Science.gov

Sample records for industry profile global

  1. A global industry

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The independent energy industry has expanded considerably since its beginning in the 1970s. Today, participants are finding new opportunities and new challenges throughout the world. During the past several years, the independent power industry has undergone a rather dramatic exchange. What was once an almost exclusively US-based industry has evolved into a global business with potential new markets in nearly every corner of the world.

  2. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  3. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 13. PLASTICIZERS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plasticizer ...

  5. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  6. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  7. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  8. High technology industries: Profiles and outlooks. The semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This profile is designed to assess the international competitive position of the U.S. Semiconductor Industry; pinpoint the major foreign and domestic challenges to American semiconductor manufacturers; and present for discussion possible options in terms of U.S. government policies affecting the sector's international standing.

  9. Coherent lidar technology for global wind profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Current lidar systems are proven sensors for atmospheric wind measurement. Ground-based and airborne continuous wave and pulsed CO2 systems were developed and applied to several wind measuring applications. Analytical and hardware feasibility studies indicte the feasibility of measuring the global wind field from a space splatform. A Global Backscater Experiment is planned by NASA to develop a global model of aerosol backscatter using a CO2 laser. Ground-based aerosol backscatter profiles will also be obtained using a ruby and a pulsed CO2 lidar.

  10. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 6. THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the U.S. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Industrial organic chemica...

  11. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  12. Estimating pre-industrial global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; Ortega, Pablo; Suckling, Emma; Schurer, Andrew; Hegerl, Gabi; Jones, Phil; Joshi, Manoj; Osborn, Tim; Mignot, Juliette; Thorne, Peter; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process has recently agreed to try and limit global temperature rise to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels'. But what period is `pre-industrial'? Remarkably, perhaps, this is not defined within the UNFCCC or its many agreements and protocols. Neither was the term used in the IPCC's fifth assessment report (AR5) when discussing when particular temperature levels might be reached, due to the lack of a robust definition. Here, we discuss the important factors to consider when defining a period to call pre-industrial, based on estimates of historical radiative forcings and the availability of climate observations. There is no perfect period to choose, but we suggest that 1720-1800 is the optimal choice. We also attempt to estimate the change in global temperatures since this pre-industrial period using a range of approaches based on observations, radiative forcings, global climate model simulations and proxy evidence. We discuss how such an assessment might be improved in future and conclude that 2015 was likely the first year in which global temperatures were more than 1°C above pre-industrial levels.

  13. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

  14. Industrial Lead in the Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegal, A. R.; Ericson, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Although the rates of emission, fluxes and recycling of natural and industrial lead in biogeochemical systems are needed to quantify environmental lead pollution, those geochemical processes are rarely incorporated in either Earth Science or Environmental Health Science curriculum. The need for an understanding of the global lead cycle in those diverse fields is due to the omnipresence of industrial lead contamination that was initiated over five millennia ago, which has often exceeded natural emissions of lead by orders of magnitude. That contamination has been repeatedly demonstrated in environmental analyses ranging from the most remote polar regions and oceans of the Earth to urban and industrial regions. The latter include studies of soil lead in Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Tijuana, and Ottawa, which show that lead from past combustion of leaded gasoline remains in those cities and it is bioavailable. With the protracted residence time of that soil lead (102 - 103 years), it is estimated that generations of urban children will continue to be exposed to this toxicant, unless there is abatement. Moreover, many third world countries are still using leaded gasoline and other sources of industrial lead continue to be emitted into the environment, albeit at reduced levels. Consequently, the geochemical cycling of lead is and will continue to be a most appropriate and topical subject of study in the curriculum of earth science and environmental health science.

  15. Global MS-Based Proteomics Drug Profiling.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based technologies such as RNAi, chemical-genetic profiling, or gene expression profiling by DNA microarrays combined with other biochemical methods are established strategies for surveying drug mechanisms. Such approaches can provide mechanistic information on how drugs act and affect cellular pathways. By studying how cancer cells compensate for the drug treatment, novel targets used in a combined treatment can be designed. Furthermore, toxicity effects on cells not targeted can be obtained on a molecular level. For example, drug companies are particularly interested in studying the molecular side effects of drugs in the liver. In addition, experiments with the purpose of elucidating liver toxicity can be studied using samples obtained from animal models exposed to different concentrations of a drug over time. More recently considerable advances in mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and bioinformatics tools allows informative global drug profiling experiments to be performed at a cost comparable to other large-scale technologies such as DNA-based technologies. Moreover, MS-based proteomics provides an additional layer of information on the dynamic regulation of proteins translation and particularly protein degradation. MS-based proteomics approaches combined with other biochemical methods delivers information on regulatory networks, signaling cascades, and metabolic pathways upon drug treatment. Furthermore, MS-based proteomics can provide additional information on single amino acid polymorphisms, protein isoform distribution, posttranslational modifications, and subcellular localization. In this chapter, we will share our experience using MS based proteomics as a pharmacoproteomics strategy to characterize drug mechanisms of action in single drug therapy or in multidrug combination. Finally, the emergence of integrated proteogenomics analysis, such as "The Cancer Genome Atlas" program, opened interesting perspectives to extend this approach to drug target

  16. Global commercial space industry indicators and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ethan E.; Christensen, Carissa Bryce; Cate, Hans Ten

    2002-06-01

    This paper will provide a description of the current size and production levels of space-related industries, based on a global survey of firms undertaken by Futron Corporation and the Satellite Industry Association. In addition, the paper provides a forecast of future space activity by commercial and government entities, focusing on commercial growth. The industry indicators included in the paper include revenue, employment, and production level associated with satellite manufacturing, launch services, and ground systems and revenue and employment associated with different types of satellite services. These data are based on a survey of more than 600 firms worldwide and represent primary research of a type not available from any other source. The forecast presented in the paper will be based on a proprietary Futron methodology that considers both underlying demand for satellite telecommunication services, by country or region, and the proposed supply of satellites currently known. The analysis assesses whether proposed satellite systems are likely, based on financing, satellite manufacturing and launch services contract status, and track record of the operator. The analysis then compares projected demand to likely supply, identifies over- or under-supply by region and application, and predicts the number of satellites that will be required to meet demand.

  17. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 26. TITANIUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The titanium industry produces two principal products, titanium metal and titanium dioxide. For purposes of analyses, therefore, the industry is considered in two segments: titanium metal production and titanium dioxide production. Two industrial process flow diagrams and eleven ...

  18. Carbon Nanomaterials Alter Global Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Sara; Short, John C W; McDermott, Hyoeun; Linan, Alexander; Bartlett, Katelyn; Gadila, Shiva Kumar Goud; Schmelzle, Katie; Wanekaya, Adam; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), which include carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their derivatives, have diverse technological and biomedical applications. The potential toxicity of CNMs to cells and tissues has become an important emerging question in nanotechnology. To assess the toxicity of CNTs and fullerenol C60(OH)24, we in the present work used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the simplest eukaryotic organisms that share fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. We found that treatment with CNMs, regardless of their physical shape, negatively affected the growth rates, end-point cell densities and doubling times of CNM-exposed yeast cells when compared to unexposed cells. To investigate potential mechanisms behind the CNMs-induced growth defects, we performed RNA-Seq dependent transcriptional analysis and constructed global gene expression profiles of fullerenol C60(OH)24- and CNT-treated cells. When compared to non-treated control cells, CNM-treated cells displayed differential expression of genes whose functions are implicated in membrane transporters and stress response, although differentially expressed genes were not consistent between CNT- and fullerenol C60(OH)24-treated groups, leading to our conclusion that CNMs could serve as environmental toxic factors to eukaryotic cells. PMID:27483901

  19. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 8. PESTICIDES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The pesticides industry produces organic chemicals used: to control agricultural pests...

  20. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  1. Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard S.; Norton, David J.; Tom, Baldwin H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry.

  2. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  3. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    2000-06-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability. PMID:10841858

  4. Agricultural/Industrial Mechanical Technician. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for agricultural/industrial mechanical technician occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits),…

  5. Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.S.

    1992-12-31

    A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

  6. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 20. THE MICA INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Mica is a group ...

  7. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 21. THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The cement indus...

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 15. BRINE AND EVAPORITE CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Brine and Ev...

  9. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 17. THE GYPSUM AND WALLBOARD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The gypsum and w...

  10. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 25. PRIMARY ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary alum...

  11. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 19. THE CLAY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The clay industr...

  12. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 4. CARBON BLACK INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The carbon black ...

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 2. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The oil and gas ...

  14. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 12. THE EXPLOSIVES INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The explosives i...

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 16. THE FLUOROCARBON-HYDROGEN FLORIDE INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The materials of...

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 18. THE LIME INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The lime industr...

  17. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 9. THE SYNTHETIC RUBBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The synthetic ru...

  18. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 7. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The organic dyes...

  19. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 10. PLASTICS AND RESINS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Plastics and...

  20. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 29 PRIMARY COPPER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The primary copp...

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 11. THE SYNTHETIC FIBER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. Synthetic fibers...

  2. Global Profiling of Acetyltransferase Feedback Regulation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, David C; Garlick, Julie M; Kulkarni, Rhushikesh A; Kennedy, Steven; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J; Wu, Hong; Vedadi, Masoud; Meier, Jordan L

    2016-05-25

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) are key mediators of cell signaling. Methods capable of providing new insights into their regulation thus constitute an important goal. Here we report an optimized platform for profiling KAT-ligand interactions in complex proteomes using inhibitor-functionalized capture resins. This approach greatly expands the scope of KATs, KAT complexes, and CoA-dependent enzymes accessible to chemoproteomic methods. This enhanced profiling platform is then applied in the most comprehensive analysis to date of KAT inhibition by the feedback metabolite CoA. Our studies reveal that members of the KAT superfamily possess a spectrum of sensitivity to CoA and highlight NAT10 as a novel KAT that may be susceptible to metabolic feedback inhibition. This platform provides a powerful tool to define the potency and selectivity of reversible stimuli, such as small molecules and metabolites, that regulate KAT-dependent signaling. PMID:27149119

  3. Global distribution of seamounts from Seasat profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Claire H.; Sandwell, David T.

    1988-01-01

    A new measurement techique based on a model of a Gaussian seamount loading a thin elastic lithosphere was developed to analyze seamounts that, until then, were not surveyed or seamounts with poor bathymetric coverage. The model predicts that the seamount diameter is equal to the peak-to-trough distance along the vertical deflection profile and that the flexural diameter of a seamount is related to the age of the lithosphere when the seamount formed. This model also suggests that these two measurements are relatively insensitive to the cross-track location from the seamount. These model predictions were confirmed using Seasat altimeter profiles crossing 14 surveyed seamounts in the Pacific. The analysis of the seamount distribution indicated considerable variations in population density and type across the oceans. Most notable among them are the absence of seamounts in the Atlantic, variations in population density across large fracture zones in the Pacific, and the prevalence of small signatures in the Indian Ocean.

  4. Industrial application for global quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, A.; Petruccione, F.

    2012-09-01

    In the last decade the quantum communication community has witnessed great advances in photonic quantum cryptography technology with the research, development and commercialization of automated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) devices. These first generation devices are however bottlenecked by the achievable spatial coverage. This is due to the intrinsic absorption of the quantum particle into the communication medium. As QKD is of paramount importance in the future ICT landscape, various innovative solutions have been developed and tested to expand the spatial coverage of these networks such as the Quantum City initiative in Durban, South Africa. To expand this further into a global QKD-secured network, recent efforts have focussed on high-altitude free-space techniques through the use of satellites. This couples the QKD-secured Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) with secured ground-tosatellite links as access points to a global network. Such a solution, however, has critical limitations that reduce its commercial feasibility. As parallel step to the development of satellitebased global QKD networks, we investigate the use of the commercial aircrafts' network as secure transport mechanisms in a global QKD network. This QKD-secured global network will provide a robust infrastructure to create, distribute and manage encryption keys between the MANs of the participating cities.

  5. The Extractive Industries: Asserting Their Place in Global Health Pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2016-02-01

    The extractive industries play a central role in determining the social determinants of global health yet may not be a core subject of global health studies. This article describes how an undergraduate seminar in global health takes on questions and examples related to the "causes of causes" and challenges instructors to find a place for discussion of extraction of wealth, development, and health in their curricula. PMID:26463256

  6. Global shutter imagers for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynants, G.

    2014-05-01

    Global shutter image sensors offer significant advantages over rolling shutter imagers but their implementation needs careful consideration. Each pixel needs a storage element on which the signal is stored after the exposure period. To cope with low read noise requirements, it is essential that the pixel can still perform correlated double sampling or CDS. This requires a second memory element in the pixel, so that the reset reference level of the sense amplifier can be read before the charge is dumped onto the sense node. An important specification is the parasitic light sensitivity or shutter efficiency of the pixel. This is a measure how insensitive the memory cell in the pixel is to light. Depending on the pixel architecture, this may be especially difficult in combination with backside illumination. Other important pixel performance parameters related to pixel architecture are read noise and dark current. In this paper we will review global shutter pixel architectures, compare their performances and discuss future developments. We discuss the issues related to global shutter pixels for high dynamic range and backside illumination, and how the most advanced CMOS image sensor process technologies can offer new approaches.

  7. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 30. THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, a...

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 28 PRIMARY ZINC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary zinc industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of zinc, co-products, and by-produc...

  9. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 27 PRIMARY LEAD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary lead industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of lead, co-products, and by-produc...

  10. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2005-09-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  11. Global health: the ethical responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lars Christian; Thomsen, Mads Krogsgaard

    2007-02-01

    Health as a global issue concerns all and clearly manifests global inequality. All stakeholders of the healthcare systems and disease treatment--including the pharmaceutical industry--have an ethical obligation to contribute to promoting global health. At Novo Nordisk we primarily focus on providing our contribution to global health through defeating diabetes. At the same time we stand by being a private company required to deliver a financial profit, which is why we must create positive results on the financial, the environmental and the social bottom lines. In this article we attempt to provide a brief overview of some of the initiatives that we think business companies can take--and therefore are also obliged to in promoting global health. Further, we have pointed out a number of dilemmas within research and development as well as business ethics that all companies face when they convert the ethical principles to daily practice globally. PMID:17349219

  12. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  13. Privatization and reform in the global electricity supply industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the origins of the current global interest in the privatization and reform of the electricity supply industry. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of restructuring the industry into separate firms and the difficulties of attracting private capital into an industry in which some state ownership remains. The targets to be met, the means of achieving them, and potential difficulties in implementing such changes are analyzed. An overview of actual experience is provided, along with a discussion of the problems of assessing whether these changes have been successful. Finally, some lessons are drawn for the future development of the process. 62 refs.

  14. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  15. Writing Technical Documents for the Global Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    States that technical writers in the global pharmaceutical industry write for two audiences: regulatory agencies and healthcare practitioners. Contends that information products that address these audiences must balance the competing forces of business interests, market penetration, and the cultural variables of products so tied to people's…

  16. Global Daily Atmospheric State Profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 (micro)m to 15.4 (micro)m and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles, clouds, dust and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4.[1] AIRS data are used for weather forecasting and studies of global climate change. The AIRS is a 'facility' instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations.

  17. Spatial intensity profiling of an industrial laser welding system

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.O.

    1991-12-31

    A investigation was conducted to devise a method to sense the laser beam intensity profile of an industrial laser welding system. The research focuses on monitoring methods and assessing locations within the system where data can be taken which reveal the relationship between the laser beam intensity profile and the input system parameters of the laser beam welding process. Emphasis has been placed on the configuration of a distributed computing environment to acquire, analyze and display the results of the sensed beam profile. Conventional image processing techniques are demonstrated. It was found that a distributed computing environment was useful for processing the large volumes of data generated by this process characterization method, and the distributed computing environment provided the computing power required for computationally intensive analysis and display techniques. The mathematical techniques used to discriminate one data set from another and relate the results to processing conditions are discussed.

  18. Electric utility industry addresses issue of global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Global climate change is a high priority issue for the electric utility industry, and careful consideration is under-way of numerous options to deal effectively with the potential consequences. The earth's temperature has risen about 0.5 degrees Celsius during the past 100 years. It is not known, however, whether this warning is part of a natural cycle or whether man-made emissions will cause additional warning. Scientists speculate the earth's temperature would have to rise another four to five degrees Celsius for significant adverse effects to result from global warming. The utility industry plans to give careful consideration to an array of supply and demand options, he said. Reliable and affordable electric generation is imperative to our society and will be increasingly important in helping societies adapt if global warning does occur. The nation needs a balanced energy mix to ensure an adequate energy supply. The development of new clean coal burning technologies is essential and should be accelerated to increase efficiency and minimize atmospheric emissions. The utility industry is also looking at processes that will reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial and transportation sectors.

  19. [Global health--the ethical responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lars Christian; Thomsen, Mads Krogsgaard

    2006-09-01

    Health is a global concern and all stakeholders in society--including the pharmaceutical industry--have an ethical responsibility to contribute to promote health. At Novo Nordisk, we have decided to focus on defeating diabetes since this is the area where the company can make the biggest difference. Financial viability goes hand in hand with environmental and social responsibility, not only in the external stakeholder dialogue, but also in the quest for attraction and retention of the best possible staff. Examples of the ethical obligations of a pharmaceutical company are presented, as are classical dilemmas faced by the industry. PMID:16999884

  20. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: Chapter 30. The electronic component manufacturing industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, and solid waste emissions from industries which employ similar technologies, have common types of environmental impacts, and supply their products for further processing or consumption to the same general population of customers. This report addresses the following segments of the electronic component manufacturing industry: semiconductors, SIC 3674; capacitors, SIC 3675; resistors, SIC 3676; transformer and inductors, SIC 3677; printed circuit boards, SIC 3679052; electron tubes, SIC 36711, 36713; and cathode ray tubes, SIC 36712, 3671385.

  1. Comparing global soil models to soil carbon profile databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koven, C. D.; Harden, J. W.; He, Y.; Lawrence, D. M.; Nave, L. E.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Treat, C.; Sulman, B. N.; Kane, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    As global soil models begin to consider the dynamics of carbon below the surface layers, it is crucial to assess the realism of these models. We focus on the vertical profiles of soil C predicted across multiple biomes form the Community Land Model (CLM4.5), using different values for a parameter that controls the rate of decomposition at depth versus at the surface, and compare these to observationally-derived diagnostics derived from the International Soil Carbon Database (ISCN) to assess the realism of model predictions of carbon depthattenuation, and the ability of observations to provide a constraint on rates of decomposition at depth.

  2. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: chapter 27 primary lead industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The primary lead industry as defined for this study consists of mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining. A profile of the industry is given including plant locations, capacities, and various statistics regarding production and consumption of lead, co-products, and by-products. The report summarizes the various commercial routes practiced domestically for lead production in a series of process flow diagrams and detailed process descriptions. Each process description includes available data regarding input materials, operating conditions, energy and utility requirements, waste streams produced (air, water, and solid waste), and control technology practices and problems.

  3. Industrial Water Use - A New Global Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassolo, S.

    The industry together with irrigation are the most important water users. While wa- ter use for irrigation has been intensely investigated and its distribution is available on different scales (for example Döll &Siebert, 2000), industrial water use has only been published as lump values for 26 regions of the world (Shiklomanov, 1997). This paper will present a new global data set of industrial water use for 1995 with values distributed on a 0.5 x 0.5 raster. Water use for production of electricity, chemicals, pulp and paper, pig iron, sugar, beer, cloth, crude steel, and aluminium is included in the computation. Water use for electricity production is obtained based on the geo- graphical location (NIMA Atlas, 1999) of 96,000 fuelled power stations (Utility Data Institute, 2000) and the respective water use. Water use for manufacturing is com- puted based on the country individual branch production (UN Statistical Yearbook, 1997) and the specific water use for the respective branch (European Environmental Agency, 1999). The computed water use is distributed according to the urban pop- ulation of each individual country. The obtained data are compared with individual published data and presented in a global map.

  4. Industrial-era global ocean heat uptake doubles in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, Peter J.; Durack, Paul J.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Forest, Chris E.

    2016-04-01

    Formal detection and attribution studies have used observations and climate models to identify an anthropogenic warming signature in the upper (0-700 m) ocean. Recently, as a result of the so-called surface warming hiatus, there has been considerable interest in global ocean heat content (OHC) changes in the deeper ocean, including natural and anthropogenically forced changes identified in observational, modelling and data re-analysis studies. Here, we examine OHC changes in the context of the Earth’s global energy budget since early in the industrial era (circa 1865-2015) for a range of depths. We rely on OHC change estimates from a diverse collection of measurement systems including data from the nineteenth-century Challenger expedition, a multi-decadal record of ship-based in situ mostly upper-ocean measurements, the more recent near-global Argo floats profiling to intermediate (2,000 m) depths, and full-depth repeated transoceanic sections. We show that the multi-model mean constructed from the current generation of historically forced climate models is consistent with the OHC changes from this diverse collection of observational systems. Our model-based analysis suggests that nearly half of the industrial-era increases in global OHC have occurred in recent decades, with over a third of the accumulated heat occurring below 700 m and steadily rising.

  5. Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mande, Sharmila S.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits. Results This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition. PMID:26544883

  6. Global Aerosol Profiling by Orbital Lidar, GLAS Results and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized, profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. A main approach to verify the aerosol optical depth retrieval is comparison to surface measurements by Aeronet. A special feature of the GLAS satellite bus is to rapidly point the lidar instrument at off nadir targets with less than 100 m accuracy. About a dozen selected Aeronet sites were pointed at whenever the GLAS lidar came within 5 degrees of zenith. These plus a more general comparison to nearby sites support the GLAS data product values. In addition the GLAS data can be used to add vertical distribution information to Aeronet aerosol measurements. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from GLAS are summarized.

  7. Global Aerosol Profiling by Orbital Lidar, GLAS Results and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized. profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation and transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. A main approach to verify the aerosol optical depth retrieval is comparison to surface measurements by Aeronet. A special feature of the GLAS satellite bus is to rapidly point the lidar instrument at off nadir targets with less than 100 m accuracy. About a dozen selected Aeronet sites were pointed at whenever the G U S lidar came within 5 degrees of zenith. These plus a more general comparison to nearby sites support the G U S data product values. In addition the GUS data can be used to add vertical distribution information to Aeronet aerosol measurements.. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from G U S are summarized.

  8. Relationship between exposure to industrial noise and serum lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Bahabad, Afshin Malek; Moghaddam, Azadeh Nahan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL). Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:22131242

  9. Globally profiling sialylation status of macrophages upon statin treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Nie, Huan; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Aimin; Li, Yu; Sun, Xue-Long

    2015-09-01

    Sialic acids (SAs) are widely expressed on immune cells and their levels and linkages named as sialylation status vary upon cellular environment changes related to both physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we performed a global profiling of the sialylation status of macrophages and their release of SAs in the cell culture medium by using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy results showed that cell surface α-2,3-linked SAs were predominant in the normal culture condition and changed slightly upon treatment with atorvastatin for 24 h, whereas α-2,6-linked SAs were negligible in the normal culture condition but significantly increased after treatment. Meanwhile, the amount of total cellular SAs increased about three times (from 369 ± 29 to 1080 ± 50 ng/mL) upon treatment as determined by the LC-MS/MS method. On the other hand, there was no significant change for secreted free SAs and conjugated SAs in the medium. These results indicated that the cell surface α-2,6 sialylation status of macrophages changes distinctly upon atorvastatin stimulation, which may reflect on the biological functions of the cells. PMID:26033937

  10. Globally profiling sialylation status of macrophages upon statin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Nie, Huan; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Aimin; Li, Yu; Sun, Xue-Long

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids (SAs) are widely expressed on immune cells and their levels and linkages named as sialylation status vary upon cellular environment changes related to both physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we performed a global profiling of the sialylation status of macrophages and their release of SAs in the cell culture medium by using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy results showed that cell surface α-2,3-linked SAs were predominant in the normal culture condition and changed slightly upon treatment with atorvastatin for 24 h, whereas α-2,6-linked SAs were negligible in the normal culture condition but significantly increased after treatment. Meanwhile, the amount of total cellular SAs increased about three times (from 369 ± 29 to 1080 ± 50 ng/mL) upon treatment as determined by the LC-MS/MS method. On the other hand, there was no significant change for secreted free SAs and conjugated SAs in the medium. These results indicated that the cell surface α-2,6 sialylation status of macrophages changes distinctly upon atorvastatin stimulation, which may reflect on the biological functions of the cells. PMID:26033937

  11. The Target Industries: Profiles of Five Hazardous Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    To contribute to a fuller understanding and awareness of the hazards involved in industries as well as to call attention to steps being taken to solve safety problems, this pamphlet surveys five industries cited among those having the highest rates of job-related injuries in the country. Industries include: (1) Roofing and Sheet Metal, (2)…

  12. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

  14. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1) Preindustrial…

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins production industry, which includes operations that convert industrial organic chemicals into solid or liquid polymers. Elements of the analysis include an industry definition, raw materials, products and manufact...

  16. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the catalog and identifies a number of expected uses f...

  17. Local/Global Cognitive Interfaces within Industrial Districts: An Italian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandinetti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With the advance of globalization the competitive chances of industrial districts depends increasingly on their ability to connect to the cognitive circuits of the global economy. This challenge demands the presence of local actors capable of acting as cognitive interfaces between the district context and the global environment. The paper…

  18. Optimal Detection of Global Warming using Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    Optimal fingerprinting is applied to estimate the amount of time it would take to detect warming by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in monthly averages of temperature profiles over the Indian Ocean.

  19. Textile industry: Profile and DSM (demand-side management) options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Textile Industry Guidebook provides electric utility planning, marketing, and customer service staff with a practical tool to better understand the textile industry and the challenges it faces; its manufacturing processes, technologies, and energy use; and its opportunities for demand-site management (DSM). The Guidebook concludes with guidance and summary data for developing and evaluating DSM plans to realize such opportunities. 5 refs., 37 figs., 52 tabs.

  20. Foodservice industry market profile study: nutritional and objective textural profile of foodservice ground beef.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L P; Williams, S E; Neel, S W; Reagan, J O

    1994-06-01

    Ground beef patties of three types (regular, lean, extra-lean) destined for the foodservice industry were collected from foodservice purveyors in 12 cities equally distributed across six geographical regions of the United States to assess nutritional and objective texture characteristics. Patties were cooked on a foodservice-style clamshell grill to a well (approximately 80 degrees C) degree of doneness (internal temperature) for nutritional analysis and objective texture measurements. Single 5.08-cm2 samples were removed from the center of each patty and sheared with a multiple-blade Allo-Kramer shearing device. Nutritional composition, including proximate analysis values and fatty acid profiles, was determined on both raw and cooked samples of the ground beef. Extra-lean ground beef contained the least (P < .05) fat (12.43%), lean had an intermediate level (17.45%), and regular ground beef contained the most fat (P < .05) (20.20%), on a raw basis. However, after cooking, fat content was similar (P > .05) for regular and lean ground beef. Fatty acid composition of lipid and cholesterol content of ground beef did not differ (P > .05) across types of ground beef or between raw and cooked samples and was similar to USDA Handbook 8-13 values. Cooking loss decreased (P < .05) as fat percentages decreased. Regular and lean ground beef was easier (P < .05) to shear (4.20 and 4.24 kg/g of sample, respectively) than extra-lean ground beef (5.08 kg/g of sample). On average, foodservice ground beef sampled in the present study is 15.5% leaner than retail ground beef as presented in the National Beef Market Basket Survey and 22.2% leaner than USDA Handbook 8-13 values. PMID:8071173

  1. Economic Globalization, Industrialization and Deindustrialization in Affluent Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David; Denniston, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    This study reexamines the relationship between economic globalization and manufacturing employment in affluent democracies. After reviewing past research, including the well-supported Rowthorn model, we propose a differentiation-saturation model that theorizes that globalization has a curvilinear relationship with manufacturing employment. Using…

  2. Instructional Materials for Industrial Preemployment Laboratory. Competency Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Competency profiles are presented for 17 instructional programs/occupational areas. These forms provide for recording the following information: instructional program, student name and other identifying information (address, telephone number, social security number, emergency contacts), class information (method of instruction, grade, dates of…

  3. Autonomous Metabolomics for Rapid Metabolite Identification in Global Profiling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An autonomous metabolomic workflow combining mass spectrometry analysis with tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition was designed to allow for simultaneous data processing and metabolite characterization. Although previously tandem mass spectrometry data have been generated on the fly, the experiments described herein combine this technology with the bioinformatic resources of XCMS and METLIN. As a result of this unique integration, we can analyze large profiling datasets and simultaneously obtain structural identifications. Validation of the workflow on bacterial samples allowed the profiling on the order of a thousand metabolite features with simultaneous tandem mass spectra data acquisition. The tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition enabled automatic search and matching against the METLIN tandem mass spectrometry database, shortening the current workflow from days to hours. Overall, the autonomous approach to untargeted metabolomics provides an efficient means of metabolomic profiling, and will ultimately allow the more rapid integration of comparative analyses, metabolite identification, and data analysis at a systems biology level. PMID:25496351

  4. Autonomous metabolomics for rapid metabolite identification in global profiling.

    PubMed

    Benton, H Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Kurczy, Michael E; Johnson, Caroline H; Franco, Lauren; Rinehart, Duane; Valentine, Elizabeth; Gowda, Harsha; Ubhi, Baljit K; Tautenhahn, Ralf; Gieschen, Andrew; Fields, Matthew W; Patti, Gary J; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-20

    An autonomous metabolomic workflow combining mass spectrometry analysis with tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition was designed to allow for simultaneous data processing and metabolite characterization. Although previously tandem mass spectrometry data have been generated on the fly, the experiments described herein combine this technology with the bioinformatic resources of XCMS and METLIN. As a result of this unique integration, we can analyze large profiling datasets and simultaneously obtain structural identifications. Validation of the workflow on bacterial samples allowed the profiling on the order of a thousand metabolite features with simultaneous tandem mass spectra data acquisition. The tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition enabled automatic search and matching against the METLIN tandem mass spectrometry database, shortening the current workflow from days to hours. Overall, the autonomous approach to untargeted metabolomics provides an efficient means of metabolomic profiling, and will ultimately allow the more rapid integration of comparative analyses, metabolite identification, and data analysis at a systems biology level. PMID:25496351

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10A. THE PLASTICS AND RESINS PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains a detailed analysis of the plastics and resins processing industry, which includes operations that convert polymers and resins into consumer products. Analytical elements include industry definition, raw materials, products, manufacturers, environmental impact...

  6. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  7. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 3. PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The petroleum refining industry is involved primarily in the conversion of crude oil i...

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 24. THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The Iron and Steel Industry encompasses a variety of processes for transforming iron o...

  9. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

  10. Profiles of the National Industry Skills Standards Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Mikala L., Comp.

    In an effort to develop a more uniform and comprehensive system of national skill standards, the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor have awarded grants to 22 technical committees, composed of representatives from business, labor, and education, in a variety of industries and occupations. These projects will begin proposing national standards…

  11. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    -specific energy-efficiency. An important element of the SIOF-program is the preparation of R&D roadmaps for each of the selected industries. The roadmap will help to identify priority needs for the participating industries to meet their energy challenges. The roadmap effort builds on the roadmaps developed by DOE, and on the conditions specific for the industry in California. Key to the successful preparation of a roadmap in the selected industries is the development of a profile of the industries. The profile provides a basis for the participants in the roadmap-effort, especially as the structure of the industries in California can be different than in the nation. The sector profiles describe the current economic and energy situation of these industries in California, the processes and energy uses, and the potential future developments in each industry. The profiles are an integral part of the roadmap, to help working group partners to evaluate the industry's R&D needs for their industry in California. In this report, we focus on the chemicals industry. The industry is an important economic factor in the state, providing over 82,300 jobs directly, and more in indirect employment. Value of shipments in 2001 was just under $25.7 Billion, or 6% of all manufacturing in California. There are over 1,500 chemical plants in California, of which 52% are pharmaceutical companies. Many companies operate chemical plants in California. The industry consumes 8% of the electricity and 5% of the natural gas in California. In this report, we start with a description of the chemical industry in the United States and California. This is followed by a discussion of the energy consumption and energy intensity of the Californian chemical industry. Chapter 3 focuses on the main sub-sectors. For each of the sub-sectors a general process description is provided in Chapter 4. Based on this analysis, in Chapter 5, we discuss potential technology developments that can contribute to further improving the

  12. Phages in the global fruit and vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Żaczek, M; Weber-Dąbrowska, B; Górski, A

    2015-03-01

    From recent articles, we have learned that phages can constitute a promising alternative in the food industry to eliminate bacterial pathogens from seedlings in greenhouse and field environments, as well as from fresh-cut food products. The fruit and vegetable industry requires quite a different approach than the meat or dairy industry. Several factors can inhibit efficacy of phage treatment such as plant watering or washing ready-to-eat products (water may dilute therapeutic doses), UV irradiation or extensive spreading of phytopathogens by wind, insects or even humans. Spontaneously occurring anomalous weather conditions in different parts of the world also may have an enormous impact on phage persistence in cultivations and on yields. Despite that, some phage preparations are commercially available and, without doubt, are much safer than chemical treatments. Along with increasing worldwide fruit and vegetable consumption, plant diseases and human foodborne illnesses are becoming a serious economic problem, resulting in a focus on optimization of phage treatment. PMID:25410419

  13. Moessbauer Study of Soil Profiles in Industrial Region of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Kopcewicz, B.; Jelenska, M.; Hasso-Agopsowicz, A.; Kopcewicz, M.

    2005-04-26

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the influence of industrial activity on soil composition. Comparing the Moessbauer spectra of separate layers for the Mariupol sampling site (highly polluted industrial region of South -- East Ukraine) we observed: i) appearance of the Fe3O4 compound at top soil layers: 16.6% of relative spectral area (RA) at (0 - 10 cm) layer, 5.3% of RA at (30 - 40 cm) layer and no magnetite component at deeper layers, ii) a significant increase of the contribution of the magnetically split spectral components: from 10.9% of RA for (120 - 130 cm) layer to 32.8% of RA for (0-10 cm) layer. The differences in RA of the magnetically split spectral components between top soil layer and the (120 - 130 cm) layer at the Homutovski steppe sampling site (non-polluted area) are much smaller, 13.7% and 9.8%, respectively. From the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra it was concluded that part of the iron-containing compounds appears in the form of ultra fine particles in the superparamagnetic state. The observed increase of total concentration of the magnetic minerals for polluted sampling sites is caused by an increase of the content of coarse fraction of the magnetic particles.

  14. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 22. THE PHOSPHATE ROCK AND BASIC FERTILIZER MATERIALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. The phosphate rock and basic fertilizer materials industry produces primarily large-tonnage quantities of both finished fertilizers and basic intermediates for fertilizers. The ind...

  15. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  16. Global DNA methylation profiling technologies and the ovarian cancer methylome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jessica; Fang, Fang; Miller, Dave F; Pilrose, Jay M; Matei, Daniela; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine methylation in DNA constitutes an important epigenetic layer of transcriptional and regulatory control in many eukaryotes. Profiling DNA methylation across the genome is critical to understanding the influence of epigenetics in normal biology and disease, such as cancer. Genome-wide analyses such as arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been used to assess large fractions of the methylome at a single-base-pair resolution. However, the range of DNA methylation profiling techniques can make selecting the appropriate protocol a challenge. This chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various methylome detection approaches to assess which is appropriate for the question at hand. Here, we focus on four prominent genome-wide approaches: whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS); methyl-binding domain capture sequencing (MBDCap-Seq); reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing (RRBS); and Infinium Methylation450 BeadChips (450 K, Illumina). We discuss some of the requirements, merits, and challenges that should be considered when choosing a methylome technology to ensure that it will be informative. In addition, we show how genome-wide methylation detection arrays and high-throughput sequencing have provided immense insight into ovarian cancer-specific methylation signatures that may serve as diagnostic biomarkers or predict patient response to epigenetic therapy. PMID:25421685

  17. Profile of the lumber and wood products industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood; sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills (wooden casks or tubs), planing mills, plywood mills; and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. The categorization corresponds to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 24 established by Department of Commerce`s Bureau of the Census to track the flow of goods and services within the economy. In this profile, the industry`s processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber; producing lumber; panel products and wood preserving.

  18. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the state of…

  19. The Triumph of the Industrial-Consumer Paradigm and English as the Global Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the role of English as the global language within the industrial-consumer paradigm. In the 21st century, the English language plays a different function in the global economy than it did during the 19th century when it was used as an instrument of cultural imperialism. Today, English serves as a vehicle for participation in…

  20. The Art of Globalism, the Culture of Difference, the Industry of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalder, Glenda

    This paper speaks in terms of "globalism" rather than "globalization," of a "culture of difference" rather than of cultural difference, of an "industry of knowledge" rather than of knowing. The paper first considers the argument that new communications technologies and systems are bringing cultures together merely by forging global…

  1. 78 FR 73915 - Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc... information concerning the securities of Industry Concept Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  2. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-01

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors. PMID:23441588

  3. Moire based optical surface profiler for the minting industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreb, Bozenko F.; Larkin, Kieran G.; Fairman, Philip S.; Ghaffari, M.

