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  20. COLUMBUS Orbital Facility and Automated Transfer Vehicle: a challenge for agency & industry.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, H; Luttmann, H

    1997-01-01

    Long term continuous operation of the COLUMBUS Orbital Facility (COF) flight- and ground segment requires continuous mission control and operations support capability to ensure proper operation and configuration of the COF systems in support of ongoing science and technology payloads. The ISS logistics scenario will be supported by the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). These operational needs require the built-up of a new ground infrastructure in Europe and USA, enabling an efficient operations for preparation, planning and mission execution. The challenge for the European space community consists in the development and operation of a user friendly operational environment but keeping costs within budgetary constraints. Results of detailed definition studies performed by both agency and industry for the ground infrastructure indicate solutions to those technical and programmatic requirements by using of existing centers and facilities, re-use of C/D phase products (Hardware, Software) and COTS equipment to avoid costly new developments, using engineering expertise of the industrial personnel from flight element phase C/D. The concept for operations execution defines the task sharing between Operations Control Facilities (OCF), Operations Support Facilities and User Operations Sites. Operations support consists of on-line engineering support, off-line engineering support, payload integration, logistics support and crew training support performed by industry. DASA RI has made internal investments in organizational concepts for mission operations as well as in mission technologies and tools based on the standard COLUMBUS Ground Software (CGS) toolset and on knowledge based systems to enable an efficient industrial operations support. These tools are available as prototypes being evaluated in a simulated operational environment. PMID:11541146

  1. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  2. PROCESS MODIFICATIONS TOWARDS MINIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers the development of a matrix of significant pollution problems and attendant process modifications which would have impact on the reduction or elimination of pollutants inherent in these processes. Industries covered are: (1) Refining of Nonferrous Metals; (2) Th...

  3. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  4. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185967

  5. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  6. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, M.; Chesi, A.; Baldi, A.; Tarani, F.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Carnevale, E.

    2012-10-01

    Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as -140 ÷ -100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12) and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about -120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  7. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  8. IBM Industry Practice: Challenges in Offshore Software Development from a Global Delivery Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musio, Ilario

    Offshore software development has greatly influenced competitiveness among IT companies in the last decade. Despite the fact that there are matured and developed offshoring methodologies, there is an ongoing tendency to look for new ways of improving them. Major IT corporations successfully rely on their offshore delivery centers for bridging the gap between communication and infrastructure boundaries. However, projects tend to fail, so problems have to be considered that arise between on- and offshore parts within the same corporation. Based on seven case studies from the industry, this paper describes experiences and challenges faced during the execution of offshore application development between IBM Switzerland and IBM India. Additionally, approaches on how they can be solved are proposed.

  9. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  10. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Weijma, Jan; Gonzalez Contreras, Paula; Dijkman, Henk; Rozendal, Rene A; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-06-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typically about 99% of solid material hauled to, and ground at, the land surface currently ends up as waste (rock dumps and mineral tailings). Exposure of these to air and water frequently leads to the formation of acidic, metal-contaminated run-off waters, referred to as acid mine drainage, which constitutes a severe threat to the environment. Formation of acid drainage is a natural phenomenon involving various species of lithotrophic (literally 'rock-eating') bacteria and archaea, which oxidize reduced forms of iron and/or sulfur. However, other microorganisms that reduce inorganic sulfur compounds can essentially reverse this process. These microorganisms can be applied on industrial scale to precipitate metals from industrial mineral leachates and acid mine drainage streams, resulting in a net improvement in metal recovery, while minimizing the amounts of leachable metals to the tailings storage dams. Here, we advocate that more extensive exploitation of microorganisms in metal mining operations could be an important way to green up the industry, reducing environmental risks and improving the efficiency and the economy of metal recovery. PMID:27190293

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins production industry, which includes operations that convert industrial organic chemicals into solid or liquid polymers. Elements of the analysis include an industry definition, raw materials, products and manufact...

  13. Adolescents' conscious processes of developing regulation: learning to appraise challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed W

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. Adolescents' new higher-order cognitive capacities allow them to better understand the irregularities and complexity of real-world challenges. They also use these capacities to consciously develop skills to navigate these challenges. PMID:21898901

  14. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

  15. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

  16. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source

  17. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro

  18. Industrial processing of complex fluids: Formulation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Scovel, J.C.; Bleasdale, S.; Forest, G.M.; Bechtel, S.

    1997-08-01

    The production of many important commercial materials involves the evolution of a complex fluid through a cooling phase into a hardened product. Textile fibers, high-strength fibers(KEVLAR, VECTRAN), plastics, chopped-fiber compounds, and fiber optical cable are such materials. Industry desires to replace experiments with on-line, real time models of these processes. Solutions to the problems are not just a matter of technology transfer, but require a fundamental description and simulation of the processes. Goals of the project are to develop models that can be used to optimize macroscopic properties of the solid product, to identify sources of undesirable defects, and to seek boundary-temperature and flow-and-material controls to optimize desired properties.

  19. Processing of nickel aluminides and their industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K. ); Mavity, J.T.; Anderson, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys offer unique properties. However, their use has been limited because information is lacking regarding their processing into various product forms. This paper describes the recent progress made toward melting, electroslag remelting, and the processing of large-scale ingots of one of the Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys. Microstructural data are presented after various homogenization treatments. Both as-cast and homogenized samples were subjected to hot-compression testing. The hot-compression data for the commercial-size ingot showed the same behavior as previously reported on the experimental heats. The status of industrial applications of nickel-aluminide alloys is also described. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Benefits of SPC for the hydrocarbon process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.B.; Armitage, S.J.; Strong, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Besides the benefits of improved efficiency and customer satisfaction, quality improvement also yields higher profits for a refiner. These benefits can best be realized by first identifying areas with high prices of nonconformance. Then efforts are concentrated in these areas to identify and eliminate the root causes of these nonconformances. One of the best tools for identifying and eliminating root causes is Statistical Process Control (SPC). This paper will present recommendations on how to implement a quality improvement system to realize the potential benefits, discuss SPC's place in this system, provide an overview of SPC techniques appropriate to the hydrocarbon process industries; offer two case studies of actual improvements, and summarize the benefits of SPC.

  1. Laser processing of thin films for industrial packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, Michele; Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Molari, Pier Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Single layer thin-film materials such as aluminum, polyethylene, polypropylene, and their multi-layer combinations such as aluminum-paper have been exposed to different laser radiation. A wide number of samples have been processed with 10 - 12.5 ns IR and Green, and 500 - 800 ps IR laser radiation at different translating speeds ranging from 50 mm/s to 1 m/s. High quality incisions have been obtained for all tested materials within the experimental conditions. The presented results provide the necessary parameters for an efficient cut and processing of the tested materials, for the employment of pulsed laser sources in the packaging industry, allowing the laser to prevail in lieu of more costly and energy intensive methods.

  2. Emerging Laser Materials Processing Techniques for Future Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreja, L. M.; Kaul, R.; Paul, C. P.; Ganesh, P.; Rao, B. T.

    Lasers are not only the proven and indispensable tools for some of the contemporary manufacturing technologies but have the potential for providing solutions to some of the upcoming intricate problems of industrial materials processing. The ongoing research is spearheading in the direction to develop novel fabrication techniques for improving qualities of the products, possibilities to engineer integrated multi-materials and multi-functional components and enhancing economic or procedural benefits. To explore the possibilities of achieving some of these objectives, we have carried out studies on the laser rapid manufacturing of structures of different metals with control over porosity, bimetallic integration, and other technologically important mechanical characteristics, laser melting based surface processing , laser shock peening , hybrid welding , and laser profile cutting of metal sheets. The results of these studies with comprehensiveness are presented and discussed in this chapter. A brief review of their scope for the industrial acceptability and adaptability has also been presented to assess the real potential of these research areas.

  3. Development of a process control sensor for the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.; Candee, A.; Kramlich, J.; Koppang, R.

    1991-05-01

    This project was initiated to fill a need in the glass industry for a non-contact temperature sensor for glass melts. At present, the glass forming industry (e.g., bottle manufacture) consumes significant amounts of energy. Careful control of temperature at the point the bottle is molded is necessary to prevent the bottle from being rejected as out-of-specification. In general, the entire glass melting and conditioning process is designed to minimize this rejection rate, maximize throughput and thus control energy and production costs. This program focuses on the design, development and testing of an advanced optically based pyrometer for glass melts. The pyrometer operates simultaneously at four wavelengths; through analytical treatment of the signals, internal temperature profiles within the glass melt can be resolved. A novel multiplexer alloys optical signals from a large number of fiber-optic sensors to be collected and resolved by a single detector at a location remote from the process. This results in a significant cost savings on a per measurement point basis. The development program is divided into two phases. Phase 1 involves the construction of a breadboard version on the instrument and its testing on a pilot-scale furnace. In Phase 2, a prototype analyzer will be constructed and tested on a commercial forehearth. This report covers the Phase 1 activities.

  4. Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-30

    It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental impacts are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)

  5. Adolescents' Conscious Processes of Developing Regulation: Learning to Appraise Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects…

  6. Reflection as Creative Process: Perspectives, Challenges and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities for embedding reflection in practice-based curricula in the arts. Following the root and branch curriculum reform project recently completed at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, the paper presents a hermeneutic and analytical narrative of the challenges emerging from presenting reflection as…

  7. High-performance polymers from nature: catalytic routes and processes for industry.

    PubMed

    Walther, Guido

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to imagine life today without polymers. However, most chemicals are almost exclusively synthesized from petroleum. With diminishing oil reserves, establishing an industrial process to transform renewables into high-value chemicals may be more challenging than running a car without gasoline. This is due to the difficulty in setting up processes that are novel, profitable, and environmentally benign at the same time. Additionally, the quest for sustainability of renewable resources should be based on incorporating ethical considerations in the development of plans that utilize feedstocks intended for human nutrition and health. Thus, it is important to use bio-energy containing renewable resources in the most efficient way. This Concept goes beyond the synthesis of monomers and provides insights for establishing an industrial process that transforms renewable resources into high-value chemicals, and it describes careful investigations that are of paramount importance, including evaluations from an economical and an ecological perspective. The synthesis of monomers suitable for polymer production from renewable resources would ideally be accompanied by a reduction in CO2 emission and waste, through the complete molecular utilization of the feedstock. This Concept advocates the drop-in strategy, and is guided by the example of catalytically synthesized dimethyl 1,19-nonadecanedioate and its α,ω-functionalized derivatives. With respect to the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, this Concept describes a technological leap forward for a sustainable green chemical industry. PMID:25049162

  8. Tackling optimization challenges in industrial load control and full-duplex radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholian, Armen

    In price-based demand response programs in smart grid, utilities set the price in accordance with the grid operating conditions and consumers respond to price signals by conducting optimal load control to minimize their energy expenditure while satisfying their energy needs. Industrial sector consumes a large portion of world electricity and addressing optimal load control of energy-intensive industrial complexes, such as steel industry and oil-refinery, is of practical importance. Formulating a general industrial complex and addressing issues in optimal industrial load control in smart grid is the focus of the second part of this dissertation. Several industrial load details are considered in the proposed formulation, including those that do not appear in residential or commercial load control problems. Operation under different smart pricing scenarios, namely, day-ahead pricing, time-of-use pricing, peak pricing, inclining block rates, and critical peak pricing are considered. The use of behind-the-meter renewable generation and energy storage is also considered. The formulated optimization problem is originally nonlinear and nonconvex and thus hard to solve. However, it is then reformulated into a tractable linear mixed-integer program. The performance of the design is assessed through various simulations for an oil refinery and a steel mini-mill. In the third part of this dissertation, a novel all-analog RF interference canceler is proposed. Radio self-interference cancellation (SIC) is the fundamental enabler for full-duplex radios. While SIC methods based on baseband digital signal processing and/or beamforming are inadequate, an all-analog method is useful to drastically reduce the self-interference as the first stage of SIC. It is shown that a uniform architecture with uniformly distributed RF attenuators has a performance highly dependent on the carrier frequency. It is also shown that a new architecture with the attenuators distributed in a clustered

  9. Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser-driven processes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.I.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Members of the laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) reviewed potential applications of lasers in industry, some of which are: isotope separation; cleanup of radioactive waste; trace impurity removal; selective chemical reactions; photochemical activation or dissociation of gases; control of combustion particulates; crystal and powder chemistry; and laser induced biochemistry. Many of these areas are currently under active study in the community. The investigation at LLNL focused on laser isotope separation of atomic uranium because of the large demand (> 1000 tonnes/year) and high product enrichment price (> $600/kg of product) for material used as fuel in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors. They also believed that once the technology was fully developed and deployed, it could be applied directly to separating many elements economically on an industrial scale. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at LLNL has an extensive uranium and plutonium program of >$100 M in FY85 and a minor research program for other elements. This report describes the AVLIS program conducted covering the following topics; candidate elements; separative work units; spectroscopic selectivety; major systems; facilities; integrated process model;multivariable sensitivety studies; world market; and US enrichment enterprise. 23 figs. (AT)

  10. Industrial process heat data analysis and evaluation. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A; Gee, R; May, K

    1984-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has modeled seven of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored solar Industrial Process Heat (IPH) field experiments and has generated thermal performance predictions for each project. Additionally, these performance predictions have been compared with actual performance measurements taken at the projects. Predictions were generated using SOLIPH, an hour-by-hour computer code with the capability for modeling many types of solar IPH components and system configurations. Comparisons of reported and predicted performance resulted in good agreement when the field test reliability and availability was high. Volume I contains the main body of the work; objective model description, site configurations, model results, data comparisons, and summary. Volume II contains complete performance prediction results (tabular and graphic output) and computer program listings.