    1992-12-01

    An Optical Surface Profiler (OSP130) has been developed for the metrology of master tooling used in the coin stamping process. The OSP130 measure, in a non-contacting manner, the surface relief of tools ranging in diameter from 10 mm to 300 mm. Rapid measurements are performed simultaneously on a large grid of equispaced points across the surface of the tool. From the relief data, many parameters such as the location of high and low features, volume of impression, background curvatures and various diameters can be quickly evaluated. The technique used is phase-shifting moire profilometry. A white light projector illuminates a periodic transmission grating which is then imaged onto the object surface. The light pattern on the object is viewed by a high resolution TV camera connected to a computer. The grating is shifted under computer control to a number of positions and corresponding intensity images of the deformed pattern on the object surface are stored in the computer. From the intensity images a phase map, representing the deformation of the periodic grating by the surface relief, is evaluated and compared with an undeformed pattern. This results in an accurate contour map of the surface relief with an uncertainty less than 1% of the relief excursion on the object. Details of the instrument and its use at the Royal Australian Mint are presented.

  4. The global methanol industry -- Is it deja vu all over again?

    SciTech Connect

    Crocco, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The author reviews the methanol industry in the 1980`s and uses this to forecast the future of the industry, attempting to be as realistic as possible. Data are presented on the global methanol supply and demand, anticipated new methanol production capacity, and the 1995 worldwide methanol capacity. Although the global methanol industry, and most especially the producers, are entering some stormy seas, they are not completely uncharted. Those who were around ten or more years ago can see some similarities between current and anticipated market conditions. The similarities and differences are discussed.

  5. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  6. Global gene expression profiles in developing soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tomiko; Tamura, Tomoko; Terauchi, Kaede; Narikawa, Tomoyo; Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko

    2012-03-01

    The gene expression profiles in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds at 4 stages of development, namely, pod, 2-mm bean, 5-mm bean, and full-size bean, were examined by DNA microarray analysis. The total genes of each sample were classified into 4 clusters based on stage of development. Gene expression was strictly controlled by seed size, which coincides with the development stage. First, stage specific gene expression was examined. Many transcription factors were expressed in pod, 2-mm bean and 5-mm bean. In contrast, storage proteins were mainly expressed in full-size bean. Next, we extracted the genes that are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were extracted using the Rank products method of the Bioconductor software package. These DEGs were sorted into 8 groups using the hclust function according to gene expression patterns. Three of the groups across which the expression levels progressively increased included 100 genes, while 3 groups across which the levels decreased contained 47 genes. Storage proteins, seed-maturation proteins, some protease inhibitors, and the allergen Gly m Bd 28K were classified into the former groups. Lipoxygenase (LOX) family members were present in both the groups, indicating the multi-functionality with different expression patterns. PMID:22245912

  7. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, J. . Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  8. The “Global Settlement” With the Tobacco Industry: 6 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Givel, Michael; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2004-01-01

    On June 20, 1997 a group of attorneys and health advocates proposed a “global settlement” of all public and private litigation against the tobacco industry. This agreement was controversial, and the subsequent implementing legislation was defeated. We sought to determine whether the global settlement represented a “missed opportunity” or a dead end. We compared the global settlement with subsequent laws, regulations, settlements, and judgments against the tobacco industry and found that other than Food and Drug Administration regulation of tobacco, tobacco control advocates have achieved many of the policies included in the global settlement and several beyond it. The policies that have been developed since 1997 have advanced tobacco control substantially, often beyond the provisions of the global settlement. PMID:14759930

  9. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  10. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  11. Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA): global leadership towards a raised profile.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy. PMID:24722750

  12. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

  13. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  14. Brooks Global Studies Extended-Year Magnet School. Profiles of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    Extending the school year and incorporating global education into the curriculum are two educational innovations that have developed in response to demand for improved educational quality. This handbook profiles how educators and parents in Greensboro, North Carolina, planned Brooks Magnet School and implemented its 210-day, year-round calendar,…

  15. The global reorganization and revitalization of the asbestos industry, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Rice, James

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this essay is to highlight the global reorganization of the asbestos industry over the period 1970-2007. Descriptive analysis illustrates that asbestos consumption in the industrialized countries declined precipitously over this period, in juxtaposition to a notable increase in consumption in the developing countries. In 2007, asbestos consumption in the developing countries was more than two million metric tons but negligible elsewhere in the world economy. The author argues that as asbestos increasingly became the focus of government oversight in the industrialized countries, continued capital accumulation efforts necessitated displacement of risk to the developing countries. The global revitalization of asbestos production and consumption over the period 1970-2007 presents numerous challenges in terms of occupational and environmental health hazards in the developing countries. It has the potential, moreover, to prefigure a significant expansion of asbestos-related disease into the 21st century, absent a global ban on asbestos use. PMID:21563623

  16. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    197 and 198) and CoA ligase at 80 h during the industrial process were around 2-fold of that during the pilot process, indicating that the industrial process with a higher penicillin production per cell might provide available environments to induce over-expression of IPN acyltransferase and accelerate penicillin formation. These results provide new insights into the globally potential responses of P. chrysogenum to variations of environments in different fermentation scales so as to consequently regulate the penicillin production. PMID:26961188

  17. Global trends in milk quality: implications for the Irish dairy industry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The quality of Irish agricultural product will become increasingly important with the ongoing liberalisation of international trade. This paper presents a review of the global and Irish dairy industries; considers the impact of milk quality on farm profitability, food processing and human health, examines global trends in quality; and explores several models that are successfully being used to tackle milk quality concerns. There is a growing global demand for dairy products, fuelled in part by growing consumer wealth in developing countries. Global dairy trade represents only 6.2% of global production and demand currently outstrips supply. Although the Irish dairy industry is small by global standards, approximately 85% of annual production is exported annually. It is also the world's largest producer of powdered infant formula. Milk quality has an impact on human health, milk processing and on-farm profitability. Somatic cell count (SCC) is a key measure of milk quality, with a SCC not exceeding 400,000 cells/ml (the EU milk quality standard) generally accepted as the international export standard. There have been ongoing improvements in milk quality among both established and emerging international suppliers. A number of countries have developed successful industry-led models to tackle milk quality concerns. Based on international experiences, it is likely that problems with effective translation of knowledge to practice, rather than incomplete knowledge per se, are the more important constraints to national progress towards improved milk quality. PMID:22081986

  18. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications. PMID:26189701

  19. Global metabolic profiling for the study of alcohol-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gika, Helen G; Wilson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related disorders are multifaceted since ethanol can induce profound metabolic perturbations when taken in excess. Global metabolic profiling strategies may aid the understanding of ethanol-related effects by shedding light on these metabolic changes and potentially revealing unknown mechanisms of ethanol toxicity. Here an overview of studies designed to explore the effects of alcohol (ethanol) consumption using holistic metabolite profiling approaches (metabonomics/metabolomics) is presented, demonstrating the potential of this methodology. The analytical technologies used (NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS), have been applied to the profiling of serum, plasma, urine and tissues, obtained from animal models or humans, after exposure to alcohol. From the metabolic profiling data of a range of biological samples, a number of endogenous metabolites have been proposed as potential ethanol consumption-related biomarkers. The biomarkers suggested by these studies, and the biochemical insights that they provide for understanding the effects of ethanol mechanisms of toxicity, are discussed. PMID:24341495

  20. Four Lessons from Global Health Drug Discovery: Medicine for an Ailing Industry?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has faced many challenges to its business model, undergoing tremendous change and turmoil to survive. Are there any lessons to be drawn from drug discovery focused on Global Health, where there is little market incentive? PMID:24900531

  1. Linguistic Globalization and the Call Center Industry: Imperialism, Hegemony or Cosmopolitanism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonntag, Selma K.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism, linguistic hegemony and linguistic cosmopolitanism are broad and contrasting conceptualizations of linguistic globalization that are frequently, if implicitly, invoked in the literature, both academic and non-academic, on language practices and perceptions in the call center industry. I begin with outlining each of these…

  2. IT Investment Guidelines in Taiwan's IT Industry under a Global Economic Downturn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Un Un

    2011-01-01

    The current qualitative phenomenological study focused on how information technology (IT) leaders managed IT investment during the global economic downturn in the Taiwan IT industry. Organizations around the world spend billions of dollars on IT-related products and services every year. Determining an effective IT investment plan is a complex task…

  3. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry–Sponsored Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. Methods We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry–sponsored international trials. Results 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry–sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry–sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry–sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Conclusions Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of

  4. Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan

    SciTech Connect

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Whitaker, J Michael; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  7. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  8. Developing global health technology standards: what can other industries teach us?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of effective and affordable technologies to address health needs in the developing world. One way to address problems of innovation and affordability is to design global health technologies to follow agreed-upon standards. This Debate article argues that we can better develop standards for global health technologies if we learn lessons from other industries. Discussion The article’s Background section begins by explaining why standards are needed in global health. For example, if global health technologies can be modularized into independent interfacing parts, these parts can then interact via well-defined standards in a “plug and play” fashion. This can avoid development of mutually incompatible solutions by different organizations, speed the pace of innovation, unlock health systems from single providers and approaches, and lower barriers to entry. The Background then gives a brief primer on standards and discusses incentives for health standards. The article’s Discussion section begins with brief relevant cases of standards development from other industries, including electricity, container shipping, CD standards, Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the Internet. It then explores lessons from these and other industries that suggest how to develop standards for global health technologies. The remainder of the Discussion considers intellectual property and regulatory issues and standards-based global health business models, and ends with a checklist of considerations for health standards development leaders. (The associated Additional file discusses observations from standards development for cell phones and semiconductors, as well as challenges in the standards development process itself.) Throughout the article, point-of-care diagnostics are used as an illustrative example. An initiative is already underway to explore standardized diagnostics platforms. Summary This Debate article aims to convince the reader that standards can

  9. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2013-12-01

    This briefing provides an overview of supply chain developments in the global wind industry and a detailed assessment of blade manufacturing considerations for U.S. end-markets. The report discusses the international trade flows of wind power equipment, blade manufacturing and logistical costs, and qualitative issues that often influence factory location decisions. To help guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, this report offers a comprehensive perspective of both quantitative and qualitative factors that affect selected supply chain developments in the growing wind power industry.

  10. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets. PMID:17853900

  11. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Vaishali R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%), irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%), overweight (53%), osteoarthritis (10%), hearing loss (25%), and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement. PMID:25568604

  12. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon.

  13. Building the world's supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goss, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Quinine, a naturally occurring alkaloid from the Cinchona tree, was one of the first drugs produced and sold by a global pharmaceutical industry during the nineteenth century. Factories in Europe and North America dominated the manufacturing industry, and between 1890 and 1940, Cinchona plantations on Java supplied most of the bark for the quinine pharmaceutical business. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Dutch colonial state kept a hands-off approach to the Cinchona enterprises, in keeping with its liberal orientation. But the persistent low-price for bark, which led to the near ruin of the Cinchona planters, eventually pushed the colonial state to actively protect the Cinchona plantations. Colonial officials sought to stabilize the colonial Cinchona export-business by encouraging the integration of the quinine industry on a global scale. Most important was the colonial state's sponsorship in 1913 of the Quinine Agreement, establishing a set price for Cinchona bark, which created the world's first pharmaceutical cartel. In the interwar period, an alliance of Dutch government officials, planters, scientists, doctors and drug-makers, working in both the motherland and the colony, actively promoted the expansion of quinine consumption, as well as the merit of the Quinine Agreement, which they argued supplied guaranteed a steady supply of quinine, all for the wellbeing of global humanity. PMID:24287061

  14. DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Global Methylation Differences and Markers of Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rechache, Nesrin S.; Wang, Yonghong; Stevenson, Holly S.; Killian, J. Keith; Edelman, Daniel C.; Merino, Maria; Zhang, Lisa; Nilubol, Naris; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: It is not known whether there are any DNA methylation alterations in adrenocortical tumors. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the methylation profile of normal adrenal cortex and benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Methods: Genome-wide methylation status of CpG regions were determined in normal (n = 19), benign (n = 48), primary malignant (n = 8), and metastatic malignant (n = 12) adrenocortical tissue samples. An integrated analysis of genome-wide methylation and mRNA expression in benign vs. malignant adrenocortical tissue samples was also performed. Results: Methylation profiling revealed the following: 1) that methylation patterns were distinctly different and could distinguish normal, benign, primary malignant, and metastatic tissue samples; 2) that malignant samples have global hypomethylation; and 3) that the methylation of CpG regions are different in benign adrenocortical tumors by functional status. Normal compared with benign samples had the least amount of methylation differences, whereas normal compared with primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma samples had the greatest variability in methylation (adjusted P ≤ 0.01). Of 215 down-regulated genes (≥2-fold, adjusted P ≤ 0.05) in malignant primary adrenocortical tumor samples, 52 of these genes were also hypermethylated. Conclusions: Malignant adrenocortical tumors are globally hypomethylated as compared with normal and benign tumors. Methylation profile differences may accurately distinguish between primary benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Several differentially methylated sites are associated with genes known to be dysregulated in malignant adrenocortical tumors. PMID:22472567

  15. Global Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Brains following Experimental Infection with the Cyst-Forming Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Elsheikha, Hany M.; Liu, Guang-Xue; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host has been largely studied. However, molecular changes at the metabolic level in the host central nervous system and pathogenesis-associated metabolites during brain infection are largely unexplored. We used a global metabolomics strategy to identify differentially regulated metabolites and affected metabolic pathways in BALB/c mice during infection with T. gondii Pru strain at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (DPI). The non-targeted Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics analysis detected approximately 2,755 retention time-exact mass pairs, of which more than 60 had significantly differential profiles at different stages of infection. These include amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and vitamins. The biological significance of these metabolites is discussed. Principal Component Analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis showed the metabolites’ profile to change over time with the most significant changes occurring at 14 DPI. Correlated metabolic pathway imbalances were observed in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energetic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. Eight metabolites correlated with the physical recovery from infection-caused illness were identified. These findings indicate that global metabolomics adopted in this study is a sensitive approach for detecting metabolic alterations in T. gondii-infected mice and generated a comparative metabolic profile of brain tissue distinguishing infected from non-infected host. PMID:26431205

  16. Global Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Brains following Experimental Infection with the Cyst-Forming Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M; Liu, Guang-Xue; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host has been largely studied. However, molecular changes at the metabolic level in the host central nervous system and pathogenesis-associated metabolites during brain infection are largely unexplored. We used a global metabolomics strategy to identify differentially regulated metabolites and affected metabolic pathways in BALB/c mice during infection with T. gondii Pru strain at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (DPI). The non-targeted Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics analysis detected approximately 2,755 retention time-exact mass pairs, of which more than 60 had significantly differential profiles at different stages of infection. These include amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and vitamins. The biological significance of these metabolites is discussed. Principal Component Analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis showed the metabolites' profile to change over time with the most significant changes occurring at 14 DPI. Correlated metabolic pathway imbalances were observed in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energetic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. Eight metabolites correlated with the physical recovery from infection-caused illness were identified. These findings indicate that global metabolomics adopted in this study is a sensitive approach for detecting metabolic alterations in T. gondii-infected mice and generated a comparative metabolic profile of brain tissue distinguishing infected from non-infected host. PMID:26431205

  17. The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Cathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.

  18. Meteoric 10Be in soil profiles - A global meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.

    2010-12-01

    In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied. The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile. In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.

  19. Global Profiling of Various Metabolites in Platycodon grandiflorum by UPLC-QTOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Kim, Geum-Soog; Song, Kyung-Sik; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ok Tae; Lee, Yi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Chang-Kug; Lee, Seung-Eun; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Dae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method of metabolite profiling based on UPLC-QTOF/MS was developed to analyze Platycodon grandiflorum. In the optimal UPLC, various metabolites, including major platycosides, were separated well in 15 min. The metabolite extraction protocols were also optimized by selecting a solvent for use in the study, the ratio of solvent to sample and sonication time. This method was used to profile two different parts of P. grandiflorum, i.e., the roots of P. grandiflorum (PR) and the stems and leaves of P. grandiflorum (PS), in the positive and negative ion modes. As a result, PR and PS showed qualitatively and quantitatively different metabolite profiles. Furthermore, their metabolite compositions differed according to individual plant samples. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS-based profiling method is a good tool to analyze various metabolites in P. grandiflorum. This metabolomics approach can also be applied to evaluate the overall quality of P. grandiflorum, as well as to discriminate the cultivars for the medicinal plant industry. PMID:26569219

  20. Global Profiling of Various Metabolites in Platycodon grandiflorum by UPLC-QTOF/MS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Kim, Geum-Soog; Song, Kyung-Sik; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ok Tae; Lee, Yi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Chang-Kug; Lee, Seung-Eun; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Dae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method of metabolite profiling based on UPLC-QTOF/MS was developed to analyze Platycodon grandiflorum. In the optimal UPLC, various metabolites, including major platycosides, were separated well in 15 min. The metabolite extraction protocols were also optimized by selecting a solvent for use in the study, the ratio of solvent to sample and sonication time. This method was used to profile two different parts of P. grandiflorum, i.e., the roots of P. grandiflorum (PR) and the stems and leaves of P. grandiflorum (PS), in the positive and negative ion modes. As a result, PR and PS showed qualitatively and quantitatively different metabolite profiles. Furthermore, their metabolite compositions differed according to individual plant samples. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS-based profiling method is a good tool to analyze various metabolites in P. grandiflorum. This metabolomics approach can also be applied to evaluate the overall quality of P. grandiflorum, as well as to discriminate the cultivars for the medicinal plant industry. PMID:26569219

  1. Characteristics and Trade-Offs of Doppler Lidar Global Wind Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G David

    2004-01-01

    Accurate, global profiling of wind velocity is highly desired by NASA, NOAA, the DOD/DOC/NASA Integrated Program Office (IPO)/NPOESS, DOD, and others for many applications such as validation and improvement of climate models, and improved weather prediction. The most promising technology to deliver this measurement from space is Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL). The NASA/NOAA Global Tropospheric Wind Sounder (GTWS) program is currently in the process of generating the science requirements for a space-based sensor. In order to optimize the process of defining science requirements, it is important for the scientific and user community to understand the nature of the wind measurements that DWL can make. These measurements are very different from those made by passive imaging sensors or by active radar sensors. The purpose of this paper is to convey the sampling characteristics and data product trade-offs of an orbiting DWL.

  2. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

  3. Global current profile effects on the evolution and saturation of magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Poye, A.; Agullo, O.; Benkadda, S.; Smolyakov, A.; Garbet, X.

    2013-02-15

    The nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The growth and saturation of the island are shown to depend not only on asymptotic tearing mode stability parameter {Delta}{sup Prime} but also on the initial global current profile. Presence of the external current sheets leads to the formation of different island state for the same value of {Delta}{sup Prime }. It is found that the flow vorticity generated by the interacting current sheets is an important feature of nonlocal interactions and nonlocal effects in magnetic islands dynamics.

  4. The global budgets of organic hydroperoxides for present and pre-industrial scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Xiao, P.; Morris, W. C.; Derwent, R. G.; Archibald, A. T.; Jenkin, M. E.; Percival, C. J.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    The global 3-D chemistry-transport model, STOCHEM-CRI (Utembe et al., 2010), has been used to simulate the global distribution of organic hydroperoxides (ROOH) for both present day and pre-industrial scenarios. Globally, the formation of ROOH is solely from the reaction between RO2 and HO2, being more significant under NOx-limited conditions; here the self and cross reactions of RO2 and HO2 radicals dominate over their reaction with NO. The predominant global loss processes for ROOH are reaction with OH (95%) and by photolysis (4.4%) with a minor loss (<1%) by deposition, in the present day scenario. The associated global burden of ROOH in our model study is found to be 3.8 Tg. The surface distribution of ROOH shows a peak near the equator corresponding with higher photochemical activity and large (biogenic) VOC emissions. The simulated abundances of ROOH are comparable with those recorded in field campaigns, but generally show a tendency towards underestimation, particularly in the boundary layer. ROOH displayed seasonal cycles with higher concentrations during the summer months and lower concentrations during the winter months. The effects of including proposed HOx recycling schemes, including isomerisation of isoprene-derived peroxy radicals on the global budget of ROOH have also been investigated for the present and the pre-industrial environment. The present day simulations showed significant increases in CH3OOH and ROOH (up to 80% and 30%, respectively) over tropical forested regions, due to a general increase in HO2 and RO2 levels in isoprene-rich regions at low NOx levels. In the pre-industrial scenario, the increases in CH3OOH and total ROOH abundances are even larger, reflecting the more efficient operation of HOx recycling mechanisms at lower NOx levels. RCO3H species contribute 40-50% of the global burden of ROOH; inclusion of HOx recycling mechanisms leads to an increase in these RCO3H species but there is no discernible change in the remaining ROOH

  5. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Baojing; Chang, Jie; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Zhu, Qiuan; Galloway, James N.; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Haber-Bosch nitrogen (N) has been increasingly used in industrial products, e.g., nylon, besides fertilizer. Massive numbers of species of industrial reactive N (Nr) have emerged and produced definite consequences but receive little notice. Based on a comprehensive inventory, we show that (1) the industrial N flux has increased globally from 2.5 to 25.4 Tg N yr−1 from 1960 through 2008, comparable to the NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion; (2) more than 25% of industrial products (primarily structural forms, e.g., nylon) tend to accumulate in human settlements due to their long service lives; (3) emerging Nr species define new N-assimilation and decomposition pathways and change the way that Nr is released to the environment; and (4) the loss of these Nr species to the environment has significant negative human and ecosystem impacts. Incorporating industrial Nr into urban environmental and biogeochemical models could help to advance urban ecology and environmental sciences. PMID:23999540

  6. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle.

    PubMed

    Gu, Baojing; Chang, Jie; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Zhu, Qiuan; Galloway, James N; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Haber-Bosch nitrogen (N) has been increasingly used in industrial products, e.g., nylon, besides fertilizer. Massive numbers of species of industrial reactive N (Nr) have emerged and produced definite consequences but receive little notice. Based on a comprehensive inventory, we show that (1) the industrial N flux has increased globally from 2.5 to 25.4 Tg N yr(-1) from 1960 through 2008, comparable to the NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion; (2) more than 25% of industrial products (primarily structural forms, e.g., nylon) tend to accumulate in human settlements due to their long service lives; (3) emerging Nr species define new N-assimilation and decomposition pathways and change the way that Nr is released to the environment; and (4) the loss of these Nr species to the environment has significant negative human and ecosystem impacts. Incorporating industrial Nr into urban environmental and biogeochemical models could help to advance urban ecology and environmental sciences. PMID:23999540

  7. Global modeling of the nitrate radical (NO3) for present and pre-industrial scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Archibald, A. T.; Derwent, R. G.; Xiao, P.; Percival, C. J.; Jenkin, M. E.; Morris, W. C.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the complexity of the chemistry scheme in the global chemistry transport model STOCHEM to STOCHEM-CRI (Utembe et al., 2010) leads to an increase in NOx as well as ozone resulting in higher NO3 production over forested regions and regions impacted by anthropogenic emission. Peak NO3 is located over the continents near NOx emission sources. NO3 is formed in the main by the reaction of NO2 with O3, and the significant losses of NO3 are due to the photolysis and the reactions with NO and VOCs. Isoprene is an important biogenic VOC, and the possibility of HOx recycling via isoprene chemistry and other mechanisms such as the reaction of RO2 with HO2 has been investigated previously (Archibald et al., 2010a). The importance of including HOx recycling processes on the global budget of NO3 for present and pre-industrial scenarios has been studied using STOCHEM-CRI, and the results are compared. The large increase (up to 60% for present and up to 80% for pre-industrial) in NO3 is driven by the reduced lifetime of emitted VOCs because of the increase in the HOx concentration. The maximum concentration changes (up to 15 ppt) for NO3 from pre-industrial to present day are found at the surface between 30oN and 60oN because of the increase in NOx concentrations in the present day integrations.

  8. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products. PMID:17543115

  9. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  10. Relative effects on global warming of halogenated methanes and ethanes of social and industrial interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Donald A.; Hales, Charles H.; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, N. Dak

    1990-01-01

    The relative potential global warming effects for several halocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)-11, 12, 113, 114, and 115; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) 22, 123, 124, 141b, and 142b; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) 125, 134a, 143a, and 152a; carbon tetrachloride; and methyl chloroform) were calculated by two atmospheric modeling groups. These calculations were based on atmospheric chemistry and radiative convective models to determine the chemical profiles and the radiative processes. The resulting relative greenhouse warming when normalized to the effect of CFC-11 agree reasonably well as long as we account for differences between modeled lifetimes. Differences among results are discussed. Sensitivity of relative warming values is determined with respect to trace gas levels assumed. Transient relative global warming effects are analyzed.

  11. GSSML: An Observations and Measurements profile for GlobalSoilMap.net (Oceania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Alistair; Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Oceania node of the GlobalSoilMap.net consortium has defined GSMML, a profile of the Observations and Measurements (O&M) Geography Markup Language (GML) application schema, to support the delivery of project data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services (WFS). This paper describes GSMML, and the results of initial testing, and proposes linkages to other OGC service types and soil data exchange standards. GlobalSoilMap.net will create a global soil dataset providing predictions for twelve agreed soil properties within a three-dimensional grid. The grid consists of 'Spatial Entities' spaced at 3 arc second intervals and extending to a depth of 2 meters with ten physical soil property predictions made at six predefined depth intervals. In addition, two properties predicting the depth of the profile are made for each Spatial Entity. Each prediction must include: an estimate of its uncertainty; its age and that of the source data; and a description of the process used to generate the value. The approach taken in GSMML is to map the GlobalSoilMap.net requirements on to classes within the O&M Observation and Sampling Features packages. The GlobalSoilMap.net Spatial Entities represent a sampling regime across the earth's terrestrial surface and are modelled as nested O&M 'SF_SpatialSamplingFeatures'. The property predictions are related 'OM_Observation' instances that carry the result, age properties, estimation process, and uncertainty. GSMML defines two concrete classes ('GSM_PrimarySpatialEntity' and 'GSM_SecondarySpatialEntity') with no properties of their own that specialize the SF_SpatialSamplingFeature. Uncertainty is encoded by adopting the UncertML profile of O&M. The schema is accompanied by a set of conformance classes to constrain content, and Semantic Web vocabularies that define the observed properties. Test GSMML services show that a WFS can only reliably support the provision of comprehensive data for requests returning a few hundred

  12. Validation of the Global Land Data Assimilation System based on measurements of soil temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Yingying; Yang, Kun; Chen, Deliang

    2016-04-01

    Soil temperature is a key parameter in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. It plays an important role in the land surface water and energy cycles, and has a major influence on vegetation growth and other hydrological aspects. We evaluated the accuracy of the soil temperature profiles from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) using nine observational networks across the world and aimed to find a reliable global soil temperature profile dataset for future hydrological and ecological studies. In general, the soil temperature profile data generated by the Noah model driven by the GLDAS forcing data (GLDAS_Noah10 and GLDAS_Noah10_v2) were found to have high skills in terms of daily, monthly, and mean seasonal variations, indicated by smaller bias and root-mean-square-error (RMSE) (both < 3 °C) and correlation coefficients larger than 0.90. Conversely, the Community Land Model (CLM) results (GLDAS_CLM10) generally showed larger bias and RMSE (both > 4°C). Further analysis showed that the overestimation by GLDAS_CLM10 was mainly caused by overestimation of the ground heat flux, determined by the thermal conductivity parameterization scheme, whereas the underestimation by GLDAS_Noah10 was due to underestimation of downward longwave radiation from the forcing data. Thus, more accurate forcing data should be required for the Noah model and an improved thermal parameterization scheme should be developed for the CLM. These approaches will improve the accuracy of simulated soil temperatures. To our knowledge, it is the first study to evaluate the GLDAS soil temperatures with comprehensive in situ observations across the world, and has a potential to facilitate an overall improvement of the GLDAS products (not only soil temperatures but also the related energy and water fluxes) as well as a refinement of the land surface parameterization used in GLDAS.

  13. Estimated errors in a global gravity wave climatology from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; Llamedo, P.; Alexander, P.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    2010-07-01

    In a previous paper by Schmidt et al. (2008), from CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation data, a comparison was made between a Gaussian filter applied to the "complete" temperature profile and to its "separate" tropospheric and stratospheric height intervals, for gravity wave analyses. It was found that the separate filtering method considerably reduces a wave activity artificial enhancement near the tropopause, presumably due to the isolation process of the wave component. We now propose a simple approach to estimate the uncertainty in the calculation of the mean specific wave potential energy content, due exclusively to the filtering process of vertical temperature profiles, independently of the experimental origin of the data. The approach is developed through a statistical simulation, built up from the superposition of synthetic wave perturbations. These are adjusted by a recent gravity wave (GW) climatology and temperature profiles from reanalyses. A systematic overestimation of the mean specific wave potential energy content is detected and its variability with latitude, altitude, season and averaging height interval is highlighted.

  14. Global Warming: A Science Overview for the A/C Industry

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1999-12-06

    Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about 85% of the world's energy, sustaining our standard-of-living. They are inexpensive, transportable, safe, and relatively abundant. At the same time, their use contributes to problems such as air quality and acid rain that are being addressed through various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments of the world. This talk will focus on six key aspects of the scientific findings that are leading to proposals for significant limitation of the emissions of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide and limitations on emissions of other greenhouse gases that can influence the global climate, including substances used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.

  15. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  16. Transcriptome analysis reveals global expression changes in an industrial L-lysine producer of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikiro; Ohnishi, Junko; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Yonetani, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Ikeda, Masato

    2006-02-01

    Toward the elucidation of advanced mechanisms of L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum, a highly developed industrial strain B-6 was analyzed from the viewpoint of gene expression. Northern blot analysis showed that the lysC gene encoding aspartokinase, the key enzyme of L-lysine biosynthesis, was up-regulated by several folds in strain B-6, while no repression mechanism exists in L-lysine biosynthesis of this bacterium. To analyze the underlying mechanisms of the up-regulation, we compared the transcriptome between strain B-6 and its parental wild-type, finding that not only lysC but also many other amino acid-biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in the producer. These results suggest that a certain global regulatory mechanism is involved in the industrial levels of L-lysine production. PMID:16495679

  17. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    PubMed Central

    Mandle, Jessie; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Michalow, Julia; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design Narrative review. Results This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies. PMID:25623608

  18. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  19. Global profiles of the direct aerosol effect using vertically resolved aerosol data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Pappas, Vasilios; Matsoukas, Christos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Vardavas, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can cause climate change through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In general, aerosols cause cooling of the surface and the planet, while they warm the atmosphere due to scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation. The importance of vertically resolved direct radiative effect (DRE) and heating/cooling effects of aerosols is strong, while large uncertainties still lie with their magnitudes. In order to be able to quantify them throughout the atmosphere, a detailed vertical profile of the aerosol effect is required. Such data were made available recently by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. CALIOP is the first polarization lidar to fly in space and has been acquiring unique data on aerosols and clouds since June 2006. The aim of this study is to investigate both the vertically resolved geographic and seasonal variation of the DRE due to aerosols. The vertical profile of DRE under all-sky and clear-sky conditions is computed using the deterministic spectral radiative transfer model FORTH. From the DRE, the effect on atmospheric heating/cooling rate profiles due to aerosols can also be derived. We use CALIOP Level 2-Version 3 Layer aerosol optical depth data as input to our radiation transfer model, for a period of 3 complete years (2007-2009). These data are provided on a 5 km horizontal resolution and in up to 8 vertical layers and have been regridded on our model horizontal and vertical resolutions. We use cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), while the aerosol asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo are taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS). The model computations are performed on a monthly, 2.5°× 2.5° resolution on global scale, at 40

  20. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  1. Meteorological profiles comparison from global models and experimental radiosoundings at the Antarctica station of Belgrano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, J. A.; Yela, M.; Parrondo, M. C.; Ochoa, H.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ozonesoundings are launched from Antarctic Belgrano station (77.87S, 34.62W) since 1999 in the framework of an extensive stratospheric trace-gas measurement program. In the frame of VIOLIN (Extended Vertical Investigation of the Ozone Layer In ANtarctica) project and as a previous step in the application of meteorological models, a comparison-validation exercise has been carried out using simulations and experimental profiles. The aim is to assess the reliability of the meteorological files obtained from global models which could be used as input data in models of higher spatial resolution. Meteorological profiles (potential temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) have been obtained from ECMWF and NCEP-GDAS models with a spatial resolution of 1°x1° and 14 vertical levels from 950 to 500 mb. The simulated profiles have been compared with in situ soundings at Belgrano. A total of 83 soundings covering the period from 2009 to 2010 have been used. Data have been grouped in three period's: diurnal, nocturnal and transition diurnal-nocturnal or vice versa. The comparison has been performed with the statistical root mean square deviation (RMSD) and BIAS for the four meteorological variables. Results show that potential temperature using both models and wind speed with NCEP-GDAS are underestimated while the rest of parameters are overestimated. The RMSD of the potential temperature ranges between 1.7 and 3.2 °C with a BIAS of -0.18 to -0.74 °C. No differences were found according to the time of the year. The relative humidity analysis shows a RMSD between 21.4 and 30.2 % while the BIAS was ranging from 9.9 to 14.8 %. Best results have been obtained in the transition period. For the wind speed the RMSD oscillate between 2.9 and 4.9 m/s with a BIAS from -0.35 to 0.31 m/s. The wind direction is the parameter with the highest differences, RMSD between 68 and 104°, with a BIAS from 34 to 62°. The highest differences have been found for the diurnal period

  2. The global gene expression profile of the secondary transition during pancreatic development.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Stefanie J; Mueller, Nikola S; Engert, Silvia; Sterr, Michael; Burtscher, Ingo; Raducanu, Aurelia; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Sass, Steffen; Theis, Fabian J; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas organogenesis is a highly dynamic process where neighboring tissue interactions lead to dynamic changes in gene regulatory networks that orchestrate endocrine, exocrine, and ductal lineage formation. To understand the spatio-temporal regulatory logic we have used the Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2-Venus fusion (FVF) knock-in reporter mouse to separate the FVF(+) pancreatic epithelium from the FVF(−) surrounding tissue (mesenchyme, neurons, blood, and blood vessels) to perform a genome-wide mRNA expression profiling at embryonic days (E) 12.5-15.5. Annotating genes and molecular processes suggest that FVF marks endoderm-derived multipotent epithelial progenitors at several lineage restriction steps, when the bulk of endocrine, exocrine and ductal cells are formed during the secondary transition. In the pancreatic epithelial compartment, we identified most known endocrine and exocrine lineage determining factors and diabetes-associated genes, but also unknown genes with spatio-temporal regulated pancreatic expression. In the non-endoderm-derived compartment, we identified many well-described regulatory genes that are not yet functionally annotated in pancreas development, emphasizing that neighboring tissue interactions are still ill defined. Pancreatic expression of over 635 genes was analyzed with them RNA in situ hybridization Genepaint public database. This validated the quality of the profiling data set and identified hundreds of genes with spatially restricted expression patterns in the pancreas. Some of these genes are also targeted by pancreatic transcription factors and show active chromatin marks in human islets of Langerhans. Thus, with the highest spatio-temporal resolution of a global gene expression profile during the secondary transition, our study enables to shed light on neighboring tissue interactions, developmental timing and diabetes gene regulation. PMID:26643664

  3. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  4. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles. PMID:23584189

  5. Global expression profiling reveals genetic programs underlying the developmental divergence between mouse and human embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mouse has served as an excellent model for studying human development and diseases due to its similarity to human. Advances in transgenic and knockout studies in mouse have dramatically strengthened the use of this model and significantly improved our understanding of gene function during development in the past few decades. More recently, global gene expression analyses have revealed novel features in early embryogenesis up to gastrulation stages and have indeed provided molecular evidence supporting the conservation in early development in human and mouse. On the other hand, little information is known about the gene regulatory networks governing the subsequent organogenesis. Importantly, mouse and human development diverges during organogenesis. For instance, the mouse embryo is born around the end of organogenesis while in human the subsequent fetal period of ongoing growth and maturation of most organs spans more than 2/3 of human embryogenesis. While two recent studies reported the gene expression profiles during human organogenesis, no global gene expression analysis had been done for mouse organogenesis. Results Here we report a detailed analysis of the global gene expression profiles from egg to the end of organogenesis in mouse. Our studies have revealed distinct temporal regulation patterns for genes belonging to different functional (Gene Ontology or GO) categories that support their roles during organogenesis. More importantly, comparative analyses identify both conserved and divergent gene regulation programs in mouse and human organogenesis, with the latter likely responsible for the developmental divergence between the two species, and further suggest a novel developmental strategy during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions We have reported here the first genome-wide gene expression analysis of the entire mouse embryogenesis and compared the transcriptome atlas during mouse and human embryogenesis. Given our earlier observation that genes

  6. The meat industry: do we think and behave globally or locally?

    PubMed

    Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Delmore, R J; Tatum, J D; Yang, H; Sofos, J N

    2014-11-01

    For generations, those that produce livestock and meat generally felt that their country or geographical region (i.e., provenance) reflected a basis for product differentiation. This occurs to the extent that geography of production often is considered a "brand." For example, there exists "U.S. Grain-Fed Beef" or "Kobe Black Wagyu" or "Uruguayan Grass-Fed Lamb" or "Danish Pork." However, for most meat trade, industry has evolved beyond this. With the exception perhaps of farms onto which livestock are born, meat company's profits are not generally tied to geographical considerations. Most major companies (e.g., JBS, Marfrig, Tyson, Cargill, Danish Crown, Nippon Meat Packers, etc.) operate in multiple countries and represent to consumers the production of a number of locations. However, there also now exist entrepreneurial options for meat production and "local" sales, albeit at lesser volumes. This discussion explores "global" and "local" meat marketing options. PMID:24957633

  7. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    PubMed

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  8. [Industry, Academia and Government Partnership through the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT)].

    PubMed

    Hinoshita, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, many people are unable to access basic healthcare services, resulting in many avoidable deaths and/or disabilities. The United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals in order to resolve this problem, and Japan has been contributing greatly to the achievement of these goals. In this context, in 2013 the Government of Japan proposed its Strategy on Global Health Diplomacy, and since then has been promoting Universal Health Coverage. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the particular importance of addressing neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has been stressed by the international community. Nevertheless, of the 1 billion people world-wide who are currently living with NTDs, about three-fourths of these are living in poverty, and of these, nearly 65% are unable to acquire or access drugs for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Under these circumstances, Japan decided to support the Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund in order to support the research and development of drugs for people in developing countries, as well as the manufacture, supply and administration of these drugs. Over the last two years, the GHIT Fund has been supporting the research and development of five new candidate drugs for three NTDs (Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and malaria). Japan also hopes to stimulate domestic pharmaceutical industries in developing countries, as well as to increase international cooperation through various activities such the utilization of our capacity to research and develop new drugs. PMID:26831799

  9. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Developing Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29–41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. Conclusions/Significance The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production. PMID:22574177

  10. Global gene expression profiling in infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus broncholitis demonstrates systemic activation of interferon signaling networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract infections and has a high impact on pediatric emergency department utilization. Variation in host response may influence the pathogenesis and disease severity. We evaluated global gene expression profiles to be...

  11. PollyNET: a global network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, H.; Kanitz, T.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.; Heese, B.; Komppula, M.; Preißler, J.; Tesche, M.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Lim, J.-H.; Ahn, J. Y.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Seifert, P.; Hofer, J.; Skupin, A.; Schneider, F.; Bohlmann, S.; Foth, A.; Bley, S.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Hooda, R. K.; Pereira, S.; Bortoli, D.; Wagner, F.; Mattis, I.; Janicka, L.; Markowicz, K. M.; Achtert, P.; Artaxo, P.; Pauliquevis, T.; Souza, R. A. F.; Sharma, V. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Beukes, J. P.; Sun, J. Y.; Rohwer, E. G.; Deng, R.; Mamouri, R. E.; Zamorano, F.

    2015-10-01

    A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly) for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design and apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at http://polly.tropos.de. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash) are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.

  12. Megha-Tropiques/SAPHIR measurements of humidity profiles: validation with AIRS and global radiosonde network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Kumar, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical profiles of humidity measured by SAPHIR (Sondeur Atmospherique du Profil d' Humidité Intropicale par Radiométrie) on-board Megha-Tropiques satellite are validated using Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and ground based radiosonde observations during July-September 2012. SAPHIR provides humidity profiles at six pressure layers viz., 1000-850 (level 1), 850-700 (level 2), 700-550 (level 3), 550-400 (level 4) 400-250 (level 5) and 250-100(level 6) hPa. Segregated AIRS observations over land and oceanic regions are used to assess the performance of SAPHIR quantitatively. The regression analysis over oceanic region (125° W-180° W; 30° S-30° N) reveal that the SAPHIR measurements agrees very well with the AIRS measurements at levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 with correlation coefficients 0.79, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.78 respectively. However, at level 6 SAPHIR seems to be systematically underestimating the AIRS measurements. At level 2, the agreement is reasonably good with correlation coefficient of 0.52 and at level 1 the agreement is very poor with correlation coefficient 0.17. The regression analysis over land region (10° W-30° E; 8° N-30° N) revealed an excellent correlation between AIRS and SAPHIR at all the six levels with 0.80, 0.78, 0.84, 0.84, 0.86 and 0.65 respectively. However, again at levels 5 and 6, SAPHIR seems to be underestimating the AIRS measurements. After carrying out the quantitative comparison between SAPHIR and AIRS separately over land and ocean, the ground based global radiosonde network observations of humidity profiles over three distinct geographical locations (East Asia, tropical belt of South and North America and South Pacific) are then used to further validate the SAPHIR observations as AIRS has its own limitations. The SAPHIR observations within a radius of 50 km around the radiosonde stations are averaged and then the regression analysis is carried out at the first five levels of SAPHIR. The comparison is not carried out at sixth

  13. Global Gene Expression Profiling in R155H Knock-In Murine Model of VCP Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Angèle; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Wang, Zuyi; Knoblach, Susan; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Vesa, Jouni; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD), which is characterized by progressive muscle weakness, dysfunction in bone remodeling, and frontotemporal dementia. More recently, VCP has been linked to 2% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. VCP plays a significant role in a plethora of cellular functions including membrane fusion, transcription activation, nuclear envelope reconstruction, post-mitotic organelle reassembly, cell cycle control. To elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying the VCP disease progression, we have previously generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model with the R155H mutation. Histological analyses of mutant muscle showed vacuolization of myofibrils, centrally located nuclei, and disorganized muscle fibers. Global expression profiling of VCPR155H/+ mice using gene annotations by DAVID identified key dysregulated signaling pathways including genes involved in the physiological system development and function, diseases and disorders, and molecular and cellular functions. There were a total of 212 significantly dysregulated genes, several of which are involved in the regulation of proteasomal function and NF-κB signaling cascade. Findings of the gene expression study were validated by using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses to test genes involved in various signaling cascades. This investigation reveals the importance of the VCPR155H/+ mouse model in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms causing VCP-associated neurodegenerative diseases and in the discovery of novel therapeutic advancements and strategies for patients suffering with these debilitating disorders. PMID:25388089

  14. Global profiling of lysine acetylation in human histoplasmosis pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Fang, Wenjie; Deng, Wanyan; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Li, Juan; Chen, Min; Liao, Wanqing; Xie, Jianping; Pan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of human histoplasmosis, which can cause respiratory and systemic mycosis in immune-compromised individuals. Lysine acetylation, a protein posttranslational protein modification, is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Although increasing evidence suggests that lysine acetylation may play critical roles in fungus physiology, very little is known about its extent and function in H. capsulatum. To comprehensively profile protein lysine acetylation in H. capsulatum, we performed a global acetylome analysis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS analysis, identifying 775 acetylation sites on 456 acetylated proteins; and functionally analysis showing their involvement in different biological processes. We defined six types of acetylation site motifs, and the results imply that lysine residue of polypeptide with tyrosine at the -1 and +1 positions, histidine at the +1 position, and phenylalanine (F) at the +1 and +2 position is a preferred substrate of lysine acetyltransferase. Moreover, some virulence factors candidates including calmodulin and DnaK are acetylated. In conclusion, our data set may serve as an important resource for the elucidation of associations between functional protein lysine acetylation and virulence in H. capsulatum. PMID:26806293

  15. Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations

    SciTech Connect

    Picone, Alex F.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Romine, Margaret; Higdon, Roger; Makarova, Kira S.; Kolker, Natali; Anderson, Gordon A; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Beliaev, Alexander S; Edlefsen, Paul; Elias, Dwayne A.; Gorby, Dr. Yuri A.; Holzman, Ted; Klappenbach, Joel; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Land, Miriam L; Lipton, Mary S.; McCue, Lee Ann; Monroe, Matthew; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Purvine, Samuel; Serres, Margrethe H.; Tsapin, Sasha; Zakrajsek, Brian A.; Zhu, Wenguang; Zhou, Jizhong; Larimer, Frank W; Lawrence, Charles E.; Riley, Monica; Collart, Frank; YatesIII, John R.; Smith, Richard D.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, James K; Tiedje, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a metabolically versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organic compounds, metal ions, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximate to40% of the predicted ORFs in the S. oneidensis genome were annotated as uncharacterized "hypothetical" genes. We implemented an integrative approach by using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into gene function. Global expression profiles were determined for cells after UV irradiation and under aerobic and suboxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 hypothetical genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all predicted hypothetical proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and the expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored by using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We were able to identify homologs for nearly all of these hypothetical proteins (97%), but could confidently assign exact biochemical functions for only 16 proteins (category 1; 3%). Altogether, computational and experimental evidence provided functional assignments or insights for 240 more genes (categories 2-5; 45%). These functional annotations advance our understanding of genes involved in vital cellular processes, including energy conversion, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

  16. Global gene expression profiles induced by phytoestrogens in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Lenz, Sarah; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Gmuender, Hans; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2008-03-01

    The nutritional intake of phytoestrogens seems to reduce the risk of breast cancer or other neoplastic diseases. However, these epidemiological findings remain controversial because low doses of phytoestrogens, achievable through soy-rich diets, stimulate the proliferation of estrogen-sensitive tumor cells. The question of whether such phytochemicals prevent cancer or rather pose additional health hazards prompted us to examine global gene expression programs induced by a typical soy product. After extraction from soymilk, phytoestrogens were deconjugated and processed through reverse- and normal-phase cartridges. The resulting mixture was used to treat human target cells that represent a common model system for mammary tumorigenesis. Analysis of mRNA on high-density microarrays revealed that soy phytoestrogens induce a genomic fingerprint that is indistinguishable from the transcriptional effects of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol. Highly congruent responses were also observed by comparing the physiologic estradiol with daidzein, coumestrol, enterolactone, or resveratrol, each representing distinct phytoestrogen structures. More diverging transcriptional profiles were generated when an inducible promoter was used to reconstitute the expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Therefore, phytoestrogens appear to mitigate estrogenic signaling in the presence of both ER subtypes but, in late-stage cancer cells lacking ERbeta, these phytochemicals contribute to a tumor-promoting transcriptional signature. PMID:18310284

  17. Attomole quantification and global profile of RNA modifications: Epitranscriptome of human neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Basanta-Sanchez, Maria; Temple, Sally; Ansari, Suraiya A.; D'Amico, Anna; Agris, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the epitranscriptome requires the development of highly sensitive and accurate technologies in order to elucidate the contributions of the more than 100 RNA modifications to cell processes. A highly sensitive and accurate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to simultaneously detect and quantify 28 modified and four major nucleosides in less than 20 min. Absolute concentrations were calculated using extinction coefficients of each of the RNA modifications studied. A comprehensive RNA modifications database of UV profiles and extinction coefficient is reported within a 2.3–5.2 % relative standard deviation. Excellent linearity was observed 0.99227–0.99999 and limit of detection values ranged from 63.75 attomoles to 1.21 femtomoles. The analytical performance was evaluated by analyzing RNA modifications from 100 ng of RNA from human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells. Modifications were detected at concentrations four orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding parental nucleosides, and as low as 23.01 femtograms, 64.09 attomoles. Direct and global quantitative analysis of RNA modifications are among the advantages of this new approach. PMID:26438536

  18. Expected Characteristics of Global Wind Profile Measurements with a Scanning, Hybrid, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 20 years of investigation by NASA and NOAA scientists and Doppler lidar technologists into a global wind profiling mission from earth orbit have led to the current favored concept of an instrument with both coherent- and direct-detection pulsed Doppler lidars (i.e., a hybrid Doppler lidar) and a stepstare beam scanning approach covering several azimuth angles with a fixed nadir angle. The nominal lidar wavelengths are 2 microns for coherent detection, and 0.355 microns for direct detection. The two agencies have also generated two sets of sophisticated wind measurement requirements for a space mission: science demonstration requirements and operational requirements. The requirements contain the necessary details to permit mission design and optimization by lidar technologists. Simulations have been developed that connect the science requirements to the wind measurement requirements, and that connect the wind measurement requirements to the Doppler lidar parameters. The simulations also permit trade studies within the multi-parameter space. These tools, combined with knowledge of the state of the Doppler lidar technology, have been used to conduct space instrument and mission design activities to validate the feasibility of the chosen mission and lidar parameters. Recently, the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey recommended the wind mission to NASA as one of 15 recommended missions. A full description of the wind measurement product from these notional missions and the possible trades available are presented in this paper.

  19. Assimilating Electron Density Profiles Measured by the Real Time Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory - GIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, B. W.; Galkin, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Operational applications of ionospheric models, whether they are first principles or data-driven models, rely on the accuracy of the models during quiet and disturbed conditions. Of course models can correctly describe ionospheric weather only if they assimilate measured ionospheric characteristics and electron density profiles (EDPs). For the "assimilating model" to make correct predictions, the measurements in turn must be accurate and reliable. Ionosondes provide the most accurate vertical EDPs at the site locations but do not cover all parts of the globe. Ionogram-derived EDPs have become the ground truth reference for ionospheric specification, presenting the unrivaled accuracy of the data on continuous demand for validation of alternative ionospheric techniques, including radio occultation, ultraviolet, and tomography. In recent years the digisonde network of ionosondes has grown to eighty stations and is expected to expand to more than 100 stations in the next couple of years. The new Digisonde-4D is running the Automatic Real Time Ionogram Scaler with True height inversion, ARTIST-5. The ARTIST-5 autoscaling program now calculates the EDPs together with density uncertainty limits at each height, making the data products suitable for ingestion in assimilative ionospheric models. In order to specify uncertainty at each height, two boundary profiles, inner and outer, are determined. The inner and outer boundaries reflect the uncertainties of the critical frequencies of each layer, the internal uncertainty of the starting height of the profile, and the uncertainties of the E valley model representation. The actual uncertainties are calculated from a cumulative difference characteristic representing a mismatch between automatically and manually scaled parameters (i.e., foF2, foF1) for the same ionogram. The cumulative differences are determined from statistical analysis of a large amount of ionograms for a specific station. The characteristics of interest are

  20. Global carbon utilization profiles of wild-type, mutant, and transformant strains of Hypocrea jecorina.

    PubMed

    Druzhinina, Irina S; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2006-03-01

    The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei), an industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases, can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides. However, the catabolic pathways for the resulting monomers and their relationship to enzyme induction are not well known. Here we used the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays technique to evaluate the growth of H. jecorina on 95 carbon sources. For this purpose, we compared several wild-type isolates, mutants producing different amounts of cellulases, and strains transformed with a heterologous antibiotic resistance marker gene. The wild-type isolates and transformed strains had the highest variation in growth patterns on individual carbon sources. The cellulase mutants were relatively similar to their parental strains. Both in the mutant and in the transformed strains, the most significant changes occurred in utilization of xylitol, erythritol, D-sorbitol, D-ribose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, maltotriose, and beta-methyl-glucoside. Increased production of cellulases was negatively correlated with the ability to grow on gamma-aminobutyrate, adonitol, and 2-ketogluconate; and positively correlated with that on d-sorbitol and saccharic acid. The reproducibility, relative simplicity, and high resolution (+/-10% of increase in mycelial density) of the phenotypic microarrays make them a useful tool for the characterization of mutant and transformed strains and for a global analysis of gene function. PMID:16517662

  1. Global transcriptome analysis profiles metabolic pathways in traditional herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongolicus, family Leguminosae) is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbs. Among many secondary metabolites it produces, the effective bioactive constituents include isoflavonoids and triterpene saponins. The genomic resources regarding the biosynthesis of these metabolites in A. mongolicus are limited. Although roots are the primary material harvested for medical use, the biosynthesis of the bioactive compounds and its regulation in A. mongolicus are not well understood. Therefore, a global transcriptome analysis on A. mongolicus tissues was performed to identify the genes essential for the metabolism and to profile their expression patterns in greater details. Results RNA-sequencing was performed for three different A. mongolicus tissues: leaf, stem, and root, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 159.5 million raw sequence reads were generated, and assembled into 186,324 unigenes with an N50 of 1,524bp. Among them, 129,966 unigenes (~69.7%) were annotated using four public databases (Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, CDD, Pfam), and 90,202, 63,946, and 78,326 unigenes were found to express in leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. A total of 8,025 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, in which the four largest families, bHLH, MYB, C3H, and WRKY, were implicated in regulation of tissue development, metabolisms, stress response, etc. Unigenes associated with secondary metabolism, especially those with isolavonoids and triterpene saponins biosynthesis were characterized and profiled. Most genes involved in the isoflavonoids biosynthesis had the lowest expression in the leaves, and the highest in the stems. For triterpene saponin biosynthesis, we found the genes in MVA and non-MVA pathways were differentially expressed among three examined tissues, indicating the parallel but compartmentally separated biosynthesis pathways of IPP and DMAPP in A. mongolicus. The first

  2. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  3. Metabolic Profiling of Geobacter sulfurreducens during Industrial Bioprocess Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Ellis, David I.; Allwood, J. William; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Correa, Elon; Alrabiah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    During the industrial scale-up of bioprocesses it is important to establish that the biological system has not changed significantly when moving from small laboratory-scale shake flasks or culturing bottles to an industrially relevant production level. Therefore, during upscaling of biomass production for a range of metal transformations, including the production of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles by Geobacter sulfurreducens, from 100-ml bench-scale to 5-liter fermentors, we applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a metabolic fingerprinting approach followed by the analysis of bacterial cell extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling. FTIR results clearly differentiated between the phenotypic changes associated with different growth phases as well as the two culturing conditions. Furthermore, the clustering patterns displayed by multivariate analysis were in agreement with the turbidimetric measurements, which displayed an extended lag phase for cells grown in a 5-liter bioreactor (24 h) compared to those grown in 100-ml serum bottles (6 h). GC-MS analysis of the cell extracts demonstrated an overall accumulation of fumarate during the lag phase under both culturing conditions, coinciding with the detected concentrations of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, nicotinamide, and glycerol-3-phosphate being at their lowest levels compared to other growth phases. These metabolites were overlaid onto a metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens, and taking into account the levels of these metabolites throughout the fermentation process, the limited availability of oxaloacetate and nicotinamide would seem to be the main metabolic bottleneck resulting from this scale-up process. Additional metabolite-feeding experiments were carried out to validate the above hypothesis. Nicotinamide supplementation (1 mM) did not display any significant effects on the lag phase of G. sulfurreducens cells grown in the 100-ml serum bottles. However

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Geobacter sulfurreducens during Industrial Bioprocess Scale-Up.

    PubMed

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Ellis, David I; Allwood, J William; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Correa, Elon; Alrabiah, Haitham; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-05-15

    During the industrial scale-up of bioprocesses it is important to establish that the biological system has not changed significantly when moving from small laboratory-scale shake flasks or culturing bottles to an industrially relevant production level. Therefore, during upscaling of biomass production for a range of metal transformations, including the production of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles by Geobacter sulfurreducens, from 100-ml bench-scale to 5-liter fermentors, we applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a metabolic fingerprinting approach followed by the analysis of bacterial cell extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling. FTIR results clearly differentiated between the phenotypic changes associated with different growth phases as well as the two culturing conditions. Furthermore, the clustering patterns displayed by multivariate analysis were in agreement with the turbidimetric measurements, which displayed an extended lag phase for cells grown in a 5-liter bioreactor (24 h) compared to those grown in 100-ml serum bottles (6 h). GC-MS analysis of the cell extracts demonstrated an overall accumulation of fumarate during the lag phase under both culturing conditions, coinciding with the detected concentrations of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, nicotinamide, and glycerol-3-phosphate being at their lowest levels compared to other growth phases. These metabolites were overlaid onto a metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens, and taking into account the levels of these metabolites throughout the fermentation process, the limited availability of oxaloacetate and nicotinamide would seem to be the main metabolic bottleneck resulting from this scale-up process. Additional metabolite-feeding experiments were carried out to validate the above hypothesis. Nicotinamide supplementation (1 mM) did not display any significant effects on the lag phase of G. sulfurreducens cells grown in the 100-ml serum bottles. However

  5. Attributing Rise in Global Average Temperature to Emissions Traceable to Major Industrial Carbon Producer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Dalton, M.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Heede, R.

    2013-12-01

    The role of human activity on global climate change has been explored in attribution studies based on the total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Until now, however, a direct link between emissions traced directly to the major carbon producers has not been addressed. The carbon majors dataset developed by Heede (in review) account for more than 60 percent of the cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial carbon dioxide and methane through 2010. We use a conventional energy balance model coupled to a diffusive ocean, based on Allen et al. 2009, to evaluate the global temperature response to forcing from cumulative emissions traced to these producers. The base case for comparison is the Relative Concentration Pathways 4.5 [RCP4.5 (Moss et al. 2012)] simulation. Sensitivity tests varying climate sensitivity, ocean thermal diffusivity, ocean/atmosphere carbon uptake diffusivity, deep ocean carbon advection, and the carbon cycle temperature-dependent feedback are used to assess whether the fractional attribution for these sources surpasses the uncertainty limits calculated from these parameters The results suggest this dataset can be utilized for an expanded field of climate change impacts. Allen, M. R., D. J. Frame, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, J. A. Lowe, M. Meinshausen and N. Meinshausen (2009), Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne, Nature, 458, 1163-1166, doi:10.1038/nature08019. Heede, R. (2013), Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854-2010, in review. Moss, R. H., et al. (2010), The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature, 463, 747-756.

  6. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade (76 FR 44606). Public Hearing: In order to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  7. Taxonomic profiling and metagenome analysis of a microbial community from a habitat contaminated with industrial discharges.

    PubMed

    Shah, Varun; Zakrzewski, Martha; Wibberg, Daniel; Eikmeyer, Felix; Schlüter, Andreas; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-10-01

    Industrial units, manufacturing dyes, chemicals,solvents, and xenobiotic compounds, produce liquid and solid wastes, which upon conventional treatment are released in the nearby environment and thus are the major cause of pollution. Soil collected from contaminated Kharicut Canalbank (N 22°57.878′; E 072°38.478′), Ahmeda bad, Gujarat,India was used for metagenomic DNA preparation to study the capabilities of intrinsic microbial community in dealing with xenobiotics. Sequencing of metagenomic DNA on the Genome Sequencer FLX System using titanium chemistry resulted in 409,782 reads accounting for 133,529,997 bases of sequence information. Taxonomic analyses and gene annotations were carried out using the bioinformatics platform Sequence Analysis and Management System for Metagenomic Datasets. Taxonomic profiling was carried out by three different complementary approaches: (a) 16S rDNA, (b) environmental gene tags, and (c) lowest common ancestor. The most abundant phylum and genus were found to be “Proteobacteria”and “Pseudomonas,” respectively. Metagenome reads were mapped on sequenced microbial genomes and the highest numbers of reads were allocated to Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Assignment of obtained metagenome reads to Gene Ontology terms, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of protein categories, protein family numbers, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes hits revealed genomic potential of indigenous microbial community. In total, 157,024 reads corresponded to 37,028 different KEGG hits, and amongst them, 11,574 reads corresponded to 131 different enzymes potentially involved in xenobiotic biodegradation. These enzymes were mapped on biodegradation pathways of xenobiotics to elucidate their roles in possible catalytic reactions. Consequently, information obtained from the present study will act as a baseline which, subsequently along with other“-omic” studies, will help in designing future bioremediation strategies in effluent treatment

  8. Taxonomic Profiling and Metagenome Analysis of a Microbial Community from a Habitat Contaminated with Industrial Discharges.

    PubMed

    Shah, Varun; Zakrzewski, Martha; Wibberg, Daniel; Eikmeyer, Felix; Schlüter, Andreas; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-06-25

    Industrial units, manufacturing dyes, chemicals, solvents, and xenobiotic compounds, produce liquid and solid wastes, which upon conventional treatment are released in the nearby environment and thus are the major cause of pollution. Soil collected from contaminated Kharicut Canal bank (N 22°57.878'; E 072°38.478'), Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India was used for metagenomic DNA preparation to study the capabilities of intrinsic microbial community in dealing with xenobiotics. Sequencing of metagenomic DNA on the Genome Sequencer FLX System using titanium chemistry resulted in 409,782 reads accounting for 133,529,997 bases of sequence information. Taxonomic analyses and gene annotations were carried out using the bioinformatics platform Sequence Analysis and Management System for Metagenomic Datasets. Taxonomic profiling was carried out by three different complementary approaches: (a) 16S rDNA, (b) environmental gene tags, and (c) lowest common ancestor. The most abundant phylum and genus were found to be "Proteobacteria" and "Pseudomonas," respectively. Metagenome reads were mapped on sequenced microbial genomes and the highest numbers of reads were allocated to Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Assignment of obtained metagenome reads to Gene Ontology terms, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of protein categories, protein family numbers, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes hits revealed genomic potential of indigenous microbial community. In total, 157,024 reads corresponded to 37,028 different KEGG hits, and amongst them, 11,574 reads corresponded to 131 different enzymes potentially involved in xenobiotic biodegradation. These enzymes were mapped on biodegradation pathways of xenobiotics to elucidate their roles in possible catalytic reactions. Consequently, information obtained from the present study will act as a baseline which, subsequently along with other "-omic" studies, will help in designing future bioremediation strategies in effluent treatment plants and

  9. Global gene expression profiles of ischemic preconditioning in deceased donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Dikdan, George; Desai, Kunj K; Shareef, Asif; Fernandes, Helen; Aris, Virginie; de la Torre, Andrew N; Wilson, Dorian; Fisher, Adrian; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Koneru, Baburao

    2010-05-01

    The benefits of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remain indistinct in human liver transplantation (LT). To further understand mechanistic aspects of IPC, we performed microarray analyses as a nested substudy in a randomized trial of 10-minute IPC in 101 deceased donor LTs. Liver biopsies were performed after cold storage and at 90 minutes postreperfusion in 40 of 101 subjects. Global gene expression profiles in 6 biopsy pairs in IPC and work standard organ recovery groups at both time points were compared using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Transcripts with >1.5-fold change and P < 0.05 were considered significant. IPC altered expression of 82 transcripts in antioxidant, immunological, lipid biosynthesis, cell development and growth, and other groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting validated our microarray data. IPC-induced overexpression of glutathione S-transferase mu transcripts (GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTM4, and GSTM5) was accompanied by increased protein expression and may contribute to a decrease in oxidative stress. However, the increased expression of fatty acid synthase may increase oxidative stress, and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 10 may promote apoptosis. These changes, in combination with decreased expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, both of which inhibit apoptosis, may increase IRI. In our study of deceased donor LT, IPC induces changes in gene expression, some of which are potentially beneficial but some which are potentially injurious. Thus, our findings of changes in gene expression mirror the outcomes in our clinical trial. PMID:20440768

  10. Resolution of Novel Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Subtypes by Global Phosphotyrosine Profiling.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Emily S; Su, Shih-Ping; Nagrial, Adnan M; Hochgräfe, Falko; Pajic, Marina; Lehrbach, Gillian M; Parton, Robert G; Yap, Alpha S; Horvath, Lisa G; Chang, David K; Biankin, Andrew V; Wu, Jianmin; Daly, Roger J

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive characterization of signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) promises to enhance our understanding of the molecular aberrations driving this devastating disease, and may identify novel therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers that enable stratification of patients for optimal therapy. Here, we use immunoaffinity-coupled high-resolution mass spectrometry to characterize global tyrosine phosphorylation patterns across two large panels of human PDAC cell lines: the ATCC series (19 cell lines) and TKCC series (17 cell lines). This resulted in the identification and quantification of over 1800 class 1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites and the consistent segregation of both PDAC cell line series into three subtypes with distinct tyrosine phosphorylation profiles. Subtype-selective signaling networks were characterized by identification of subtype-enriched phosphosites together with pathway and network analyses. This revealed that the three subtypes characteristic of the ATCC series were associated with perturbations in signaling networks associated with cell-cell adhesion and epithelial-mesenchyme transition, mRNA metabolism, and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, respectively. Specifically, the third subtype exhibited enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple RTKs including the EGFR, ERBB3 and MET. Interestingly, a similar RTK-enriched subtype was identified in the TKCC series, and 'classifier' sites for each series identified using Random Forest models were able to predict the subtypes of the alternate series with high accuracy, highlighting the conservation of the three subtypes across the two series. Finally, RTK-enriched cell lines from both series exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, indicating that their phosphosignature may provide a predictive biomarker for response to this targeted therapy. These studies highlight how resolution of subtype-selective signaling networks can provide a

  11. Global Phosphoproteome Profiling Reveals Unanticipated Networks Responsive to Cisplatin Treatment of Embryonic Stem Cells ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Puigvert, Jordi C.; Typas, Dimitris; Misovic, Branislav; de Groot, Anton; von Stechow, Louise; van de Water, Bob; Danen, Erik H. J.; Vrieling, Harry; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents involve the activation of various DNA damage signaling and transduction pathways. Using quantitative and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we determined global changes in protein level and phosphorylation site profiles following treatment of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) consensus sequence (S/T-Q motif) was significantly overrepresented among hyperphosphorylated peptides, about half of the >2-fold-upregulated phosphorylation sites based on the consensus sequence were not direct substrates of ATM and ATR. Eleven protein kinases mainly belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family were identified as being regulated in their kinase domain activation loop. The biological importance of three of these kinases (cyclin-dependent kinase 7 [CDK7], Plk1, and KPCD1) in the protection against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Our results indicate that the cellular response to cisplatin involves a variety of kinases and phosphatases not only acting in the nucleus but also regulating cytoplasmic targets, resulting in extensive cytoskeletal rearrangements. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data revealed a poor correlation between changes in the relative levels of transcripts and their corresponding proteins, but a large overlap in affected pathways at the levels of mRNA, protein, and phosphoprotein. This study provides an integrated view of pathways activated by genotoxic stress and deciphers kinases that play a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes other than the DNA damage response. PMID:22006019

  12. Global Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of Hypothetical Genes and Improved functional annotations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, Eugene; Picone, Alessandro F.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Romine, Margaret F.; Higdon, Roger; Makarova, Kira S.; Kolker, Natali; Anderson, Gordon A.; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Beliaev, Alex S.; Edlefsen, Paul; Elias, Dwayne A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Holzman, Ted; Klappenbach, Joel; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Land, Miriam L.; Lipton, Mary S.; McCue, Lee-Ann; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Serres, Margaret; Tsapin, Sasha; Zakrajsek, Brian A.; Zhu, Wenhong; Zhou, Jizhong; Larimer, Frank; Lawrence, Charles; Riley, Monica; Collart, Frank R.; Yates, III, John R.; Smith, Richard D.; Giometti, Carol S.; Nealson, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Tiedje, James M.

    2005-02-08

    The y-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a respiratory versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organics, metals, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximately 40% of the predicted ORFs in the MR-1 genome were annotated as uncharacterized ''hypothetical'' genes. We implemented an integrative approach using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into their function. Global expression studies were conducted using RNA and protein expression profiling of cells cultivated under aerobic, suboxic, and fumarate reducing conditions, phosphate limitation and UV irradiation. transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 ''hypothetical'' genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all ''hypothetical'' proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and our own expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We identified homologs for nearly all of these ''hypothetical'' proteins (96%), thus allowing us to minimally classify them as ''conserved proteins''. Computational and/or experimental evidence provided more precise functional assignments for 297 genes (categories 1-4; 55%). These improved functional annotations will significantly widen our understanding of vital cellular processes including signal transduction, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and transcription, as well as structural elements, such as cellular membranes. We propose that this integrative approach offers a viable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of ''hypothetical'' proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

  13. Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Stefan; Fischer, Steven M.; Chen, Lily; Sana, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that calcium stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, challenged with immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and Cyclosporin A, responds with comprehensive gene expression changes and attenuation of the generalized calcium stress response. Here, we describe a global metabolomics workflow for investigating the utility of tracking corresponding phenotypic changes. This was achieved by efficiently analyzing relative abundance differences between intracellular metabolite pools from wild-type and calcium stressed cultures, with and without prior immunosuppressant drugs exposure. We used pathway database content from WikiPathways and YeastCyc to facilitate the projection of our metabolomics profiling results onto biological pathways. A key challenge was to increase the coverage of the detected metabolites. This was achieved by applying both reverse phase (RP) and aqueous normal phase (ANP) chromatographic separations, as well as electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources for detection in both ion polarities. Unsupervised principle component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA results revealed differentiation between wild-type controls, calcium stressed and immunosuppressant/calcium challenged cells. Untargeted data mining resulted in 247 differentially expressed, annotated metabolites, across at least one pair of conditions. A separate, targeted data mining strategy identified 187 differential, annotated metabolites. All annotated metabolites were subsequently mapped onto curated pathways from YeastCyc and WikiPathways for interactive pathway analysis and visualization. Dozens of pathways showed differential responses to stress conditions based on one or more matches to the list of annotated metabolites or to metabolites that had been identified further by MS/MS. The purine salvage, pantothenate and sulfur amino acid pathways were flagged as being enriched, which is consistent with previously published literature for

  14. Global LC/MS Metabolomics Profiling of Calcium Stressed and Immunosuppressant Drug Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stefan; Fischer, Steven M; Chen, Lily; Sana, Theodore R

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that calcium stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, challenged with immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and Cyclosporin A, responds with comprehensive gene expression changes and attenuation of the generalized calcium stress response. Here, we describe a global metabolomics workflow for investigating the utility of tracking corresponding phenotypic changes. This was achieved by efficiently analyzing relative abundance differences between intracellular metabolite pools from wild-type and calcium stressed cultures, with and without prior immunosuppressant drugs exposure. We used pathway database content from WikiPathways and YeastCyc to facilitate the projection of our metabolomics profiling results onto biological pathways. A key challenge was to increase the coverage of the detected metabolites. This was achieved by applying both reverse phase (RP) and aqueous normal phase (ANP) chromatographic separations, as well as electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources for detection in both ion polarities. Unsupervised principle component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA results revealed differentiation between wild-type controls, calcium stressed and immunosuppressant/calcium challenged cells. Untargeted data mining resulted in 247 differentially expressed, annotated metabolites, across at least one pair of conditions. A separate, targeted data mining strategy identified 187 differential, annotated metabolites. All annotated metabolites were subsequently mapped onto curated pathways from YeastCyc and WikiPathways for interactive pathway analysis and visualization. Dozens of pathways showed differential responses to stress conditions based on one or more matches to the list of annotated metabolites or to metabolites that had been identified further by MS/MS. The purine salvage, pantothenate and sulfur amino acid pathways were flagged as being enriched, which is consistent with previously published literature for

  15. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa. PMID:18943730

  16. Testing a dynamic global vegetation model for pre-industrial and Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handiani, Dian N.; Rachmayani, Rima; Paul, André; Dupont, Lydie M.

    2010-05-01

    Achieving better comparison between dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) with pollen or plant data is important for the climate-vegetation modeling community. Our study tried to find a scheme that can be applied consistently to compare DGVMs with pollen data sets. We tested two models, the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics (TRIFFID) and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM), which we both ran for pre-industrial boundary conditions. In addition, we ran the TRIFFID model using boundary conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~19,000- 23,000 years before present). For comparisons, we used the modern vegetation of the BIOME4 model and the reconstruction for the year 18000 after pollen data from the BIOME6000 (Version 4.2) project. Differences in the number of PFTs in each DGVMs lead to different results of the biome distribution even if models and data qualitatively agree. In the CLM-DGVM pre-industrial run, northern South America is covered by savanna or desert biome, which is associated with more growing degree days and lower rates of precipitation. Meanwhile, the TRIFFID model simulated a tropical forest in northern South America and a desert biome in Australia, probably because of higher values of growing degree days and different precipitation rates, which is lower in South America and higher in Australia. The climate parameters from both models show a similar pattern as in the BIOME4 model, but the values are higher in the DGVMs. Biome distributions of the pre-industrial simulation show similarities and differences between dynamic vegetation modeling and data reconstructions. Both models reveal a fair agreement simulating savanna and desert biomes around the Sahel, tropical forest in western Africa, boreal forest in eastern North America and in Siberia, and tundra in northern Canada. Some discrepancies appear in South America and Africa, where pollen data indicate a combination of

  17. The Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1: Facilitating Discovery and Evaluation of, and Access to Distributed Information Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, S. J.; Richard, S. M.; Doniger, A.; Danko, D. M.; Derenthal, L.; Energistics Metadata Work Group

    2011-12-01

    A diverse group of organizations representative of the international community involved in disciplines relevant to the upstream petroleum industry, - energy companies, - suppliers and publishers of information to the energy industry, - vendors of software applications used by the industry, - partner government and academic organizations, has engaged in the Energy Industry Metadata Standards Initiative. This Initiative envisions the use of standard metadata within the community to enable significant improvements in the efficiency with which users discover, evaluate, and access distributed information resources. The metadata standard needed to realize this vision is the initiative's primary deliverable. In addition to developing the metadata standard, the initiative is promoting its adoption to accelerate realization of the vision, and publishing metadata exemplars conformant with the standard. Implementation of the standard by community members, in the form of published metadata which document the information resources each organization manages, will allow use of tools requiring consistent metadata for efficient discovery and evaluation of, and access to, information resources. While metadata are expected to be widely accessible, access to associated information resources may be more constrained. The initiative is being conducting by Energistics' Metadata Work Group, in collaboration with the USGIN Project. Energistics is a global standards group in the oil and natural gas industry. The Work Group determined early in the initiative, based on input solicited from 40+ organizations and on an assessment of existing metadata standards, to develop the target metadata standard as a profile of a revised version of ISO 19115, formally the "Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1 v1.0" (EIP). The Work Group is participating on the ISO/TC 211 project team responsible for the revision of ISO 19115, now ready for "Draft International Standard" (DIS) status. With ISO 19115 an

  18. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  19. The Global Ozone and Aerosol Profiles and Aerosol Hygroscopic Effect and Absorption Optical Depth (GOA2HEAD) Network Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Frost, G. J.; McComiskey, A. C.; Murphy, D. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Inverse modeling using measurements of ozone (O3) and aerosol is a powerful tool for deriving pollutant emissions. Because they have relatively long lifetimes, O3 and aerosol are transported over large distances. Frequent and globally spaced vertical profiles rather than ground-based measurements alone are therefore highly desired. Three requirements necessary for a successful global monitoring program are: Low equipment cost, low operation cost, and reliable measurements of known uncertainty. Conventional profiling using aircraft provides excellent data, but is cost prohibitive on a large scale. Here we describe a new platform and instruments meeting all three global monitoring requirements. The platform consists of a small balloon and an auto-homing glider. The glider is released from the balloon at about 5 km altitude, returning the light instrument package to the launch location, and allowing for consistent recovery of the payload. Atmospheric profiling can be performed either during ascent or descent (or both) depending on measurement requirements. We will present the specifications for two instrument packages currently under development. The first measures O3, RH, p, T, dry aerosol particle number and size distribution, and aerosol optical depth. The second measures dry aerosol particle number and size distribution, and aerosol absorption coefficient. Other potential instrument packages and the desired spatial/temporal resolution for the GOA2HEAD monitoring initiative will also be discussed.