  11. Exposures to carbon dioxide in the poultry processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D.E.; Smith, M.S.

    1988-12-01

    The use of dry ice has increased dramatically in poultry processing plants because of changes in the fast food industry. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in four such plants were measured and were found to exceed the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Level (50,000 ppm) inside holding coolers where ventilation is poor. In other areas, where dry ice is delivered to poultry packages, time-weighted average exposures can exceed the threshold limit value of 5000 ppm by substantial margins, even if local exhaust ventilation systems are present. Reports of adverse health effects from carbon dioxide exposure and various control measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding sampling and analytical techniques also are presented. Operators of poultry plants where dry ice is used need to recognize the occupational hazards of exposure to carbon dioxide.

  12. Industrial process heat data analysis and evaluation. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A; Gee, R; May, K

    1984-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has modeled seven of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored solar Industrial Process Heat (IPH) field experiments and has generated thermal performance predictions for each project. Additionally, these performance predictions have been compared with actual performance measurements taken at the projects. Predictions were generated using SOLIPH, an hour-by-hour computer code with the capability for modeling many types of solar IPH components and system configurations. Comparisons of reported and predicted performance resulted in good agreement when the field test reliability and availability was high. Volume I contains the main body of the work: objective, model description, site configurations, model results, data comparisons, and summary. Volume II contains complete performance prediction results (tabular and graphic output) and computer program listings.

  13. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2015-02-01

    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented. PMID:25451772

  14. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  15. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, W.P. )

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  16. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics. PMID:12448345

  17. Evaluation of separation and purification processes in the antibiotic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Lee, D.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    The different separation and purification processes for three major types of antibiotics, Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Tetracyclines will be discussed. All antibiotic, processing plants contain two majors sections, a relatively small and highly specialized fermentation section and a very large (60-80% of the plant) separation and purification section. The fermentation sections for the different antibiotics are essentially identical, except for differences in growth media and operating variables, but there are vast differences in the separation and purification sections. Several different separation methods are used including filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, precipitation, extraction, chromatography and various membrane methods. Variables affecting the specific separation and purification configurations include final fermentation broth concentration, by-product formed during fermentation, the physical properties and molecular structure of the various antibiotics and special purification requirements. Necessary reductions in the separation and purification processes required for rebuilding the antibiotic industry after a national emergency are discussed along with several relatively new separation/purification methods that hold great promise for effecting these reductions, chromatography, supercritical fluid extraction (SCF), and membranes. 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. [Behavior of selected veterinary preparations during industrial milk processing].

    PubMed

    Konrad, H; Gabro, T; Dedek, W

    1977-01-01

    Since the extensive veterinary-hygienic treatment of herds with insecticidal veterinary preparations may lead to milk contamination, the authors studied the behaviour of some active agents (butonate, dichlorvos (DDVP), trichlorphon, naled, carbaryl, hexachloro-p-xylene and rafoxanide) during the industrial processing of milk to fluid milk, cream, butter, cheese and milk powder, and during the storage of these products. Small-scale model experiments served to investigate the effects of pasteurization (74 and 95 degrees C.), separation and churning as well as of the processing to milk powder and cheese. Analyses for residues were performed by thin-layer chromatography, colorimetry and with the aid of the isotope technique. From the viewpoint of milk processing, the use of TCP and, in part, that of DDVP may be considered as less critical due to their hydrophilic properties and rapid degradation. In view of their lipophilic behaviour, the use of butonate, carbaryl, rafoxanide and hexachloro-p-xylene as active agents in veterinary preparations for milk cows must be regarded as problematic. The utilization of naled is also problematic due to the fact that the toxicology of its metabolites is not yet sufficiently known. PMID:404556

  19. Device processing of wide bandgap semiconductors - challenges and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    The wide gap materials SiC, GaN and to a lesser extent diamond are attracting great interest for high power/high temperature electronics. There are a host of device processing challenges presented by these materials because of their physical and chemical stability, including difficulty in achieving stable, low contact resistances, especially for one conductivity type, absence of convenient wet etch recipes, generally slow dry etch rates, the high temperatures needed for implant activation, control of suitable gate dielectrics and the lack of cheap, large diameter conducting and semi-insulating substrates. The relatively deep ionization levels of some of the common dopants (Mg, in GaN; B, Al in SiC; P in diamond) means that carrier densities may be low at room temperature even if the impurity is electrically active - this problem will be reduced at elevated temperature, and thus contact resistances will be greatly improved provided the metallization is stable and reliable. Some recent work with CoSi{sub x} on SiC and W-alloys on GaN show promise for improved ohmic contacts. The issue of unintentional hydrogen passivation of dopants will also be covered - this leads to strong increases in resistivity of p-SiC and GaN, but to large decreases in resistivity of diamond. Recent work on development of wet etches has found recipes for AlN (KOH), while photochemical etching of SiC and GaN has been reported. In the latter cases p-type materials is not etched, which can be a major liability in some devices. The dry etch results obtained with various novel reactors, including ICP, ECR and LE4 will be compared - the high ion densities in the former techniques produce the highest etch rates for strongly-bonded materials, but can lead to preferential loss of N from the nitrides and therefore to a highly conducting surface. This is potentially a major problem for fabrication of dry etched, recessed gate FET structures.

  20. Industrial production of clotting factors: Challenges of expression, and choice of host cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sampath R

    2015-07-01

    The development of recombinant forms of blood coagulation factors as safer alternatives to plasma derived factors marked a major advance in the treatment of common coagulation disorders. These are complex proteins, mostly enzymes or co-enzymes, involving multiple post-translational modifications, and therefore are difficult to express. This article reviews the nature of the expression challenges for the industrial production of these factors, vis-à-vis the translational and post-translational bottlenecks, as well as the choice of host cell lines for high-fidelity production. For achieving high productivities of vitamin K dependent proteins, which include factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X, and protein C, host cell limitation of γ-glutamyl carboxylation is a major bottleneck. Despite progress in addressing this, involvement of yet unidentified protein(s) impedes a complete cell engineering solution. Human factor VIII expresses at very low levels due to limitations at several steps in the protein secretion pathway. Protein and cell engineering, vector improvement and alternate host cells promise improvement in the productivity. Production of Von Willebrand factor is constrained by its large size, complex structure, and the need for extensive glycosylation and disulfide-bonded oligomerization. All the licensed therapeutic factors are produced in CHO, BHK or HEK293 cells. While HEK293 is a recent adoption, BHK cells appear to be disfavored. PMID:26099845

  1. Stress Responses of the Industrial Workhorse Bacillus licheniformis to Osmotic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Tamara; Voigt, Birgit; Meyer, Hanna; Bleisteiner, Monika; Muntel, Jan; Jürgen, Britta; Albrecht, Dirk; Becher, Dörte; Lalk, Michael; Evers, Stefan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Putzer, Harald; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Bremer, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis can be found widely in nature and it is exploited in industrial processes for the manufacturing of antibiotics, specialty chemicals, and enzymes. Both in its varied natural habitats and in industrial settings, B. licheniformis cells will be exposed to increases in the external osmolarity, conditions that trigger water efflux, impair turgor, cause the cessation of growth, and negatively affect the productivity of cell factories in biotechnological processes. We have taken here both systems-wide and targeted physiological approaches to unravel the core of the osmostress responses of B. licheniformis. Cells were suddenly subjected to an osmotic upshift of considerable magnitude (with 1 M NaCl), and their transcriptional profile was then recorded in a time-resolved fashion on a genome-wide scale. A bioinformatics cluster analysis was used to group the osmotically up-regulated genes into categories that are functionally associated with the synthesis and import of osmostress-relieving compounds (compatible solutes), the SigB-controlled general stress response, and genes whose functional annotation suggests that salt stress triggers secondary oxidative stress responses in B. licheniformis. The data set focusing on the transcriptional profile of B. licheniformis was enriched by proteomics aimed at identifying those proteins that were accumulated by the cells through increased biosynthesis in response to osmotic stress. Furthermore, these global approaches were augmented by a set of experiments that addressed the synthesis of the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine and assessed the growth-enhancing effects of various osmoprotectants. Combined, our data provide a blueprint of the cellular adjustment processes of B. licheniformis to both sudden and sustained osmotic stress. PMID:24348917

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 3. PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The petroleum refining industry is involved primarily in the conversion of crude oil i...

  3. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

  4. A summary of the REVERB challenge: state-of-the-art and remaining challenges in reverberant speech processing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Keisuke; Delcroix, Marc; Gannot, Sharon; Habets, Emanuël A. P.; Haeb-Umbach, Reinhold; Kellermann, Walter; Leutnant, Volker; Maas, Roland; Nakatani, Tomohiro; Raj, Bhiksha; Sehr, Armin; Yoshioka, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the field of reverberant speech signal processing, including both single- and multichannel dereverberation techniques and automatic speech recognition (ASR) techniques that are robust to reverberation. In this paper, we describe the REVERB challenge, which is an evaluation campaign that was designed to evaluate such speech enhancement (SE) and ASR techniques to reveal the state-of-the-art techniques and obtain new insights regarding potential future research directions. Even though most existing benchmark tasks and challenges for distant speech processing focus on the noise robustness issue and sometimes only on a single-channel scenario, a particular novelty of the REVERB challenge is that it is carefully designed to test robustness against reverberation, based on both real, single-channel, and multichannel recordings. This challenge attracted 27 papers, which represent 25 systems specifically designed for SE purposes and 49 systems specifically designed for ASR purposes. This paper describes the problems dealt within the challenge, provides an overview of the submitted systems, and scrutinizes them to clarify what current processing strategies appear effective in reverberant speech processing.

  5. Advances in Linac-Based Technology for Industrial Radiation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    Experience with the Industrial Materials Processing Electron Linear Accelerator, IMPELA, over 30,000 hours of 50 kW operation is reported for three irradiators, two of which are in commercial service. Operations are sufficiently mature that research is now concentrated on split beams, photon conversion, dose monitoring, beam scanning, new shielding designs and QA controls. The efficacy of increasing the incident electron energy on bremsstrahlung converters to 7.5 MeV, as proposed by an IAEA committee, is examined experimentally on an IMPELA accelerator over the energy range 7 MeV to 11 MeV to evaluate conversion efficiency, activation of machine components, converter engineering and the activation of red meat. Above 8 MeV the radioactive isotopes ^38Cl and ^24Na, formed primarily by neutrons produced in a tantalum converter, were clearly identified in the meat, while above 10.5 MeV the radiation from ^13N becomes dominant. Implications for the practicality of processing other high density products are discussed.

  6. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182

  7. Business Education Students' Evaluation of the Benefits and Challenges Confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme in Edo and Delta States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumese, H. A.; Ediagbonya, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students' evaluation of the benefits and challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for…

  8. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer Continental Shelf Waters AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and Environmental... environmentally sound offshore oil and gas exploration and production in deep and ultra-deep OCS waters. Through... will offer a structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry...

  9. Opportunities and Challenges for Water and Wastewater Industries to Provide Exchangeable Services

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, Bethany; Hunsberger, Randolph

    2015-11-13

    Water and wastewater treatment plants and distribution systems use significant amounts of energy, around 2 - 4% of the total electricity used in the US, and their energy use is projected to increase as populations increase and regulations become more stringent. Water and wastewater systems have largely been disconnected from the electric utilities' efforts to improve energy efficiency and provide energy efficiency and provide grid services, likely because their core mission is to provide clean water and treated wastewater. Energy efficiency has slowly crept into the water and wastewater industry as the economic benefit has become more apparent, but there is still potential for significant improvement. Some of the larger, more progressive water utilities are starting to consider providing grid services; however, it remains a foreign concept to many. This report explores intrinsic mechanisms by which the water and wastewater industries can provide exchangeable services, the benefit to the parties involved, and the barriers to implementation. It also highlights relevant case studies and next steps. Although opportunities for increasing process efficiencies are certainly available, this report focuses on the exchangeable services that water and wastewater loads can provide to help maintain grid reliability, keep overall costs down, and increase the penetration of distributed renewables on the electric grid. These services have potential to provide water utilities additional value streams, using existing equipment with modest or negligible upgrade cost.

  10. [The user oriented hospital - chances and challenges for the healthcare industry].

    PubMed

    Borchers, Uwe; Evans, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Hardly any other part of the healthcare sector is under such a pressure to change as the hospital sector. Hospitals are high-performers in coping with complex changes in modernising patient care, process design, quality, cost-effectiveness and service orientation. But, what really makes value to the patient? Currently, this question is raised with new seriousness. Those hospitals which consequently align their portfolio to value based and 'patient driven' healthcare delivery will succeed by both quality and cost-effectiveness. We receive such messages from the USA. In Germany there are on-going and admonishing pleas since the end of the 1990s not to lose sight of the patients' needs while designing new concepts for healthcare delivery. Future challenges imply not only the renaissance of patient centred care, but also demand for a comprehensive user orientation as a key factor to successful hospital modernisation. This is particularly true of concepts of structured, integrated and regional healthcare delivery. But a consequent alignment of healthcare with value for patients clearly exceeds the focus on integrating hospital and outpatient care. In designing new services of coordinated regional healthcare, hospitals gain strategic options for a single-source healthcare delivery. In terms of business development, user orientation does not only yield important impulses for stronger patient centred care, but also opens up chances for better quality and competitive advantages. Nevertheless, it requires a new understanding of innovation processes which considers value for patients and quality of results and outcome as a relevant scale for measuring effects of change management. Finally, the methods of the assessment of user oriented healthcare delivery are an essential challenge for the evaluation of cooperative healthcare services. PMID:22142885

  11. Process Integration Study [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1992-06-01

    This work was carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  12. Private Industry Councils Partner to Meet the Challenge of Change in Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the shift in function of PICs (Private Industry Councils) from overseeing training programs for unemployed workers to developing the skills of the entire work force in local communities. Analyzes the relationship between community colleges and Private Industry Councils. (JDI)

  13. Progressive Fresh-cut Technology: Challenges Facing the Industry and Scientific Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fresh-cut produce industry has been rapidly expanding in the last two decades, and is one of the fastest growing food industries in the United States. Freshness, nutrition, and convenience are major factors attributed to the large consumer demands and rapid industry expansion. However, the rec...