  20. Estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions from industrial and domestic wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, M.R.J.; Strait, R.P.; Barnard, W.R.; Eklund, B.

    1997-09-01

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitorus oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific emission estimates for CH4 and N2O. The report concludes that WWT is unlikely to be a significant source of volatile organic carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. The biggest contributor to industrial CH4 emissions from WWT is the pulp and paper industry in developing and Eastern European countries. The second principal contributor to CH4 emissions from WWT is the meat and poultry industry. Russia is believed to be the largest contributor. CH4 emissions from untreated domestic wastewater may be many times higher than those of treated wastewater. The report provides rough estimates for global N2O emissions from WWT.

  1. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. PMID:26841293

  2. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  3. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  4. Systematic review of the global epidemiology, clinical and laboratory profile of enteric fever

    PubMed Central

    Azmatullah, Asma; Qamar, Farah Naz; Thaver, Durrane; Zaidi, Anita KM; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    Background Children suffer the highest burden of enteric fever among populations in South Asian countries. The clinical features are non–specific, vary in populations, and are often difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses, leading to delayed or inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a systematic review to assess the clinical profile and laboratory features of enteric fever across age groups, economic regions, level of care and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Methods We searched PubMed (January 1964–December 2013) for studies describing clinical features in defined cohorts of patients over varying time periods. Studies with all culture–confirmed cases or those with at least 50% culture–confirmed cases were included. 242 reports were screened out of 4398 relevant articles and 180 reports were included for final review. Results 96% of studies were from an urban location, 96% were hospital–based studies, with 41% of studies were from South Asia. Common clinical features in hospitalized children include high–grade fever, coated tongue, anaemia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly neutrophilia, abdominal distension and GI bleeding. In adults’ nausea/vomiting, thrombocytopenia and GI perforation predominate. The case–fatality rate in children under 5 years is higher than school aged children and adolescents, and is highest in Sub Saharan Africa and North Africa/Middle East regions. Multi–drug resistant enteric fever has higher rates of complications than drug sensitive enteric fever, but case fatality rates were comparable in both. Conclusions Our findings indicate variability in disease presentation in adults compared to children, in different regions and in resistant vs sensitive cases. Majority of studies are from hospitalized cases, and are not disaggregated by age. Despite higher complications in MDR enteric fever, case fatality rate is comparable to sensitive cases, with an

  5. Interaction between Albumin and Pluronic F127 Block Copolymer Revealed by Global and Local Physicochemical Profiling.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Maria Victoria; Matei, Iulia; Micutz, Marin; Staicu, Teodora; Precupas, Aurica; Popa, Vlad Tudor; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Ionita, Gabriela

    2016-05-12

    The interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic F127 has been investigated by several physical methods. Interest in studying this system stems from a broad range of bioactivities involving both macromolecules. Serum albumins constitute a significant class of proteins in the circulatory system, acting as carriers for a wide spectrum of compounds or assemblies. Pluronic block copolymers have revealed their capacity to ferry a variety of biologically active compounds. Circular dichroism, rheological measurements, and differential scanning microcalorimetry (μDSC) were employed to get insight into the interaction betweeen the two macromolecules. The results reveal that Pluronic F127 induces conformational changes to albumin if it is organized in a micellar form, while albumin influences the self-assembly of Pluronic F127 into micelles or gels. F127 micelles, however, induce smaller conformational changes compared to ionic surfactants. The μDSC thermograms obtained for HSA and/or F127 show that HSA shifts the critical micellar temperature (cmt) to lower values, while concurrently the HSA denaturation behavior is influenced by F127, depending on its concentration. Rheological measurements on solutions of F127 17% have shown that a sol-to-gel transition occurs at higher temperatures in the presence of HSA and the resulting gel is weaker. The global profile on HSA/F127 systems was complemented by local information provided by EPR measurements. A series of X-band EPR experiments was performed with spin probes 4-(N,N'-dimethyl-N-hexadecyl)ammonium-2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl iodide (CAT16) and 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA). These spin probes bind to albumin sites and are sensitive to phase transformations in Pluronic block copolymer solutions. For a given F127 concentration, the spin probe binds only to HSA below cmt and migrates to the F127 micelles above cmt. The collective data suggest soft interactions between the

  6. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research. PMID:10163027

  7. Is it feasible to construct a community profile of exposure to industrial air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Dunn, C.; Bhopal, R.; Phillimore, P.; Moffatt, S.; Edwards, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—An epidemiological investigation to assess the validity of residential proximity to industry as a measure of community exposure.
METHODS—19 Housing estates in Teesside (population 1991: 77 330) in north east England were grouped into zones: A=near; B=intermediate; C=further from industry. With residential proximity of socioeconomically matched populations as a starting point a historical land use survey, historical air quality reports, air quality monitoring, dispersion modelling data, and questionnaire data, were examined.
RESULTS—The populations in zones A, B, and C were similar for socioeconomic indicators and smoking history. Areas currently closest to industry had also been closest for most of the 20th century. Historical reports highlighted the influence of industrial emissions to local air quality, but it was difficult to follow spatial pollution patterns over time. Whereas contemporary NOx and benzene concentrations showed no geographical variation, dispersion modelling of emissions (116 industrial stacks, traffic, and domestic sources) showed a gradient associated with industry. The presumed exposure gradient of areas by proximity to industry (A>B>C) was evident for all of zone A and most of zones B and C.
CONCLUSIONS—It was feasible to assemble a picture of community exposure by integration of measurements from different sources. Proximity of residence was a reasonable surrogate for complex community exposure. 


Keywords: exposure assessment; community exposure; industrial pollution PMID:10896961

  8. Recent Improvements to CALIOP Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product for Global 3-D Aerosol Extinction Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    With nine years of retrievals, the CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product provides an unprecedented synopsis of aerosol extinction in three dimensions and the potential to quantify changes in aerosol distributions over time. The CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product, initially released as a beta product in 2011, reports monthly averages of quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles on a uniform latitude/longitude grid for different cloud-cover scenarios, called "sky conditions". This presentation demonstrates improvements to the second version of the product which will be released in September 2015. The largest improvements are the new sky condition definitions which parse the atmosphere into "cloud-free" views accessible to passive remote sensors, "all-sky" views accessible to active remote sensors and "cloudy-sky" views for opaque and transparent clouds which were previously inaccessible to passive remote sensors. Taken together, the new sky conditions comprehensively summarize CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for a broad range of scientific queries. In addition to dust-only extinction profiles, the new version will include polluted-dust and smoke-only extinction averages. A new method is adopted for averaging dust-only extinction profiles to reduce high biases which exist in the beta version of the level 3 aerosol profile product. This presentation justifies the new averaging methodology and demonstrates vertical profiles of dust and smoke extinction over Africa during the biomass burning season. Another crucial advancement demonstrated in this presentation is a new approach for computing monthly mean aerosol optical depth which removes low biases reported in the beta version - a scenario unique to lidar datasets.

  9. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  10. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  11. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  12. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  13. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  14. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  15. Academia vs Industry: vanishing boundaries between global earthquake seismology and exploration seismics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Global seismology and exploration seismics have long lived in parallel universes, with little cross-fertilization of methodologies and with interaction between the associated communities often limited to company recruitment of students. Fortunately, this traditional separation of technology and people has begun to disappear. This is driven not only by continuing demands for human and financial resources (for companies and academia, respectively) but increasingly also by overlapping intellectual interest. First, 'waves are waves' (that is, the fundamental physics - and math to describe/handle it - is scale invariant) and many artificial boundaries are being removed by use of better wave theory, faster computers, and new data acquisition paradigms. For example, the development of dense sensor arrays (in USA, Europe, Asia - mostly China and Japan) is increasing the attraction (and need) of industry-style interrogation of massive data sets. Examples include large scale seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior with inverse scattering of teleseismic wavefields (e.g., Van der Hilst et al., Science, 2007). On the other hand, reservoir exploration and production benefits from expertise in earthquake seismology, both for better characterization of reservoirs and their overburden and for (induced) micro-earthquake analysis. Passive source methods (including but not restricted to ambient noise tomography) are providing new, economic opportunities for velocity analysis and monitoring, and studies of (micro)seismicity (e.g., source location, parameters, and moment tensor) allow in situ stress determination, tomographic velocity analysis with natural sources in the reservoir, and 4D monitoring (e.g., for hydrocarbon production, carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, and unconventional gas production). Second, the gap between the frequency ranges traditionally considered by both communities is being bridged by better theory, new sensor technology, and through

  16. Global copy number profiling of cancer genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In this article, we introduce a robust and efficient strategy for deriving global and allele-specific copy number alternations (CNA) from cancer whole exome sequencing data based on Log R ratios and B-allele frequencies.

  17. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  18. Executive Perceptions on International Education in a Globalized Environment: The Travel Industry's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, J. Mark; Katsioloudes, Marios I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on globalization has determined travel executives' perceptions of the psychological implications brought about by an interconnected global environment and the implications on international education. With the concepts of Clyne and Rizvi (1998) and Pittaway, Ferguson, and Breen (1998) on the value of cross-cultural interaction as a…

  19. Global Membrane Protein Interactome Analysis using In vivo Crosslinking and Mass Spectrometry-based Protein Correlation Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    Larance, Mark; Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Tinti, Michele; Brenes Murillo, Alejandro; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology using in vivo crosslinking combined with HPLC-MS for the global analysis of endogenous protein complexes by protein correlation profiling. Formaldehyde crosslinked protein complexes were extracted with high yield using denaturing buffers that maintained complex solubility during chromatographic separation. We show this efficiently detects both integral membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes,in addition to soluble complexes, allowing identification and analysis of complexes not accessible in native extracts. We compare the protein complexes detected by HPLC-MS protein correlation profiling in both native and formaldehyde crosslinked U2OS cell extracts. These proteome-wide data sets of both in vivo crosslinked and native protein complexes from U2OS cells are freely available via a searchable online database (www.peptracker.com/epd). Raw data are also available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD003754). PMID:27114452

  20. Global Membrane Protein Interactome Analysis using In vivo Crosslinking and Mass Spectrometry-based Protein Correlation Profiling.

    PubMed

    Larance, Mark; Kirkwood, Kathryn J; Tinti, Michele; Brenes Murillo, Alejandro; Ferguson, Michael A J; Lamond, Angus I

    2016-07-01

    We present a methodology using in vivo crosslinking combined with HPLC-MS for the global analysis of endogenous protein complexes by protein correlation profiling. Formaldehyde crosslinked protein complexes were extracted with high yield using denaturing buffers that maintained complex solubility during chromatographic separation. We show this efficiently detects both integral membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes,in addition to soluble complexes, allowing identification and analysis of complexes not accessible in native extracts. We compare the protein complexes detected by HPLC-MS protein correlation profiling in both native and formaldehyde crosslinked U2OS cell extracts. These proteome-wide data sets of both in vivo crosslinked and native protein complexes from U2OS cells are freely available via a searchable online database (www.peptracker.com/epd). Raw data are also available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD003754). PMID:27114452

  1. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  2. Genetic profiling of yeast industrial strains using in situ comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Maciej; Panek, Anita; Golec, Ewelina; Magda, Michal; Deregowska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Lewinska, Anna

    2015-09-20

    The genetic differences and changes in genomic stability may affect fermentation processes involving baker's, brewer's and wine yeast strains. Thus, it seems worthwhile to monitor the changes in genomic DNA copy number of industrial strains. In the present study, we developed an in situ comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate the ploidy and genetic differences between selected industrial yeast strains. The CGH-based system was validated using the laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (haploid BY4741 and diploid BY4743). DNA isolated from BY4743 cells was considered a reference DNA. The ploidy and DNA gains and losses of baker's, brewer's and wine strains were revealed. Taken together, the in situ CGH was shown a helpful molecular tool to identify genomic differences between yeast industrial strains. Moreover, the in situ CGH-based system may be used at the single-cell level of analysis to supplement array-based techniques and high-throughput analyses at the population scale. PMID:26116136

  3. A quantitative profile of the patent medicine industry in Baltimore from 1863 to 1930.

    PubMed

    Torbenson, Michael; Erlen, Jonathon

    2007-01-01

    At least 661 unique patent medicine manufacturers promoted their nostrums in Baltimore from 1863 to 1930. The industry saw its greatest growth from 1880 to 1900 and peaked in 1907. Overall, about 7% of these companies were owned by women and 4% by African-Americans. Based on the short life span of most companies, the business environment appears to have been very competitive. The patent medicine industry began a steady decline after 1907 and by 1930 had lost nearly 40% of the companies. The temporal correlation of this decline with the passage of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 argues strongly that this legislation was an important contributor to the decline of the industry. PMID:17645151

  4. Profile of the metal mining industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The metal mining industry includes facilities engaged primarily in exploring for metallic minerals, developing mines, and ore mining. These ores are valued chiefly for the metals they contain, which are recovered for use as constituents of alloys, chemicals, pigments, or other products. The industry sector also includes ore dressing and beneficiating operations. The SIC 10 group consists of: SIC 101 -- Iron Ores; SIC 102 -- Copper Ores; SIC 103 -- Lead and Zinc Ores; SIC 104 -- Gold and Silver Ores; SIC 106 -- Ferroalloy Ores, Except Vanadium; SIC 108 -- Metal Mining Services; and SIC 109 -- Miscellaneous Metal Ores.

  5. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  6. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Heins, C. R.; Hildred, W. M.; Johnson, F. D.; Staskin, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Technology transfer in the lubrication field is discussed in terms of the movement of NASA-generated lubrication technology into the private sector as affected by evolving industrial requirements. An overview of the field is presented, and NASA technical contributions to lubrication technology are described. Specific examples in which these technologies have been used in the private sector are summarized.

  7. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE. CHAPTER 10B. PLASTICS ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research presents an analysis of the chemicals used as additives in the production and processing of plastics, their environmental release, and occupational exposure. It describes in detail each chemical additive used in the plastics industry. The plastics additives are prese...

  9. Global Gene Expression Profiles of Resistant and Susceptible Genotypes of Glycine tomentella During Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a destructive foliar disease that occurs in many soybean-producing countries. Towards the goal of identifying genes controlling resistance to soybean rust, transcriptome profiling was conducted in resistant and susceptible Glycine tomentella genotype...

  10. GLOBAL PROPERTIES OF M31'S STELLAR HALO FROM THE SPLASH SURVEY. I. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James; Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2012-11-20

    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 {+-} 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least {approx}175 kpc ({approx}2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects.

  11. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640

  12. Interpretation of the Time-Intensity Profile of the 15 March 2013 Solar Energetic Particle Event with Global MHD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunkett, S. P.; Wu, C.; Liou, K.; Vourlidas, A.; Dryer, Ph. D., M.; Wu, S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The coronal mass ejection (CME) event on March 15, 2013 is one of the few solar events in cycle 24 that produced a large solar energetic particle (SEP) event and severe geomagnetic activity. SEP observations from the ACE spacecraft show a complex time-intensity profile that is not easily understood with current SEP theories. In this study, we employ a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to help interpret the observations. The simulation is based on the H3DMHD code and incorporates extrapolations of photospheric magnetic field as the inner boundary condition at 2.5 solar radii (Rs). A Gaussian-shaped velocity pulse is imposed at the inner boundary as a proxy of the CME. It is found that the time-intensity profile of the high-energy (> 10MeV) SEPs can be explained by the evolution of the CME-driven shock and its interaction with the heliospheric current sheet and the non-uniform solar wind. Specifically, we demonstrate that the shock Mach number at the well-connected shock location is correlated (r ≥ 0.8) with the concurrent proton SEP fluxes with energies greater than 10 and 30 MeV. This study demonstrates that global MHD simulation, despite the limitation implied by its physics-based ideal fluid continuum assumption, can be a useful tool for SEP data analysis.

  13. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  14. Environmental profile of latent energy storage materials applied to industrial systems.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Ferreira, Victor J; Ferreira, Germán

    2014-03-01

    Industry sector is an intensive-energy consumer and approximately 20-50% of industrial energy consumption is lost as waste heat. Therefore, there is a great potential for reducing energy consumption and, subsequently, decreasing the fossil fuels used if this lost energy can be recovered. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) based on Latent Heat Storage systems (LHS) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has become one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings through waste heat recovery, especially when there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy processes. In this paper, a shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating PCMs has been considered to store the excess energy available in an industrial process. Several attempts have been made to design the most appropriate system considering many cost-benefit and technical criteria to maximise the heat recovery. However, the environmental criterion also is an important factor when determining whether this technology is not only energy and cost-efficient but also environmentally friendly, considering the whole life of the system from its manufacture to its disposal. To this end, this research includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine whether the energy savings of conventional fuels during the operation stage are large enough to balance the environmental impact originated in an industrial TES system including the manufacture, use and disposal phases. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined, and the inventory emissions calculated by SIMAPRO v7.3.2. A midpoint and endpoint approaches have been carried out using two methods, CML 2001 and Eco-indicator 99, respectively. As a preliminary result, a promising reduction in the overall impacts was obtained by the use of this technology. From the environmental impact results, a matrix of possible technical solutions is displayed, to improve the environmental performance. PMID:24394366

  15. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A C; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light. PMID:24921648

  16. Core Microbial Functional Activities in Ocean Environments Revealed by Global Metagenomic Profiling Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S.; Dawe, Adam S.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A. C.; Jankovic, Boris R.; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light. PMID:24921648

  17. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PAI-1 Knockout Murine Heart and Kidney: Molecular Basis of Cardiac-Selective Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Murphy, Sheila B.; Kishore, Raj; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is defined as an abnormal matrix remodeling due to excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in tissues during wound healing or in response to chemical, mechanical and immunological stresses. At present, there is no effective therapy for organ fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that aged plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) knockout mice develop spontaneously cardiac-selective fibrosis without affecting any other organs. We hypothesized that differential expressions of profibrotic and antifibrotic genes in PAI-1 knockout hearts and unaffected organs lead to cardiac selective fibrosis. In order to address this prediction, we have used a genome-wide gene expression profiling of transcripts derived from aged PAI-1 knockout hearts and kidneys. The variations of global gene expression profiling were compared within four groups: wildtype heart vs. knockout heart; wildtype kidney vs. knockout kidney; knockout heart vs. knockout kidney and wildtype heart vs. wildtype kidney. Analysis of illumina-based microarray data revealed that several genes involved in different biological processes such as immune system processing, response to stress, cytokine signaling, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, matrix organization and transcriptional regulation were affected in hearts and kidneys by the absence of PAI-1, a potent inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Importantly, the expressions of a number of genes, involved in profibrotic pathways including Ankrd1, Pi16, Egr1, Scx, Timp1, Timp2, Klf6, Loxl1 and Klotho, were deregulated in PAI-1 knockout hearts compared to wildtype hearts and PAI-1 knockout kidneys. While the levels of Ankrd1, Pi16 and Timp1 proteins were elevated during EndMT, the level of Timp4 protein was decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the influence of PAI-1 on global gene expression profiling in the heart and kidney and its implication in fibrogenesis and

  18. Characterization and correction of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 ultraviolet measurements and application to ozone profile retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhaonan; Liu, Yi; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Nowlan, Caroline R.; Lang, Ruediger; Munro, Rosemary; Suleiman, Raid

    2012-04-01

    We present an assessment study of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) reflectance for the wavelength range 270-350 nm by comparing measurements with simulations calculated using the vector linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model (VLIDORT) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profiles. The results indicate wavelength- and cross-track-position-dependent biases. GOME-2 reflectance is overestimated by 10% near 300 nm and by 15%-20% around 270 nm. Stokes fraction measurements made by onboard polarization measurement devices are also validated directly using the VLIDORT model. GOME-2 measurements agree well with the simulated Stokes fractions, with mean biases ranging from -1.0% to ˜2.9%; the absolute differences are less than 0.05. Cloudiness-dependent biases suggest the existence of uncorrected stray-light errors that vary seasonally and latitudinally. Temporal analysis indicates that reflectance degradation began at the beginning of the mission; the reflectance degrades by 15% around 290 nm and by 2.2% around 325 nm from 2007 through 2009. Degradation shows wavelength- and viewing-angle-dependent features. Preliminary validation of ozone profile retrievals with MLS, Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, and ozonesonde reveals that the application of radiometric recalibration improves the ozone profile retrievals as well as reduces fitting residuals by 30% in band 2b.

  19. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Global power marketing: Potential of power industry and cost of power production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Dinker, N.; Rawal, G.J.; Hirani, J.A.; Shukla, J.K.B.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the potential for the power industry in India. It gives statistics of power demand and power production capacity for the last few years and projects the future capacity for power generation. The paper uses Guijarat State as a example and gives economics of the power projects in the state and also some idea of operating cost. The paper presents prevailing rates of tariff for the power from which one can derive economical feasibility of the power projects in India. The Indian government has given more emphasis on attracting private investment for power development and changed its power policy. To attract foreign investments, the Indian power ministry has issued counter guarantees to some independent power projects. The India power industry is thus becoming a potential market for foreign power industries.

  1. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  2. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system. PMID:24446583

  3. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  4. Robust global ocean cooling trend for the pre-industrial Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Helen V.; Evans, Michael N.; Goosse, Hugues; Leduc, Guillaume; Martrat, Belen; Addison, Jason A.; Mortyn, P. Graham; Oppo, Delia W.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Phipps, Steven J.; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Filipsson, Helena L.; Ersek, Vasile

    2015-09-01

    The oceans mediate the response of global climate to natural and anthropogenic forcings. Yet for the past 2,000 years -- a key interval for understanding the present and future climate response to these forcings -- global sea surface temperature changes and the underlying driving mechanisms are poorly constrained. Here we present a global synthesis of sea surface temperatures for the Common Era (CE) derived from 57 individual marine reconstructions that meet strict quality control criteria. We observe a cooling trend from 1 to 1800 CE that is robust against explicit tests for potential biases in the reconstructions. Between 801 and 1800 CE, the surface cooling trend is qualitatively consistent with an independent synthesis of terrestrial temperature reconstructions, and with a sea surface temperature composite derived from an ensemble of climate model simulations using best estimates of past external radiative forcings. Climate simulations using single and cumulative forcings suggest that the ocean surface cooling trend from 801 to 1800 CE is not primarily a response to orbital forcing but arises from a high frequency of explosive volcanism. Our results show that repeated clusters of volcanic eruptions can induce a net negative radiative forcing that results in a centennial and global scale cooling trend via a decline in mixed-layer oceanic heat content.

  5. Global Properties of M31's Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. II. Metallicity Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, Rachael L.; Geha, Marla C.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Patterson, Richard J.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Bullock, James S.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ~100 kpc, with a magnitude of ~ - 0.01 dex kpc-1. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Global properties of M31's stellar halo from the splash survey. II. Metallicity profile

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ∼100 kpc, with a magnitude of ∼ – 0.01 dex kpc{sup –1}. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo.

  7. ESTIMATES OF GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific em...

  8. The global cell therapy industry continues to rise during the second and third quarters of 2012.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chris; McCall, Mark J; Culme-Seymour, Emily J; Suthasan, Shalini; Edwards-Parton, Simon; Bonfiglio, Gregory A; Reeve, Brock C

    2012-12-01

    During Q2-Q3 2012, the cell therapy industry benefited from a number of positive external influences including advantageous changes to future FDA regulation, but stock market activity was highly mixed. The FDA approved two more products and an appreciable number of public-company-sponsored clinical trials are progressing through phases 1-3. PMID:23217418

  9. Global profiling of stimulus-induced polyadenylation in cells using a poly(A) trap

    PubMed Central

    Curanovic, Dusica; Cohen, Michael; Singh, Irtisha; Slagle, Christopher E.; Leslie, Christina S.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2013-01-01

    Polyadenylation of mRNA leads to increased protein expression in response to diverse stimuli, but it is difficult to identify mRNAs that become polyadenylated in living cells. Here we describe a click chemistry-compatible nucleoside analog that is selectively incorporated into poly(A) tails of transcripts in cells. Next-generation sequencing of labeled mRNAs enables a transcriptome-wide profile of polyadenylation and provides insights into the mRNA sequence elements that are correlated with polyadenylation. PMID:23995769

  10. A University-Industry Collaborative Response to the Growing Global Demand for Student Talent: Using Interpretive Phenomenology to Discover Life-World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Michelsen, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The supply of student talent is now taking on an increasingly global dimension and this has extended the breadth of university-industry interaction. Set in the context of a rapidly growing international student market, knowledge transfer between academia and business through global student talent supply is an emerging practice. This paper…

  11. CLASSIFY-profiles. Final report, Volume 4: Designing energy services for commercial and industrial customers

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweber, D.; Leon, D.; Smith, S.

    1995-12-01

    In a changing marketplace, utilities will likely need to enhance their revenue streams through the introduction of nontraditional products and services in areas such as power quality, facilities management, energy management, and utility information. The report includes an overview of services in these areas followed by a definition of customer needs, design targets, and a range of acceptable performance parameters. For each area, existing problems, potential solutions, technical and service delivery questions, and vendor issues are addressed. Utility planners will find in this report much of the information needed for input into a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, a team-oriented, decision-making approach for creating customer-driven solutions to product, service, and operational problems. However, program developers using methods other than QFD will benefit from the specific definition of performance attributes, the relative importance of each attribute, and design targets articulated in this work. Such customer preferences information should be especially useful in designing new services for larger commercial and industrial customers. Volumes 1-3 of this report define the technology needs of residential, commercial, and industrial customers as well as trade allies.

  12. Concentration profiles and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in an industrial center with condensed fluorochemical facilities.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wei, Mingcui; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-08-15

    Jiangsu Hi-tech Fluorochemical Industry Park, China, is one of the largest fluorochemical industry centers in Asia and could be a point source of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the surrounding environment. Besides water, sediment and soil samples, tree leaves and bark were also collected to monitor airborne PFASs around the facilities. Perfluorooctanoic acid and short-chain perfluorocarboxylates including perfluorohexanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid were found predominantly in all the samples. The target ∑PFASs were distributed in the dissolved phase with a proportion of 96.5±2.9%. High concentrations of ∑PFASs (up to 12,700 ng/L in surface water) were found at sites near and within the wastewater treatment plant and the facilities. The ∑PFASs in the sediment/sludge were in the range of 3.33-324 ng/g dw. For the first time, tree samples were used for bio-monitoring airborne PFASs in the environment. The ∑PFASs in the tree leaf and bark samples were in the range of 10.0-276 and 6.76-120 ng/g dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of ∑PFASs in the tree leaves suggested that airborne PFASs could be transported from the center to the surrounding environment by prevailing wind. PMID:24867700

  13. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and -0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration. PMID:27503002

  14. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and −0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration. PMID:27503002

  15. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-08-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and ‑0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration.

  16. Gene expression profiling--Opening the black box of plant ecosystem responses to global change

    SciTech Connect

    Leakey, A.D.B.; Ainsworth, E.A.; Bernard, S.M.; Markelz, R.J.C.; Ort, D.R.; Placella, S.A.P.; Rogers, A.; Smith, M.D.; Sudderth, E.A.; Weston, D.J.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Yuan, S.

    2009-11-01

    The use of genomic techniques to address ecological questions is emerging as the field of genomic ecology. Experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions to investigate the molecular response of plants to meaningful changes in growth conditions and ecological interactions is the defining feature of genomic ecology. Since the impact of global change factors on plant performance are mediated by direct effects at the molecular, biochemical and physiological scales, gene expression analysis promises important advances in understanding factors that have previously been consigned to the 'black box' of unknown mechanism. Various tools and approaches are available for assessing gene expression in model and non-model species as part of global change biology studies. Each approach has its own unique advantages and constraints. A first generation of genomic ecology studies in managed ecosystems and mesocosms have provided a testbed for the approach and have begun to reveal how the experimental design and data analysis of gene expression studies can be tailored for use in an ecological context.

  17. Global Profiling of the Cellular Alternative RNA Splicing Landscape during Virus-Host Interactions.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Simon; Martenon-Brodeur, Camille; Caron, Marie; Garant, Jean-Michel; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Armero, Victoria E S; Durand, Mathieu; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay-Létourneau, Maude; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Scott, Michelle S; Lemay, Guy; Bisaillon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism of genetic regulation which modifies the sequence of RNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes. AS has been shown to increase both the variability and diversity of the cellular proteome by changing the composition of resulting proteins through differential choice of exons to be included in mature mRNAs. In the present study, alterations to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes upon viral infection were investigated using mammalian reovirus as a model. Our study provides the first comprehensive portrait of global changes in the RNA splicing signatures that occur in eukaryotic cells following infection with a human virus. We identify 240 modified alternative splicing events upon infection which belong to transcripts frequently involved in the regulation of gene expression and RNA metabolism. Using mass spectrometry, we also confirm modifications to transcript-specific peptides resulting from AS in virus-infected cells. These findings provide additional insights into the complexity of virus-host interactions as these splice variants expand proteome diversity and function during viral infection. PMID:27598998

  18. Global profiling of co- and post-translationally N-myristoylated proteomes in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Broncel, Malgorzata; Brannigan, James A.; Brassat, Ute; Wright, Megan H.; Heal, William P.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Mann, David J.; Tate, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification that has been implicated in the development and progression of a range of human diseases. Here, we report the global N-myristoylated proteome in human cells determined using quantitative chemical proteomics combined with potent and specific human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) inhibition. Global quantification of N-myristoylation during normal growth or apoptosis allowed the identification of >100 N-myristoylated proteins, >95% of which are identified for the first time at endogenous levels. Furthermore, quantitative dose response for inhibition of N-myristoylation is determined for >70 substrates simultaneously across the proteome. Small-molecule inhibition through a conserved substrate-binding pocket is also demonstrated by solving the crystal structures of inhibitor-bound NMT1 and NMT2. The presented data substantially expand the known repertoire of co- and post-translational N-myristoylation in addition to validating tools for the pharmacological inhibition of NMT in living cells. PMID:25255805

  19. Gene Expression Profiling - Opening the Black Box of Plant Ecosystem Responses to Global Change

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Bernard, Stephanie M.; Markelz, R.J. Cody; Ort, Donald R.; Placella, Sarah A.; Rogers, Alistair; Smith, Melinda D; Sudderth, Erika A.; Weston, David; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yuan, Shenghua

    2009-01-01

    The use of genomic techniques to address ecological questions is emerging as the field of genomic ecology. Experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions to investigate the molecular response of plants to meaningful changes in growth conditions and ecological interactions is the defining feature of genomic ecology. Since the impact of global change factors on plant performance are mediated by direct effects at the molecular, biochemical and physiological scales, gene expression analysis promises important advances in understanding factors that have previously been consigned to the black box of unknown mechanism. Various tools and approaches are available for assessing gene expression in model and non-model species as part of global change biology studies. Each approach has its own unique advantages and constraints. A first generation of genomic ecology studies in managed ecosystems and mesocosms have provided a testbed for the approach and have begun to reveal how the experimental design and data analysis of gene expression studies can be tailored for use in an ecological context.

  20. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  1. Global carbon benefits of material substitution in passenger cars until 2050 and the impact on the steel and aluminum industries.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Løvik, Amund N; Müller, Daniel B

    2014-09-16

    Light-weighting of passenger cars using high-strength steel or aluminum is a common emissions mitigation strategy. We provide a first estimate of the global impact of light-weighting by material substitution on GHG emissions from passenger cars and the steel and aluminum industries until 2050. We develop a dynamic stock model of the global car fleet and combine it with a dynamic MFA of the associated steel, aluminum, and energy supply industries. We propose four scenarios for substitution of conventional steel with high-strength steel and aluminum at different rates over the period 2010-2050. We show that light-weighting of passenger cars can become a "gigaton solution": Between 2010 and 2050, persistent light-weighting of passenger cars can, under optimal conditions, lead to cumulative GHG emissions savings of 9-18 gigatons CO2-eq compared to development business-as-usual. Annual savings can be up to 1 gigaton per year. After 2030, enhanced material recycling can lead to further reductions: closed-loop metal recycling in the automotive sector may reduce cumulative emissions by another 4-6 gigatons CO2-eq. The effectiveness of emissions mitigation by material substitution significantly depends on how the recycling system evolves. At present, policies focusing on tailpipe emissions and life cycle assessments of individual cars do not consider this important effect. PMID:25111289

  2. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  3. Global Transcriptome Profiles of 'Meyer' Zoysiagrass in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shanjun; Du, Zhenlin; Gao, Fei; Ke, Xiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Jianxiu; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    A long green period is essential for a turfgrass species with high ornamental value and a wide area of use. Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp. Willd.) are perennial turfgrass species popular in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, possessing many properties necessary to be economically useful turfgrass. They do not have a long green period because of cold sensitivity. A main focus in zoysiagrass research is to develop cold tolerant cultivars. Understanding the cold response in zoysiagrass is a fundamental area of research. In the present study, ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a widely cultivated variety in the genus, is used. We employed RNA-Seq to investigate genome-wide gene expression profiles in leaves under cold stress (4°C). Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 206 million high-quality paired-end reads from three libraries (0 h, 2 h, and 72 h cold treatment at 4°C). After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 46,412 unigenes were generated with an average length of 998 bp and an N50 of 1,522 bp. A total of 25,644 (55.2%) unigenes were annotated by alignment with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and KOG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. A total of 756 DEGs were identified between 0h and 2h-cold treatment, with 522 up-regulated and 234 down-regulated; and 5327 DEGs were identified between 0h and 72h-cold treatment, with 2453 up-regulated and 2874 down-regulated. The expression profile of 15 DEGs selected randomly was confirmed with qRT-PCR. The results suggest that cold stress can induce desiccation and oxidative stress, inhibit photosynthesis and substance transport. In response to the stress, genes involved in proline synthesis, in starch hydrolysis, in methionine and ascorbic acid metabolism, in SOD activity, and in DREBs response pathway were up-regulated. GA metabolism, ABA and JA stimulus response were affected under cold exposure. This is

  4. Global profiling and rapid matching of natural products using diagnostic product ion network and in silico analogue database: Gastrodia elata as a case study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang-Jiang-Sheng; Zha, Liangping; Liu, Da-Hui; Kang, Liping; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Nan, Tie-Gui; Yang, Jian; Li, Fajie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-07-22

    Rapid discovery of novel compounds of a traditional herbal medicine is of vital significance for pharmaceutical industry and plant metabolic pathway analysis. However, discovery of unknown or trace natural products is an ongoing challenge. This study presents a universal targeted data-independent acquisition and mining strategy to globally profile and effectively match novel natural product analogues from an herbal extract. The famous medical plant Gastrodia elata was selected as an example. This strategy consists of three steps: (i) acquisition of accurate parent and adduct ions (PAIs) and the product ions data of all eluting compounds by untargeted full-scan MS(E) mode; (ii) rapid compound screening using diagnostic product ions (DPIs) network and in silico analogue database with SUMPRODUCT function to find novel candidates; and (iii) identification and isomerism discrimination of multiple types of compounds using ClogP and ions fragment behavior analyses. Using above data mining methods, a total of 152 compounds were characterized, and 70 were discovered for the first time, including series of phospholipids and novel gastroxyl derivatives. Furthermore, a number of gastronucleosides and phase II metabolites of gastrodin and parishins were discovered, including glutathionylated, cysteinylglycinated and cysteinated compounds, and phosphatidylserine analogues. This study extended the application of classical DPIs filter strategy and developed a structure-based screening approach with the potential for significant increase of efficiency for discovery and identification of trace novel natural products. PMID:27318507

  5. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon. PMID:17181794

  6. Global SAXS Data Analysis for Multilamellar Vesicles: Evolution of the Scattering Density Profile (SDP) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Heftberger, Peter; Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heberle, Frederick A; Pan, Jianjun; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kucerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John; Pabst, georg

    2014-01-01

    The highly successful scattering density profile (SDP) model, used to jointly analyze small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, has been adapted for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high-resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone X-ray data. Structural parameters such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. The results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and X-ray data. The inclusion of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data in the analysis improved the lipid backbone information but did not improve, within experimental error, the structural data regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid.