  14. Science, technology and the industrialization of laser-driven processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. I.; Paisner, J. A.

    1985-05-01

    Members of the laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) potential applications of lasers in industry, some of which are: isotope separation, cleanup of radioactive waste, trace impurity removal, selective chemical reactions, photochemical activation or dissociation of gases, control of combustion particulates, crystal and powder chemistry, and laser induced biochemistry are reviewed. Many of these areas are currently under active study in the community. The investigation at LLNL focused on laser isotope separation of atomic uranium because of the large demand and high product enrichment price for material used as fuel in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors. They also believed that once the technology was fully developed and deployed, it could be applied directly to separating many elements economicprogram at LLNL has an extensive uranium and plutonium program of $100 M in Fy85 and a minor research program for other elements. This report describes the AVLIS program conducted covering the following topics: candidate elements, separative work units, sepctroscopic selectivety, major systems, facilities, integrated process model, multivariable sensitivity studies, world market, and US enrichment enterprise.

  15. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Trifold

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save energy and money in industrial process heating systems by making some changes in equipment, operations, and maintenance.

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the catalog and identifies a number of expected uses f...

  17. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  18. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Julius A; Patnaik, Ashis

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues. PMID:23125962

  19. Zero-discharge: An application of process water recovery technology in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, S.; Moore, B.

    1999-07-01

    Water is a valuable natural resource and the food processing industry has been among the leading industrial water users in California. With support from a major northern California utility and the California Institute for Food and Agricultural Research, Tri Valley Growers (TVG) has successfully installed the first US energy-efficient zero-discharge process water reclamation system at its Oberti Olive processing facility in Madera, California. The advanced zero-discharge system is the largest application in the world of membrane filtration for recovering water from a food processing plant. Previously, the plant discharged an average of 1 million gallons of salty wastewater (brine) a day into 160 acres of evaporation ponds. However, new environmental regulations made the ponds obsolete. The cost of process water disposal using alternate biotreatment system was prohibitive and would make continued operation uneconomical with plant closure and job loss the likely outcome. Through comprehensive pilot testing and subsequent system design and operational optimization, the advance membrane filtration system with pre- and post-treatment now recovers about 80% of the process liquid in high priority form of water for subsequent reuse at the plant. The solids produced in olive processing, plus concentrated process liquids are used off-site as an animal feed component, thus achieving the plant zero-discharge scheme. The successful implementation of the zero discharge system at the Oberti Olive processing plant has produced energy saving of 3,500,000 kilowatthours and 244,000 therms of gas a year of power as compared to the alternate biotreatment system. It also prevented plant closure and job loss. In addition, water conservation and the discontinuation of evaporation pond use is beneficial to the environment. The project was applauded by the California Environmental Protection Agency as a positive step forward for environmental technology in the agricultural sector in

  20. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 22. THE PHOSPHATE ROCK AND BASIC FERTILIZER MATERIALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. The phosphate rock and basic fertilizer materials industry produces primarily large-tonnage quantities of both finished fertilizers and basic intermediates for fertilizers. The ind...

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 28 PRIMARY ZINC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary zinc industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of zinc, co-products, and by-produc...

  2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 27 PRIMARY LEAD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary lead industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of lead, co-products, and by-produc...

  3. Feminist Group Process in Seminar Classes: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty J.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, I describe my experience applying the principles of feminist group process in a senior level social science course. I begin by providing an overview of feminist pedagogy as an approach to teaching and learning and discuss the relevance of feminist group process within this model. I then highlight the core components of feminist…

  4. Web Centric Education--A Challenge for Process Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, John D.; Weir, George R. S.; Wilson, John N.

    This paper draws together current developments in computer-based education (CBE) with concepts from business process re-engineering. Topics discussed include: (1) re-engineering models, including the spectrum of approaches ranging from radical restructuring to evolutionary improvement, the stages of business process re-engineering (BPR), and…

  5. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  6. Wyoming's industrial siting permit process and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of management of industrial residuals can be reduced through a rational system for siting and planning major industrial facilities. In the United States, Wyoming has moved in the direction of establishing a one-stop permitting system that provides important information for air and water quality planning and solid waste management with a minimum of regulatory overlap. This paper describes Wyoming's Industrial Development Information and Siting Act of 1975 and suggests ways in which the Wyoming permitting system can be improved and applied elsewhere.

  7. Large scale industrialized cell expansion: producing the critical raw material for biofabrication processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Starly, Binil

    2015-01-01

    Cellular biomanufacturing technologies are a critical link to the successful application of cell and scaffold based regenerative therapies, organs-on-chip devices, disease models and any products with living cells contained in them. How do we achieve production level quantities of the key ingredient-'the living cells' for all biofabrication processes, including bioprinting and biopatterning? We review key cell expansion based bioreactor operating principles and how 3D culture will play an important role in achieving production quantities of billions to even trillions of anchorage dependent cells. Furthermore, we highlight some of the challenges in the field of cellular biomanufacturing that must be addressed to achieve desired cellular yields while adhering to the key pillars of good manufacturing practices-safety, purity, stability, potency and identity. Biofabrication technologies are uniquely positioned to provide improved 3D culture surfaces for the industrialized production of living cells. PMID:26539629

  8. Steam jet ejectors for the process industries. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Power, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Steam jet ejectors were for many years the workhorse of the chemical process industries for producing vacuum. With increasing emphasis on stricter pollution control, their use was curtailed. There are still many applications, however, such as those with large capacity requirements, where ejectors are the only equipment that can produce sufficient vacuum. Chapter 1 is a short overview on how to use the text. Chapter 2 discusses what an ejector is and how it works. How ejector stages work is reviewed in Chapter 3. Engineering calculations for ejector stages is thoroughly discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, contact and surface condensers are reviewed, and calculation procedures are presented. The various types of pressure control are discussed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 is an excellent review of installation of ejector vacuum systems. The final chapter of Part 2 (Chapters 3--8) thoroughly covers all aspects of operation, testing, troubleshooting and maintenance. Part 3, consisting of two chapters, is devoted to specifying and purchasing steam jet ejectors. Part 4 on other ejector applications and upgrading ejector usage also consists of two chapters. Chapter 11 reviews steam-jet refrigeration, steam-jet and gas-jet compressors, liquid jet eductors, desuperheaters, special design situations, and designing one's own systems. Upgrading of existing ejector procedures and hardware is reviewed in Chapter 12. The 12 appendixes cover: physical properties of common fluids; handy vacuum engineering data and rules of thumb; SI unit conversions; sizing air and steam metering orifices for testing; drill sizes; ejector operating costs and design optimization; forms for ejector calculations, tests, and inspections; instructions for preparing ejector specifications; test kit contents list; ejector manufacturers and suppliers of referenced hardware and information; and failure modes and symptoms.

  9. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  10. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ``sense`` NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ``see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil`` until they are forced into ``reactive`` environmental management, rather than ``proactive`` management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management.

  11. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  12. Challenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

  13. Challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Tabrizi, Faranak Jabbarzadeh; Behshid, Mojghan; Lotfi, Mojghan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing process is a scientific approach in the provision of qualified nursing cares. However, in practice, the implementation of this process is faced with numerous challenges. With the knowledge of the challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process, the nursing processes can be developed appropriately. Due to the lack of comprehensive information on this subject, the current study was carried out to assess the key challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process. Materials and Methods: To achieve and review related studies on this field, databases of Iran medix, SID, Magiran, PUBMED, Google scholar, and Proquest were assessed using the main keywords of nursing process and nursing process systematic review. The articles were retrieved in three steps including searching by keywords, review of the proceedings based on inclusion criteria, and final retrieval and assessment of available full texts. Results: Systematic assessment of the articles showed different challenges in implementation of the nursing process. Intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process, different views of the process, lack of knowledge and awareness among nurses related to the execution of process, supports of managing systems, and problems related to recording the nursing process were the main challenges that were extracted from review of literature. Conclusions: On systematically reviewing the literature, intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process has been identified as the main challenge in nursing process. To achieve the best strategy to minimize the challenge, in addition to preparing facilitators for implementation of nursing process, intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process, different views of the process, and forming teams of experts in nursing education are recommended for internalizing the nursing process among nurses. PMID:26257793

  14. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. PMID:26277268

  15. Industrialization of radiation-induced emulsion polymerization ----technological process and its advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhicheng, Zhang; Manwei, Zhang

    1993-07-01

    A technological process for industrialization of radiation induced emulsion polymerization was introduced briefly. A batch process rather than continuous one was adopted in the industrial-scale production. The advantages of radiation induced emulsion polymerization were described in comparison with chemical initiated process.

  16. Life Cycle Inventory analysis of degreasing processes in the metal-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Finkbeiner, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Kreisel, G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1986 degreasing processes in the German metal-processing industry contributed about 70,000 t to the emissions of chlorinated C{sub 1}-C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons (trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane). Due to legal requirements these emissions decreased to roughly 18,000 t in 1992. This was achieved by operating modern, closed-chamber plants and substitution of halogenated solvents by aqueous cleansing agents or non-halogenated hydrocarbons. The reduction of toxic emissions and Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) leads to a shift of environmental impacts towards higher energy consumption, emission of waste water and VOCs with Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP). A Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was carried out to compare the integral environmental impact of the three main degreasing processes which cover about 90% of the German market. In their study the authors showed the feasibility to apply the established LCI-method for products to processes, though difficulties arise especially in the step of the goal definition, e.g. the definition of the use of the process and the functional unit is not as straightforward as for most products. Purpose, scope, system boundaries, deliberate omissions, process trees and data quality of the study are discussed. The chosen method was applied to representative examples of each process. Data of the LCI are given and a preliminary impact assessment presented.

  17. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  18. Lend an Ear....And Other Technological Challenges at the Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Philip; Anderson, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Describes some experiences of 30 teachers who met at the Tsongas Industrial History Center in Lowell, Massachusetts, to develop motivating, interdisciplinary activities for middle school students around science, technology, and industry. Discusses interdisciplinary problem solving using the design loop and presents six problems related to corn and…

  19. Evaluation Bias in Prior Learning Assessment Challenge Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, Dan; Wells, Sue

    In 1993, the Centre for Instructional Development at Centennial College, Ontario, Canada received funding to investigate the effects of student diversity on prior learning assessment evaluation processes and to develop guidelines to respond to any effects demonstrated. A review of the literature identified six barriers to equitable evaluation:…

  20. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

  2. Current conceptual challenges in the study of rhythm processing deficits

    PubMed Central

    Tranchant, Pauline; Vuvan, Dominique T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD) is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher's ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization. PMID:26106287

  3. Current conceptual challenges in the study of rhythm processing deficits.

    PubMed

    Tranchant, Pauline; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD) is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher's ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization. PMID:26106287

  4. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  5. CD and defect improvement challenges for immersion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Keisuke; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiji; Ishitani, Seiji; Morita, Akihiko; Kim, Jeonghun; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2009-03-01

    The intention of this study is to develop an immersion lithography process using advanced track solutions to achieve world class critical dimension (CD) and defectivity performance in a state of the art manufacturing facility. This study looks at three important topics for immersion lithography: defectivity, CD control, and wafer backside contamination. The topic of defectivity is addressed through optimization of coat, develop, and rinse processes as well as implementation of soak steps and bevel cleaning as part of a comprehensive defect solution. Develop and rinse processing techniques are especially important in the effort to achieve a zero defect solution. Improved CD control is achieved using a biased hot plate (BHP) equipped with an electrostatic chuck. This electrostatic chuck BHP (eBHP) is not only able to operate at a very uniform temperature, but it also allows the user to bias the post exposure bake (PEB) temperature profile to compensate for systematic within-wafer (WiW) CD non-uniformities. Optimized CD results, pre and post etch, are presented for production wafers. Wafer backside particles can cause focus spots on an individual wafer or migrate to the exposure tool's wafer stage and cause problems for a multitude of wafers. A basic evaluation of the cleaning efficiency of a backside scrubber unit located on the track was performed as a precursor to a future study examining the impact of wafer backside condition on scanner focus errors as well as defectivity in an immersion scanner.

  6. Understanding the Challenges in the Transition from Film Radiography in the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Moran, Traci L.; Nove, Carol A.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2012-09-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) applications in the nuclear power industry using film radiography are shrinking due to the advent of modern digital imaging technologies and advances in alternative inspection methods that do not present an ionizing radiation hazard. Technologies that are used routinely in the medical industry for patient diagnosis are being adapted to industrial NDE applications including the detection and characterization of defects in welds. From the user perspective, non-film inspection techniques provide several advantages over film techniques. It is anticipated that the shift away from the application of film radiography in the nuclear power industry represents an irreversible trend. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has noted this trend in the U.S. nuclear power industry and will be working to ensure that the effectiveness and reliability of component inspections is not compromised by this transition. Currently, specific concerns are associated with 1) obtaining a fundamental understanding of how inspection effectiveness and reliability may be impacted by this transition and 2) ensuring training standards and qualifications remain compatible with modern industrial radiographic practice. This paper discusses recent trends in industrial radiography and assesses their advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of nuclear power plant component inspections.

  7. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application. PMID:26403818

  8. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  9. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  10. Features of deactivation of industrial catalysts in the Claus process

    SciTech Connect

    Kasumov, F.B.; Dzhafarova, E.M.; Dzhafarova, S.A.; Nadalieva, Yu.R.; Kerimov, I.Ya.

    1993-10-20

    The deactivation degree of samples of industrial alumina Claus catalyst after 3 yr usage has been determined. The samples have been selected from certain layers at four points of the catalyst volume under the continuous converter operation by the specially constructed device.

  11. Managing the Industrial Labor Relations Process in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 25 essays on the subject of industrial relations divided into the following parts: Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Context of Collective Bargaining in American Colleges and Universities" (Kenneth P. Mortimer); "Transformation of the U.S. Collective Bargaining System: The Impact on Higher Education" (James P.…

  12. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  13. HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the dispo...

  14. ACID RAIN MITAGATION STUDY. VOLUME III: INDUSTRIAL BOILERS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 4-month study of existing industrial sources of SO2 emissions in the Acid Rain Mitigation Study (ARMS) region, including all the states east of the Mississippi River, as well as MN, IA, MO, AR, LA, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, and TX. Study aims were to: (1) ...

  15. Process Innovation and Changes in Industrial Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    American industry in the 19th century switched from wood to coal as its primary energy resource. The history of this switch is reviewed, along with the history of preceding similar trends in Europe and later trends in the switch from coal to oil and gas. (Author/MA)

  16. [Innovation in pharmaceutical and health biotechnology industries: challenges for a virtuous agenda].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marco; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries comprise a major production subsystem of the health industrial complex in Brazil. It stands out for both its economic importance and its prominent role in developing new technologies in strategic areas. Strengthening the local production of generic drugs in the last decade has significantly increased the number of Brazilian companies in the local pharmaceutical market and has been an important turning point for this industry's growth. However, there remain major structural bottlenecks both in terms of production and continuous innovation. These bottlenecks reveal the high vulnerability of the Brazilian National Health System and point to the need of public policies that promote strengthening the production base and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry and that at the same time meet health-related social demands in health in Brazil. PMID:23532311

  17. Optical metrology solutions for 10nm films process control challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Vaid, Alok; Venkataraman, Kartik; Lenahan, Michael; Seipp, Steven; Fang, Fang; Saxena, Shweta; Hu, Dawei; Yoon, Nam Hee; Song, Da; Camp, Janay; Ren, Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Controlling thickness and composition of gate stack layers in logic and memory devices is critical to ensure transistor performance meets requirements, especially at 10nm node due to the 3-d geometry of devices and tight process budget. It has become necessary to measure and control each layer in the gate stack before and after dielectric and metal gate deposition sequences. A typical gate stack can have 5-7 layers including the interfacial layer, high-k dielectric, metal gate stack, work function layers, and cap layers. Similarly, PMOS channel strain is controlled using a graded SixGe1-x stack grown epitaxially over fins in the source/drain regions. This graded stack can have 2-4 layers of different thicknesses and Ge concentrations. This paper discusses the benefit of using spectroscopic ellipsometry with multiple angles of incidence to accurately and precisely determine the thickness of individual layers in critical gate layer stacks at various process steps on planar and grating surfaces. We will also show the benefit of using an advanced laser-based ellipsometer, for ultra-precise measurement of the gate interfacial layer oxides.

  18. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement. PMID:25673269

  19. Entrepreneurial Processes in an Emergent Resource Industry Community Embeddedness in Maine's Sea Urchin Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The impact of economic changes on communities is not a new subject for rural sociology. However, a growing literature examines the impact of communal relations on economic action and organization. This paper contributes to this literature with an examination of entrepreneurship in an emergent resource industry ? the northwest Atlantic sea urchin…

  20. From Web Directories to Ontologies: Natural Language Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaihrayeu, Ilya; Sun, Lei; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Pan, Wei; Ju, Qi; Chi, Mingmin; Huang, Xuanjing

    Hierarchical classifications are used pervasively by humans as a means to organize their data and knowledge about the world. One of their main advantages is that natural language labels, used to describe their contents, are easily understood by human users. However, at the same time, this is also one of their main disadvantages as these same labels are ambiguous and very hard to be reasoned about by software agents. This fact creates an insuperable hindrance for classifications to being embedded in the Semantic Web infrastructure. This paper presents an approach to converting classifications into lightweight ontologies, and it makes the following contributions: (i) it identifies the main NLP problems related to the conversion process and shows how they are different from the classical problems of NLP; (ii) it proposes heuristic solutions to these problems, which are especially effective in this domain; and (iii) it evaluates the proposed solutions by testing them on DMoz data.

  1. Challenges to natural process restoration: common dam removal management concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. J.; Tullos, D. D.; Bellmore, J. R.; Bountry, J.; Connolly, P. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Practitioners must make dam removal decisions in spite of uncertainty about physical and ecological responses. This can result in implementing structural controls or other interventions at a site to avoid anticipated negative effects, sometimes even if a given concern is not warranted. We used a newly available dam removal science database and other information sources to explore seven frequently raised issues we call "Common Management Concerns" (CMCs), investigating their occurrence and the contributing biophysical controls. We describe these controls to enable managers to better assess if further analyses are warranted at their sites before interventions are planned and implemented. The CMCs addressed are: rate and degree of reservoir sediment erosion; drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure; excessive channel incision; downstream sediment aggradation; elevated turbidity; colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants; and expansion of invasive fish. The relative dearth of case studies available for many CMCs limited the generalizable conclusions we could draw about prevalence, but the available data and established understanding of relevant processes revealed important biophysical phenomena controlling the likelihood of CMC occurrence. To assess CMC risk, we recommend managers concurrently evaluate if site conditions suggest the ecosystem, infrastructure, or other human uses will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in common, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other important factors like watershed disturbance history, natural variability, and dam removal tradeoffs. Better understanding CMCs and how to evaluate them will enable practitioners to avoid unnecessary interventions and thus maximize opportunities for working with natural processes to restore river

  2. Sentinel-1 InSAR processing: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Hooper, A. J.; Walters, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Radar interferometry has been successfully applied to measure ground deformation for over two decades. However, until now the data have been acquired on an ad-hoc basis. The recently-launched Sentinel-1 mission is the first to acquire global data systematically. Moreover, the default mode of radar acquisition for Sentinel-1 is the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS). In this new acquisition mode the steering of the radar antenna in the along-track direction induces that certain areas of the image are illuminated more than once and any surface deformation projects with a different line-of-sight unit vector across the scene. The consequence is that the scanning feature of Sentinel-1 TOPS mode make interpretation and analysis of differential interferograms more complex to process and interpret than the traditionally use of radar interferometry. However, at the same time, it also presents a number of opportunities such as redundant data, and increased sensitivity to along track displacement. Here, we present in detail the basic processing steps which differ from the traditional stripmap mode interferometry, and we illustrate some of the special features with actual results of significant deformation events: the 2014-2015 eruption of Pico do Fogo volcano and The 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. Here, we show that the new Sentinel-1 TOPS-mode interferometry can be used to estimate relevant geophysical parameters, and most applications should not be affected by the new mode. The planned 20 year Sentinel-1 mission, provides access to a wealth of open and free high-quality radar data that should greatly improve our understanding of deformation phenomena in the future.

  3. [Challenges and Outcomes of the Process for Achieving Certification].

    PubMed

    Kadosaka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Reiko; Yoshika, Masamichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Clinical laboratory tests have been indispensable for medical services in recent years, and such a situation is associated with the offering of accurate test results by clinical laboratory units. A large number of facilities wishing to achieve ISO 15189 Certification follow preparatory procedures with support from consulting companies. However, in our facility, a limited budget did not allow us to use such services. As a solution, we participated in the Future Lab Session in OSAKA (FLS), a support group for the achievement of ISO 15189 Certification, when it was organized. Aiming to extensively cover and fulfill its responsibility for all processes, including clinical interpretations of the results obtained through patient preparation, in order to continuously offer high-quality test results to clinicians, our clinical laboratory unit underwent examination for certification, and consequently realized the necessity of third-party evaluation. The provision of laboratory services, fully complying with these standards, contributes to medical safety, in addition to accuracy improvement. Although the certification and its maintenance are costly, it is sufficiently cost-effective to achieve it, when focusing on improved efficiency and the enhanced quality and safety of medical services after work standardization. PMID:27311281

  4. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam). [NASA/industry relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Forty additional statements were added to the list of 150 problem/opportunity statements identifying possibilities for transfer of NASA technology to various manufacturing industries. Selected statements that are considered to have a high potential for transfer in the 1978 program year are presented in the form of goals and milestones. The transfer of a flux used in the stud welding of aluminum is reported. Candidate RTOP programs are identified.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME VIII. ALUMINA/ALUMINUM INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 8 deals with the alumina/aluminum industry. The report examines three new process developm...

  6. OVERVIEW OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL MEASURES AND PROBLEMS IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conducting the assessment of the pollution sources and control measures utilized by the food processing industries (those industries listed under SIC 20), the water pollution control, air pollution control and solid waste management practices of 19 specific food processing ind...

  7. Dynamics of industrial waste stabilization pond treatment process.

    PubMed

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Huddar, Basvaraj D; Hosetti, Basaling B

    2010-10-01

    Waste stabilization pond is an artificial ecosystem; its performance is governed by the nature of the biological communities it supports. These are primarily used as secondary effluent treatment plants to polish the effluents. However, they are also used to treat the raw sewage and industrial effluents. In the present study, the functioning of a waste stabilization pond system from an industrial complex located in Goa was taken up. The raw waste released by the industrial complex and the final effluent released from the stabilization ponds were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, phosphate content, chlorophyll content, and algal diversity and density. Also, the activities of the enzymes catalase and phosphatase were measured. The study was carried out for a period of 1 year and the data covering pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons are tabulated. The study revealed that DO, chlorophyll content, and algal count were maximum during pre-monsoon when compared to monsoon and post-monsoon. Similarly, maximum enzymatic activity was recorded during pre-monsoon and also maximum removal of biological oxygen demand and phosphate was recorded during this period than in monsoon and post-monsoon. PMID:19731057

  8. The emerging role of large eddy simulation in industrial practice: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hutton, A G

    2009-07-28

    That class of methods for treating turbulence gathered under the banner of large eddy simulation is poised to enter mainstream engineering practice. There is a growing body of evidence that such methods offer a significant stretch in industrial capability over solely Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based modelling. A key enabling development will be the adaptation of innovative processor architectures, resulting from the huge investment in the gaming industry, to engineering analysis. This promises to reduce the computational burden to practicable levels. However, there are many lessons to be learned from the history of the past three decades. These lessons should be analysed in order to inform, if not modulate, the unfolding of this next cycle in the development of industrial modelling capability. This provides the theme for this paper, which is written very much from the standpoint of the informed practitioner rather than the innovator; someone with a strong motivation to improve significantly the competence with which industrial turbulent flows are treated. It is asserted that the reliable deployment of the methodology in the industrial context will prove to be a knowledge-based discipline, as was the case with RANS-based modelling, if not more so. The community at large should collectively make great efforts to put in place that knowledge base from which best practice advice can be derived at the very start of this cycle of advancement and continue to enrich it as the cycle progresses. PMID:19531504

  9. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  10. Fundamentals of Alloy Solidification Applied to Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Solidification processes and phenomena, segregation, porosity, gravity effects, fluid flow, undercooling, as well as processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space, now available on space shuttle flights were discussed.

  11. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  12. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  13. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The SHOP Process: An Example of Industrial Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, Bryan; Wittcoff, Harold

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Shell Higher Olefins Process (SHOP) in the manufacture of primary C11-C15 fatty alcohols. Offers examples and explanations of the four-step process. Gives uses for reaction products. (ML)

  14. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  15. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  16. Photovoltaic industry process from 1980 to mid 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of this report is to describe PV insustry developments in 1985 and present forecasts for 1986. Information is presented on a regional basis (United States, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company confidential data. Information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of technical literature and direct contacts with many PV manufacturers. prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those from other sources published in the United States and those supplied by Japanese industry through their solar energy organization.

  17. The Failure of Eco-Efficiency to Guarantee Sustainability: Future Challenges for Industrial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2004-12-01

    Western industrialized societies are inherently unsustainable in their present form because they depend almost exclusively on a finite supply of non-renewable minerals and fossil fuels. In addition, the resulting wastes cause various environmental problems ranging from widespread ecosystem disruptions to global warming. The most common response to these problems has been to promote technological improvements in eco-efficiency, which may be defined as ''adding maximum value with minimum resource use and minimum pollution'' (Welford 1997). While constructive, improvements in eco-efficiency alone will not guarantee sustainability of industrialized societies because the limited supplies of non-renewable minerals cannot be extended indefinitely via recycling and substitution, and a transition to renewable and nuclear energy sources would result in significant negative environmental impacts, particularly if deployed on a large scale. In addition, according to the second law of thermodynamics, industrial production technologies have inherently unavoidable environmental impacts. Finally, any hard won improvements in eco-efficiency will soon be negated if growth in population and consumption is allowed to continue. Consequently, long-term industrial sustainability can only be achieved through a transition to a steady-state economy where the total throughput of matter-energy is kept at a constant and sustainable level. This requires not only improvements in eco-efficiency but also a reassessment of fundamental societal values that erroneously equate material consumption and economic growth with well-being and happiness.