  7. Comparison of the global gene expression profiles in the bovine endometrium between summer and autumn.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Saito, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Iga, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress compromises fertility during summer in dairy and beef cows by causing nutritional, physiological and reproductive damages. To examine the difference in endometrial conditions in cows between summer and autumn, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. The trial was conducted in the summer (early in September) and autumn (mid-November) seasons of two consecutive years (2013-2014) in Morioka, Japan. Endometrial samples were collected from the cows using a biopsy technique. The expressions of 268 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium collected in summer than those collected in autumn, whereas the expressions of 369 genes were lower (P<0.05 or lower). Messenger RNA expressions of glycoprotein 2 (GP2), neurotensin (NTS),E-cadherin (CDH1) and heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1 (HSPH1) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of GP2 and NTS were more abundant in the endometrium from summer than in the endometrium from autumn (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of CDH1 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of HSPH1 tended to be low (P = 0.09) in the endometrium from summer. Immunohistochemical staining showed that GP2, NTS and HSPH1 were expressed in the endometrial epithelial or glandular epithelial cells. The serum concentrations of NTS collected from the cows in summer were higher than those collected from cows in autumn (P < 0.05). Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences in the endometrium between summer and autumn, and the increases in GP2 and NTS may have a relationship with the endometrial deficiency that causes infertility of cows in summer. PMID:25994242

  8. A global profile of glucose-sensitive endothelial-expressed long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Krishna K; Mantella, Laura-Eve; Pan, Yi; Quan, Adrian; Sabongui, Sandra; Sandhu, Paul; Teoh, Hwee; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Verma, Subodh

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycemia-related endothelial dysfunction is believed to be the crux of diabetes-associated micro- and macro-vascular complications. We conducted a systematic transcriptional survey to screen for human endothelial long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by elevated glucose levels. lncRNAs and protein-coding transcripts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured under high (25 mmol/L) or normal (5 mmol/L) glucose conditions for 24 h were profiled with the Arraystar Human LncRNA Expression Microarray V3.0. Of the 30 586 lncRNAs screened, 100 were significantly upregulated and 186 appreciably downregulated (P < 0.05) in response to high-glucose exposure. In the same HUVEC samples, 133 of the 26 109 mRNAs screened were upregulated and 166 downregulated. Of these 299 differentially expressed mRNAs, 26 were significantly associated with 28 differentially expressed long intergenic non-coding RNAs (P < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses indicated that the mRNAs most upregulated are primarily enriched in axon guidance signaling pathways; those most downregulated are notably involved in pathways targeting vascular smooth muscle cell contraction, dopaminergic signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and adrenergic signaling. This is the first lncRNA and mRNA transcriptome profile of high-glucose-mediated changes in human endothelial cells. These observations may prove novel insights into novel regulatory molecules and pathways of hyperglycemia-related endothelial dysfunction and, accordingly, diabetes-associated vascular disease. PMID:27434139

  9. Global serum glycoform profiling for the investigation of dystroglycanopathies & Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Wendy E.; Bliss, Emily; Mills, Philippa; Yuzugulen, Jale; Carreno, Gabriela; Clayton, Peter T.; Muntoni, Francesco; Worthington, Viki C.; Torelli, Silvia; Sebire, Neil J.; Mills, Kevin; Grunewald, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) are an expanding group of genetic disorders which encompass a spectrum of glycosylation defects of protein and lipids, including N- & O-linked defects and among the latter are the muscular dystroglycanopathies (MD). Initial screening of CDG is usually based on the investigation of the glycoproteins transferrin, and/or apolipoprotein CIII. These biomarkers do not always detect complex or subtle defects present in older patients, therefore there is a need to investigate additional glycoproteins in some cases. We describe a sensitive 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) method that provides a global analysis of the serum glycoproteome. Patient samples from PMM2-CDG (n = 5), CDG-II (n = 7), MD and known complex N- & O-linked glycosylation defects (n = 3) were analysed by 2D DIGE. Using this technique we demonstrated characteristic changes in mass and charge in PMM2-CDG and in charge in CDG-II for α1-antitrypsin, α1-antichymotrypsin, α2-HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, and α1-acid glycoproteins 1&2. Analysis of the samples with known N- & O-linked defects identified a lower molecular weight glycoform of C1-esterase inhibitor that was not observed in the N-linked glycosylation disorders indicating the change is likely due to affected O-glycosylation. In addition, we could identify abnormal serum glycoproteins in LARGE and B3GALNT2-deficient muscular dystrophies. The results demonstrate that the glycoform pattern is varied for some CDG patients not all glycoproteins are consistently affected and analysis of more than one protein in complex cases is warranted. 2D DIGE is an ideal method to investigate the global glycoproteome and is a potentially powerful tool and secondary test for aiding the complex diagnosis and sub classification of CDG. The technique has further potential in monitoring patients for future treatment strategies. In an era of shifting emphasis from gel- to mass-spectral based proteomics

  10. Global serum glycoform profiling for the investigation of dystroglycanopathies & Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy E; Bliss, Emily; Mills, Philippa; Yuzugulen, Jale; Carreno, Gabriela; Clayton, Peter T; Muntoni, Francesco; Worthington, Viki C; Torelli, Silvia; Sebire, Neil J; Mills, Kevin; Grunewald, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    The Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) are an expanding group of genetic disorders which encompass a spectrum of glycosylation defects of protein and lipids, including N- & O-linked defects and among the latter are the muscular dystroglycanopathies (MD). Initial screening of CDG is usually based on the investigation of the glycoproteins transferrin, and/or apolipoprotein CIII. These biomarkers do not always detect complex or subtle defects present in older patients, therefore there is a need to investigate additional glycoproteins in some cases. We describe a sensitive 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) method that provides a global analysis of the serum glycoproteome. Patient samples from PMM2-CDG (n = 5), CDG-II (n = 7), MD and known complex N- & O-linked glycosylation defects (n = 3) were analysed by 2D DIGE. Using this technique we demonstrated characteristic changes in mass and charge in PMM2-CDG and in charge in CDG-II for α1-antitrypsin, α1-antichymotrypsin, α2-HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, and α1-acid glycoproteins 1&2. Analysis of the samples with known N- & O-linked defects identified a lower molecular weight glycoform of C1-esterase inhibitor that was not observed in the N-linked glycosylation disorders indicating the change is likely due to affected O-glycosylation. In addition, we could identify abnormal serum glycoproteins in LARGE and B3GALNT2-deficient muscular dystrophies. The results demonstrate that the glycoform pattern is varied for some CDG patients not all glycoproteins are consistently affected and analysis of more than one protein in complex cases is warranted. 2D DIGE is an ideal method to investigate the global glycoproteome and is a potentially powerful tool and secondary test for aiding the complex diagnosis and sub classification of CDG. The technique has further potential in monitoring patients for future treatment strategies. In an era of shifting emphasis from gel- to mass-spectral based proteomics

  11. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  12. A chemical proteomics approach for global analysis of lysine monomethylome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Sun, Mingwei; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; He, Tieming; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-02-01

    Methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is known to play an important role in chromatin structure and function. However, non-histone protein substrates of this modification remain largely unknown. An effective approach for system-wide analysis of protein lysine methylation, particularly lysine monomethylation, is lacking. Here we describe a chemical proteomics approach for global screening for monomethyllysine substrates, involving chemical propionylation of monomethylated lysine, affinity enrichment of the modified monomethylated peptides, and HPLC/MS/MS analysis. Using this approach, we identified with high confidence 446 lysine monomethylation sites in 398 proteins, including three previously unknown histone monomethylation marks, representing the largest data set of protein lysine monomethylation described to date. Our data not only confirms previously discovered lysine methylation substrates in the nucleus and spliceosome, but also reveals new substrates associated with diverse biological processes. This method hence offers a powerful approach for dynamic study of protein lysine monomethylation under diverse cellular conditions and in human diseases. PMID:25505155

  13. Global Transcription Profiling Reveals Multiple Sugar Signal Transduction Mechanisms in ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Price, John; Laxmi, Ashverya; St. Martin, Steven K.; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2004-01-01

    Complex and interconnected signaling networks allow organisms to control cell division, growth, differentiation, or programmed cell death in response to metabolic and environmental cues. In plants, it is known that sugar and nitrogen are critical nutrient signals; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient signal transduction is very limited. To begin unraveling complex sugar signaling networks in plants, DNA microarray analysis was used to determine the effects of glucose and inorganic nitrogen source on gene expression on a global scale in Arabidopsis thaliana. In whole seedling tissue, glucose is a more potent signal in regulating transcription than inorganic nitrogen. In fact, other than genes associated with nitrate assimilation, glucose had a greater effect in regulating nitrogen metabolic genes than nitrogen itself. Glucose also regulated a broader range of genes, including genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and metabolite transport. In addition, a large number of stress responsive genes were also induced by glucose, indicating a role of sugar in environmental responses. Cluster analysis revealed significant interaction between glucose and nitrogen in regulating gene expression because glucose can modulate the effects of nitrogen and vise versa. Intriguingly, cycloheximide treatment appeared to disrupt glucose induction more than glucose repression, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis is an intermediary event required before most glucose induction can occur. Cross talk between sugar and ethylene signaling may take place on the transcriptional level because several ethylene biosynthetic and signal transduction genes are repressed by glucose, and the repression is largely unaffected by cycloheximide. Collectively, our global expression data strongly support the idea that glucose and inorganic nitrogen act as both metabolites and signaling molecules. PMID:15273295

  14. Global changes in the transcript and metabolic profiles during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in phosphorus-stressed common bean plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Georgina; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Ramírez, Mario; Goffard, Nicolas; Weiller, Georg; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Fuentes, Sara Isabel; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Udvardi, Michael K; Vance, Carroll P

    2009-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is widespread in regions where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced, and it is perhaps the factor that most limits nitrogen fixation. Global gene expression and metabolome approaches were used to investigate the responses of nodules from common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. P-deficient inoculated plants showed drastic reduction in nodulation and nitrogenase activity as determined by acetylene reduction assay. Nodule transcript profiling was performed through hybridization of nylon filter arrays spotted with cDNAs, approximately 4,000 unigene set, from the nodule and P-deficient root library. A total of 459 genes, representing different biological processes according to updated annotation using the UniProt Knowledgebase database, showed significant differential expression in response to P: 59% of these were induced in P-deficient nodules. The expression platform for transcription factor genes based in quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 37 transcription factor genes were differentially expressed in P-deficient nodules and only one gene was repressed. Data from nontargeted metabolic profiles indicated that amino acids and other nitrogen metabolites were decreased, while organic and polyhydroxy acids were accumulated, in P-deficient nodules. Bioinformatics analyses using MapMan and PathExpress software tools, customized to common bean, were utilized for the analysis of global changes in gene expression that affected overall metabolism. Glycolysis and glycerolipid metabolism, and starch and Suc metabolism, were identified among the pathways significantly induced or repressed in P-deficient nodules, respectively. PMID:19755543

  15. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  16. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Seedlings Exposed to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress interferes with plant growth and production. Plants have evolved a series of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with this abiotic stress, and overexpression of salt response genes reportedly enhances the productivity of various crops. However, little is known about the salt responsive genes in the energy plant physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Thus, excavate salt responsive genes in this plant are informative in uncovering the molecular mechanisms for the salt response in physic nut. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of physic nut plants (roots and leaves) 2 hours, 2 days and 7 days after the onset of salt stress. A total of 1,504 and 1,115 genes were significantly up and down-regulated in roots and leaves, respectively, under salt stress condition. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of physiological process revealed that, in the physic nut, many “biological processes” were affected by salt stress, particular those categories belong to “metabolic process”, such as “primary metabolism process”, “cellular metabolism process” and “macromolecule metabolism process”. The gene expression profiles indicated that the associated genes were responsible for ABA and ethylene signaling, osmotic regulation, the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and the cell structure in physic nut. Conclusions/Significance The major regulated genes detected in this transcriptomic data were related to trehalose synthesis and cell wall structure modification in roots, while related to raffinose synthesis and reactive oxygen scavenger in leaves. The current study shows a comprehensive gene expression profile of physic nut under salt stress. The differential expression genes detected in this study allows the underling the salt responsive mechanism in physic nut with the aim of improving its salt resistance in the future. PMID:24837971

  17. Improvement of the global surface emissivity from MOPITT measurements and its impacts on the retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shu-peng; Edwards, David P.; Gille, John C.; Chen, Jarmei; Ziskin, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important tropospheric trace species and can serve as a useful tracer of atmospheric transport. The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument uses the 4.7 μm CO band to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the CO profile and total column amount in the troposphere from space. Launched in 1999 on board the NASA Terra satellite, the MOPITT views the earth with a pixel size 22 km by 22 km and a cross-track swath that measures a near-global distribution of CO every 3 days. In the operational MOPITT CO retrieval algorithm (V3; Version 3), surface skin temperature (Ts) and emissivity (E) are retrieved simultaneously with the CO profile. The accuracy of E and Ts is crucial for obtaining the CO retrieval within the 10% accuracy from the MOPITT measurements. However, because both Ts and E are retrieved from the same piece of information from the MOPITT measurements, the accuracy of both valuables may be limited. Extra surface skin temperature information is needed to determine surface emissivity, and vice versa. In this study, we use MODIS Ts within the MOPITT FOVs, in conjunction with those MOPITT signals most sensitive to the background scene, to compute the surface emissivity through an iterative retrieval algorithm. A monthly 1degree grid averaged 4.7 μm surface emissivity map is generated. The evaluation of the accuracy of this monthly 1 degree grid averaged 4.7 μm surface emissivity map is presented and its impacts on the retrievals of tropospheric CO profiles from the MOPITT measurements are also discussed.

  18. Global Phospholipidomics Analysis Reveals Selective Pulmonary Peroxidation Profiles Upon Inhalation of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Kisin, Elena R.; Murray, Ashley; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Samhan-Arias, Alejandro K.; Swedin, Linda; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Fadeel, Bengt; Shvedova, Anna A.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that nanomaterials cause non-specific oxidative damage. Our mass spectrometry-based oxidative lipidomics analysis of all major phospholipid classes revealed highly selective patterns of pulmonary peroxidation after inhalation exposure of mice to single-walled carbon nanotubes. No oxidized molecular species were found in two most abundant phospholipid classes – phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Peroxidation products were identified in three relatively minor classes of anionic phospholipids, cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol whereby oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acid residues also showed unusual substrate specificity. This non-random peroxidation coincided with the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the lung. A similar selective phospholipid peroxidation profile was detected upon incubation of a mixture of total lung lipids with H2O2/cytochrome c known to catalyze cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine peroxidation in apoptotic cells. The characterized specific phospholipid peroxidation signaling pathways indicate new approaches to the development of mitochondria targeted regulators of cardiolipin peroxidation to protect against deleterious effects of pro-apoptotic effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the lung. PMID:21800898

  19. Global phospholipidomics analysis reveals selective pulmonary peroxidation profiles upon inhalation of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tyurina, Yulia Y; Kisin, Elena R; Murray, Ashley; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Kapralova, Valentina I; Sparvero, Louis J; Amoscato, Andrew A; Samhan-Arias, Alejandro K; Swedin, Linda; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Fadeel, Bengt; Shvedova, Anna A; Kagan, Valerian E

    2011-09-27

    It is commonly believed that nanomaterials cause nonspecific oxidative damage. Our mass spectrometry-based oxidative lipidomics analysis of all major phospholipid classes revealed highly selective patterns of pulmonary peroxidation after inhalation exposure of mice to single-walled carbon nanotubes. No oxidized molecular species were found in the two most abundant phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Peroxidation products were identified in three relatively minor classes of anionic phospholipids, cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, whereby oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acid residues also showed unusual substrate specificity. This nonrandom peroxidation coincided with the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the lung. A similar selective phospholipid peroxidation profile was detected upon incubation of a mixture of total lung lipids with H(2)O(2)/cytochrome c known to catalyze cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine peroxidation in apoptotic cells. The characterized specific phospholipid peroxidation signaling pathways indicate new approaches to the development of mitochondria-targeted regulators of cardiolipin peroxidation to protect against deleterious effects of pro-apoptotic effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the lung. PMID:21800898

  20. Prospective Study of Metal Fume-Induced Responses of Global Gene Expression Profiling in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Neuberg, Donna; Su, Li; Kim, Jee Young; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Metal particulate inhalation causes pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous results showed that systemic responses to short-term occupational welding-fume exposure could be assessed by microarray analyses in whole-blood total RNA sampled before and after exposure. To expand our understanding of the duration of particulate-induced gene expression changes, we conducted a study using a similar population 1 yr after the original study and extended our observations in the postexposure period. We recruited 15 individuals with welding fume exposure and 7 nonexposed individuals. Thirteen of the 22 individuals (9 in exposed group and 4 in nonexposed group) had been monitored in the previous study. Whole-blood total RNA was analyzed at 3 time points, including baseline, immediately following exposure (approximately 5 h after baseline), and 24 h after baseline, using cDNA microarray technology. We replicated the patterns of Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with response to stimulus, cell death, phosphorus metabolism, localization, and regulation of biological processes significantly enriched with altered genes in the nonsmoking exposed group. Most of the identified genes had opposite expression changes between the exposure and postexposure periods in nonsmoking welders. In addition, we found dose-dependent patterns that were affected by smoking status. In conclusion, short-term occupational exposure to metal particulates causes systemic responses in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the acute particulate-induced effects on gene expression profiling were transient in nonsmoking welders, with most effects diminishing within 19 h following exposure. PMID:18951227

  1. Fast and global authenticity screening of honey using ¹H-NMR profiling.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Rebours, Agathe; Lees, Michèle; Rogers, Karyne M; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-12-15

    An innovative analytical approach was developed to tackle the most common adulterations and quality deviations in honey. Using proton-NMR profiling coupled to suitable quantification procedures and statistical models, analytical criteria were defined to check the authenticity of both mono- and multi-floral honey. The reference data set used was a worldwide collection of more than 800 honeys, covering most of the economically significant botanical and geographical origins. Typical plant nectar markers can be used to check monofloral honey labeling. Spectral patterns and natural variability were established for multifloral honeys, and marker signals for sugar syrups were identified by statistical comparison with a commercial dataset of ca. 200 honeys. Although the results are qualitative, spiking experiments have confirmed the ability of the method to detect sugar addition down to 10% levels in favorable cases. Within the same NMR experiments, quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 5-HMF (regulated parameters) was performed. Finally markers showing the onset of fermentation are described. PMID:26190601

  2. Global gene expression profiling of oral cavity cancers suggests molecular heterogeneity within anatomic subsites

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Patricia; Alvares, Adriana M; Michaluart, Pedro; Okamoto, Oswaldo K; Nunes, Fabio D; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent neoplasm, which is usually aggressive and has unpredictable biological behavior and unfavorable prognosis. The comprehension of the molecular basis of this variability should lead to the development of targeted therapies as well as to improvements in specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Results Samples of primary OSCCs and their corresponding surgical margins were obtained from male patients during surgery and their gene expression profiles were screened using whole-genome microarray technology. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis were used for data visualization and One-way Analysis of Variance was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Samples clustered mostly according to disease subsite, suggesting molecular heterogeneity within tumor stages. In order to corroborate our results, two publicly available datasets of microarray experiments were assessed. We found significant molecular differences between OSCC anatomic subsites concerning groups of genes presently or potentially important for drug development, including mRNA processing, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, cell cycle and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results corroborate literature data on molecular heterogeneity of OSCCs. Differences between disease subsites and among samples belonging to the same TNM class highlight the importance of gene expression-based classification and challenge the development of targeted therapies. PMID:19014556

  3. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  4. Inferring ice formation processes from global-scale black carbon profiles observed in the remote atmosphere and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S.-M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Liu, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Ginoux, P.; Horowitz, L. W.; Levy, H., II; Ming, Y.; Spackman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol absorbs solar radiation and can act as cloud condensation nucleus and ice formation nucleus. The current generation of climate models have difficulty in accurately predicting global-scale BC concentrations. Previously, an ensemble of such models was compared to measurements, revealing model biases in the tropical troposphere and in the polar troposphere. Here global aerosol distributions are simulated using different parameterizations of wet removal, and model results are compared to BC profiles observed in the remote atmosphere to explore the possible sources of these biases. The model-data comparison suggests a slow removal of BC aerosol during transport to the Arctic in winter and spring, because ice crystal growth causes evaporation of liquid cloud via the Bergeron process and, hence, release of BC aerosol back to ambient air. By contrast, more efficient model wet removal is needed in the cold upper troposphere over the tropical Pacific. Parcel model simulations with detailed droplet and ice nucleation and growth processes suggest that ice formation in this region may be suppressed due to a lack of ice nuclei (mainly insoluble dust particles) in the remote atmosphere, allowing liquid and mixed-phase clouds to persist under freezing temperatures, and forming liquid precipitation capable of removing aerosol incorporated in cloud water. Falling ice crystals can scavenge droplets in lower clouds, which also results in efficient removal of cloud condensation nuclei. The combination of models with global-scale BC measurements in this study has provided new, latitude-dependent information on ice formation processes in the atmosphere, and highlights the importance of a consistent treatment of aerosol and moist physics in climate models.

  5. Global Expression Profiling of Low Temperature Induced Genes in the Chilling Tolerant Japonica Rice Jumli Marshi

    PubMed Central

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindlöf, Angelica; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated. PMID:24349120

  6. Global Profiling of Protein Lysine Malonylation in Escherichia coli Reveals Its Role in Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Nie, Litong; Chen, Ming; Liu, Ping; Zhu, Jun; Zhai, Linhui; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhao, Yingming; Tan, Minjia

    2016-06-01

    Protein lysine malonylation is a recently identified post-translational modification (PTM), which is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Although analysis of lysine malonylome in mammalians suggested that this modification was related to energy metabolism, the substrates and biological roles of malonylation in prokaryotes are still poorly understood. In this study, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses to globally identify lysine malonylation substrates in Escherichia coli. We identified 1745 malonylation sites in 594 proteins in E. coli, representing the first and largest malonylome data set in prokaryotes up to date. Bioinformatic analyses showed that lysine malonylation was significantly enriched in protein translation, energy metabolism pathways and fatty acid biosynthesis, implying the potential roles of protein malonylation in bacterial physiology. Quantitative proteomics by fatty acid synthase inhibition in both auxotrophic and prototrophic E. coli strains revealed that lysine malonylation is closely associated with E. coli fatty acid metabolism. Protein structural analysis and mutagenesis experiment suggested malonylation could impact enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a key enzyme in citric acid (TCA) cycle. Further comparative analysis among lysine malonylome, succinylome and acetylome data showed that these three modifications could participate in some similar enriched metabolism pathways, but they could also possibly play distinct roles such as in fatty acid synthesis. These data expanded our knowledge of lysine malonylation in prokaryotes, providing a resource for functional study of lysine malonylation in bacteria. PMID:27183143

  7. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  8. Global gene expression profiling in human lung cells exposed to cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Malard, Veronique; Berenguer, Frederic; Prat, Odette; Ruat, Sylvie; Steinmetz, Gerard; Quemeneur, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that more than 1 million workers in the United States are exposed to cobalt. Occupational exposure to 59 Co occurs mainly via inhalation and leads to various lung diseases. Cobalt is classified by the IARC as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B). Although there is evidence for in vivo and in vitro toxicity, the mechanisms of cobalt-induced lung toxicity are not fully known. The purpose of this work was to identify potential signatures of acute cobalt exposure using a toxicogenomic approach. Data analysis focused on some cellular processes and protein targets that are thought to be relevant for carcinogenesis, transport and biomarker research. Results A time course transcriptome analysis was performed on A549 human pulmonary cells, leading to the identification of 85 genes which are repressed or induced in response to soluble 59 Co. A group of 29 of these genes, representing the main biological functions, was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression profiles of six of them were then tested by quantitative RT-PCR in a time-dependent manner and three modulations were confirmed by Western blotting. The 85 modulated genes include potential cobalt carriers (FBXL2, ZNT1, SLC12A5), tumor suppressors or transcription factors (MAZ, DLG1, MYC, AXL) and genes linked to the stress response (UBC, HSPCB, BNIP3L). We also identified nine genes coding for secreted proteins as candidates for biomarker research. Of those, TIMP2 was found to be down-regulated and this modulation was confirmed, in a dose-dependent manner, at protein level in the supernatant of exposed cells. Conclusion Most of these genes have never been described as related to cobalt stress and provide original hypotheses for further study of the effects of this metal ion on human lung epithelial cells. A putative biomarker of cobalt toxicity was identified. PMID:17553155

  9. Time-course global expression profiles of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during photo-biological H₂ production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Vu; Toepel, Joerg; Burgess, Steven; Uhmeyer, Andreas; Blifernez, Olga; Doebbe, Anja; Hankamer, Ben; Nixon, Peter; Wobbe, Lutz; Kruse, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    We used a microarray study in order to compare the time course expression profiles of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains, namely the high H₂ producing mutant stm6glc4 and its parental WT strain during H₂ production induced by sulfur starvation. Major cellular reorganizations in photosynthetic apparatus, sulfur and carbon metabolism upon H₂ production were confirmed as common to both strains. More importantly, our results pointed out factors which lead to the higher H₂ production in the mutant including a higher starch accumulation in the aerobic phase and a lower competition between the H₂ase pathway and alternative electron sinks within the H₂ production phase. Key candidate genes of interest with differential expression pattern include LHCSR3, essential for efficient energy quenching (qE). The reduced LHCSR3 protein expression in mutant stm6glc4 could be closely related to the high-light sensitive phenotype. H₂ measurements carried out with the LHCSR3 knock-out mutant npq4 however clearly demonstrated that a complete loss of this protein has almost no impact on H₂ yields under moderate light conditions. The nuclear gene disrupted in the high H₂ producing mutant stm6glc4 encodes for the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) MOC1, whose expression strongly increases during -S-induced H₂ production in WT strains. Studies under phototrophic high-light conditions demonstrated that the presence of functional MOC1 is a prerequisite for proper LHCSR3 expression. Furthermore knock-down of MOC1 in a WT strain was shown to improve the total H₂ yield significantly suggesting that this strategy could be applied to further enhance H₂ production in other strains already displaying a high H₂ production capacity. By combining our array data with previously published metabolomics data we can now explain some of the phenotypic characteristics which lead to an elevated H₂ production in stm6glc4. PMID:22242116

  10. Global Gene Expression Profiling through the Complete Life Cycle of Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Goyard, Sophie; Xia, Dong; Foth, Bernardo J.; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Minoprio, Paola; Berriman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma vivax is a cause of animal trypanosomiasis across Africa and South America. The parasite has a digenetic life cycle, passing between mammalian hosts and insect vectors, and a series of developmental forms adapted to each life cycle stage. Each point in the life cycle presents radically different challenges to parasite metabolism and physiology and distinct host interactions requiring remodeling of the parasite cell surface. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of the related parasites T. brucei and T. congolense have shown how gene expression is regulated during their development. New methods for in vitro culture of the T. vivax insect stages have allowed us to describe global gene expression throughout the complete T. vivax life cycle for the first time. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of each life stage using RNA-seq and mass spectrometry respectively, to identify genes with patterns of preferential transcription or expression. While T. vivax conforms to a pattern of highly conserved gene expression found in other African trypanosomes, (e.g. developmental regulation of energy metabolism, restricted expression of a dominant variant antigen, and expression of ‘Fam50’ proteins in the insect mouthparts), we identified significant differences in gene expression affecting metabolism in the fly and a suite of T. vivax-specific genes with predicted cell-surface expression that are preferentially expressed in the mammal (‘Fam29, 30, 42’) or the vector (‘Fam34, 35, 43’). T. vivax differs significantly from other African trypanosomes in the developmentally-regulated proteins likely to be expressed on its cell surface and thus, in the structure of the host-parasite interface. These unique features may yet explain the species differences in life cycle and could, in the form of bloodstream-stage proteins that do not undergo antigenic variation, provide targets for therapy. PMID:26266535

  11. Global transcriptional profiles of the copper responses in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Giner-Lamia, Joaquin; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an essential element involved in fundamental processes like respiration and photosynthesis. However, it becomes toxic at high concentration, which has forced organisms to control its cellular concentration. We have recently described a copper resistance system in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is mediated by the two-component system, CopRS, a RND metal transport system, CopBAC and a protein of unknown function, CopM. Here, we report the transcriptional responses to copper additions at non-toxic (0.3 µM) and toxic concentrations (3 µM) in the wild type and in the copper sensitive copR mutant strain. While 0.3 µM copper slightly stimulated metabolism and promoted the exchange between cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin as soluble electron carriers, the addition of 3 µM copper catalyzed the formation of ROS, led to a general stress response and induced expression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis genes. According to this, a double mutant strain copRsufR, which expresses constitutively the sufBCDS operon, tolerated higher copper concentration than the copR mutant strain, suggesting that Fe-S clusters are direct targets of copper toxicity in Synechocystis. In addition we have also demonstrated that InrS, a nickel binding transcriptional repressor that belong to the CsoR family of transcriptional factor, was involved in heavy metal homeostasis, including copper, in Synechocystis. Finally, global gene expression analysis of the copR mutant strain suggested that CopRS only controls the expression of copMRS and copBAC operons in response to copper. PMID:25268225

  12. Global Transcriptional Profiles of the Copper Responses in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Giner-Lamia, Joaquin; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an essential element involved in fundamental processes like respiration and photosynthesis. However, it becomes toxic at high concentration, which has forced organisms to control its cellular concentration. We have recently described a copper resistance system in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is mediated by the two-component system, CopRS, a RND metal transport system, CopBAC and a protein of unknown function, CopM. Here, we report the transcriptional responses to copper additions at non-toxic (0.3 µM) and toxic concentrations (3 µM) in the wild type and in the copper sensitive copR mutant strain. While 0.3 µM copper slightly stimulated metabolism and promoted the exchange between cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin as soluble electron carriers, the addition of 3 µM copper catalyzed the formation of ROS, led to a general stress response and induced expression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis genes. According to this, a double mutant strain copRsufR, which expresses constitutively the sufBCDS operon, tolerated higher copper concentration than the copR mutant strain, suggesting that Fe-S clusters are direct targets of copper toxicity in Synechocystis. In addition we have also demonstrated that InrS, a nickel binding transcriptional repressor that belong to the CsoR family of transcriptional factor, was involved in heavy metal homeostasis, including copper, in Synechocystis. Finally, global gene expression analysis of the copR mutant strain suggested that CopRS only controls the expression of copMRS and copBAC operons in response to copper. PMID:25268225

  13. IBM Industry Practice: Challenges in Offshore Software Development from a Global Delivery Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musio, Ilario

    Offshore software development has greatly influenced competitiveness among IT companies in the last decade. Despite the fact that there are matured and developed offshoring methodologies, there is an ongoing tendency to look for new ways of improving them. Major IT corporations successfully rely on their offshore delivery centers for bridging the gap between communication and infrastructure boundaries. However, projects tend to fail, so problems have to be considered that arise between on- and offshore parts within the same corporation. Based on seven case studies from the industry, this paper describes experiences and challenges faced during the execution of offshore application development between IBM Switzerland and IBM India. Additionally, approaches on how they can be solved are proposed.

  14. Time-Course Global Expression Profiles of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Photo-Biological H2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Vu; Toepel, Joerg; Burgess, Steven; Uhmeyer, Andreas; Blifernez, Olga; Doebbe, Anja; Hankamer, Ben; Nixon, Peter; Wobbe, Lutz; Kruse, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    We used a microarray study in order to compare the time course expression profiles of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains, namely the high H2 producing mutant stm6glc4 and its parental WT strain during H2 production induced by sulfur starvation. Major cellular reorganizations in photosynthetic apparatus, sulfur and carbon metabolism upon H2 production were confirmed as common to both strains. More importantly, our results pointed out factors which lead to the higher H2 production in the mutant including a higher starch accumulation in the aerobic phase and a lower competition between the H2ase pathway and alternative electron sinks within the H2 production phase. Key candidate genes of interest with differential expression pattern include LHCSR3, essential for efficient energy quenching (qE). The reduced LHCSR3 protein expression in mutant stm6glc4 could be closely related to the high-light sensitive phenotype. H2 measurements carried out with the LHCSR3 knock-out mutant npq4 however clearly demonstrated that a complete loss of this protein has almost no impact on H2 yields under moderate light conditions. The nuclear gene disrupted in the high H2 producing mutant stm6glc4 encodes for the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) MOC1, whose expression strongly increases during –S-induced H2 production in WT strains. Studies under phototrophic high-light conditions demonstrated that the presence of functional MOC1 is a prerequisite for proper LHCSR3 expression. Furthermore knock-down of MOC1 in a WT strain was shown to improve the total H2 yield significantly suggesting that this strategy could be applied to further enhance H2 production in other strains already displaying a high H2 production capacity. By combining our array data with previously published metabolomics data we can now explain some of the phenotypic characteristics which lead to an elevated H2 production in stm6glc4. PMID:22242116

  15. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP) which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P < 0.1) included the T cell receptor signalling pathway, graft-versus-host disease and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways. However 30 DPP, where the majority of genes were differentially expressed, the enrichment (adjusted P < 0.1) of tissue repair and proliferative activity pathways was observed. Nineteen candidate genes selected from mRNA-Seq results, were independently assessed by qRT-PCR in additional postpartum cows (5 animals) at both time points. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune

  16. Innovation in Photovoltaic Science, Engineering, and Policy: A Potential Trillion-Dollar Global Industry for Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Cheng

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology was an expensive niche energy source only for satellite applications, hallmarked by the Bell Lab's launch of the Telstar satellite with PV cells in 1962. Over the past decades, the accumulation of vast amount of effort across various disciplines in science, engineering, and policy has enabled the phenomenal growth of the solar PV industry into a global enterprise with about 140 gigawatt (GW) of cumulative installations by the end of 2013. Further cost reduction through innovation holds the promise in deploying terawatt (TW)-scale solar PV systems globally in both developed and developing countries, meeting growing energy demand and mitigating climate change. Chapter 1 presents a big picture view of the unsustainable path, heavily relying on fossil fuels, in the current global energy landscape. The main body of the dissertation examines the solar PV technology from a holistic and interdisciplinary perspective: from the basic research, to innovations in manufacturing and installing PV modules, to the driving energy policies. Chapter 2 offers a fundamental understanding of the PV technology and a review on recent scientific advances in improving PV efficiency (W/m 2). Chapter 3 reviews the state-of-the-art process flow in manufacturing commercial PV modules. In the context of pursuing further reduction in manufacturing cost (/m2), the thin Si film concept and its recent research effort are reviewed. Aiming to explore novel ways to produce high-quality seed crystals for thin Si film deposition, the key findings of the laser crystallization experiment is presented in Chapter 4. The fundamental thermophysics of nucleation and crystal growth is first reviewed, which highlights the importance of temperature evolution and heat transport in modelling the ultrafast laser crystallization process. Laser crystallization of a range of Si nanostructures are then carried out to study the nucleation and crystal growth behavior under some novel

  17. Global emissions of hydrogen chloride and chloromethane from coal combustion, incineration and industrial activities: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Archie; Aucott, Michael L.; Benkovitz, Carmen M.; Graedel, Thomas E.; Kleiman, Gary; Midgley, Pauline M.; Li, Yi-Fan

    1999-04-01

    Much if not all of the chlorine present in fossil fuels is released into the atmosphere as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chloromethane (CH3Cl, methyl chloride). The chlorine content of oil-based fuels is so low that these sources can be neglected, but coal combustion provides significant releases. On the basis of national statistics for the quantity and quality of coal burned during 1990 in power and heat generation, industrial conversion and residential and commercial heating, coupled with information on the chlorine contents of coals, a global inventory of national HCl emissions from this source has been constructed. This was combined with an estimate of the national emissions of HCl from waste combustion (both large-scale incineration and trash burning) which was based on an estimate of the global quantity released from this source expressed per head of population. Account was taken of reduced emissions where flue gases were processed, for example to remove sulphur dioxide. The HCl emitted in 1990, comprising 4.6 ± 4.3 Tg Cl from fossil fuel and 2 ± 1.9 Tg Cl from waste burning, was spatially distributed using available information on point sources such as power generation utilities and population density by default. Also associated with these combustion sources are chloromethane emissions, calculated to be 0.075 ± 0.07 Tg as Cl (equivalent) from fossil fuels and 0.032 ± 0.023 Tg Cl (equivalent) from waste combustion. These were distributed spatially exactly as the HCl emissions, and a further 0.007 Tg Cl in chloromethane from industrial process activity was distributed by point sources.

  18. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control

  19. A global strategy based on experiments and simulations for squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinou, J.-J.; Loyer, A.; Chiello, O.; Mogenier, G.; Lorang, X.; Cocheteux, F.; Bellaj, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental and numerical investigations on industrial railway brakes. The goal of the present study is to discuss the relevance of the mechanical modeling strategy for squeal prediction. Specific experimental set-ups based on transient and controlled braking tests are designed for this purpose. Measurements are performed on it to investigate the dynamic behavior of TGV squeal noise and its squeal characterization through experiments. It will be demonstrated that it is possible to build consistent and efficient finite element models to simulate squeal events in TGV brake systems. The numerical strategy will be presented, including not only the modeling of the TGV brake system and the stability analysis, but also the transient nonlinear dynamic and computational process based on efficient reduced basis. This complete numerical strategy allows us to perform relevance squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes. This study comes within the scope of a research program AcouFren that is supported by ADEME (Agence De l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie) concerning the reduction of the squeal noise generated by high power railway disc brakes. experiments with an evolution of the rotational speed of the disc: these tests are called "transient braking tests" and correspond to real braking tests, experiments with a controlled steady rotational speed (i.e. dynamic fluctuations in rotational speed are not significant): these tests are called "controlled braking tests". In the present study, the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) [20] is used to study the time-history responses of the TGV brake system. So, a brief basic theory of the wavelet analysis that transforms a signal into wavelets that are well localized both in frequency and time is presented in this part of the paper. Considering a function f(t), the associated Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) corresponds to a wavelet transform given by W(a,b

  20. Pulsed nuclear power stations as the basis of the global power industry: Resource and ecological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, G.A.; Shibarshov, L.I.; Voloshin, N.P.