  18. Working Partnerships: The Challenge of Creating Mutual Benefit for Academics and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruss, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Networks and partnerships between higher education institutions and industry have been identified as a primary means of addressing higher education's role in economic development, globally and in South Africa. This article draws on one component of a Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) study to provide an empirically based overview of the…

  19. A year of challenges. [1991 economics of the independent power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1991-11-01

    This article examines the performance of the independent power industry during 1991. The topics discussed in the article include financial growth, market opportunities, the growth of demand-side management, the world market, clean air rules, Public Utility Holding Company Act revision, energy taxes, and technology trends including cogeneration, waste-to-energy, hydropower, windpower and solar.

  20. Opportunities and Challenges for Development of a Mature Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Industry (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the current status of the CPV industry and is updated from previous versions to include information from the last year. New information presented at the CPV-8 conference is included along with the addition of new companies that have announced their interest in CPV, and estimates of production volumes for 2011 and 2012.

  1. Digital Dividend Aware Business Models for the Creative Industries: Challenges and Opportunities in EU Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossiavelou, Vassiliki

    EU counties have a historically unique opportunity to enable their creative industries to promote the knowledge societies, applying new business models to their media content and networks markets, that are digital dividend (DD) aware. This new extra-media gatekeeping factor could shape new alliances and co operations among the member states and the global media markets, as well.

  2. University-Industry Partnerships: Meeting the Challenge with a High-Tech Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimtz, Lynn E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Cultural and organizational issues arising in university-industry partnerships are explored, outlining benefits and risks to both parties. A short-term partnership between Southern Illinois University and the high-tech Hewlett Packard Company is examined, including its origins, the nature of the contract, communication between cultures, time…

  3. Challenges in Providing e-Learning Solutions in the Regulated Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, James L.

    Regulatory agencies around the world require that those involved in producing pharmaceutical products be adequately trained. E-learning can accomplish this, providing consistent delivery and learner assessment. However, there are some unique expectations that regulators and the pharmaceutical industry have of e-learning solutions. These include…

  4. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  5. Ethical issues in the relationships with industry: an ongoing challenge. New Guidelines open for public comment.

    PubMed

    Komesaroff, P A

    2005-11-01

    Interactions between medical practitioners and industry have a profound impact on medical decision-making. It is important to establish clear guidelines to ensure that the values of clinical care, the welfare of society and science prevail over commercial imperatives and monetary values, The Royal Australasian Collage of Physicians has revised its Guidelines for the relationships involving medical practitioners and industry to provide practical assistance to health care professionals in the understanding and management of their interactions with industry. The Guidelines are advisory but provide argument and references to support their conclusions. They outline a practical approach to the management of dualities and conflicts of interests. Among other things, they recommend that gifts should be rejected, including those of small value and entertainment expenses. They argue that industry sponsorship to attend meetings should be restricted to cases where formal contributions are being made, that drug samples should not be accepted from pharmaceutical representatives and that endorsements of specific products and "advertorials" should be avoided. They propose that clinicians should not actively recruit their own patients into studies in which they are investigators and that it should be a condition of agreement to participate by researchers and approval by ethics committees that there is a commitment to make publicly available all results potentially relevant to clinical practice. The Guidelines are intended to reflect changing community attitudes and will continue to be revised from time to time. PMID:16398836

  6. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  7. Developing a Rural and Regional Science Challenge to Utilise Community and Industry-Based Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Damian; Campbell, Coral

    2009-01-01

    Interest and participation in science in schools has been declining for many years and there is a genuine need to rejuvenate interest in science at the high school level. One possible solution is the completion of challenging science projects which fulfill an authentic purpose in the community. This paper discusses the results of ongoing research…

  8. New Challenging Approaches to Engineering Education: Enhancing University-Industry Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen-Yrjanheikki, Kati; Tukiainen, Taina; Takala, Minna

    2007-01-01

    Globalization, accelerated time-based competition, qualitative dynamics, rapid development of technology and especially Information and Communications Technology (ICT) developments challenge engineering education and capability development of each engineer. The success and the competitiveness of companies are increasingly based on their employees.…

  9. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  10. Process qualification and control in electron beams—requirements, methods, new concepts and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Gratzl, F.; Hanis, D.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper the status of process qualification and control in electron beam irradiation is analyzed in terms of requirements, concepts, methods and challenges for a state-of-the-art process control concept for medical device sterilization. Aspects from process qualification to routine process control are described together with the associated process variables. As a case study the 10 MeV beams at Mediscan GmbH are considered. Process control concepts like statistical process control (SPC) and a new concept to determine process capability is briefly discussed.

  11. Challenge and threat motivation: effects on superficial and elaborative information processing

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Blascovich, James; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993). Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques and Mackie, 2007), we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence) of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993), is high. The implications of these results for the biopsychosocial model model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed. PMID:25352823

  12. Process variation challenges and resolution in the negative-tone develop double patterning for 20nm and below technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sohan S.; Ganta, Lakshmi K.; Chauhan, Vikrant; Wu, Yixu; Singh, Sunil; Ann, Chia; Subramany, Lokesh; Higgins, Craig; Erenturk, Burcin; Srivastava, Ravi; Singh, Paramjit; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David

    2015-03-01

    Immersion based 20nm technology node and below becoming very challenging to chip designers, process and integration due to multiple patterning to integrate one design layer . Negative tone development (NTD) processes have been well accepted by industry experts for enabling technologies 20 nm and below. 193i double patterning is the technology solution for pitch down to 80 nm. This imposes tight control in critical dimension(CD) variation in double patterning where design patterns are decomposed in two different masks such as in litho-etch-litho etch (LELE). CD bimodality has been widely studied in LELE double patterning. A portion of CD tolerance budget is significantly consumed by variations in CD in double patterning. The objective of this work is to study the process variation challenges and resolution in the Negative Tone Develop Process for 20 nm and Below Technology Node. This paper describes the effect of dose slope on CD variation in negative tone develop LELE process. This effect becomes even more challenging with standalone NTD developer process due to q-time driven CD variation. We studied impact of different stacks with combination of binary and attenuated phase shift mask and estimated dose slope contribution individually from stack and mask type. Mask 3D simulation was carried out to understand theoretical aspect. In order to meet the minimum insulator requirement for the worst case on wafer the overlay and critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget margins have slimmed. Besides the litho process and tool control using enhanced metrology feedback, the variation control has other dependencies too. Color balancing between the two masks in LELE is helpful in countering effects such as iso-dense bias, and pattern shifting. Dummy insertion and the improved decomposition techniques [2] using multiple lower priority constraints can help to a great extent. Innovative color aware routing techniques [3] can also help with achieving more uniform density and

  13. Automatic process control for the food industry: an introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to ensure food security in food manufacturing operations automatic process control is desired. With the operation of the automatic process control systems the deviation of the controlled variables from the standards can be consistently perceived, adjusted, and minimized to improve the proce...

  14. The Shadowing Process: A Collaborative Venture between Education and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn-Christopher, Doris A.

    A teacher was hired to conduct onsite training and to document the process of training first-line supervisors in a food-processing plant to improve product output and control product shortage through computers. The method of instruction was the responsibility of both the teacher and the learners, as the teacher learned plant jargon and the…

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME III. STATIONARY ENGINE AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESS COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Stationary engines and industrial process combustion systems--(Application of advanced combustion modifications to industrial process equipment--process heater subscale tests, Pollutant emissions from 'dirty' low and medium - Btu gases, Some aspects of afterburner perf...

  16. Potential for geothermal direct use in the greenhouse, lumber, chemical, and potato and onion processing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.

    1980-09-01

    It has generally been assumed that rising energy costs in industries with high energy needs for low-temperature process heat will induce increasingly widespread geothermal direct use, so long as technical feasibility and cost advantage can be demonstrated. However, few systematic attempts have been made to determine how industry management and technical personnel within these industries view this possibility in light of factors they deem important to their own firms' energy supply choices. This paper discusses that subject in relation to potential commercial geothermal use in the greenhouse, lumber, chemical, and potato and onion processing industries. It is based upon extensive interviews with decision-makers in over 50 firms representing various segments of these industries and is a selected synthesis of material compiled into reports on each industry.

  17. Sustainable development of the cement industry and blended cements to meet ecological challenges.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-05-01

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and--at the same time--uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement. PMID:12806096

  18. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  19. GUIDELINES FOR PARTICULATE SAMPLING IN GASEOUS EFFLUENTS FROM INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists and briefly describes many instruments and techniques used to measure the concentration or size distribution of particles suspended in process streams. Standard (well established) methods are described, as well as some experimental methods and prototype instrumen...

  20. Process for removing sulfur and sulfur compounds from the effluent of industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1981-03-10

    Sulfur dioxide in the stack gas from an industrial process is converted to elemental sulfur in a claus reactor at low temperature to produce sulfur fume. The sulfur is condensed by direct heat transfer with a continuously flowing countercurrent recirculating catalyst and a substantially sulfur dioxide-free gas is discharged. Catalyst and condensed sulfur are fed into the top of a sulfur recovery column and heated in the top of the column by direct heat transfer with a countercurrent stream of recycle gas. The sulfur and catalyst descend into a vaporization zone of the column where sulfur is vaporized. The vaporized sulfur is carried by the recycle gas back towards the top of the column and condensed to a fume by incoming sulfur bearing catalyst. The sulfur fume is carried from the top of the column in cold recycle gas. Hot catalyst from the vaporization section of the column is cooled by recycle gas entering the bottom of the column. Sulfur fume is recovered conventionally. Regenerated catalyst from the column is returned to the sulfur dioxide reactor. Claus plant tail gas with air passes into the base of an incinerator and passes countercurrent to recycled heat transfer solids and is oxidized to convert sulfur and sulfur bearing compounds to sulfur dioxide. The sulfur dioxide is then converted to sulfur in the process just described.

  1. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  2. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Oleynick, Victoria C.; Thrash, Todd M.; LeFew, Michael C.; Moldovan, Emil G.; Kieffaber, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than “perspiration” (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas “fire the soul,” such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society. PMID:25009483

  3. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  4. An assessment of vapor compression heat pump technology and applications for industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    Vapor compression heat pumps (VCHPs) are an energy conservation technology which can utilize the energy from low temperature waste streams to provide higher temperature energy requirements for industrial processes. The VCHPs are driven by electric motors, steam or gas turbines, or gas engines. The use of heat pumps affects the utilization of natural gas for industrial processes, reducing usage through more efficient utilization or increasing usage through the adoption of gas fired prime movers. The current status and potential of vapor compression heat pump technology and applications for industry and impact of this technology on natural gas utilization is assessed. Industrial applications are identified on a four digit SIC level for each of the generic types of closed and open cycle VCHP systems; temperature boosting, dehumidification, mechanical vapor recompression, and low pressure steam production. It is concluded that vapor compression heat pumps offer a promising energy efficient alternative in many industrial processes.

  5. Applications of biochemical processes in geothermal and other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory studies aimed at the development of economically and technically feasible, and environmentally acceptable technology for the disposal of geothermal sludges and wastes have led to the development of biochemical processes which meet the above conditions. A pilot-scale plant has been constructed and used to identify process variables and optimize processing conditions. The total process is flexible and can be used in several modes of operation which include (1) solubilization and removal of many metals, including radionuclides, from brines and sludges; (2) selective removal of a few metals; (3) concentration of metals; (4) recovery of metals; and (5) recovery of salts. The end product is a silica-type material which meets regulatory requirements, while the aqueous phase meets drinking water standards and can be reinjected and/or used for irrigation. Preliminary engineering studies of the metal and salt recovery technologies have indicated that significant cost benefits could be obtained by means of combined processing. Recent accomplishments in the development of new biochemical technologies will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies for Young Children Who Have Behavioral and Sensory Processing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, John

    2005-01-01

    Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies offer a clinical approach to help parents of young children with behavioral and sensory processing strategies. This article introduces the FAB Strategies, clinical strategies developed by the author for understanding and addressing young children's behavioral and sensory processing challenges. The FAB…

  7. The Chandra automated processing system: challenges, design enhancements, and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, David; Grier, John; Masters, Sreelatha

    2006-06-01

    Chandra standard data processing involves hundreds of different types of data products and pipelines. Pipelines are initiated by different types of events or notifications and may depend upon many other pipelines for input data. The Chandra automated processing system (AP) was designed to handle the various notifications and orchestrate the pipeline processing. Certain data sets may require "special" handling that deviates slightly from the standard processing thread. Also, bulk reprocessing of data often involves new processing requirements. Most recently, a new type of processing to produce source catalogs has introduced requirements not anticipated by the original AP design. Managing these complex dependencies and evolving processing requirements in an efficient, flexible, and automated fashion presents many challenges. This paper describes the most significant of these challenges, the AP design changes required to address these issues and the lessons learned along the way.

  8. Photonic signal processing for biomedical and industrial ultrasonic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    1996-12-01

    Ultrasonics has been widely used in medical, industrial, and scientific applications. In medical applications, ultrasonics is an essential diagnostic method in internal medicine, urology, and vascular surgery. High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound (HIFU) and lithotripsy applications use relatively low ultrasonic frequencies (< 100 KHz), while a 5-15 MHz band is typically used in diagnostic external cavity imaging ultrasound. Today, with endoscopic applications in mind, a very high ultrasonic frequency, e.g., 100 MHz, probe with high (> 50%) instantaneous bandwidths is highly desirable as higher frequencies give higher imaging resolution and smaller physical dimensions of the front-end intracavity transducer array. It is desirable to have an ultrasonic energy control system that, with minimal hardware change, is compact and can operate over wide tunable and instantaneous bandwidths a requirement for different ultrasonic medical modes. Today, passive fiber-optics (FO's) coupled with active photonic devices, could lead to this multi-band, ultra-compact ultrasonic system. Hence, we have put forth, perhaps, the first proposal using photonic beamforming and fiber remoting of the front-end ultrasonic probe, for both narrowband1 and wideband2-3 ultrasonic arrays.

  9. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  10. Experiment in Materials Processing Engineering Education: The Industrial Internship Program. Summary Report on Task "A".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinmann, K. J.; And Others

    The final report on a program to encourage industry-university interaction in the materials processing industries presents the findings of various proposed activities, establishes some conclusions, and provides suggestions and recommendations for extending the task to the actual design and conduct of the project. The background in which the…

  11. Mechatronics in monitoring, simulation, and diagnostics of industrial and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnik, Natalia; Dobosz, Marek; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kościelny, Jan M.; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Pałko, Tadeusz; Putz, Barbara; Sitnik, Robert; Wnuk, Paweł; Woźniak, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a number of research projects of the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology in order to illustrate the use of common mechatronics and optomechatronics approach in solving multidisciplinary technical problems. Projects on sensors development, measurement and industrial control systems, multimodal data capture and advance systems for monitoring and diagnostics of industrial processes are presented and discussed.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVATION MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME I. INDUSTRY SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. It covers the following 13 industries: iron and steel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, olefi...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME III. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 3 deals with the iron and steel industry and examines four alternatives: (1) recovery of c...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME IX. TEXTILE INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 9 deals with the textile industry and examines the environmental energy and economic impac...

  15. Workplace Basic Skills in the Metal Casting Industry for World Class Process and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    A workplace basic skills project for the metal casting industry was established jointly by Central Alabama Community College and Robinson Foundry, Inc. Evaluation of the project was made through a commercial test of hourly workers' general literacy level gains, instructor-developed pre- and posttests of mastery of the industrial process and…

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME VI. OLEFINS INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 6 deals with the Olefins Industry and the utilization of naphtha and atmospheric gas oil a...

  17. [Characteristics of industrial noise at the Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2011-01-01

    The level and nature of air pollution were studied in various objects of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. The necessity of introducing technical-hygienic, organizational, and medical measures to reduce the adverse effect of the noise on workers is warranted. PMID:21899100

  18. Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

  19. Regional Transformation Processes through the Universities-Institutions-Industry Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Lucio; Colombelli, Alessandra; Paleari, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is, first, to highlight the role of the relationships between universities, institutions and firms in different regional development processes working towards a knowledge economy, and, second, to draw some implications for local policy makers. Adopting the regional innovation system (RIS) approach, the authors analyse …

  20. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produced as a by-product in connection with chemical or other processes) are distillers and are required to... nonpotable chemical mixtures containing spirits, including any provision relating to qualification, if such...; (ii) Chemical composition and source of the nonpotable mixture; (iii) Approximate percentages...

  1. Green biocides, a promising technology: current and future applications to industry and industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ullah, Saleem; Ahmad, Irshad; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abdur Rehman, Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future. PMID:23983055

  2. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals - opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the 'method of choice' for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  3. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  4. The integration of process R&D in drug discovery--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    In today's situation where a lot of attention is put on the whereabouts of the pharmaceutical industry, especially focusing on productivity, pricing policies, time lines, and competition, there is an increased need for a critical revision of work practices in the business. The prevailing prioritization of time-to-market is now more and more shifting over to also put quality, risk management, and effectiveness/efficiency in the limelight. Resources in terms of people and money will continue to be constrained and, therefore, best collaborative principles have to be adopted between different parts of the organization. Only by operating this way will we maximize the output. One of the most important key performance indicators in pharma R&D is the number of newly appointed candidate drugs (CDs). However, it is not only a matter of counting numbers but, more so, to nominate compounds with the best properties and likelihood to survive. In that vein the demands on Process R&D have gone up considerably over recent years and there is now a pronounced need to make forecasts on cost of goods for the API (active pharmaceutical ingredient), scalability issues, IP matters, route design etc. On top of this, there is as always an expectation that the supply of material needed to conduct the various studies is timely, fully reliable, and flexible, even if volumes and delivery dates fluctuate widely. To successfully be able to cope with this challenging and sometimes stressful situation a back-integration into earlier parts of Drug Discovery is a must and, hence, connecting to new projects will have to be initiated already during the LO-stage (lead optimization). The consequences of this and its further implications will constitute the core part of the paper. PMID:16475965

  5. Radiotracer Technology in Mixing Processes for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Othman, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Many problems associated with the mixing process remain unsolved and result in poor mixing performance. The residence time distribution (RTD) and the mixing time are the most important parameters that determine the homogenisation that is achieved in the mixing vessel and are discussed in detail in this paper. In addition, this paper reviews the current problems associated with conventional tracers, mathematical models, and computational fluid dynamics simulations involved in radiotracer experiments and hybrid of radiotracer. PMID:24616642

  6. Fuzzy-based HAZOP study for process industry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junkeon; Chang, Daejun

    2016-11-01

    This study proposed a fuzzy-based HAZOP for analyzing process hazards. Fuzzy theory was used to express uncertain states. This theory was found to be a useful approach to overcome the inherent uncertainty in HAZOP analyses. Fuzzy logic sharply contrasted with classical logic and provided diverse risk values according to its membership degree. Appropriate process parameters and guidewords were selected to describe the frequency and consequence of an accident. Fuzzy modeling calculated risks based on the relationship between the variables of an accident. The modeling was based on the mean expected value, trapezoidal fuzzy number, IF-THEN rules, and the center of gravity method. A cryogenic LNG (liquefied natural gas) testing facility was the objective process for the fuzzy-based and conventional HAZOPs. The most significant index is the frequency to determine risks. The comparison results showed that the fuzzy-based HAZOP provides better sophisticated risks than the conventional HAZOP. The fuzzy risk matrix presents the significance of risks, negligible risks, and necessity of risk reduction. PMID:27318726

  7. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  8. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some ...

  9. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  10. The JMB Applied Chemistry Syllabus--the Place of Case Studies and Industrial Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallas, G.; Hughes, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes two novel topics in the JMB Applied Chemistry Core Syllabus. These are the social and economic aspects of chemical technology, involving the use of six case studies, and industrial processes. (Author/GS)

  11. Space Processing Applications - The new challenge. [Skylab and Apollo Soyuz space processing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, B. O.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of Skylab Space Processing Applications experiments upon ground based research laboratory capabilities is discussed. The findings of a few selected space processing Skylab experiments are summarized and explained. The objectives of the ASTP space processing experiments are summarized. NASA's plans for use of sounding rockets for space processing experiments are outlined briefly. The integration of NASA's Space Processing Program into an active planning effort for use of Shuttle is reviewed.

  12. Selected US building industry processes and characteristics. A Project SAGE report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Schoen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Selected multifamily processes were examined using a primarily graphic approach to clarify some of the operational modes into which Project SAGE (solar-assisted gas energy) must fit, both as a product and a process in the U.S. building industry. What SAGE must have or do in order to fit the building industry in the short term, that is, the multifamily submarket as it is presently configured, is delineated.

  13. Metal-matrix composites in the automotive industry: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, John E.; Cole, Gerald S.

    1993-01-01

    Metal-matrix composites offer considerable promise to help automotive engineers meet the challenges of current and future demands for recyclable, fuel-efficient, safe, and low-emission vehicles. These materials can be engineered to match the design requirements of automotive power-train or chassis components. Technological and infrastructural barriers tend to limit the implementation of these materials, but it is believed these barriers can be overcome and that metal-matrix composites can be applied in high-volume vehicle production. Reducing these barriers will require much effort by engineers and scientists, managers and planners at automotive manufacturers, and their suppliers. The result will be the gradual introduction of metal-matrix composites in high-volume vehicle production to satisfy customer desires while meeting regulatory requirements and competitive pressures.

  14. Industrial evaluation of a dynamic controller for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dry grind corn industry is the largest ethanol producer in the US. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is one of the most critical process steps that determines the ethanol yields and conversion efficiency of the whole process. Due to its complexity, the SSF process is not compl...

  15. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  16. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  17. Rugged multiwavelength NIR and IR analyzers for industrial process measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Niemela, Pentti

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages that can be achieved by using integrated multichannel detectors instead of the traditional filter wheel construction in process analyzers and presents four accomplished applications. Integrated multichannel detectors include several parallel detector elements each equipped with a specific interference filter and a Peltier cooler in one hermetic package. Advantages gained by filter integration are good withstanding of ambient stresses and low price due to small size. Multichannel detectors enable the use of different chopper techniques and rugged miniature and highly reliable analyzer constructions. Furthermore multichannel detectors provide exactly simultaneous measurement at each wavelength. This minimizes noise caused by rapid variations in fast moving nonhomogeneous process streams. The first application described is a two wavelength water monitor designed for on-line measurement of water content in lubricating oils. It has to meet high temperatures and high relative humidities in production plant environments. The oil analyzer is an advanced instrument that continuously measures oil content of water effluents in marine and land based applications. The peat moisture meter is a rugged portable NIR instrument constructed without any moving parts. Finally a four-wavelength NIR reflectance instrument is described. In a pilot application in a wood grinding plant the instrument with fibre optics is used to achieve a true in-line moisture measurement of the pulp stream having a speed of 15 - 40 rn/s and temperature of 125 - 145 OC. 1.

  18. [Identification of genotoxic compounds used in leather processing industry].

    PubMed

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The release of mutagens from 7 carbon black-based leather dyes and from leather samples at various stages of finishing was determined. After vigorous treatment with toluene, 4 commercial dyes yelded mutagenic extracts on Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of microsomal enzymes. Only in one case were the responsible chemicals identified as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The low bioavailability of mutagens contained in carbon black and their low mutagenic activity suggest that the risk associated with the use of these dyes is probably negligible. Soxhlet extracts with ethanol from finished leather were mutagenic on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the absence of S9 mix. Analysis of extracts of leather samples at various intermediate stages of processing showed that mutagenic activity was detectable after the colouring process. The responsible compound was identified as a nitroazo dye (Colour Index: Acid Brown 83), with a mutagenic potential of about 4 revertant/micrograms. Eighteen commercial tannins containing mainly Cr(III) sulphates were assessed for genotoxicity. Most were contaminated with Cr(VI), a known mutagenic and carcinogenic agent, at levels sufficient to induce an increased frequency of SCE (sister chromatid exchanges) in mammalian cells (CHO, chinese hamster ovary) tested in vitro. PMID:2277596

  19. [Evaluation of commercial UHT milk and optimization of industrial process].

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Jiménez, M; Vega, M; Romero, A; Costa, M

    2000-12-01

    From the nutrition al point of view milk is one of the most complete food in the diet of mammals. It contains nearly all the nutrients necessary to sustain life, but milk can deteriorate very easily, either by microbiological contamination or by biochemical reactions during processing and/or storage. The objective of this research study was to design a modified UHT treatment to achieve commercial sterilization and maximize the stabilization of the heat-treated product during storage. To search for a modified UHT process, a mathematical model coupled with an optimization routine (complex method) was developed. The mathematical model considers Kinetics for the inactivation of Bacillus stearothermophilus and several quality factors. To attain the objective function, several commercial UHT milk were analyzed and for the computer search the minimization of hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) formation was considered and also including constraints for protease and lipase inactivation. The complex optimization procedure was implemented to search for the optimum modified UHT treatment.. One of the optimum modified UHT treatments was the combination of two pre-treatment (3.16 minutes at 62.30 degrees C and 6 minutes at 75 degrees C) in addition with a UHT treatment (0.75 s at 148.8 degrees C). This treatment attains the maximum product stability with a negligible effect on composition and color formation in the treated milk (HMF formation less than 3 mg/mL). PMID:11464666

  20. The potential for bulk undercooling as an industrial process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laxmanan, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main focus is on solidification occurring in highly supercooled melts. Solidification rates in such melts are extremely high, an attractive feature from a commercial standpoint. Thus, the reported growth velocities for pure Ni and Co dendrites at a supercooling of 175 K are in excess of 180 km/hr. Rapidly quenched crystalline alloys produced by various atomization processes (e.g., centrifugal atomization or inert gas atomization) or melt spinning are examples of solidification processes, currently being intensively explored commercially, wherein extremely high solidification rates are achieved. Estimated dendrite tip growth rates are about 2 km/hr in a binary Al-4.5 wt % alloy, with a heat transfer coefficient of 6.4x10 sub 5 w/sq cm K or 15 cal/cu cm sK. In the limit, when the solidification rate exceeds a critical value, a glassy microstructure is obtained even in highly alloyed melts, which under normal conditions would solidity to form one or more crystalline phases. Glassy metals, also called metallic glasses, are candidate materials for distribution transformers because of their very low energy losses and are also being used in brazing and soldering applications.