    1995-12-01

    The energy and environmental crisis may be one of the most fundamental problems facing humanity in the coming decades. {open_quotes}Optimization{close_quotes} of the global population at up to two billion people or {open_quotes}impoverishment, suffering, famine, and an accompanying increase in violence{close_quotes}: this is the choice predicted by US ecologists; most likely, this prediction will prove correct unless humanity can provide each individual on the planet with at least the daily energy consumed by US citizens. For the current world population, that would require {approximately}10{sup 14} W. Most predictions of nuclear-power development assume the satisfaction of {approximately}2 % of this need up to 2030 by the fission of {sup 235}U; the energy content of {sup 235}U ores is ten times less than that of oil and gas. The introduction of nuclear power from breeder reactors is not planned for the near future, on account of the fears produced by the Chernobyl accident and the underestimation of the resource and economic constraints preventing adequate power generation in the 21st century. We attempt to illustrate the origins of these constraints here in the simplest possible way. Table 1 compares the characteristics of various nuclear-power fuel cycles with different rates of power development.

  1. Translating global climate model projections into usable information for water managers and industry: A case study from Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Ling, F.; Graham, B.; Grose, M.; Corney, S.; Holz, G.; White, C.; Gaynor, S.; Bindoff, N.

    2010-09-01

    Translating meteorological projections from global climate models (GCMs) into useful information for water managers and industry involves addressing a combination of technical and communication challenges. The Climate Futures for Tasmania project has projected water yield in Tasmania, Australia to 2100. This paper describes how the Climate Futures for Tasmania project successfully translated climate projections into useable information for water managers and industry. From its inception, the Climate Futures for Tasmania project has maintained a dialogue with the two major water managers in the Tasmania: the Department of Primary Industry, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), the government body with statutory responsibility for water management in Tasmania, and Hydro Tasmania, Australia's largest hydropower generator. Frequent discussions with these two organisations directed the technical research into future water yields. Tasmania is a difficult region for climate change-hydrology studies. Tasmania's complex rainfall patterns are not replicated by GCMs, and hence GCMs produce information that is too general to be useful to Tasmanian water managers. To overcome this problem, GCM projections were downscaled to a finer spatial resolution. Downscaling greatly improved the spatial correlation of modelled rainfall with observations, and accordingly the usefulness of the projections to water managers. The downscaled climate projections were fed into hydrological models to produce projections of streamflow. The hydrological modelling involved two steps: 1. Runoff modelling - calculating statewide, gridded natural runoff at a resolution of 0.05 degrees 2. River system modelling - aggregating the gridded natural runoff to 65 Tasmanian river basins and then accounting for human activities in rivers including dams, irrigation and hydropower generation. Splitting the hydrological modelling into these two steps allows the effects of climate and human activity to be

  2. Making progress and gaining momentum in global 3Rs efforts: how the European pharmaceutical industry is contributing.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-03-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally-beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  3. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  4. Erratum: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A correction was made to: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry. There was a spelling error in one of the authors' surname. The author's name was corrected from: Juan Pedro Navarro to: Juan Navarro-Aviñó. PMID:27387492

  5. Global transcriptional profiles of beating clusters derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are highly similar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional and molecular integrity of cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential for their use in tissue repair, disease modelling and drug screening. In this study we compared global transcriptomes of beating clusters (BCs) microdissected from differentiating human iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Results Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that iPS-BCs and ES-BCs cluster together, are similarly enriched for cardiospecific genes and differ in expression of only 1.9% of present transcripts. Similarly, sarcomeric organization, electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of iPS-CMs were indistinguishable from those of ES-CMs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that among 204 genes that were upregulated in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs the processes related to extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and tissue development were overrepresented. Interestingly, 47 of 106 genes that were upregulated in undifferentiated iPS vs ES cells remained enriched in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs. Most of these genes were found to be highly expressed in fibroblasts used for reprogramming and 34% overlapped with the recently reported iPS cell-enriched genes. Conclusions These data suggest that iPS-BCs are transcriptionally highly similar to ES-BCs. However, iPS-BCs appear to share some somatic cell signature with undifferentiated iPS cells. Thus, iPS-BCs may not be perfectly identical to ES-BCs. These minor differences in the expression profiles may occur due to differential cellular composition of iPS-BCs and ES-BCs, due to retention of some genetic profile of somatic cells in differentiated iPS cell-derivatives, or both. PMID:20843318

  6. Global tyrosine kinome profiling of human thyroid tumors identifies Src as a promising target for invasive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Nancy L.; Lin, Chi-Iou; Du, Jinyan; Whang, Edward E.; Ito, Hiromichi; Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation

  7. Global gene expression profiling of somatic motor neuron populations with different vulnerability identify molecules and pathways of degeneration and protection

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Martin; Osborn, Teresia; Ludwig, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Different somatic motor neuron subpopulations show a differential vulnerability to degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy and spinobulbar muscular atrophy. Studies in mutant superoxide dismutase 1 over-expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice indicate that initiation of disease is intrinsic to motor neurons, while progression is promoted by astrocytes and microglia. Therefore, analysis of the normal transcriptional profile of motor neurons displaying differential vulnerability to degeneration in motor neuron disease could give important clues to the mechanisms of relative vulnerability. Global gene expression profiling of motor neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection from three anatomical nuclei of the normal rat, oculomotor/trochlear (cranial nerve 3/4), hypoglossal (cranial nerve 12) and lateral motor column of the cervical spinal cord, displaying differential vulnerability to degeneration in motor neuron disorders, identified enriched transcripts for each neuronal subpopulation. There were striking differences in the regulation of genes involved in endoplasmatic reticulum and mitochondrial function, ubiquitination, apoptosis regulation, nitrogen metabolism, calcium regulation, transport, growth and RNA processing; cellular pathways that have been implicated in motor neuron diseases. Confirmation of genes of immediate biological interest identified differential localization of insulin-like growth factor II, guanine deaminase, peripherin, early growth response 1, soluble guanylate cyclase 1A3 and placental growth factor protein. Furthermore, the cranial nerve 3/4-restricted genes insulin-like growth factor II and guanine deaminase protected spinal motor neurons from glutamate-induced toxicity (P < 0.001, ANOVA), indicating that our approach can identify factors that protect or make neurons more susceptible to degeneration. PMID:20826431

  8. Profile of Circulatory Metabolites in a Relapsing-remitting Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis using Global Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Mangalam, AK; Poisson, LM; Nemutlu, E; Datta, I; Denic, A; Dzeja, P; Rodriguez, M; Rattan, R; Giri, S

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the CNS. Although, MS is well characterized in terms of the role played by immune cells, cytokines and CNS pathology, nothing is known about the metabolic alterations that occur during the disease process in circulation. Recently, metabolic aberrations have been defined in various disease processes either as contributing to the disease, as potential biomarkers, or as therapeutic targets. Thus in an attempt to define the metabolic alterations that may be associated with MS disease progression, we profiled the plasma metabolites at the chronic phase of disease utilizing relapsing remitting-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE) model in SJL mice. At the chronic phase of the disease (day 45), untargeted global metabolomic profiling of plasma collected from EAE diseased SJL and healthy mice was performed, using a combination of high-throughput liquid-and-gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 282 metabolites were identified, with significant changes observed in 44 metabolites (32 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated), that mapped to lipid, amino acid, nucleotide and xenobiotic metabolism and distinguished EAE from healthy group (p<0.05, false discovery rate (FDR)<0.23). Mapping the differential metabolite signature to their respective biochemical pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database, we found six major pathways that were significantly altered (containing concerted alterations) or impacted (containing alteration in key junctions). These included bile acid biosynthesis, taurine metabolism, tryptophan and histidine metabolism, linoleic acid and D-arginine metabolism pathways. Overall, this study identified a 44 metabolite signature drawn from various metabolic pathways which correlated well with severity of the EAE disease, suggesting that these metabolic changes could be exploited as (1) biomarkers for EAE/MS progression and (2

  9. A Space-Based Point Design for Global Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Profiling Matched to the Recent NASA/NOAA Draft Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David; Frehlich, Rod G.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.

    2002-01-01

    An end-to-end point design, including lidar, orbit, scanning, atmospheric, and data processing parameters, for space-based global profiling of atmospheric wind will be presented. The point design attempts to match the recent NASA/NOAA draft science requirements for wind measurement.

  10. Quantification of Global Primary Emissions of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP from Combustion and Industrial Process Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    Emission quantification of primary particulate matter (PM) is essential for assessment of its related climate and health impacts. To reduce uncertainty associated with global emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, we compiled data with high spatial (0.1° ×0.1° ) and sectorial (77 primary sources) resolutions for 2007 based on a newly released global fuel data product (PKU-FUEL-2007), and an emission factor database including emission factors measured recently in developing countries. Total emissions for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated to be 162 (123-224), 99 (80-130), and 78 (64-101) Tg, respectively. Our estimates for developing countries are higher than those previously reported. Spatial bias associated with large countries could be reduced by using sub-national fuel consumption data. Despite the fact that most industrial and transport sources locate in urban areas, residential fuel consumptions are quite different between rural and urban areas, especially in developing countries. As a result, per person annual primary PM emission in rural areas are much higher than those in urban areas. Further, this difference in developed countries (12 and 2.8 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas) is larger than that in developing countries (8.4 and 4.6 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas). Additionally, we looked at temporal trends from 1960 to 2009 at country-scale resolution. Although total emissions are still increasing in developing countries, their intensities in terms of gross domestic production or energy consumption have decreased. PM emitted in developed countries is finer owing to a larger contribution from non-industrial sources, and use of abatement technologies. In contrast, countries like China, with strong industry emissions and limited abatement facilities, emit coarser PM. The health impacts of PM are intensified in hotspots and cities owing to covariance of sources and receptors. Although urbanization reduces the per person emission, overall health impacts

  11. The Global Turnover Time Distribution of Soil Carbon Derived from a Meta-analysis of Radiocarbon Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Allison, S. D.; Torn, M. S.; Harden, J. W.; Smith, L. J.; van der Voort, T.; Trumbore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon reservoir and may influence the sign and magnitude of carbon cycle feedbacks under climate change. Soil carbon turnover times provide information about the sensitivity of carbon pools to changes in inputs and warming. The spatial and vertical distribution of soil carbon turnover times emerges from the interplay between climate, vegetation, and soil properties. Radiocarbon levels of soil organic matter can be used to estimate soil carbon turnover using models that take into account radioactive decay over centuries to millennia and inputs of 14C from atmospheric weapons testing ("bomb carbon") during the second half of the 20th century. By synthesizing more than 200 soil radiocarbon profiles from all major biomes and soil orders, we 1) explored the major controlling factors for soil carbon turnover times of surface and deeper soil layers; 2) developed predictive models (tree-based regression, support vector regression and linear regression models) of ∆14C that depends on depth, climate, vegetation, and soil types; and 3) extrapolated the predictive model to produce the first global distribution of soil carbon turnover times to the depth of 1m. Preliminary results indicated that climate and depth were primary controls of the vertical distribution of ∆14C, contributing to about 70% of the variability in our model. Vegetation and soil order exerted similar level of controls (about 15% each). The predictive model performed reasonably well with an R2 of 0.81 and RMSE (root-mean-squared error) of about 50‰ for topsoil and 100‰ for subsoil, as estimated using cross-validation. Extrapolation of the predictive model to the globe in combination with existing soil carbon information (e.g., Harmonized World Soil Database) indicated that more than half of the global total soil carbon in the top 1m had a turnover time of less than 500 years. Subsoils (30-100cm) had millennium-scale turnover times, with the majority (70%) turning over

  12. Global distribution of instantaneous daytime radiative effects of high thin clouds observed by the cloud profiling radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Greenwald, Thomas J.; Yang, Ping; Ackerman, Steve; Huang, Hung-Lung

    2010-09-01

    The instantaneous daytime geographical distribution and radiative effects of high thin clouds (optical thickness < 5) are investigated on the basis of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) radiative flux and cloud classification products. The regional features of the fraction and radiative effects of high thin clouds are associated with ITCZ, SPCZ and mid-latitude storm track regions. High thin clouds have positive net cloud-induced radiative effect (CRE) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and negative net CRE at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA). The magnitudes of TOA and BOA CREs depend on cloud optical thickness, cloud fraction and geographical location. The magnitude of the net CRE of high thin clouds increases at both TOA and BOA as cloud optical thickness increases. Net CRE at both TOA and BOA contributes to a positive net CRE in-atmosphere and warms the atmosphere regardless of cloud fraction. The global annual mean of the net CRE multiplied by cloud fraction is 0.49 W/m2 at TOA, -0.54 W/m2 at BOA and 1.03 W/m2 in-atmosphere. The most radiatively effective cloud optical thickness of a high thin cloud is between 1-2 for the TOA and in-atmosphere CREs or 3-4 for the BOA CRE.

  13. Global miRNA Expression Profiling Identifies miR-1290 as Novel Potential oncomiR in Laryngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, Magdalena; Bednarek, Kinga; Paczkowska, Julia; Jackowska, Joanna; Grenman, Reidar; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Malgorzata; Giefing, Maciej; Jarmuz-Szymczak, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common group among head and neck cancers. LSCC is characterized by a high incidence in Europe. With the aim of better understanding its genetic background we performed global miRNA expression profiling of LSCC cell lines and primary specimens. By this approach we identified a cohort of 33 upregulated and 9 downregulated miRNA genes in LSCC as compared to epithelial no tumor controls. Results Within this group we identified overexpression of the novel miR-1290 gene not reported in the context of LSCC before. Using a combined bioinformatical approach in connection with functional analysis we delineated two putative target genes of miR-1290 namely ITPR2 and MAF which are significantly downregulated in LSCC. They are interesting candidates for tumor suppressor genes as they are implicated in apoptosis and other processes deregulated in cancer. Conclusion Taken together, we propose miR-1290 as the new oncomiR involved in LSCC pathogenesis. Additionally, we suggest that the oncogenic potential of miR-1290 might be expressed by the involvement in downregulation of its target genes MAF and ITPR2. PMID:26694163

  14. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:26076968

  15. Progesterone alters global transcription profiles at environmental concentrations in brain and ovary of female zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Sara; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) is a natural steroid hormone excreted by humans and animals. Noncomplete degradation in treatment plants result in levels in the ng/L range in surface waters. Very little is known of the effects on fish at such concentrations. Here we determine the global expression profile in the brain and ovary of female zebrafish exposed for 14 days to 3.5, 33 and 306 ng/L P4 to elucidate molecular effects. For validation selected transcripts were determined by RT-qPCR. In the brain, 54 and 255 transcripts were altered at 3.5 and 306 ng/L, respectively. Genes related to circadian rhythm (nr1d2b, per1b), cell cycle and reproduction (cdc20, ccnb1) were down-regulated. In the ovary, transcriptional changes occurred in 200, 84 and 196 genes at 3.5, 33 and 306 ng/L, respectively. The genes belong to different pathways including cardiac hypertrophy, cell cycle and its regulation. P4 slightly influenced oocyte maturation as revealed by histology of the ovaries. In the liver, vtg1 was down-regulated at all concentrations and VTG protein at 306 ng/L in the blood. The data show molecular effects and the modes of action of P4 at environmental concentrations. Ultimately they may translate to adverse effects on reproduction. PMID:24083816

  16. Transcript and metabolite profiling for the evaluation of tobacco tree and poplar as feedstock for the bio-based industry.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Colin; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair; Mortimer, Cara L; Kozlo, Amanda; Fraser, Paul D; Funke, Norma; Cesarino, Igor; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Morreel, Kris; Burgert, Ingo; Gierlinger, Notburga; Bulone, Vincent; Schneider, Vera; Stockero, Andrea; Navarro, Juan Pedro; Pudel, Frank; Tambuyser, Bart; Hygate, James; Bumstead, Jon; Notley, Louis; Persson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for food, feed, energy and water poses extraordinary challenges for future generations. It is evident that robust platforms for the exploration of renewable resources are necessary to overcome these challenges. Within the multinational framework MultiBioPro we are developing biorefinery pipelines to maximize the use of plant biomass. More specifically, we use poplar and tobacco tree (Nicotiana glauca) as target crop species for improving saccharification, isoprenoid, long chain hydrocarbon contents, fiber quality, and suberin and lignin contents. The methods used to obtain these outputs include GC-MS, LC-MS and RNA sequencing platforms. The metabolite pipelines are well established tools to generate these types of data, but also have the limitations in that only well characterized metabolites can be used. The deep sequencing will allow us to include all transcripts present during the developmental stages of the tobacco tree leaf, but has to be mapped back to the sequence of Nicotiana tabacum. With these set-ups, we aim at a basic understanding for underlying processes and at establishing an industrial framework to exploit the outcomes. In a more long term perspective, we believe that data generated here will provide means for a sustainable biorefinery process using poplar and tobacco tree as raw material. To date the basal level of metabolites in the samples have been analyzed and the protocols utilized are provided in this article. PMID:24894952

  17. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  18. Global characteristics of the upper transition height derived from the topside Alouette/ISIS topside sounder electron density profiles, the Formosat-3/COSMIC density profiles and the IRI ion composition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlik, Vladimir; Triskova, Ludmila; Benson, Robert; Bilitza, Dieter; Chu, Philip; Richards, Phil G.; Wang, Yongli

    The upper transition height (Ht) (the altitude of the transition from heavy atomic ions to light ions or in the simplest form the transition from O+ to H+) is an important parameter, representing the boundary between the ionosphere and the plasmasphere. Ht is very sensitive to various geophysical parameters, like solar and magnetic activity and strongly depends on latitude and local time. There were numerous studies of this parameter in past decades. In spite of these efforts, no model satisfactorily represents this parameter so far. Moreover, surprising evidence of very low transition heights during the last prolonged solar minimum, of a level never obtained before, have been reported. We investigate the upper transition height on the global scale. We made progress in processing large data sets of Ht deduced from the Alouette/ISIS topside sounder and from the Formosat-3/COSMIC vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h) using the theoretical Global Plasma Ionosphere Density (GPID) model (Webb and Essex, 2004) and a revised non-linear function describing the scale height vs. altitude (Titheridge, 1976) to fit the vertical density profiles to the observed profiles and to determine the upper transition height. Since both methods require the plasma temperatures and their gradients as input, these are calculated using the IRI2012 model. Both methods are verified using a large amount of electron and ion density profiles simulated by the FLIP theoretical model and their accuracy is discussed. We compare the results from Alouette/ISIS and Formosat-3/COSMIC and present a global distribution of the calculated Ht and its dependence on geophysical parameters. Finally we compare it with Ht calculated using the IRI ion composition model. Titheridge, J.E., 1976. Ion Transition Heights from Topside Electron-Density Profiles. Planetary and Space Science 24 (3), 229-245. Webb, P.A., Essex, E.A., 2004. A dynamic global model of the plasmasphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar

  19. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauzède, R.; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; Uitz, J.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-04-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyses. A total of 268 127 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles from several databases as well as published and unpublished individual sources were compiled. Following a robust quality control procedure detailed in the present paper, about 49 000 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles were converted in phytoplankton biomass (i.e. chlorophyll a concentration) and size-based community composition (i.e. microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton), using a~method specifically developed to harmonize fluorescence profiles from diverse sources. The data span over five decades from 1958 to 2015, including observations from all major oceanic basins and all seasons, and depths ranging from surface to a median maximum sampling depth of around 700 m. Global maps of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition are presented here for the first time. Monthly climatologies were computed for three of Longhurst's ecological provinces in order to exemplify the potential use of the data product. Original data sets (raw fluorescence profiles) as well as calibrated profiles of phytoplankton biomass and community composition are available in open access at PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science. Raw fluorescence profiles: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844212 and Phytoplankton biomass and community composition: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844485.

  20. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauzède, R.; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; Uitz, J.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-10-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms has led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyses. A total of 268 127 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles from several databases as well as published and unpublished individual sources were compiled. Following a robust quality control procedure detailed in the present paper, about 49 000 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles were converted into phytoplankton biomass (i.e., chlorophyll a concentration) and size-based community composition (i.e., microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton), using a method specifically developed to harmonize fluorescence profiles from diverse sources. The data span over 5 decades from 1958 to 2015, including observations from all major oceanic basins and all seasons, and depths ranging from the surface to a median maximum sampling depth of around 700 m. Global maps of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition are presented here for the first time. Monthly climatologies were computed for three of Longhurst's ecological provinces in order to exemplify the potential use of the data product. Original data sets (raw fluorescence profiles) as well as calibrated profiles of phytoplankton biomass and community composition are available on open access at PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science. Raw fluorescence profiles: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844212 and Phytoplankton biomass and community composition:

  1. MMPI-2 Profiles in Civilian PTSD: An Examination of Differential Responses between Victims of Crime and Industrial Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shercliffe, Regan Jeffery; Colotla, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied MMPI-2 profiles of workers (N = 83) diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a control group comprising workers with chronic pain (N = 40). Significant differences were seen in profiles between the PTSD groups and the control group, and the authors compared the PTSD profiles according to exposure to two different…

  2. Molecular identification and functional characterization of the first Nα-acetyltransferase in plastids by global acetylome profiling

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Trinh V; Bienvenut, Willy V; Linster, Eric; Feldman-Salit, Anna; Jung, Vincent A; Meinnel, Thierry; Hell, Rüdiger; Giglione, Carmela; Wirtz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Protein Nα-terminal acetylation represents one of the most abundant protein modifications of higher eukaryotes. In humans, six Nα-acetyltransferases (Nats) are responsible for the acetylation of approximately 80% of the cytosolic proteins. N-terminal protein acetylation has not been evidenced in organelles of metazoans, but in higher plants is a widespread modification not only in the cytosol but also in the chloroplast. In this study, we identify and characterize the first organellar-localized Nat in eukaryotes. A primary sequence-based search in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed seven putatively plastid-localized Nats of which AT2G39000 (AtNAA70) showed the highest conservation of the acetyl-CoA binding pocket. The chloroplastic localization of AtNAA70 was demonstrated by transient expression of AtNAA70:YFP in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Homology modeling uncovered a significant conservation of tertiary structural elements between human HsNAA50 and AtNAA70. The in vivo acetylation activity of AtNAA70 was demonstrated on a number of distinct protein Nα-termini with a newly established global acetylome profiling test after expression of AtNAA70 in E. coli. AtNAA70 predominately acetylated proteins starting with M, A, S and T, providing an explanation for most protein N-termini acetylation events found in chloroplasts. Like HsNAA50, AtNAA70 displays Nε-acetyltransferase activity on three internal lysine residues. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001947 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001947). PMID:25951519

  3. Comparison of bottom-track to global positioning system referenced discharges measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be caused by the movement of sediment on or near the streambed. The integration of a global positioning system (GPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic negative bias associated with a moving streambed. More than 500 discharge transects from 63 discharge measurements with GPS data were collected at sites throughout the US, Canada, and New Zealand with no moving bed to compare GPS and bottom-track-referenced discharges. Although the data indicated some statistical bias depending on site conditions and type of GPS data used, these biases were typically about 0.5% or less. An assessment of differential correction sources was limited by a lack of data collected in a range of different correction sources and different GPS receivers at the same sites. Despite this limitation, the data indicate that the use of Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) corrected positional data is acceptable for discharge measurements using GGA as the boat-velocity reference. The discharge data based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the VTG data string, which does not require differential correction, were comparable to the discharges based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the differentially-corrected GGA data string. Spatial variability of measure discharges referenced to GGA, VTG and bottom-tracking is higher near the channel banks. The spatial variability of VTG-referenced discharges is correlated with the spatial distribution of maximum Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) values and the spatial variability of GGA-referenced discharges is correlated with proximity to channel banks. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Protein alterations associated with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis found in human plasma using global quantitative proteomics profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng; Chen, Ru; Crispin, David A.; May, Damon; Stevens, Tyler; McIntosh, Martin; Bronner, Mary P.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease that is difficult to diagnose at early stages when curable treatments are effective. Biomarkers that can improve current pancreatic cancer detection would have great value in improving patient management and survival rate. A large scale quantitative proteomics study was performed to search for the plasma protein alterations associated with pancreatic cancer. The enormous complexity of the plasma proteome and the vast dynamic range of protein concentration therein present major challenges for quantitative global profiling of plasma. To address these challenges, multi-dimensional fractionation at both protein and peptide levels was applied to enhance the depth of proteomics analysis. Employing stringent criteria, more than thirteen hundred proteins total were identified in plasma across 8-orders of magnitude in protein concentration. Differential proteins associated with pancreatic cancer were identified, and their relationship with the proteome of pancreatic tissue and pancreatic juice from our previous studies was discussed. A subgroup of differentially expressed proteins was selected for biomarker testing using an independent cohort of plasma and serum samples from well-diagnosed patients with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic disease controls. Using ELISA methodology, the performance of each of these protein candidates was benchmarked against CA19-9, the current gold standard for a pancreatic cancer blood test. A composite marker of TIMP1 and ICAM1 demonstrate significantly better performance than CA19-9 in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from the non-pancreatic disease controls and chronic pancreatitis controls. In addition, protein AZGP1 was identified as a biomarker candidate for chronic pancreatitis. The discovery and technical challenges associated with plasma-based quantitative proteomics are discussed and may benefit the development of plasma proteomics technology in general. The protein

  5. Global Epitranscriptomics Profiling of RNA Post-Transcriptional Modifications as an Effective Tool for Investigating the Epitranscriptomics of Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Rose, Rebecca E; Pazos, Manuel A; Curcio, M Joan; Fabris, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    The simultaneous detection of all the post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) that decorate cellular RNA can provide comprehensive information on the effects of changing environmental conditions on the entire epitranscriptome. To capture this type of information, we performed the analysis of ribonucleotide mixtures produced by hydrolysis of total RNA extracts from S. cerevisiae that was grown under hyperosmotic and heat shock conditions. Their global PTM profiles clearly indicated that the cellular responses to these types of stresses involved profound changes in the production of specific PTMs. The observed changes involved not only up-/down-regulation of typical PTMs, but also the outright induction of new ones that were absent under normal conditions, or the elimination of others that were normally present. Pointing toward the broad involvement of different classes of RNAs, many of the newly observed PTMs differed from those engaged in the known tRNA-based mechanism of translational recoding, which is induced by oxidative stress. Some of the expression effects were stress-specific, whereas others were not, thus suggesting that RNA PTMs may perform multifaceted activities in stress response, which are subjected to distinctive regulatory pathways. To explore their signaling networks, we implemented a strategy based on the systematic deletion of genes that connect established response genes with PTM biogenetic enzymes in a putative interactomic map. The results clearly identified PTMs that were under direct HOG control, a well-known protein kinase pathway involved in stress response in eukaryotes. Activation of this signaling pathway has been shown to result in the stabilization of numerous mRNAs and the induction of selected lncRNAs involved in chromatin remodeling. The fact that PTMs are capable of altering the activity of the parent RNAs suggest their possible participation in feedback mechanisms aimed at modulating the regulatory functions of such RNAs. This

  6. Variational quality control of hydrographic profile data with non-Gaussian errors for global ocean variational data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storto, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Quality control procedures aiming at identifying observations suspected of gross errors are an important component of modern ocean data assimilation systems. On the one hand, assimilating observations whose departures from the background state are large may result in detrimental analyses and compromise the stability of the ocean analysis system. On the other hand, the rejection of these observations may prevent the analysis from ingesting useful information, especially in areas of large variability. In this work, we investigate the quality control of in-situ hydrographic profiles through modifying the probability density function (PDF) of the observational errors and relaxing the assumption of Gaussian PDF. The new PDF is heavier-tailed than Gaussian, thus accommodating the assimilation of observations with large misfits, albeit with smaller weight given to them in the analysis. This implies a different observational term in the analysis equation, and an adaptive quality control procedure based on the innovation statistics themselves. Implemented in a global ocean variational data assimilation system at moderate horizontal resolution, the scheme proves robust and successful in assimilating more observations with respect to the simpler background quality check scheme. This leads to better skill scores against both conventional and satellite observing systems. This approach proves superior also to the case where no quality control is considered. Furthermore, the implementation considers switching on the modified cost function at the 10th iteration of the minimization so that innovation statistics are based on a good approximation of the analysis. Neglecting this strategy and turning on the variational quality control since the beginning of the minimization exhibits worse scores, qualitatively similar to those of the experiment without quality control, suggesting that in this case quality control procedures are too gentle. A specific study investigating the upper

  7. Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high-precision measurements.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert T; Tratt, David M

    2003-11-20

    We discuss the spectroscopic requirements for a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach to high-precision carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements in the troposphere. Global-scale, high-precision CO2 measurements are highly desirable in an effort to improve understanding and quantification of the CO2 sources and sinks and their impact on global climate. We present differential absorption sounding characteristics for selected LAS transmitter laser wavelengths, emphasizing the effects of atmospheric temperature profile uncertainties. Candidate wavelengths for lower-troposphere measurements are identified in the CO2 bands centered near 1.57, 1.60, and 2.06 microm. PMID:14658457

  8. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  9. A Decade of Global mRNA and miRNA Profiling of HPV-Positive Cell Lines and Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Morevati, Marya; Rossing, Maria; Cilius, Finn; Norrild, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, global gene expression profiling has been extensively used to elucidate the biology of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and their role in cervical- and head-and-neck cancers. Since 2008, the expression profiling of miRNAs has been reported in multiple HPV studies. Two major strategies have been employed in the gene and miRNA profiling studies: In the first approach, HPV positive tumors were compared to normal tissues or to HPV negative tumors. The second strategy relied on analysis of cell cultures transfected with single HPV oncogenes or with HPV genomes compared to untransfected cells considered as models for the development of premalignant and malignant transformations. In this review, we summarize what we have learned from a decade of global expression profiling studies. We performed comprehensive analysis of the overlap of the lists of differentially expressed genes and microRNAs, in both tissue samples and cell culture based studies. The review focuses mainly on HPV16, however reports from other HPV species are used as references. We discuss the low degree of consensus among different studies and the limitation of differential expression analysis as well as the fragmented miRNA-mRNA target correlation evidence. Furthermore, we propose an approach for future research to include more comprehensive miRNA-mRNA target correlation analysis and to apply systems biology/gene networks methodology. PMID:23341857

  10. Dietary exposure to soy or whey proteins alters colonic global gene expression profiles during rat colon tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rijin; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A

    2005-01-01

    Background We previously reported that lifetime consumption of soy proteins or whey proteins reduced the incidence of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in rats. To obtain insights into these effects, global gene expression profiles of colons from rats with lifetime ingestion of casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein isolate (SPI), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) diets were determined. Results Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed one of the three purified diets, were studied at 40 weeks after AOM injection and when tumors had developed in some animals of each group. Total RNA, purified from non-tumor tissue within the proximal half of each colon, was used to prepare biotinylated probes, which were hybridized to Affymetrix RG_U34A rat microarrays containing probes sets for 8799 rat genes. Microarray data were analyzed using DMT (Affymetrix), SAM (Stanford) and pair-wise comparisons. Differentially expressed genes (SPI and/or WPH vs. CAS) were found. We identified 31 induced and 49 repressed genes in the proximal colons of the SPI-fed group and 44 induced and 119 repressed genes in the proximal colons of the WPH-fed group, relative to CAS. Hierarchical clustering identified the co-induction or co-repression of multiple genes by SPI and WPH. The differential expression of I-FABP (2.92-, 3.97-fold down-regulated in SPI and WPH fed rats; P = 0.023, P = 0.01, respectively), cyclin D1 (1.61-, 2.42-fold down-regulated in SPI and WPH fed rats; P = 0.033, P = 0.001, respectively), and the c-neu proto-oncogene (2.46-, 4.10-fold down-regulated in SPI and WPH fed rats; P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) mRNAs were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. SPI and WPH affected colonic neuro-endocrine gene expression: peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon mRNAs were down-regulated in WPH fed rats, whereas somatostatin mRNA and corresponding circulating protein levels, were enhanced by SPI and WPH. Conclusions The identification of transcripts co- or differentially-regulated by SPI

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  12. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  13. Bathymetric surveys of Morse and Geist Reservoirs in central Indiana made with acoustic Doppler current profiler and global positioning system technology, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, J.T.; Morlock, S.E.; Baker, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler, global positioning system, and geographic information system technology were used to map the bathymetry of Morse and Geist Reservoirs, two artificial lakes used for public water supply in central Indiana. The project was a pilot study to evaluate the use of the technologies for bathymetric surveys. Bathymetric surveys were last conducted in 1978 on Morse Reservoir and in 1980 on Geist Reservoir; those surveys were done with conventional methods using networks of fathometer transects. The 1996 bathymetric surveys produced updated estimates of reservoir volumes that will serve as base-line data for future estimates of storage capacity and sedimentation rates.An acoustic Doppler current profiler and global positioning system receiver were used to collect water-depth and position data from April 1996 through October 1996. All water-depth and position data were imported to a geographic information system to create a data base. The geographic information system then was used to generate water-depth contour maps and to compute the volumes for each reservoir.The computed volume of Morse Reservoir was 22,820 acre-feet (7.44 billion gallons), with a surface area of 1,484 acres. The computed volume of Geist Reservoir was 19,280 acre-feet (6.29 billion gallons), with a surface area of 1,848 acres. The computed 1996 reservoir volumes are less than the design volumes and indicate that sedimentation has occurred in both reservoirs. Cross sections were constructed from the computer-generated surfaces for 1996 and compared to the fathometer profiles from the 1978 and 1980 surveys; analysis of these cross sections also indicates that some sedimentation has occurred in both reservoirs.The acoustic Doppler current profiler, global positioning system, and geographic information system technologies described in this report produced bathymetric maps and volume estimates more efficiently and with comparable or greater resolution than conventional

  14. Intricate heterogeneous structures of the top 300 km of the Earth's inner core inferred from global array data: I. Regional 1D attenuation and velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritani, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2014-05-01

    We apply a waveform inversion method based on simulated annealing to complex core phase data observed by globally deployed seismic arrays, and present regional variation of depth profiles of attenuation and velocity for the top half of the inner core. Whereas measured attenuation parameters exhibit consistent trends for data sampling the eastern hemisphere of the inner core, for the western hemisphere, there is a remarkable difference between data sampling the inner core beneath Africa (W1) and beneath north America (W2). Obtained attenuation profiles suggest that intricate heterogeneities appear to be confined in the top 300 km. The profile for the eastern hemisphere has a high attenuation zone in the top 150 km that gradually diminishes with depth. Conversely, for the western hemisphere, the profile for W1 shows constant low attenuation and that for W2 represents a gradual increase from the inner core boundary to a peak at around 200 km depth. Velocity profiles, obtained from differential traveltimes between PKP(DF) and PKP(CD, BC) phases, for the eastern and western hemispheres are respectively about 0.8% faster and 0.6% slower than the reference model at the top of the inner core, and the difference nearly disappears at about 200 km depth. Our result suggests the presence of intricate quasi-hemispherical structures in the top ˜200-300 km of the inner core.

  15. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  16. Development of the first oligonucleotide microarray for global gene expression profiling in guinea pigs: defining the transcription signature of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most extensively used animal models to study infectious diseases. However, despite its tremendous contribution towards understanding the establishment, progression and control of a number of diseases in general and tuberculosis in particular, the lack of fully annotated guinea pig genome sequence as well as appropriate molecular reagents has severely hampered detailed genetic and immunological analysis in this animal model. Results By employing the cross-species hybridization technique, we have developed an oligonucleotide microarray with 44,000 features assembled from different mammalian species, which to the best of our knowledge is the first attempt to employ microarray to study the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs. To validate and demonstrate the merit of this microarray, we have studied, as an example, the expression profile of guinea pig lungs during the advanced phase of M. tuberculosis infection. A significant upregulation of 1344 genes and a marked down regulation of 1856 genes in the lungs identified a disease signature of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion We report the development of first comprehensive microarray for studying the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs and validation of its usefulness with tuberculosis as a case study. An important gap in the area of infectious diseases has been addressed and a valuable molecular tool is provided to optimally harness the potential of guinea pig model to develop better vaccines and therapies against human diseases. PMID:23031549

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  18. Temperature and Dust Profiles During the Martian Global Dust Storm in 2007 from Mars Climate Sounder Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinboehl, A.; Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the Mars Climate Sounder observed a global dust storm on Mars. We will present results that show the development of the dust storm over time and the vertical structure of atmospheric temperature and dust.

  19. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  20. Global gene expression profiling of JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Jie; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests Jumonji domain-containing proteins are epigenetic regulators in diverse biological processes including cellular differentiation and proliferation. RNA interference-based analyses combined with gene expression profiling can effectively characterize the cellular functions of these enzymes. We found that the depletion of Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and its paralog protein Jumonji domain-containing protein 4 (JMJD4) individually by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) slowed cell proliferation of mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We subsequently performed gene expression profiling on both JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array. Here we report the gene profiling datasets along with the experimental procedures. The information can be used to further investigate how JMJD6 and JMJD4 affect gene expression and cellular physiology. PMID:27071056

  1. Profile of the non-fuel, non-metal mining industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This profile provides an overview of SIC code 14, which includes mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels; and establishments engaged primarily in mining or quarrying, developing mines, or exploring for non-fuel, nonmetallic minerals. Also included are certain well and brine operations, and primary preparation plants engaged in crushing, grinding, and washing.