  1. Introduction to technology roadmapping: The semiconductor industry association`s technology roadmapping process

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    A technology roadmap is the result of a strategic technology planning process that cooperatively identifies (1) a particular industry`s common product and process performance targets, (2) the technology alternatives and milestones for meeting these targets, and (3) a common technology path for research and development activities. The author describes a successful major roadmapping experience - the Semiconductor Industry Association`s Technology Roadmapping Process, which culminated in a workshop held in 1992. The report explains the committee structure and processes that were used both before and after the workshop and presents principles and practices that can aid future technology roadmappers. Appendix 1 summarizes the process from a committee-structure viewpoint. Appendix 2 summarizes the process from a functional view-point. Appendix 3 answers some frequently asked questions about technology roadmapping.

  2. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. PMID:27493184

  3. Future supply chains enabled by continuous processing--opportunities and challenges. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily "continuous processing"-based supply chain. The current predominantly "large batch" and centralized manufacturing system designed for the "blockbuster" drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more "flow-through" operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The significant opportunities to moving to a supply chain flow-through operating model, with substantial opportunities in inventory reduction, lead-time to patient, and radically different product assurance/stability regimes. Scenarios for decentralized production models producing a greater variety of products with enhanced volume flexibility. Production, supply, and value chain footprints that are radically different from today's monolithic and centralized batch manufacturing operations. Clinical trial and drug product development cost savings that support more rapid scale-up and market entry models with early involvement of SC designers within New Product Development. The major supply chain and industrial transformational challenges that need to be addressed. The paper recognizes that although current batch operational

  4. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    controversial interpretations of reward of pharmaceutical 'innovation' provisions in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) through the policy-development mechanisms of the AUSFTA Medicines Working Group and most recently an Innovative Medicines Working Group with the Department of Health and Ageing. This paper critically analyses such arguments in the context of emerging challenges for sustainable industrial renewal in Australia's bio/nanopharma sector. PMID:17543114

  5. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    controversial interpretations of reward of pharmaceutical 'innovation' provisions in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) through the policy-development mechanisms of the AUSFTA Medicines Working Group and most recently an Innovative Medicines Working Group with the Department of Health and Ageing. This paper critically analyses such arguments in the context of emerging challenges for sustainable industrial renewal in Australia's bio/nanopharma sector. PMID:17543114

  6. The challenges of mainstream deammonification process for municipal used water treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjing; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Qin; Lee, Zarraz May-Ping; Gu, Jun; Lay, Winson; Cao, Yeshi; Liu, Yu

    2015-03-01

    The deammonification process combining partial nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation has been considered as a viable option for energy-efficient used water treatment. So far, many full-scale sidestream deammonification plants handling high-ammonia used water have been in successful operation since Anammox bacteria were first discovered in the 1990s. However, large-scale application of this process for treating municipal used water with low ammonia concentration has rarely been reported. Compared to the sidestream deammonification process, the mainstream deammonification process for municipal used water treatment faces three main challenges, i.e., (i) high COD/N ratio leading to denitrifiers outcompeting Anammox bacteria, (ii) numerous difficulties in selective retention of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) over nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and (iii) sufficient accumulation of Anammox bacteria. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide a detailed analysis of these challenges and possible solutions towards sustainable mainstream deammonification process. PMID:25638355

  7. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead

  8. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhengwu

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product’s risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance. PMID:21701609

  9. Development of irradiation capabilities to address the challenges of the nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leay, L.; Bower, W.; Horne, G.; Wady, P.; Baidak, A.; Pottinger, M.; Nancekievill, M.; Smith, A. D.; Watson, S.; Green, P. R.; Lennox, B.; LaVerne, J. A.; Pimblott, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    With the announcement of the U.K. new nuclear build and the requirement to decommission old facilities, researchers require bespoke facilities to undertake experiments to inform decision making. This paper describes development of The University of Manchester's Dalton Cumbrian Facility, a custom built research environment which incorporates a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator as well as a self-shielded 60Co irradiator. The ion accelerator allows the investigation into the radiolytic consequences of various charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and a variety of heavier (metal and nonmetal) ions, while the 60Co irradiator allows the effects of gamma radiation to be studied. Some examples of work carried out at the facility are presented to demonstrate how this equipment can improve our mechanistic understanding of various aspects of the deleterious effects of radiation in the nuclear industry. These examples include applications in waste storage and reprocessing as well as geological storage and novel surveying techniques. The outlook for future research is also discussed.

  10. New Trends and Technological Challenges in the Industrial Production and Purification of Fructo-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Clarisse; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    An increased commercial interest in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has emerged in the last decade due to their prebiotic activity. At large scale, the FOS are produced by microbial enzymes from sucrose. A mixture of FOS and other saccharides is obtained in this process. The presence of such saccharides reduces the prebiotic, caloric, and cariogenic value of the final product. Therefore, many efforts have been conducted to obtain a product with increased FOS purity. This review comprises the most important technological and physicochemical aspects including FOS production and recovery processes; safety, dose and health claims concerning its intake; and commercially available FOS. PMID:24915327

  11. Exposure of workers in a mineral processing industry in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Julião, Lígia M Q C; Melo, Dunstana R; Sousa, Wanderson O; Santos, Maristela S; Fernandes, Paulo César; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil there are many regions where the extraction mining and processing of ores containing elements of great economical importance as tin, niobium and tantalum. Some of these ores have uranium and thorium natural decay series associated. This study was carried out in a niobium mine, where is obtained concentrates of niobates-tantalates, cassiterite and zirconite. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the occupational exposure to uranium, thorium, niobium and tin through urine bioassay data. In order to have it, 105 urine samples were analysed: 17 samples of exposed workers collected after a working day, 49 samples of exposed workers collected before a working day and 39 samples of local non-exposed people, assigned as a control group. The samples were analysed by mass spectrometry. The obtained results showed that the average concentration of Nb, Sn and U in the exposed group is statistically higher than those found in the control group indicating an occupational exposure. For Th there were no statistically difference between the exposed and the control group. PMID:17369613

  12. Corrosion in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Increasing Challenge for Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Teresa E.

    2013-08-01

    Important reserves of oil and gas, which are left to be discovered and produced, are mainly concentrated in challenging locations and under severe conditions [i.e., high pressure (HP)/high temperature (HT)]. The HP/HT plus the presence of aggressive environments mean a highly demanding scenario for tubes used in producing oil and gas [oil country tubular goods (OCTG)]. Material property requirements include high mechanical properties at ambient and high temperatures (e.g., as high up to 200-250°C). Additionally, if H2S is present, resistance to sulfide stress cracking may be required, depending also on other environmental conditions. Even without H2S, contents of CO2, chlorides, and high temperatures and pressures can represent a risk of high corrosion rates. The improvement of some of the required properties of the materials (e.g., steels) can mean the impairment of other properties. Consequently, a careful balance is required and limits exist for the individual modification of the properties. The present article focuses on the two main environmental deterioration problems in the oil and gas business: (I) sulfide stress cracking and (II) CO2 corrosion. A description of the acting mechanisms and the effect of environmental and material factors are presented. Selection criteria and current material limitations are also discussed.

  13. Managed Moves: School and Local Authority Staff Perceptions of Processes, Success and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the processes of managed moves for children at risk of exclusion from school, particularly exploring what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English local authority where 11 school staff and 5 local authority staff were…

  14. Measuring Cognitive and Metacognitive Regulatory Processes during Hypermedia Learning: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Johnson, Amy M.; Chauncey, Amber D.

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia environments involves a complex cycle of temporally unfolding cognitive and metacognitive processes that impact students' learning. We present several methodological issues related to treating SRL as an event and strengths and challenges of using online trace methodologies to detect, trace, model, and…

  15. Orbiter processing facility: Access platforms Kennedy Space Center, Florida, from challenge to achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haratunian, M.

    1985-01-01

    A system of access platforms and equipment within the space shuttle orbiter processing facility at Kennedy Space Center is described. The design challenges of the platforms, including clearance envelopes, load criteria, and movement, are discussed. Various applications of moveable platforms are considered.

  16. Wavelet image processing applied to optical and digital holography: past achievements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2005-08-01

    The link between wavelets and optics goes back to the work of Dennis Gabor who both invented holography and developed Gabor decompositions. Holography involves 3-D images. Gabor decompositions involves 1-D signals. Gabor decompositions are the predecessors of wavelets. Wavelet image processing of holography, both optical holography and digital holography, will be examined with respect to past achievements and future challenges.

  17. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. PMID:26117286

  18. [Methods of advanced purification-the challenge for biosynthetic antibiotics industry].

    PubMed

    Oniscu, C; Caşcaval, D; Galaction, Anca-Irina

    2002-01-01

    Reactive extraction, permeation through liquid membranes and direct extraction are some of the new techniques applied for separation and advanced purification of biosynthetic antibiotics. Compared with the conventional separation techniques, the main advantages of these extraction methods are: high separation efficiency, the avoidance of antibiotics chemical and thermal inactivation, high purity of obtained antibiotics. Furthermore, using reactive extraction or permeation through liquid membrane, the antibiotics can be selective separated from their biosynthesis precursors or from the secondary biosynthetic compounds. This paper is a review on separation of Penicillins and Erythromycin by means of these extraction techniques, being underlined their advantages, applications and problems concerning the separation process scale-up. PMID:12638304

  19. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  20. Ultra-Fast Boriding in High-Temperature Materials Processing Industries

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to further develop, optimize, scale-up, and commercialize an ultra-fast boriding (also referred to as “boronizing”) process that can provide much higher energy efficiency, productivity, and near-zero emissions in many of the high-temperature materials processing industries.

  1. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  2. FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT UTILIZING DU PONT'S PACT (TRADE NAME) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Operating and cost data on startup and the initial 30 months of operation of a 150,000 cu m/day (40-MGD) industrial wastewater treatment plant using Du Pont's PACT process are reported. The process effectively provides secondary/tertiary treatment by adding powdered activated car...

  3. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of solar energy as a source of process heat in the industrial and agricultural sectors. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts and technologies of solar process heating are reviewed.…

  4. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... to be used during process validation. In the Federal Register of November 18, 2008 (73 FR 68431), FDA... to submit comments by January 20, 2009. In the Federal Register of February 13, 2009 (74 FR 7237... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Process Validation:...

  5. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  6. Technical and commerical challenges in high Tc SQUIDs and their industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device for measuring changes in magnetic flux. Since its discovery in the sixties, scientists have made consistent efforts to apply SQUID's to various applications. Instruments that are the most sensitive in their respective categories have been built, such as SQUID DC susceptometer that is now manufactured by Quantum Design, pico-voltmeter which could measure 10(exp -14) volts, and gravitational wave detectors. One of the most successful applications of SQUID's is in magnetoencephalography, a non-invasive technique for investigating neuronal activity in the living human brain. This technique employs a multi-channel SQUID magnetometer that maps the weak magnetic field generated by small current when information is processed in brain, and its performance is marvelous.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the process of removing fluorine from industrial gases using complex inorganic sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A.I.; Shustareva, T.K.

    1988-10-10

    Industrial gases generated during the calcining of apatites are purified of fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, and silicon tetrafluoride by adsorption. As solid adsorbents, available industrial sludges, which are complex inorganic compounds, can be used. This paper presents results of a thermodynamic analysis of the defluorination process and of the interaction of fluorine and its derivatives with calcium silicate, calcium aluminate, and calcium ferrite adsorbents derived from sludges.

  8. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-08-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  9. Potential for solar industrial process heat in the United States: A look at California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-01

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  10. Next-Generation Sequence Assembly: Four Stages of Data Processing and Computational Challenges

    PubMed Central

    El-Metwally, Sara; Hamza, Taher; Zakaria, Magdi; Helmy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Decoding DNA symbols using next-generation sequencers was a major breakthrough in genomic research. Despite the many advantages of next-generation sequencers, e.g., the high-throughput sequencing rate and relatively low cost of sequencing, the assembly of the reads produced by these sequencers still remains a major challenge. In this review, we address the basic framework of next-generation genome sequence assemblers, which comprises four basic stages: preprocessing filtering, a graph construction process, a graph simplification process, and postprocessing filtering. Here we discuss them as a framework of four stages for data analysis and processing and survey variety of techniques, algorithms, and software tools used during each stage. We also discuss the challenges that face current assemblers in the next-generation environment to determine the current state-of-the-art. We recommend a layered architecture approach for constructing a general assembler that can handle the sequences generated by different sequencing platforms. PMID:24348224

  11. Experimental Challenge to the vp-Process in Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vp-process is a new nucleosynthetic scenario, proposed 2006, which supposed to take place at the very early epoch of type II supernova, involving nuclear reactions of proton-rich nuclei not only with protons and alphas, but also with neutrons due to the neutrino processes. The vp-process is one of the key processes for investigating the mechanism of type II supernovae, and the process could be possibly responsible for the anomalously abundant p-nuclei around mass 90-100. Specifically, the nuclear physics problems in the vp-process were discussed in this talk including our recent experimental results with low-energy RI beams and a simulation study. Alpha cluster resonances have been identified experimentally which play a crucial role for the stellar (α,p) and (α,γ) reactions just above the alpha threshold. Neutron induced reactions in the proton-rich nuclear regions in the vp-process are also suggested to play an important role, which will discard the waiting points, and accelerate the flow to heavier nuclei. This process involves nuclear structures of very high level density at high excitation energies in neutron deficient nuclei, and both of the projectile and the target are unstable, which is a quite difficult experimental challenge in nuclear astrophysics in the coming years. Some experimental challenges are discussed.

  12. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. License agreements for proprietary processes. (Deliverable No. 30)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The proprietary processes included within the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant are listed. Draft license agreements covering the use of these processes, with the exception of the Westfield Process (Conoco), have been included at the end of this document. Except for the Claus Process (Amoco) all draft license agreements will be executed directly between MLGW and the licensor. All the draft license agreements provided have been prepared by the licensors after preliminary discussions. Presently these agreements are being reviewed by MLGW for acceptability. As stated above, the Amoco Sulfur Recovery Process will be covered by an existing agreement between Standard Oil and FWEC. Suitable clauses have been provided under Tab V. These clauses will be incorporated into the MLGW/FWEC subcontract for the protection of MLGW, FWEC, and licensor. At this writing the Industrial Team has no secrecy agreement executed with Conoco Methanation Company (Westfield Methanation Process) nor has any draft license agreement been transmitted by Conoco.

  13. Recovery of waste heat from industrial slags via modified float glass process

    SciTech Connect

    Serth, R.W.; Ctvrtnicek, T.E.; McCormick, R.J.; Zanders, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A novel process for recovering waste heat from molten slags produced as by-products in the steel, copper, and elemental phosphorus industries is investigated. The process is based on technology developed in the glass industry for the commercial production of flat glass. In this process, energy is recovered from molten slag as it cools and solidifies on the surface of a pool of molten tin. In order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the process, an energy recovery facility designed to handle the slag from a large elemental phosphorus plant is studied. Results indicate that the process is marginally economical at current energy price levels. A number of technical uncertainties in the process design are also identified. 9 refs.

  14. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  15. Autoclave processing of the products of catalytic synthesis of industrial diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palant, A. A.; Bryukvin, V. A.; Levin, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    A process is developed for the autoclave leaching of nickel and manganese with sulfuric acid from the products of catalytic synthesis of industrial diamonds containing 20% Ni and 30% Mn. The optimum conditions for the autoclave processes are determined to be as follows: the temperature range is 150 160°C, the solution acidity is 5 N H2SO4 (230 240 g/l), the leaching duration is 2 h, and the number of processing steps is two. The extraction of the metals into a solution under these conditions is >99% for a total Ni + Co content of <0.4 0.5% in the autoclave leaching cake. The studies performed are related to the search for alternative ways of the catalytic preparation of industrial diamonds that can replace the nonferrous metal leaching technology using aqua regia solutions, which is mainly applied for these purposes under industrial conditions.

  16. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  17. Process industries - graphic arts, paint, plastics, and textiles: all cousins under the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frederick T.

    2002-06-01

    The origin and selection of colors in the process industries is different depending upon how the creative process is applied and what are the capabilities of the manufacturing process. The fashion industry (clothing) with its supplier of textiles is the leader of color innovation. Color may be introduced into textile products at several stages in the manufacturing process from fiber through yarn and finally into fabric. The paint industry is divided into two major applications: automotive and trades sales. Automotive colors are selected by stylists who are in the employ of the automobile manufacturers. Trade sales paint on the other hand can be decided by paint manufactureres or by invididuals who patronize custom mixing facilities. Plastics colors are for the most part decided by the industrial designers who include color as part of the design. Graphic Arts (painting) is a burgeoning industry that uses color in image reproduction and package design. Except for text, printed material in color today has become the norm rather than an exception.

  18. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. PMID:27091048

  19. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  1. Influence of industrial processing on orange juice flavanone solubility and transformation to chalcones under gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María Isabel; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco Abraham; Ferreres, Federico

    2003-05-01

    Orange juice manufactured at industrial scale was subjected to digestion under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH, temperature, and enzyme and chemical conditions) to evaluate the influence of individual industrial processing treatments on flavanone solubility, stability, and ability to permeate through a membrane under simulated physiological conditions. Four industrial processes including squeezing, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing were evaluated. Hand squeezing was compared with industrial squeezing. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the orange juices, the flavanones able to permeate through a dialysis membrane, and those remaining in the retentate were evaluated by HPLC as were those present in the insoluble fraction. In all of the assayed orange juices, a high content of precipitated chalcones ( approximately 70% of the total flavanones) was formed under the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Hand squeezing provided a higher concentration of flavanones in the permeated fraction and lower transformation to chalcones than industrial squeezing. Standard pasteurization did not influence the solubility and permeability of the orange juice flavanones and chalcones. Industrial concentration did not affect the amount of flavanones able to permeate but decreased the chalcones produced. Juices produced from frozen orange juice contained considerably smaller amounts of both soluble flavanones and insoluble chalcones. PMID:12720386

  2. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  3. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  4. Microwave processing of cement and concrete materials – towards an industrial reality?

    SciTech Connect

    Buttress, Adam Jones, Aled; Kingman, Sam

    2015-02-15

    Each year a substantial body of literature is published on the use of microwave to process cement and concrete materials. Yet to date, very few if any have lead the realisation of a commercial scale industrial system and is the context under which this review has been undertaken. The state-of the–art is evaluated for opportunities, and the key barriers to the development of new microwave-based processing techniques to enhance production, processing and recycling of cement and concrete materials. Applications reviewed include pyro-processing of cement clinker; accelerated curing, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), and end-of-life processing including radionuclide decontamination.

  5. Advancing adsorption and membrane separation processes for the gigaton carbon capture challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Haghpanah, Reza; Rupp, Erik C; He, Jiajun; Lee, Kyoungjin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and preventing its release from point-source emitters, such as coal and natural gas-fired power plants, is a global challenge measured in gigatons. Capturing CO2 at this scale will require a portfolio of gas-separation technologies to be applied over a range of applications in which the gas mixtures and operating conditions will vary. Chemical scrubbing using absorption is the current state-of-the-art technology. Considerably less attention has been given to other gas-separation technologies, including adsorption and membranes. It will take a range of creative solutions to reduce CO2 at scale, thereby slowing global warming and minimizing its potential negative environmental impacts. This review focuses on the current challenges of adsorption and membrane-separation processes. Technological advancement of these processes will lead to reduced cost, which will enable subsequent adoption for practical scaled-up application. PMID:24702296

  6. Recent advances of pore system construction in zeolite-catalyzed chemical industry processes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Weimin; Tang, Yi; Xie, Zaiku

    2015-12-21

    The kaleidoscopic applications of zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) in petrochemical processes has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in recent decades. About twenty types of zeolite have been industrially applied so far, and their versatile porous architectures have contributed their most essential features to affect the catalytic efficiency. This review depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts accompanied by the increase in industrial and environmental demands. The indispensable roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The zeolites and related industrial processes discussed range from the uni-modal micropore system of zeolite Y (12-ring micropore, 12-R) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), zeolite ZSM-5 (10-R) in xylene isomerization and SAPO-34 (8-R) in olefin production to the multi-modal micropore system of MCM-22 (10-R and 12-R pocket) in aromatic alkylation and the hierarchical pores in FCC and catalytic cracking of C4 olefins. The rational construction of pore models, especially hierarchical features, is highlighted with a careful classification from an industrial perspective accompanied by a detailed analysis of the theoretical mechanisms. PMID:26567526

  7. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  8. Commercial Crew Cost Estimating - A Look at Estimating Processes, Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, Rick; Cole, Lance

    2015-01-01

    To support annual PPBE budgets and NASA HQ requests for cost information for commercial crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), the NASA ISS ACES team developed system development and per flight cost estimates for the potential providers for each annual PPBE submit from 2009-2014. This paper describes the cost estimating processes used, challenges and lessons learned to develop estimates for this key NASA project that diverted from the traditional procurement approach and used a new way of doing business

  9. Pathogenic psychrotolerant sporeformers: an emerging challenge for low-temperature storage of minimally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Markland, Sarah M; Farkas, Daniel F; Kniel, Kalmia E; Hoover, Dallas G

    2013-05-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are a significant problem in the food industry as they are ubiquitous in nature and capable of resisting inactivation by heat and chemical treatments designed to inactivate them. Beyond spoilage issues, psychrotolerant sporeformers are becoming increasingly recognized as a potential hazard given the ever-expanding demand for refrigerated processed foods with extended shelf-life. In these products, the sporeforming pathogens of concern are Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Clostridium botulinum type E. This review article examines the foods, conditions, and organisms responsible for the food safety issue caused by the germination and outgrowth of psychrotolerant sporeforming pathogens in minimally processed refrigerated foods. PMID:23536982

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  11. The challenge of implementing an IRP process in Asia: The case of Hainan Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Developing a modern electric power sector is necessary for economic growth and development to proceed. Institutions to implement an IRP (integrated resource planning) process do not exist in many countries. Hainan`s economy is growing rapidly with a concomitant increase in electricity demand. This is an ideal time in Hainan`s development to implement an IRP process. The challenge is for Hainan to develop institutions and incentive mechanisms for HEPCO (Hainan Electric Power Co.) to adopt cost-based pricing, run DSM programs, construct renewable generating plants, etc. One proposal is to great a Hainan government-wide IRP committee.

  12. Safety Challenges and Oversight in the Motorcoach Industry: Attitudes and Perceptions of Drivers, Roadside Inspectors, and Federal Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Elisa R.; Dodd, Robert S.; Cheung, Ivan; Long, Lindsay O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstate motorcoach travel has been the fastest-growing transportation mode in recent years. To identify challenges to monitoring compliance with motorcoach safety regulations and to examine factors affecting safety, four focus groups with a total of 32 participants were conducted during 2011, one with federal safety investigators, one with state motor carrier inspectors, and two with motorcoach drivers. Investigators and inspectors expressed concern about falsified logbooks, inadequate sleep among motorcoach drivers, hazards from speeding motorcoaches, practices by motorcoach carriers to mask ownership and avoid oversight, and difficulties keeping up with rapid motorcoach industry growth. Drivers described problems with getting sufficient sleep, pressure to drive longer than permitted, and fears of motor carriers giving them less work if they turned down driving jobs. Drivers said that driving 72–74 mph was acceptable in light traffic. To help assess workload among personnel performing safety oversight, data on numbers of motor carriers, commercial motor vehicles, federal investigators, and state inspectors were obtained from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The data suggested a heavy workload (2.13 inspectors per 1,000 commercial motor vehicles). The focus groups of inspectors, investigators, and drivers indicated the existence of serious motorcoach safety problems, provided insight about the multiple factors contributing to them, and described major obstacles to effective safety oversight. The qualitative nature of focus group research means that these notable findings will need to be measured using other methods such as surveys and observational studies. PMID:23169117

  13. On perceptions of the effectiveness of the self-assessment process in the nuclear power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, Raymond J.

    The organizational self-assessment process came to maturity during the Total Quality Management (TQM) movement. Although varying forms of the process had been utilized for many years, the first mature self-assessments, known as self-appraisals, were performed as a criterion for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). One objective of this research was to assess whether self-assessments in the nuclear industry are driven more by regulatory requirements or business expectations. If driven by regulatory requirements, this may differentiate the process from other industries. Also, recent literature indicates that the existing models for conducting self-assessment for continuous improvement may be outdated (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden and Dale, 2006). In addition, these authors believe that each industry or organization should develop their own models or adapt the existing TQM model to optimize the benefits of self-assessments. Another objective of the research presented herein was to determine whether there are standard attributes that can be applied to the performance of self-assessments in the nuclear industry. This study, through use of a survey, identified attributes of the nuclear power industry that could be used in future research to construct a standard model to optimize the investments made by the industry in the use of self-assessments. Finally, the study determined the relationships between survey characteristics (e.g., participant level in the organization, those that believe that self-assessment improves performance, and the purpose of self-assessment). Keywords: self-assessment, nuclear, continuous improvement, process attributes

  14. How best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. Recommendations of the industrial pollution prevention project (IP3) focus group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Industrial Pollution Prevention Project (IP3) Focus Group was requested by EPA to provide specific recommendations on how best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. In response to that request, the Group makes the following recommendations to EPA: To promote more industrial pollution prevention, the effluent guidelines process must (1) be more flexible, (2) address all media, and (3) impart a pollution prevention mindset to everyone throughout the effluent guidelines process. To accomplish this, EPA should adopt a specific new approach to the development and achievement of Best Available Technology (BAT) limits.

  15. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food. PMID:25694688

  16. Catalyst for Desulfurization of Industrial Waste Gases and Process for Preparing the Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, T.

    1983-12-27

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organo-sulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  17. Catalyst for the desulfurization of industrial waste gases and process for its preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, T.

    1984-11-27

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organosulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  18. EVALUATION OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR PROCESS CONTROL IN THE ASBESTOS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as potential tools for fine particle asbestos fiber counting for process control in the asbestos industry. The study defined the capabilities and lim...

  19. Learning in the Process of Industrial Work--A Comparative Study of Finland, Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kira, Mari

    2007-01-01

    By combining a positivistic and an interpretive approach, this research investigates the learning opportunities that contemporary industrial work processes and workplaces offer for employees individually and collectively. The research explores how employees can become trained through their work and how individual development may expand to…

  20. PROCEEDINGS: EPA'S INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FGD PROCESS (JULY 1981)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during an EPA-sponsored industry briefing, July 15, 1981, in Springfield, MO. The briefing dealt with the status of EPA's research activities on the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Subjects covered...