  2. The Language Proficiency Profile-2: Assessment of the Global Communication Skills of Deaf Children across Languages and Modalities of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebko, James M.; Calderon, Rosemary; Treder, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigated the developmental trends and concurrent validity of the Language Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children. Results indicate that the LPP-2 has good utility not only as a measure of overall language development but also as a predictor of achievement for English language…

  3. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  4. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  5. Defining the Role of Geoarchaeology in Managing Past Industrial Landscapes with Global Heritage Value: A UK Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Historically, the location of cultural heritage has often been intimately linked to the natural landscape since physiography has played a significant factor in determining the position of sites. Moreover, the distribution and availability of geological resources such as coal, limestone and metal ores has been critical to the development of heavy industries that kindled the 'Industrial Revolution'. Paradoxically, however, many of these advantageous physiographic and geological characteristics, which were essential to past industrial development, also occur in environments where geomorphological and geological processes are most sensitive to climate change, particularly changing flood frequency and magnitude in valley floors. In addition to the changing energy levels of natural geomorphological processes, a common problem has been the release of industrial contaminants, which exacerbate the potential effects of landscape degradation and can also pose a risk to human health. For over 30 years, empirical research by the geomorphological community in the UK has documented the impact of past industrial processes, focusing on levels of contamination and transfer of sediments within the natural system. In contrast, the archaeological community has largely ignored this important research, instead focusing on the repair and preservation of industrial remains and mining histories. With the threats posed by future climate change and the implementation of more rigorous pollution control via the Water Framework Directive, there is a need for archaeologists to think beyond the environs of any immediate industrial site and to consider the remains within the context of the wider landscape. Using examples from across the UK, including a number of World Heritage Sites, this paper will explore the contribution that the geoarchaeological community can make towards the wider management of industrial sites in the context of future climate change.

  6. An Economic Profile of the U. S. Book Industry. National Program for Libraries and Information Services Related Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    The economics of book publishing are described in this study completed for the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Segments of the book industry are compared by annual sales and titles published, as is profitability by categories of publishing. Operating statements of major categories are examined and capital requirements and…

  7. Forecasting the Development of the Tourism Industry in the Regions of Russia in Light of Global Climate Change and Environmental Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evreinov, O. B.; Maksimova, E. M.; Bakanova, A. A.; Yakovleva, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the development of the tourism industry is a strategic planning for periods ranging from 20 to 50 years. Basis for the development of tourism in the region is the presence of the necessary infrastructure - roads, communications, accommodation facilities and hospitality. Thus, all investments in the tourism industry are very long-term. Current approaches to long-term planning in tourism based on the most efficient use of the region's resources - natural, cultural, etc. But what will happen to these resources in 20-30 years? Global warming and climate change, a change in environmental conditions - all this gives the real impact today. Summer 2010 in Moscow and in the whole of Europe, warm snowless winters in St. Petersburg, monthly temperature records, permafrost thawing in Siberia - all this can affect the characteristics of the tourist regions in the future. In the presentation, the authors have tried to reflect the basic principles of strategic planning with regard to global and regional changes and to show the possible impact of such changes on Tourism industry in specific regions of Russia for the next 30-50 years.

  8. Global changes in the transcript and metabolic profiles during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in phosphorus-stressed common bean plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is widespread in regions where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and is perhaps the factor that most limits nitrogen (N) fixation. Global gene expression and metabolome approaches were used to investigate t...

  9. Novel drug candidates for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer through global inverse gene-expression profiling.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Vera; Schölch, Sebastian; Iskar, Murat; Zeller, Georg; Ostertag, Kristina; Schweitzer, Christine; Werner, Kristin; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Bork, Peer

    2014-10-15

    Drug-induced gene-expression profiles that invert disease profiles have recently been illustrated to be a starting point for drug repositioning. In this study, we validate this approach and focus on prediction of novel drugs for colorectal cancer, for which there is a pressing need to find novel antimetastatic compounds. We computationally predicted three novel and still unknown compounds against colorectal cancer: citalopram (an antidepressant), troglitazone (an antidiabetic), and enilconazole (a fungicide). We verified the compounds by in vitro assays of clonogenic survival, proliferation, and migration and in a subcutaneous mouse model. We found evidence that the mode of action of these compounds may be through inhibition of TGFβ signaling. Furthermore, one compound, citalopram, reduced tumor size as well as the number of circulating tumor cells and metastases in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer. This study proposes citalopram as a potential therapeutic option for patients with colorectal cancer, illustrating the potential of systems pharmacology. PMID:25038229

  10. Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution recorded by five Swiss peat profiles: Enrichment factors, fluxes, isotopic composition, and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.; Shotyk, W.; Kramers, J.D.; Appleby, P.G.; Cheburkin, A.K.

    1999-05-01

    Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution was studied in western, central, and southern Switzerland using five rural peat bogs. Similar temporal patterns were found in western and central Switzerland, with two distinct periods of Pb enrichment relative to the natural background: between 1880 and 1920 with enrichments ranging from 40 to 80 times, and between 1960 and 1980 with enrichments ranging from 80 to 100 times. The fluxes also were generally elevated in those time periods: in western Switzerland between 1.16 and 1.55 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2} y{sup {minus}1} during the second period. Between the Industrial Revolution and 1985, nonradiogenic Pb became increasingly important in all five cores because of the replacement of coal by oil after ca. 1920, the use of Australian Pb in industry, and the extensive combustion of leaded gasoline after 1950. The introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1985 had a pronounced effect on the Pb deposition in all five cores. Enrichments dropped sharply, and the isotopic ratios reverted back toward natural values. The cores from western and central Switzerland showed very similar isotopic trends throughout the time period studied, implying that these sites were influenced contemporaneously by similar pollution sources and atmospheric pathways. Southern Switzerland revealed a different record with respect to the Pb pollution: it was dominated by a single massive Pb enrichment dated between 1930 and 1950.

  11. Near real-time global profile and total amounts of ozone using S-NPP CrIS and OMPS sensor products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Kondragunta, S.; Kapoor, V.; Beck, T.; Beach, E.; Zhao, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract An algorithm to create combined UV and IR total ozone maps by using CrIS and OMPS ozone environmental data records (EDRs) (Total Ozone Analysis from CrIS and OMPS - TACO) has been prepared. This product will replace the existing one made by using HIRS and SBUV/2 data products (Total Ozone Analysis from SBUV/2 and TOVS - TOAST) when the new sensor products graduate from their current provisional maturity to the validated versions. The most significant improvement of this algorithm is that the IR sensor, CrIS, provides ozone profiles instead of just a total ozone amount, which the former HIRS sensor provided. This will allow the new algorithm to provide not only the objective analysis on global total ozone amount but also the global ozone profiles. The first steps in the algorithm are to project ozone parameters such as profile and total amount with a geographic coordinate onto a stereographic coordinate map, transform the irregular spaced data into a regularly arranged grid, compute estimates for missing data in the grid, remove the data in errors, and smooth out noises. There are different versions of CrIS and OMPS EDR data available. The CrIS NUCAPS data released by NDE and the IMOPO OMPS/NP version 6 released by IDPS were selected for the main sources for this study. A pressure level at 0.03125 atm was selected as the concatenating pressure level of the two sensors. TACO Ozone profiles above this height were from a combination of OMPS/NP and or only SBUV/2, those below it, were from CrIS. One day analysis on June 8, 2013 has been compared with those in the current TOAST and total ozone maps from EOS OMI. The zonal mean of TACO total amount demonstrates lower values in northern high latitude region and higher value in southern high latitude region relative to the former TOAST results. But these changes in TACO are found to be more consistent with the OMI level 3 total ozone amount. There is a known yet to be corrected stray light problem in the current

  12. Global Cysteine-Reactivity Profiling during Impaired Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling in C. elegans Identifies Uncharacterized Mediators of Longevity.

    PubMed

    Martell, Julianne; Seo, Yonghak; Bak, Daniel W; Kingsley, Samuel F; Tissenbaum, Heidi A; Weerapana, Eranthie

    2016-08-18

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, inactivating mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, result in a 2-fold increase in lifespan mediated by DAF-16, a FOXO-family transcription factor. Downstream protein activities that directly regulate longevity during impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) are poorly characterized. Here, we use global cysteine-reactivity profiling to identify protein activity changes during impaired IIS. Upon confirming that cysteine reactivity is a good predictor of functionality in C. elegans, we profiled cysteine-reactivity changes between daf-2 and daf-16;daf-2 mutants, and identified 40 proteins that display a >2-fold change. Subsequent RNAi-mediated knockdown studies revealed that lbp-3 and K02D7.1 knockdown caused significant increases in lifespan and dauer formation. The proteins encoded by these two genes, LBP-3 and K02D7.1, are implicated in intracellular fatty acid transport and purine metabolism, respectively. These studies demonstrate that cysteine-reactivity profiling can be complementary to abundance-based transcriptomic and proteomic studies, serving to identify uncharacterized mediators of C. elegans longevity. PMID:27499530

  13. WTO/GATS and the Education Service Industry: Global Strategy--Local Responses. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan, Ed.; Bonal, Xavier, Ed.; Dale, Roger, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a considerable and growing interest in globalisation as a phenomenon. Education at all levels has been deeply implicated in the processes of globalization, partly as a product that can be made more efficient in the name of competitive advantage and partly as a beneficiary of investment in a hazily defined…

  14. Global Characterization of Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Mouse Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ γδ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Zhang, Siya; Cai, Menghua; Kang, Ning; Hu, Yu; Cui, Lianxian; Zhang, Jianmin; He, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral γδ T cells in mice are classified into two major subpopulations, Vγ1+ and Vγ4+, based on the composition of T cell receptors. However, their intrinsic differences remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of the two subsets using Illumina HiSeq 2000 Sequencer. We identified 1995 transcripts related to the activation of Vγ1+ γδ T cells, and 2158 transcripts related to the activation of Vγ4+ γδ T cells. We identified 24 transcripts differentially expressed between the two subsets in resting condition, and 20 after PMA/Ionomycin treatment. We found that both cell types maintained phenotypes producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10. However, Vγ1+ γδ T cells produced more Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5, while Vγ4+ γδ T cells preferentially produced IL-17. Our study provides a comprehensive gene expression profile of mouse peripheral Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ γδ T cells that describes the inherent differences between them. PMID:25405356

  15. Global wind energy market report. Wind energy industry grows at steady pace, adds over 8,000 MW in 2003

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-03-01

    Cumulative global wind energy generating capacity topped 39,000 megawatts (MW) by the end of 2003. New equipment totally over 8,000 MW in capacity was installed worldwide during the year. The report, updated annually, provides information on the status of the wind energy market throughout the world and gives details on various regions. A listing of new and cumulative installed capacity by country and by region is included as an appendix.

  16. Global Profiling and Inhibition of Protein Lipidation in Vector and Host Stages of the Sleeping Sickness Parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes the essential fatty acylation of substrate proteins with myristic acid in eukaryotes and is a validated drug target in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). N-Myristoylation typically mediates membrane localization of proteins and is essential to the function of many. However, only a handful of proteins are experimentally validated as N-myristoylated in T. brucei. Here, we perform metabolic labeling with an alkyne-tagged myristic acid analogue, enabling the capture of lipidated proteins in insect and host life stages of T. brucei. We further compare this with a longer chain palmitate analogue to explore the chain length-specific incorporation of fatty acids into proteins. Finally, we combine the alkynyl-myristate analogue with NMT inhibitors and quantitative chemical proteomics to globally define N-myristoylated proteins in the clinically relevant bloodstream form parasites. This analysis reveals five ARF family small GTPases, calpain-like proteins, phosphatases, and many uncharacterized proteins as substrates of NMT in the parasite, providing a global view of the scope of this important protein modification and further evidence for the crucial and pleiotropic role of NMT in the cell. PMID:27331140

  17. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. PMID:25053030

  18. Global gene expression profiling of two switchgrass cultivars following inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN.

    PubMed

    Lara-Chavez, Alejandra; Lowman, Scott; Kim, Seonhwa; Tang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jiyi; Udvardi, Michael; Nowak, Jerzy; Flinn, Barry; Mei, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Improvement and year-to-year stabilization of biomass yields are primary objectives for the development of a low-input switchgrass feedstock production system using microbial endophytes. An earlier investigation of the effect of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN on switchgrass germplasm demonstrated differential responses between genotypes. PsJN inoculation of cv. Alamo (lowland ecotype) increased the plant root system, shoot length, and biomass yields, whereas it had no beneficial effect on cv. Cave-in-Rock (upland ecotype). To understand the gene networks governing plant growth promotion responses triggered by PsJN, the gene expression profiles were analysed in these two hosts, following seedling inoculation. The Affymetrix platform switchgrass expressed sequence tag (EST) microarray chip representing 122 972 probe sets, developed by the DOE BioEnergy Science Center, was employed to assess transcript abundance at 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 DAI (days after PsJN inoculation). Approximately 20 000 switchgrass probe sets showed significant responses in either cultivar. Switchgrass identifiers were used to map 19 421 genes in MapMan software. There were apparent differences in gene expression profiling between responsive and non-responsive cultivars after PsJN inoculation. Overall, there were 14 984 and 9691 genes affected by PsJN inoculation in Alamo and Cave-in-Rock, respectively. Of these, 394 are annotated as pathogenesis-related genes. In the responsive cv. Alamo, 68 pathogenesis-related genes were affected, compared with only 10 in the non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock. At the very early stage at 0.5 DAI, both cultivars exhibited similar recognition and defence responses, such as genes in signalling and proteolysis, after which the defence reaction in the responsive cv. Alamo became weaker while it was sustained in non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock. PMID:25788737

  19. Global Substrate Profiling of Proteases in Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Reveals Consensus Motif Predominantly Contributed by Elastase

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Giselle M.; Perera, Natascha C.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Murphy, John E.; Craik, Charles S.; Hermiston, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consist of antimicrobial molecules embedded in a web of extracellular DNA. Formation of NETs is considered to be a defense mechanism utilized by neutrophils to ensnare and kill invading pathogens, and has been recently termed NETosis. Neutrophils can be stimulated to undergo NETosis ex vivo, and are predicted to contain high levels of serine proteases, such as neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG) and proteinase 3 (PR3). Serine proteases are important effectors of neutrophil-mediated immunity, which function directly by degrading pathogenic virulent factors and indirectly via proteolytic activation or deactivation of cytokines, chemokines and receptors. In this study, we utilized a diverse and unbiased peptide library to detect and profile protease activity associated with NETs induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We obtained a “proteolytic signature” from NETs derived from healthy donor neutrophils and used proteomics to assist in the identification of the source of this proteolytic activity. In addition, we profiled each neutrophil serine protease and included the newly identified enzyme, neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4). Each enzyme had overlapping yet distinct endopeptidase activities and often cleaved at unique sites within the same peptide substrate. The dominant proteolytic activity in NETs was attributed to NE; however, cleavage sites corresponding to CG and PR3 activity were evident. When NE was immunodepleted, the remaining activity was attributed to CG and to a lesser extent PR3 and NSP4. Our results suggest that blocking NE activity would abrogate the major protease activity associated with NETs. In addition, the newly identified substrate specificity signatures will guide the design of more specific probes and inhibitors that target NET-associated proteases. PMID:24073241

  20. Global transcriptional profiling of longissimus thoracis muscle tissue in fetal and juvenile domestic goat using RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Zhang, C L; Plath, M; Fang, X T; Lan, X Y; Zhou, Y; Chen, H

    2015-12-01

    Domestic goats are important meat production animals; however, data from transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle tissue in goat have thus far been scarce. We used comparative transcriptional profiling based on RNA sequencing of longissimus thoracis muscle tissue obtained from fetal goat muscle tissue (27 512 850 clean cDNA reads) and 6-month-old goat muscle tissue (27 582 908 reads) to identify genes that are differentially expressed, novel transcript units and alternative splicing events. Gene annotation revealed that 15 960 and 14 981 genes were expressed in the fetal and juvenile libraries respectively. We detected 6432 differentially expressed genes and, when considering GO terms, found 34, 27 and 55 terms to be significantly enriched in molecular function, cellular component and biological process categories respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that larger numbers of differentially expressed genes were enriched in fetal myogenesis or cell proliferation and differentiation-related pathways (such as Wnt), genes involved in the cell cycle and the Notch signaling pathway, and most of the differentially expressed genes involved in these pathways were downregulated in the juvenile goat library. These genes may be involved in various regulation mechanisms during muscle tissue differentiation between the two development stages examined herein. The identified novel transcript units, including both non-coding and coding RNA, as well as alternative splicing events increase the level of complexity of regulation mechanisms during muscle tissue formation and differentiation. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis on goat muscle tissue, which will provide a valuable genomic resource for future studies investigating the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development. PMID:26364974

  1. The Global Self-Reactivity Profile of the Natural Antibody Repertoire Is Largely Independent of Germline DH Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Andre M.; Cavazzoni, Cecília B.; Nobrega, Alberto; Schroeder, Harry W.

    2016-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAbs) are produced in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation and circulate in the blood of normal, healthy individuals. These antibodies have been shown to provide one of the first lines of defense against both bacterial and viral pathogens. Conservation of the NAb repertoire reactivity profile is observed both within and across species. One view holds that this conservation of NAb self-reactivities reflects the use of germline antibody sequence, whereas the opposing view holds that the self-reactivities reflect selection driven by key conserved self-antigens. In mice, B-1a B cells are a major source of NAbs. A significant fraction of the B-1a antibody repertoire is devoid of N nucleotides in H chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR-H3) and, thus, completely germline encoded. To test the role of germline DH sequence on the self-reactivity profile of the NAb repertoire, we examined the composition and self-antigen specificity of NAbs produced by a panel of DH gene-targeted BALB/c mice, each strain of which expresses a polyclonal, altered CDR-H3 repertoire that differs from the wild-type norm. We found that in most cases the same key self-antigens were recognized by the NAbs created by each DH-altered strain. The differences in reactivity appeared to represent the genetic signature of the NAb repertoire of each mouse strain. These findings suggest that although germline CDR-H3 sequence may facilitate the production of certain NAbs, a core set of self-antigens are likely the main force driving the selection of Nab self-specificities. PMID:27559334

  2. The Global Self-Reactivity Profile of the Natural Antibody Repertoire Is Largely Independent of Germline DH Sequence.

    PubMed

    Vale, Andre M; Cavazzoni, Cecília B; Nobrega, Alberto; Schroeder, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAbs) are produced in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation and circulate in the blood of normal, healthy individuals. These antibodies have been shown to provide one of the first lines of defense against both bacterial and viral pathogens. Conservation of the NAb repertoire reactivity profile is observed both within and across species. One view holds that this conservation of NAb self-reactivities reflects the use of germline antibody sequence, whereas the opposing view holds that the self-reactivities reflect selection driven by key conserved self-antigens. In mice, B-1a B cells are a major source of NAbs. A significant fraction of the B-1a antibody repertoire is devoid of N nucleotides in H chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR-H3) and, thus, completely germline encoded. To test the role of germline DH sequence on the self-reactivity profile of the NAb repertoire, we examined the composition and self-antigen specificity of NAbs produced by a panel of DH gene-targeted BALB/c mice, each strain of which expresses a polyclonal, altered CDR-H3 repertoire that differs from the wild-type norm. We found that in most cases the same key self-antigens were recognized by the NAbs created by each DH-altered strain. The differences in reactivity appeared to represent the genetic signature of the NAb repertoire of each mouse strain. These findings suggest that although germline CDR-H3 sequence may facilitate the production of certain NAbs, a core set of self-antigens are likely the main force driving the selection of Nab self-specificities. PMID:27559334

  3. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders and identifies CFTR regulators.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Sousa, Lisete; Falcao, Andre O; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 13 independent microarray data sets was performed and gene expression profiles from cystic fibrosis (CF), similar disorders (COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma), environmental conditions (smoking, epithelial injury), related cellular processes (epithelial differentiation/regeneration), and non-respiratory "control" conditions (schizophrenia, dieting), were compared. Similarity among differentially expressed (DE) gene lists was assessed using a permutation test, and a clustergram was constructed, identifying common gene markers. Global gene expression values were standardized using a novel approach, revealing that similarities between independent data sets run deeper than shared DE genes. Correlation of gene expression values identified putative gene regulators of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, of potential therapeutic significance. Our study provides a novel perspective on CF epithelial gene expression in the context of other lung disorders and conditions, and highlights the contribution of differentiation/EMT and injury to gene signatures of respiratory disease. PMID:26225835

  4. Global proteomic profiling in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis and identification of PARP1 as a novel molecular marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Liu, Zhikun; Wang, Jianguo; Xie, Haiyang; Li, Jie; Cao, Jili; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-03-22

    The more accurate biomarkers have long been desired for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we characterized global large-scale proteomics of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis in an attempt to identify novel biomarkers for HCC. Quantitative data of 37874 sequences and 3017 proteins during hepatocarcinogenesis were obtained in cohort 1 of 75 samples (5 pooled groups: normal livers, hepatitis livers, cirrhotic livers, peritumoral livers, and HCC tissues) by iTRAQ 2D LC-MS/MS. The diagnostic performance of the top six most upregulated proteins in HCC group and HSP70 as reference were subsequently validated in cohort 2 of 114 samples (hepatocarcinogenesis from normal livers to HCC) using immunohistochemistry. Of seven candidate protein markers, PARP1, GS and NDRG1 showed the optimal diagnostic performance for HCC. PARP1, as a novel marker, showed comparable diagnostic performance to that of classic markers GS and NDRG1 in HCC (AUCs = 0.872, 0.856 and 0.792, respectively). A significant higher AUC of 0.945 was achieved when three markers combined. For diagnosis of HCC, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.2% and 81.0% when at least two of the markers were positive. Similar diagnostic values of PARP1, GS and NDRG1 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in cohort 3 of 180 HCC patients. Further analysis indicated that PARP1 and NDRG1 were associated with some clinicopathological features, and the independent prognostic factors for HCC patients. Overall, global large-scale proteomics on spectrum of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis are obtained. PARP1 is a novel promising diagnostic/prognostic marker for HCC, and the three-marker panel (PARP1, GS and NDRG1) with excellent diagnostic performance for HCC was established. PMID:26883192

  5. Global proteomic profiling in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis and identification of PARP1 as a novel molecular marker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianguo; Xie, Haiyang; Li, Jie; Cao, Jili; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    The more accurate biomarkers have long been desired for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we characterized global large-scale proteomics of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis in an attempt to identify novel biomarkers for HCC. Quantitative data of 37874 sequences and 3017 proteins during hepatocarcinogenesis were obtained in cohort 1 of 75 samples (5 pooled groups: normal livers, hepatitis livers, cirrhotic livers, peritumoral livers, and HCC tissues) by iTRAQ 2D LC-MS/MS. The diagnostic performance of the top six most upregulated proteins in HCC group and HSP70 as reference were subsequently validated in cohort 2 of 114 samples (hepatocarcinogenesis from normal livers to HCC) using immunohistochemistry. Of seven candidate protein markers, PARP1, GS and NDRG1 showed the optimal diagnostic performance for HCC. PARP1, as a novel marker, showed comparable diagnostic performance to that of classic markers GS and NDRG1 in HCC (AUCs = 0.872, 0.856 and 0.792, respectively). A significant higher AUC of 0.945 was achieved when three markers combined. For diagnosis of HCC, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.2% and 81.0% when at least two of the markers were positive. Similar diagnostic values of PARP1, GS and NDRG1 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in cohort 3 of 180 HCC patients. Further analysis indicated that PARP1 and NDRG1 were associated with some clinicopathological features, and the independent prognostic factors for HCC patients. Overall, global large-scale proteomics on spectrum of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis are obtained. PARP1 is a novel promising diagnostic/prognostic marker for HCC, and the three-marker panel (PARP1, GS and NDRG1) with excellent diagnostic performance for HCC was established. PMID:26883192

  6. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  7. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s⁻¹), particle size (varying 24.3 μm in 88.05 μm with regard to 110 μm the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

  8. Desirability-based multiobjective optimization for global QSAR studies: application to the design of novel NSAIDs with improved analgesic, antiinflammatory, and ulcerogenic profiles.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Borges, Fernanda; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2008-11-15

    Up to now, very few reports have been published concerning the application of multiobjective optimization (MOOP) techniques to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies. However, none reports the optimization of objectives related directly to the desired pharmaceutical profile of the drug. In this work, for the first time, it is proposed a MOOP method based on Derringer's desirability function that allows conducting global QSAR studies considering simultaneously the pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and toxicological profile of a set of molecule candidates. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the simultaneous optimization of the analgesic, antiinflammatory, and ulcerogenic properties of a library of fifteen 3-(3-methylphenyl)-2-substituted amino-3H-quinazolin-4-one compounds. The levels of the predictor variables producing concurrently the best possible compromise between these properties is found and used to design a set of new optimized drug candidates. Our results also suggest the relevant role of the bulkiness of alkyl substituents on the C-2 position of the quinazoline ring over the ulcerogenic properties for this family of compounds. Finally, and most importantly, the desirability-based MOOP method proposed is a valuable tool and shall aid in the future rational design of novel successful drugs. PMID:18452123

  9. Identification of gene regulation patterns underlying both E2- and tamoxifen-stimulated cell growth through global gene expression profiling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ping; Cunliffe, Heather E.; Griffith, Obi L.; Agboke, Fadeke A.; Ramos, Pilar; Gray, Joe W.; Jordan, V. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A c-Src inhibitor blocks estrogen (E2)-induced stress and converts E2 responses from inducing apoptosis to growth stimulation in E2-deprived breast cancer cells. A reprogrammed cell line, MCF-7:PF, results in a functional estrogen receptor (ER). We addressed the question of whether the selective ER modulator 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) could target ER to prevent E2-stimulated growth in MCF-7:PF cells. Methods Expression of mRNA was measured through real-time RT-PCR. Global gene expression profile was analyzed through microarray. Transcriptome profiles were screened by RNA-sequencing. Results Unexpectedly, both 4-OHT and E2 stimulated cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression profiling showed a remarkable overlap in genes regulated in the same direction by E2 and 4-OHT. Pathway enrichment analysis of the 280 genes commonly deregulated in MCF-7:PF cells by 4-OHT and E2 revealed functions mainly related to membrane, cytoplasm, and metabolic processes. Further analysis of 98 genes up-regulated by both 4-OHT and E2 uncovered a significant enrichment in genes associated with membrane remodeling, cytoskeleton reorganization, cytoplasmic adapter proteins, cytoplasm organelles proteins, and related processes. 4-OHT was more potent than E2 in up-regulating some membrane remodeling molecules, such as EHD2, FHL2, HOMER3 and RHOF. In contrast, 4-OHT acted as an antagonist to inhibit expression of the majority of enriched membrane-associated genes in wild-type MCF-7 cells. Conclusions Long-term selection pressure has changed the cell population responses to 4-OHT. Membrane-associated signaling is critical for 4-OHT-stimulated cell growth in MCF-7:PF cells. This study provides a rationale for the further investigation of target therapy for tamoxifen resistant patients. PMID:25212499

  10. Global mapping of binding sites for Nrf2 identifies novel targets in cell survival response through ChIP-Seq profiling and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Deepti; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Singh, Anju; Srivastava, Siddhartha; Arenillas, David; Happel, Christine; Shyr, Casper; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2) transcription factor responds to diverse oxidative and electrophilic environmental stresses by circumventing repression by Keap1, translocating to the nucleus, and activating cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 responses provide protection against chemical carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, emphysema, asthma and sepsis in murine models. Nrf2 regulates the expression of a plethora of genes that detoxify oxidants and electrophiles and repair or remove damaged macromolecules, such as through proteasomal processing. However, many direct targets of Nrf2 remain undefined. Here, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with either constitutive nuclear accumulation (Keap1−/−) or depletion (Nrf2−/−) of Nrf2 were utilized to perform chromatin-immunoprecipitation with parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and global transcription profiling. This unique Nrf2 ChIP-Seq dataset is highly enriched for Nrf2-binding motifs. Integrating ChIP-Seq and microarray analyses, we identified 645 basal and 654 inducible direct targets of Nrf2, with 244 genes at the intersection. Modulated pathways in stress response and cell proliferation distinguish the inducible and basal programs. Results were confirmed in an in vivo stress model of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. This study reveals global circuitry of the Nrf2 stress response emphasizing Nrf2 as a central node in cell survival response. PMID:20460467

  11. Making Progress and Gaining Momentum in Global 3Rs Efforts: How the European Pharmaceutical Industry Is Contributing

    PubMed Central

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally—beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  12. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) PvTIFY orchestrates global changes in transcript profile response to jasmonate and phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TIFY is a large plant-specific transcription factor gene family. A subgroup of TIFY genes named JAZ (Jasmonate-ZIM domain) has been identified as repressors of jasmonate (JA)-regulated transcription in Arabidopsis and other plants. JA signaling is involved in many aspects of plant growth/development and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified the TIFY genes (designated PvTIFY) from the legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and functionally characterized PvTIFY10C as a transcriptional regulator. Results Nineteen genes from the PvTIFY gene family were identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Most of these were induced upon methyl-JA elicitation. We selected PvTIFY10C as a representative JA-responsive PvTIFY gene for further functional analysis. Transcriptome analysis via microarray hybridization using the newly designed Bean Custom Array 90 K was performed on transgenic roots of composite plants with modulated (RNAi-silencing or over-expression) PvTIFY10C gene expression. Data were interpreted using Gene Ontology and MapMan adapted to common bean. Microarray differential gene expression data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Comparative global gene expression analysis revealed opposite regulatory changes in processes such as RNA and protein regulation, stress responses and metabolism in PvTIFY10C silenced vs. over-expressing roots. These data point to transcript reprogramming (mainly repression) orchestrated by PvTIFY10C. In addition, we found that several PvTIFY genes, as well as genes from the JA biosynthetic pathway, responded to P-deficiency. Relevant P-responsive genes that participate in carbon metabolic pathways, cell wall synthesis, lipid metabolism, transport, DNA, RNA and protein regulation, and signaling were oppositely-regulated in control vs. PvTIFY10C-silenced roots of composite plants under P-stress. These data indicate that PvTIFY10C regulates, directly or indirectly, the

  13. Characterization of the biochemical effects of 1-nitronaphthalene in rats using global metabolic profiling by NMR spectroscopy and pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Azmi, J; Connelly, J; Holmes, E; Nicholson, J K; Shore, R F; Griffin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic fingerprints, in the form of patterns of high-concentration endogenous metabolites, of 1-nitronaphthalene (NN)-induced lung toxicity have been elucidated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), urine, blood plasma, and intact lung and liver tissue using NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling. A single dose of NN (75 mg kg(-1)) was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. BALF and lung tissue were obtained 24 h after dosing from these animals and matched control rats post-mortem. High-resolution (1)H-NMR spectroscopy of BALF samples indicated that NN caused increases in concentrations of choline, amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and alanine) and lactate together with decreased concentrations of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine and glucose. In addition, the intact lung weights were higher in the NN-treated group (p<0.01), consistent with pulmonary oedema. The NMR-detected perturbations indicated that NN induces a perturbation in energy metabolism in both lung and liver tissue, as well as surfactant production and osmolyte levels in the lungs. As well as reporting the first NMR spectroscopic combined examination of BALF and intact lung, this study indicates that such holistic approaches to investigating mechanisms of lung toxicity may be of value in evaluating disease progression or the effects of therapeutic intervention in pulmonary conditions such as surfactant disorders or asthma. PMID:16308265

  14. Using elemental profiles and stable isotopes to trace the origin of green coffee beans on the global market.

    PubMed

    Santato, Alessandro; Bertoldi, Daniela; Perini, Matteo; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    A broad elemental profile incorporating 54 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi and U) in combination with δ(2) H, δ(13) C, δ(15) N and δ(18) O was used to characterise the composition of 62 green arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee beans grown in South and Central America, Africa and Asia, the four most internationally renowned areas of production. The δ(2) H, Mg, Fe, Co and Ni content made it possible to correctly assign 95% of green coffee beans to the appropriate variety. Canonical discriminant analysis, performed using δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, Li, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Cu, Se, Y, Mo, Cd, La and Ce correctly traced the origin of 98% of coffee beans. PMID:22972781

  15. Brief report: Assessing youth well-being in global emergency settings: Early results from the Emergency Developmental Assets Profile.

    PubMed

    Scales, Peter C; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C; Wallace, Teresa; Inselman, Ashley; Stephenson, Paul; Rodriguez, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 13-item Emergency Developmental Assets Profile measures the well-being of children and youth in emergency settings such as refugee camps and armed conflict zones, assessing whether young people are experiencing adequate positive relationships and opportunities, and developing positive values, skills, and self-perceptions, despite being in crisis circumstances. The instrument was found to have acceptable and nearly identical internal consistency reliability in 22 administrations in non-emergency samples in 15 countries (.75), and in 4 samples of youth ages 10-18 (n = 1550) in the emergency settings (war refugees and typhoon victims, .74) that are the measure's focus, and evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed acceptable model fit among those youth in emergency settings. Measures of model fit showed that the Em-DAP has configural and metric invariance across all emergency contexts and scalar invariance across some. The Em-DAP is a promising brief cross-cultural tool for assessing the developmental quality of life as reported by samples of youth in a current humanitarian crisis situation. The results can help to inform international relief program decisions about services and activities to be provided for children, youth, and families in emergency settings. PMID:26426457

  16. Global Gene Expression Profiling and Alternative Splicing Events during the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cartilage Endplate-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jin; Fan, Xin; Shangguan, Lei; Liu, Huan; Zhou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a very prevalent disease and degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) usually account for the LBP. However, the pathogenesis of DDDs is complicated and difficult to elucidate. Alternative splicing is a sophisticated regulatory process which greatly increases cellular complexity and phenotypic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. In addition, the cartilage endplate-derived stem cells have been discovered and identified by our research group. In this paper, we continue to investigate gene expression profiling and alternative splicing events during chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage endplate-derived stem cells. We adopted Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0) to compare the transcriptional and splicing changes between the control and differentiated samples. RT-PCR and quantitative PCR are used to validate the microarray results. The GO and KEGG pathway analysis was also performed. After bioinformatics analysis of the data, we detected 1953 differentially expressed genes. In terms of alternative splicing, the Splicing Index algorithm was used to select alternatively spliced genes. We detected 4411 alternatively spliced genes. GO and KEGG pathway analysis also revealed several functionally involved biological processes and signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the alternative splicing mechanisms in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells on a genome-wide scale. PMID:26649308

  17. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Global gene expression profiling in larval zebrafish exposed to microcystin-LR and microcystis reveals endocrine disrupting effects of Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Emily D; Henry, Theodore B; Twiner, Michael J; Gouffon, Julia S; McPherson, Jackson T; Boyer, Gregory L; Sayler, Gary S; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2011-03-01

    Microcystis blooms occur worldwide and threaten aquatic ecosystems and human health. Sublethal effects on early developmental stages of fish are largely unknown, and research has mainly focused on microcystin toxins (such as MC-LR) rather than Microcystis cells. We exposed (96 h) zebrafish larvae to purified MC-LR (0-1000 μg/L) or lyophilized Microcystis aeruginosa containing 4.5 μg/L MC-LR and evaluated changes in global gene expression (Affymetrix GeneChip zebrafish genome arrays). Significant changes in gene expression (≥ 1.7-fold change, p < 0.0001) were determined with Rosetta Resolver 7.0, and ontology analysis was conducted with the DAVID bioinformatics tool. The number of differentially expressed genes relative to control increased with MC-LR concentration and included genes related to known mechanisms of action for MC-LR in mammals and older life stages of fish, as well as genes unique to larval zebrafish. Up-regulation of vitellogenin genes (vtg) (19.2-fold to >100-fold on arrays; 619.3-fold confirmed by quantitative PCR) was observed in Microcystis-exposed larvae but not in larvae exposed to MC-LR. Up-regulation of vtg indicates exposure to estrogenic substance(s) and suggests that Microcystis may be a natural source of environmental estrogens. Concerns about effects of Microcystis blooms may extend beyond those associated with the microcystin toxin. PMID:21280650

  19. Global Expression Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes Provides New Insights into Pathogenicity and Stress Responses in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lim, Se-Eun; Lee, Gir-Won; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Yang; Kong, Sunghyung; Kim, Se Ryun; Rho, Hee-Sool; Jeon, Junhyun; Chi, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Soonok; Khang, Chang Hyun; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Because most efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning fungal pathogenicity have focused on studying the function and role of individual genes, relatively little is known about how transcriptional machineries globally regulate and coordinate the expression of a large group of genes involved in pathogenesis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of 206 transcription factor (TF) genes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae under 32 conditions, including multiple infection-related developmental stages and various abiotic stresses. The resulting data, which are publicly available via an online platform, provided new insights into how these TFs are regulated and potentially work together to control cellular responses to a diverse array of stimuli. High degrees of differential TF expression were observed under the conditions tested. More than 50% of the 206 TF genes were up-regulated during conidiation and/or in conidia. Mutations in ten conidiation-specific TF genes caused defects in conidiation. Expression patterns in planta were similar to those under oxidative stress conditions. Mutants of in planta inducible genes not only exhibited sensitive to oxidative stress but also failed to infect rice. These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of TF expression patterns in predicting the function of individual TF genes. The regulatory network of TF genes revealed by this study provides a solid foundation for elucidating how M. oryzae regulates its pathogenesis, development, and stress responses. PMID:23762023

  20. Global Profiling of Huntingtin-associated protein E (HYPE)-Mediated AMPylation through a Chemical Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Broncel, Malgorzata; Serwa, Remigiusz A; Bunney, Tom D; Katan, Matilda; Tate, Edward W

    2016-02-01

    AMPylation of mammalian small GTPases by bacterial virulence factors can be a key step in bacterial infection of host cells, and constitutes a potential drug target. This posttranslational modification also exists in eukaryotes, and AMP transferase activity was recently assigned to HYPE Filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain containing protein (FICD) protein, which is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In contrast to bacterial AMP transferases, only a small number of HYPE substrates have been identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry approaches, and the full range of targets is yet to be determined in mammalian cells. We describe here the first example of global chemoproteomic screening and substrate validation for HYPE-mediated AMPylation in mammalian cell lysate. Through quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics coupled with novel chemoproteomic tools providing MS/MS evidence of AMP modification, we identified a total of 25 AMPylated proteins, including the previously validated substrate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP (HSPA5), and also novel substrates involved in pathways of gene expression, ATP biosynthesis, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. This dataset represents the largest library of AMPylated human proteins reported to date and a foundation for substrate-specific investigations that can ultimately decipher the complex biological networks involved in eukaryotic AMPylation. PMID:26604261

  1. Attribution of changes in global wetland methane emissions from pre-industrial to present using CLM4.5-BGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Rajendra; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Hess, Peter G. M.; Meng, Lei; Riley, William J.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of potential factors controlling methane emissions from natural wetlands is important to accurately project future atmospheric methane concentrations. Here, we examine the relative contributions of climatic and environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, wetland inundation extent, and land-use and land-cover change, on changes in wetland methane emissions from preindustrial to present day (i.e., 1850-2005). We apply a mechanistic methane biogeochemical model integrated in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The methane model explicitly simulates methane production, oxidation, ebullition, transport through aerenchyma of plants, and aqueous and gaseous diffusion. We conduct a suite of model simulations from 1850 to 2005, with all changes in environmental factors included, and sensitivity studies isolating each factor. Globally, we estimate that preindustrial methane emissions were higher by 10% than present-day emissions from natural wetlands, with emissions changes from preindustrial to the present of +15%, -41%, and -11% for the high latitudes, temperate regions, and tropics, respectively. The most important change is due to the estimated change in wetland extent, due to the conversion of wetland areas to drylands by humans. This effect alone leads to higher preindustrial global methane fluxes by 33% relative to the present, with the largest change in temperate regions (+80%). These increases were partially offset by lower preindustrial emissions due to lower CO2 levels (10%), shifts in precipitation (7%), lower nitrogen deposition (3%), and changes in land-use and land-cover (2%). Cooler temperatures in the preindustrial regions resulted in our simulations in an increase in global methane emissions of 6% relative to present day. Much of the sensitivity to these perturbations is mediated in the model by changes in

  2. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Maria Fernanda B M; Fujita, André; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Malossi, Camila D; Pinter, Adriano; Soares, João F; Daffre, Sirlei; Labruna, Marcelo B; Fogaça, Andréa C

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development. PMID:24155949

  3. Natural Blood Feeding and Temperature Shift Modulate the Global Transcriptional Profile of Rickettsia rickettsii Infecting Its Tick Vector

    PubMed Central

    Galletti, Maria Fernanda B. M.; Fujita, André; Nishiyama Jr, Milton Y.; Malossi, Camila D.; Pinter, Adriano; Soares, João F.; Daffre, Sirlei; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Fogaça, Andréa C.

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector’s blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development. PMID:24155949

  4. Global Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Inhibitory Effects of Paclobutrazol on Leaf Growth in Lily (Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic Hybrid).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaopei; Chai, Min; Li, Yang; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Jinzheng; Sun, Guofeng; Jiang, Chuangdao; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As a popular ornamental flower, potted lily is an important object of lily breeding. Paclobutrazol, a chemical growth retardation compound, is often used to dwarf plant in producing potted lilies. However, in recent years, the plants with inherited dwarf traits by using genetic engineer breeding technology are being developed. The studies on molecular basis of lily dwarfism will offer some target genes which have profound dwarf effect for genetic engineer breeding. Here, we confirmed that paclobutrazol inhibited plant height and leaf size in Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid, and then RNA-Seq technique was employed to analyze gene transcripts of Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid leaves by paclobutrazol treatment in order to get a deeper insight into dwarfism mechanism of lily. Approximately 38.6 Gb data was obtained and assemble into 53,681 unigenes. Annotation, pathways, functional classification and phylogenetic classification of these data were analyzed based on Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. 2704 differentially expressed genes were screened by comparing paclobutrazol-treated samples with untreated samples and quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate expression profiles. By analyzing dynamic changes of differentially expressed genes, nine metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways were significantly enriched and many potentially interesting genes were identified that encoded putative regulators or key components of cell division, cell expansion, GA metabolism and signaling transduction and these genes were highlighted to reveal their importance in regulation of plant size. These results will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism on lily dwarfism and some potential genes related to lily organ size, which will lay the foundation for molecular breeding of potted lilies. These transcriptome data will also serve as valuable public genomic resources for other genetic research in lily. PMID:27148316

  5. Analysis of global gene expression profiles to identify differentially expressed genes critical for embryo development in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Peng, Lifang; Wu, Ya; Shen, Yanyue; Wu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-11-01

    Embryo development represents a crucial developmental period in the life cycle of flowering plants. To gain insights into the genetic programs that control embryo development in Brassica rapa L., RNA sequencing technology was used to perform transcriptome profiling analysis of B. rapa developing embryos. The results generated 42,906,229 sequence reads aligned with 32,941 genes. In total, 27,760, 28,871, 28,384, and 25,653 genes were identified from embryos at globular, heart, early cotyledon, and mature developmental stages, respectively, and analysis between stages revealed a subset of stage-specific genes. We next investigated 9,884 differentially expressed genes with more than fivefold changes in expression and false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 from three adjacent-stage comparisons; 1,514, 3,831, and 6,633 genes were detected between globular and heart stage embryo libraries, heart stage and early cotyledon stage, and early cotyledon and mature stage, respectively. Large numbers of genes related to cellular process, metabolism process, response to stimulus, and biological process were expressed during the early and middle stages of embryo development. Fatty acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and photosynthesis-related genes were expressed predominantly in embryos at the middle stage. Genes for lipid metabolism and storage proteins were highly expressed in the middle and late stages of embryo development. We also identified 911 transcription factor genes that show differential expression across embryo developmental stages. These results increase our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events during embryo development in B. rapa and provide a foundation for future studies on other oilseed crops. PMID:25214014

  6. Genomic occupancy of Runx2 with global expression profiling identifies a novel dimension to control of osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteogenesis is a highly regulated developmental process and continues during the turnover and repair of mature bone. Runx2, the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis, directs a transcriptional program essential for bone formation through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. While individual Runx2 gene targets have been identified, further insights into the broad spectrum of Runx2 functions required for osteogenesis are needed. Results By performing genome-wide characterization of Runx2 binding at the three major stages of osteoblast differentiation - proliferation, matrix deposition and mineralization - we identify Runx2-dependent regulatory networks driving bone formation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing over the course of these stages, we identify approximately 80,000 significantly enriched regions of Runx2 binding throughout the mouse genome. These binding events exhibit distinct patterns during osteogenesis, and are associated with proximal promoters and also non-promoter regions: upstream, introns, exons, transcription termination site regions, and intergenic regions. These peaks were partitioned into clusters that are associated with genes in complex biological processes that support bone formation. Using Affymetrix expression profiling of differentiating osteoblasts depleted of Runx2, we identify novel Runx2 targets including Ezh2, a critical epigenetic regulator; Crabp2, a retinoic acid signaling component; Adamts4 and Tnfrsf19, two remodelers of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate by luciferase assays that these novel biological targets are regulated by Runx2 occupancy at non-promoter regions. Conclusions Our data establish that Runx2 interactions with chromatin across the genome reveal novel genes, pathways and transcriptional mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of osteoblastogenesis. PMID:24655370

  7. Global Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Inhibitory Effects of Paclobutrazol on Leaf Growth in Lily (Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic Hybrid)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaopei; Chai, Min; Li, Yang; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Jinzheng; Sun, Guofeng; Jiang, Chuangdao; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As a popular ornamental flower, potted lily is an important object of lily breeding. Paclobutrazol, a chemical growth retardation compound, is often used to dwarf plant in producing potted lilies. However, in recent years, the plants with inherited dwarf traits by using genetic engineer breeding technology are being developed. The studies on molecular basis of lily dwarfism will offer some target genes which have profound dwarf effect for genetic engineer breeding. Here, we confirmed that paclobutrazol inhibited plant height and leaf size in Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid, and then RNA-Seq technique was employed to analyze gene transcripts of Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid leaves by paclobutrazol treatment in order to get a deeper insight into dwarfism mechanism of lily. Approximately 38.6 Gb data was obtained and assemble into 53,681 unigenes. Annotation, pathways, functional classification and phylogenetic classification of these data were analyzed based on Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. 2704 differentially expressed genes were screened by comparing paclobutrazol-treated samples with untreated samples and quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate expression profiles. By analyzing dynamic changes of differentially expressed genes, nine metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways were significantly enriched and many potentially interesting genes were identified that encoded putative regulators or key components of cell division, cell expansion, GA metabolism and signaling transduction and these genes were highlighted to reveal their importance in regulation of plant size. These results will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism on lily dwarfism and some potential genes related to lily organ size, which will lay the foundation for molecular breeding of potted lilies. These transcriptome data will also serve as valuable public genomic resources for other genetic research in lily. PMID:27148316

  8. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  9. Combined global 2D-local 3D modeling of the industrial Czochralski silicon crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, T.; Seebeck, J.; Friedrich, J.

    2013-04-01

    A global, axisymmetric thermal model of a Czochralski furnace is coupled to an external, local, 3D, time-dependent flow model of the melt via the inclusion of turbulent heat fluxes, extracted from the 3D melt model, into the 2D furnace model. Boundary conditions of the 3D model are updated using results from the 2D model. In the 3D model the boundary layers are resolved by aggressive mesh refinement towards the walls, and the Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to model the turbulent flow in the melt volume on a relatively coarse mesh to minimize calculation times. It is shown that by using this approach it is possible to reproduce fairly good results from Direct Numerical Simulations obtained on much finer meshes, as well as experimental results for interface shape and oxygen concentration in the case of growth of silicon crystals with 210 mm diameter for photovoltaics by the Czochralski method.

  10. Global Biogeochemical Cycle of Si: Its Coupling to the Perturbed C-N-P cycles in Industrial Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, A.; Li, D. D.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2010-12-01

    The importance of silicon (Si) in global biogeochemical cycles is demonstrated by its abundance in the land and aquatic biomass, where Si/C is 0.02 in land plants and 0.15 in marine organisms. Estimates show that Si-bioproduction accounts for ~1.5% of terrestrial primary production, and ~4.5% in the coastal ocean. Human land-use activities have substantially changed regional patterns of vegetation distribution, soil conditions, and nutrient fluxes via runoff to the coastal ocean. Anthropogenic chemical fertilization of the land has caused a significant increase in fluvial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport, whereas land-use and vegetation mass changes have caused variations in the riverine Si input, all eventually affecting the cycling of nutrients in the marine environment. We developed a global biogeochemical model of the Si cycle as coupled to the global C-N-P cycle model, TOTEM II (Terrestrial-Ocean-aTmosphere-Ecosystem-Model). In the model analysis from year 1700, taken as the start of the Anthropocene, to 2050, the bioproduction of Si on land and in the ocean is coupled to the bioproduction of C, perturbed by the atmospheric CO2 rise, land-use changes, and chemical fertilization. Also, temperature rise affects the Si cycling on land through bioproduction rates, terrestrial organic matter remineralization, and weathering, thereby affecting its delivery to the coastal zone. The results show that biouptake and subsequent release of Si on land strongly affect the Si river flux to the coastal ocean. During the 350-year period, Si river discharge has increased by ~10% until ~1940, decreasing since then to below its 1700 value and continuing to drop, under the current IPCC IS92 projections of CO2, temperature and other forcings. From 1700 to ~1950, land-use changes, associated with slash and burn of large areas of high-productivity land, caused a decrease of global land vegetation. Dissolution of Si in soil humus and weathering of silicate minerals are the

  11. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  12. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-09-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  13. Global transcriptional profiling of Burkholderia pseudomallei under salt stress reveals differential effects on the Bsa type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis where the highest reported incidence world wide is in the Northeast of Thailand, where saline soil and water are prevalent. Moreover, recent reports indicate a potential pathogenic role for B. pseudomallei in cystic fibrosis lung disease, where an increased sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in airway surface liquid has been proposed. These observations raise the possibility that high salinity may represent a favorable niche for B. pseudomallei. We therefore investigated the global transcriptional response of B. pseudomallei to increased salinity using microarray analysis. Results Transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei under salt stress revealed several genes significantly up-regulated in the presence of 320 mM NaCl including genes associated with the bsa-derived Type III secretion system (T3SS). Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). Western blot analysis confirmed the increased expression and secretion of the invasion-associated type III secreted proteins BipD and BopE in B. pseudomallei cultures at 170 and 320 mM NaCl relative to salt-free medium. Furthermore, salt-treated B. pseudomallei exhibited greater invasion efficiency into the lung epithelial cell line A549 in a manner partly dependent on a functional Bsa system. Conclusions B. pseudomallei responds to salt stress by modulating the transcription of a relatively small set of genes, among which is the bsa locus associated with invasion and virulence. Expression and secretion of Bsa-secreted proteins was elevated in the presence of exogenous salt and the invasion efficiency was enhanced. Our data indicate that salinity has the potential to influence the virulence of B. pseudomallei. PMID:20540813

  14. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. I. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2015-10-01

    The dysregulation of endometrial immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been implicated in uterine disease and infertility in the postpartum dairy cow, although the mechanisms are not clear. Here, we investigated whole-transcriptomic gene expression in primary cultures of mixed bovine epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Cultures were exposed to LPS for 6 h, and cellular response was measured by bovine microarray. Approximately 30% of the 1006 genes altered by LPS were classified as being involved in immune response. Cytokines and chemokines (IL1A, CX3CL1, CXCL2, and CCL5), interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (RSAD2, MX2, OAS1, ISG15, and BST2), and the acute phase molecule SAA3 were the most up-regulated genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified up-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which function to attract immune cells to the endometrium, together with vascular adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases, which can facilitate immune cell migration from the tissue toward the uterine lumen. Increased expression of many IFN-signaling genes, immunoproteasomes, guanylate-binding proteins, and genes involved in the intracellular recognition of pathogens suggests important roles for these molecules in the innate defense against bacterial infections. Our findings confirmed the important role of endometrial cells in uterine innate immunity, whereas the global approach used identified several novel immune response pathways triggered by LPS in the endometrium. Additionally, many genes involved in endometrial response to the conceptus in early pregnancy were also altered by LPS, suggesting one mechanism whereby an ongoing response to infection may interfere with the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:26353891

  15. An organ culture system to model early degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc II: profiling global gene expression changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite many advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disc degeneration, there remains a paucity of preclinical models which can be used to study the biochemical and molecular events that drive disc degeneration, and the effects of potential therapeutic interventions. The goal of this study is to characterize global gene expression changes in a disc organ culture system that mimics early nontraumatic disc degeneration. Methods To mimic a degenerative insult, rat intervertebral discs were cultured in the presence of TNF-α, IL-1β and serum-limiting conditions. Gene expression analysis was performed using a microarray to identify differential gene expression between experimental and control groups. Differential pattern of gene expression was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or Western blot. Results Treatment resulted in significant changes in expression of more than 1,000 genes affecting many aspects of cell function including cellular movement, the cell cycle, cellular development, and cell death and proliferation. Many of the most highly upregulated and downregulated genes have known functions in disc degeneration and extracellular matrix hemostasis. Construction of gene networks based on known cellular pathways and expression data from our analysis demonstrated that the network associated with cell death, cell cycle regulation and DNA replication and repair was most heavily affected in this model of disc degeneration. Conclusions This rat organ culture model uses cytokine exposure to induce wide gene expression changes with the most affected genes having known reported functions in disc degeneration. We propose that this model is a valuable tool to study the etiology of disc degeneration and evaluate potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:24171898

  16. Characterization of global transcription profile of normal and HPV-immortalized keratinocytes and their response to TNF treatment

    PubMed Central

    Termini, Lara; Boccardo, Enrique; Esteves, Gustavo H; Hirata, Roberto; Martins, Waleska K; Colo, Anna Estela L; Neves, E Jordão; Villa, Luisa Lina; Reis, Luiz FL

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent infection by high risk HPV types (e.g. HPV-16, -18, -31, and -45) is the main risk factor for development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key mediator of epithelial cell inflammatory response and exerts a potent cytostatic effect on normal or HPV16, but not on HPV18 immortalized keratinocytes. Moreover, several cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines are resistant to TNF anti-proliferative effect suggesting that the acquisition of TNF-resistance may constitute an important step in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. In the present study, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HPV16 or 18 immortalized human keratinocytes before and after treatment with TNF for 3 or 60 hours. Methods In this study, we determined the transcriptional changes 3 and 60 hours after TNF treatment of normal, HPV16 and HPV18 immortalized keratinocytes by microarray analysis. The expression pattern of two genes observed by microarray was confirmed by Northern Blot. NF-κB activation was also determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using specific oligonucleotides and nuclear protein extracts. Results We observed the differential expression of a common set of genes in two TNF-sensitive cell lines that differs from those modulated in TNF-resistant ones. This information was used to define genes whose differential expression could be associated with the differential response to TNF, such as: KLK7 (kallikrein 7), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), 100P (S100 calcium binding protein P), PI3 (protease inhibitor 3, skin-derived), CSTA (cystatin A), RARRES1 (retinoic acid receptor responder 1), and LXN (latexin). The differential expression of the KLK7 and SOD2 transcripts was confirmed by Northern blot. Moreover, we observed that SOD2 expression correlates with the differential NF-κB activation exhibited by TNF-sensitive and TNF-resistant cells. Conclusion This is the first in depth analysis of the

  17. Global gene expression profiling reveals similarities and differences among mouse pluripotent stem cells of different origins and strains

    PubMed Central

    Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Shaik, Nabeebi; Sullivan, Terry; Stewart, Colin L.; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell lines with similar phenotypes can be derived from both blastocysts (embryonic stem cells, ESC) and primordial germ cells (embryonic germ cells, EGC). Here, we present a compendium DNA microarray analysis of multiple mouse ESCs and EGCs from different genetic backgrounds (strains 129 and C57BL/6) cultured under standard conditions and in differentiation-promoting conditions by the withdrawal of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) or treatment with retinoic acid (RA). All pluripotent cell lines showed similar gene expression patterns, which separated them clearly from other tissue stem cells with lower developmental potency. Differences between pluripotent lines derived from different sources (ESC vs. EGC) were smaller than differences between lines derived from different mouse strains (129 vs. C57BL/6). Even in the differentiation-promoting conditions, these pluripotent cells showed the same general trends of gene expression changes regardless of their origin and genetic background. These data indicate that ESCs and EGCs are indistinguishable based on global gene expression patterns alone. On the other hand, a detailed comparison between a group of ESC lines and a group of EGC lines identified 20 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in ESC lines, and 84 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in EGC lines, irrespective of mouse strains. Similar analysis identified 250 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in a group of 129 cell lines, and 337 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in a group of C57BL/6 cell lines. Although none of the genes was exclusively expressed in either ESCs versus EGCs or 129 versus C57BL/6, in combination these signature genes provide a reliable separation and identification of each cell type. Differentiation-promoting conditions also revealed some minor differences between the cell

  18. The global translation profile in a ribosomal protein mutant resembles that of an eIF3 mutant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. Results The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from the regulon, since their dependence on RPL24B differed from regular mRNAs. Third, different sister paralogs of the ribosomal proteins differed in their translation state in the wild-type. Some sister paralogs also differed in their response to the rpl24b mutation. In contrast to rpl24b, the pab2 pab8 mutant revealed few gene specific translational defects, but a group of seed storage protein mRNAs were stimulated in their ribosome occupancy. In the course of this work, while optimizing the statistical analysis of ribosome occupancy data, we collected 12 biological replicates of translation states from wild-type seedlings. We defined 20% of mRNAs as having a high variance in their translation state. Many of these mRNAs were functionally associated with responses to the environment, suggesting that subtle variation in the environmental conditions is sensed by plants and transduced to affect the translational efficiency of hundreds of mRNAs. Conclusions These data

  19. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Anna Francina; Williams, Andrew; Recio, Leslie; Waters, Michael D.; Lambert, Iain B.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  20. Global harmonization of safety regulations for the use of industrial robots-permission of collaborative operation and a related study by JNIOSH

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Tsuyoshi; HOSHI, Toshiro; IKEDA, Hiroyasu; OKABE, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) partially amended the safety regulations for use of industrial robots so that “collaborative operation” could be performed at Japanese worksites as allowed in the ISO standard for industrial robots. In order to show global harmonization of Japanese legislation on machinery safety and problems with applying ISO safety standards to Japanese worksites, this paper reports the progress of a research study which have been conducted in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan from 2011 to the present at the request of MHLW to examine the necessity and effect of the amendment. In the first phase of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among domestic robot manufacturers and users. The obtained results revealed their potential demand for the collaborative operation and problems concerning their risk assessment and rule-based risk reduction. To solve the problems, we propose a method based on an investigation result of the regulatory framework for safety of machinery in the European Union. Furthermore, a model of robot system capable of demonstrating the collaborative operation and risk reduction measures which is being developed to support appropriate implementation of the amendment is also described. PMID:26118854

  1. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction

  2. Chinese workers and labor conditions from state industry to globalized factories: how to stop the race to the bottom.

    PubMed

    Thorborg, Marina

    2006-09-01

    This article discusses administrative obstacles in China that hinder the full integration of the rural population into the mainstream of development during a period of rapid industrialization. The Chinese household registration only for urban residents with its golden contents of cradle-to-grave security has become a formidable stumbling block that perpetuates the status of rural migrants as second-class citizens in their own country. Rural migrant workers are excluded from certain types of jobs and are not eligible for many benefits that urbanites have, such as health, education, and unemployment protection. These workers must also pay a number of fees and work for lower minimum wages than the local residents. With a precarious legal existence in urban areas, they are easy prey to unscrupulous officials and employers. Because they are not allowed to form independent trade unions, their best option is to vote with their feet and leave the firms with the worst conditions; this is exactly what they did from 2004. Given this situation, the debate on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) took a new turn with not only nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) pushing it but with a wider range of employers and, of late, Chinese officials promoting their version of CSR. In the campaign to promote minimum labor standards, the norms set down in the Social Accountability 8000 were included in the CSR, recognizing the right to free collective bargaining and free trade unions but were excluded in the Chinese version even though the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements recognized these rights. PMID:17119265

  3. Using Global Datasets to Create Environmental Profiles for Data-Poor Regions: A Case from the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmivaara, Aura; Kummu, Matti; Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli

    2013-04-01

    The increasing availability of spatial data inspires the exploration of previously less-studied, yet regionally and nationally important areas, such as the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins in Southeast Asia. This article documents our experience using global datasets to create environmental basin profiles in these two basins. Our approach draws on the concepts of freshwater vulnerability assessments that guided the selection of indicators. Data on land use, population distribution and fertilizer load were used. The unit of analysis was chosen to distinguish areas with similar bio-geographical characteristics, such as the critical delta areas. Results were further discussed for sub-areas that experience relatively the most pressure in terms of examined indicators within the studied area. The river mouths of both rivers had the most intensive land use and high population density. They are also home to important ecosystems and are sensitive to changes in upstream areas. Our study presents a concise and spatially distributed view of the environmental basin profiles of the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins. The analysis also provides some interesting methodological insights about the potential of public macro-scale datasets for environmental assessment. The spatial approach allowed the analysis of different indicators, providing a platform for data integration as well as a visually powerful overview of the study area. Yet, the use of macro-scale datasets entails challenges. Despite improvements, the assessment process tends to be driven by the availability and quality of data, rather than by the actual research and management needs. The greatest utility of macro-scale datasets lies—at least in data-poor areas—in larger scale comparative analyses between the basins and their different sub-areas.

  4. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  5. Using global datasets to create environmental profiles for data-poor regions: a case from the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins.

    PubMed

    Salmivaara, Aura; Kummu, Matti; Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli

    2013-04-01

    The increasing availability of spatial data inspires the exploration of previously less-studied, yet regionally and nationally important areas, such as the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins in Southeast Asia. This article documents our experience using global datasets to create environmental basin profiles in these two basins. Our approach draws on the concepts of freshwater vulnerability assessments that guided the selection of indicators. Data on land use, population distribution and fertilizer load were used. The unit of analysis was chosen to distinguish areas with similar bio-geographical characteristics, such as the critical delta areas. Results were further discussed for sub-areas that experience relatively the most pressure in terms of examined indicators within the studied area. The river mouths of both rivers had the most intensive land use and high population density. They are also home to important ecosystems and are sensitive to changes in upstream areas. Our study presents a concise and spatially distributed view of the environmental basin profiles of the Irrawaddy and Salween River Basins. The analysis also provides some interesting methodological insights about the potential of public macro-scale datasets for environmental assessment. The spatial approach allowed the analysis of different indicators, providing a platform for data integration as well as a visually powerful overview of the study area. Yet, the use of macro-scale datasets entails challenges. Despite improvements, the assessment process tends to be driven by the availability and quality of data, rather than by the actual research and management needs. The greatest utility of macro-scale datasets lies-at least in data-poor areas-in larger scale comparative analyses between the basins and their different sub-areas. PMID:23389584

  6. Global Gene Profiling of Spontaneous Hepatocellular Carcinoma in B6C3F1 Mice: Similarities in the Molecular Landscape with Human Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.; Hong, Hu-Hua; Ton, Tai-Vu; Masinde, Tiwanda; Auerbach, Scott S.; Gerrish, Kevin; Bushel, Pierre R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Sills, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the risk factors of human HCC are well known, the molecular pathogenesis of this disease is complex, and in general, treatment options remain poor. The use of rodent models to study human cancer has been extensively pursued, both through genetically engineered rodents and rodent models used in carcinogenicity and toxicology studies. In particular, the B6C3F1 mouse used in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) two-year bioassay has been used to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of environmental and occupational chemicals, and other compounds. The high incidence of spontaneous HCC in the B6C3F1 mouse has challenged its use as a model for chemically induced HCC in terms of relevance to the human disease. Using global gene expression profiling, we identify the dysregulation of several mediators similarly altered in human HCC, including re-expression of fetal oncogenes, upregulation of protooncogenes, downregulation of tumor suppressor genes, and abnormal expression of cell cycle mediators, growth factors, apoptosis regulators, and angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling factors. Although major differences in etiology and pathogenesis remain between human and mouse HCC, there are important similarities in global gene expression and molecular pathways dysregulated in mouse and human HCC. These data provide further support for the use of this model in hazard identification of compounds with potential human carcinogenicity risk, and may help in better understanding the mechanisms of tumorigenesis resulting from chemical exposure in the NTP two-year carcinogenicity bioassay. PMID:21571946

  7. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as “responding biomarkers” by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress. PMID:27171077

  8. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as "responding biomarkers" by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress. PMID:27171077

  9. Global Metabolic Profiling of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (AtPAO4) Loss-of-Function Mutants Exhibiting Delayed Dark-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Sequera-Mutiozabal, Miren I.; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Atanasov, Kostadin E.; Bastida, Jaume; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Alcázar, Rubén; Tiburcio, Antonio F.

    2016-01-01

    Early and more recent studies have suggested that some polyamines (PAs), and particularly spermine (Spm), exhibit anti-senescence properties in plants. In this work, we have investigated the role of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (PAO4), encoding a PA back-conversion oxidase, during dark-induced senescence. Two independent PAO4 (pao4-1 and pao4-2) loss-of-function mutants have been found that accumulate 10-fold higher Spm, and this associated with delayed entry into senescence under dark conditions. Mechanisms underlying pao4 delayed senescence have been studied using global metabolic profiling by GC-TOF/MS. pao4 mutants exhibit constitutively higher levels of important metabolites involved in redox regulation, central metabolism and signaling that support a priming status against oxidative stress. During senescence, interactions between PAs and oxidative, sugar and nitrogen metabolism have been detected that additively contribute to delayed entry into senescence. Our results indicate the occurrence of metabolic interactions between PAs, particularly Spm, with cell oxidative balance and transport/biosynthesis of amino acids as a strategy to cope with oxidative damage produced during senescence. PMID:26925084

  10. Global metabolic profile identifies choline kinase alpha as a key regulator of glutathione-dependent antioxidant cell defense in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Anna; Nicoletti, Roberta; Perego, Paola; Iorio, Egidio; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Benigni, Fabio; Ricci, Alessandro; Podo, Franca; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Canevari, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) “cholinic phenotype”, characterized by increased intracellular phosphocholine content sustained by over-expression/activity of choline kinase-alpha (ChoKα/CHKA), is a metabolic cellular reprogramming involved in chemoresistance with still unknown mechanisms. By stable CHKA silencing and global metabolic profiling here we demonstrate that CHKA knockdown hampers growth capability of EOC cell lines both in vitro and in xenotransplant in vivo models. It also affected antioxidant cellular defenses, decreasing glutathione and cysteine content while increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, overall sensitizing EOC cells to current chemotherapeutic regimens. Natural recovering of ChoKα expression after its transient silencing rescued the wild-type phenotype, restoring intracellular glutathione content and drug resistance. Rescue and phenocopy of siCHKA-related effects were also obtained by artificial modulation of glutathione levels. The direct relationship among CHKA expression, glutathione intracellular content and drug sensitivity was overall demonstrated in six different EOC cell lines but notably, siCHKA did not affect growth capability, glutathione metabolism and/or drug sensitivity of non-tumoral immortalized ovarian cells. The “cholinic phenotype”, by recapitulating EOC addiction to glutathione content for the maintenance of the antioxidant defense, can be therefore considered a unique feature of cancer cells and a suitable target to improve chemotherapeutics efficacy. PMID:25796169

  11. Global gene expression profiling in mouse plasma cell tumor precursor and bystander cells reveals potential intervention targets for plasma cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Jason; Park, Eun Sung; Wang, Hongyang; Gupta, Shalu; Owens, James D; Nelson, Patrick J; DuBois, Wendy; Bair, Thomas; Janz, Siegfried; Mushinski, J Frederic

    2012-01-26

    Tumor progression usually proceeds through several sequential stages, any of which could be targets for interrupting the progression process if one understood these steps at the molecular level. We extracted nascent plasma cell tumor (PCT) cells from within inflammatory oil granulomas (OG) isolated from IP pristane-injected BALB/c.iMyc(Eμ) mice at 5 different time points during tumor progression. We used laser capture microdissection to collect incipient PCT cells and analyzed their global gene expression on Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A microarrays. Two independent studies were performed with different sets of mice. Analysis of the expression data used ANOVA and Bayesian estimation of temporal regulation. Genetic pathway analysis was performed using MetaCore (GeneGo) and IPA (Ingenuity). The gene expression profiles of PCT samples and those of undissected OG samples from adjacent sections showed that different genes and pathways were mobilized in the tumor cells during tumor progression, compared with their stroma. Our analysis implicated several genetic pathways in PCT progression, including biphasic (up- and then down-regulation) of the Spp1/osteopontin-dependent network and up-regulation of mRNA translation/protein synthesis. The latter led to a biologic validation study that showed that the AMPK-activating diabetes drug, metformin, was a potent specific PCT inhibitor in vitro. PMID:22147894

  12. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  13. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  14. Analysis of the global atmospheric methane budget using ECHAM-MOZ simulations for present-day, pre-industrial time and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Schröder, S.; Francois, L.; Zhang, X.; Lohmann, G.; Laepple, T.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric methane concentrations increased considerably from pre-industrial (PI) to present times largely due to anthropogenic emissions. However, firn and ice core records also document a notable rise of methane levels between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the pre-industrial era, the exact cause of which is not entirely clear. This study investigates these changes by analyzing the methane sources and sinks at each of these climatic periods. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane and play a key role in determining methane budget changes in particular in the absence of anthropogenic sources. Here, a simple wetland parameterization suitable for coarse-scale climate simulations over long periods is introduced, which is derived from a high-resolution map of surface slopes together with various soil hydrology parameters from the CARAIB vegetation model. This parameterization was implemented in the chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5-MOZ and multi-year time slices were run for LGM, PI and present-day (PD) climate conditions. Global wetland emissions from our parameterization are 72 Tg yr-1 (LGM), 115 Tg yr-1 (PI), and 132 Tg yr-1 (PD). These estimates are lower than most previous studies, and we find a stronger increase of methane emissions between LGM and PI. Taking into account recent findings that suggest more stable OH concentrations than assumed in previous studies, the observed methane distributions are nevertheless well reproduced under the different climates. Hence, this is one of the first studies where a consistent model approach has been successfully applied for simulating methane concentrations over a wide range of climate conditions.

  15. Building Futures in a Global Community. Department of Defense Education Activity: School, District, Area, and System. Accountability Profiles, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This document contains accountability profiles with detailed information for the overseas schools of the Department of Defense Dependents' Schools (DoDDS). Each profile contains a description of the school, district, or area characteristics and highlights identified by the principal or superintendent. Profiles also contain the 1997-98 school…

  16. Competency Profile Development for the General Related Core Curriculum for Cooperative Industrial Education Programs. Cooperative Industrial Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Competency Listing, Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This resource guide for the cooperative industrial education teacher provides a competency listing, expected student learning outcomes, and cross-referenced instructional materials by competencies for cooperative industrial education. The first section discusses 1991 revisions to the Missouri cooperative industrial education general related core…

  17. Global gene expression profiling of Bacillus subtilis in response to ammonium and tryptophan starvation as revealed by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Le Thi; Eymann, Christine; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The global gene expression profile of Bacillus subtilis in response to ammonium and tryptophan starvation was analyzed using transcriptomics and proteomics which gained novel insights into these starvation responses. The results demonstrate that both starvation conditions induce specific, overlapping and general starvation responses. The TnrA regulon, the glutamine synthetase (glnA) as well as the sigma(L)-dependent bkd and roc operons were most strongly and specifically induced after ammonium starvation. These are involved in the uptake and utilization of ammonium and alternative nitrogen sources such as amino acids, gamma-aminobutyrate, nitrate/nitrite, uric acid/urea and oligopeptides. In addition, several carbon catabolite-controlled genes (e.g. acsA, citB), the alpha-acetolactate synthase/-decarboxylase alsSD operon and several aminotransferase genes were specifically induced after ammonium starvation. The induction of sigma(F)- and sigma(E)-dependent sporulation proteins at later time points in ammonium-starved cells was accompanied by an increased sporulation frequency. The specific response to tryptophan starvation includes the TRAP-regulated tryptophan biosynthesis genes, some RelA-dependent genes (e.g. adeC, ald) as well as spo0E. Furthermore, we recognized overlapping responses between ammonium and tryptophan starvation (e.g. dat, maeN) as well as the common induction of the CodY and sigma(H) general starvation regulons and the RelA-dependent stringent response. Many genes encoding proteins of so far unknown functions could be assigned to specifically or commonly induced genes. PMID:17183219

  18. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

  19. Malignant Germ Cell Tumors Display Common microRNA Profiles Resulting in Global Changes in Expression of mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Roger D.; Murray, Matthew J.; Saini, Harpreet K.; van Dongen, Stijn; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Muralidhar, Balaji; Pett, Mark R.; Thornton, Claire M.; Nicholson, James C.; Enright, Anton J.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Despite their extensive clinical and pathological heterogeneity, all malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. However, no common biological abnormalities have been identified to date. We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNAs) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs. We applied the bioinformatic algorithm Sylamer to identify miRNAs that are of biological importance by inducing global shifts in mRNA levels. The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted p<0.00005), which were over-expressed regardless of histological subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal) or patient age (pediatric/adult). Sylamer revealed that the hexamer GCACTT, complementary to the 2-7 nucleotide miRNA seed AAGUGC shared by six members of the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters, was the only sequence significantly enriched in the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of mRNAs down-regulated in pediatric malignant GCTs (as a group), YSTs and ECs; and in adult YSTs (all versus non-malignant tissue controls; p<0.05). For the pediatric samples, down-regulated genes containing 3′UTR GCACTT showed significant over-representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to cancer–associated processes, whereas for down-regulated genes lacking GCACTT, GO terms generally represented metabolic processes only, with few genes per term (adjusted p<0.05). We conclude that the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters are universally over-expressed in malignant GCTs and coordinately down-regulate mRNAs involved in biologically significant pathways. PMID:20332240

  20. Analysis of global gene expression profile of rice in response to methylglyoxal indicates its possible role as a stress signal molecule

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Kushwaha, Hemant R.; Mustafiz, Ananda; Pareek, Ashwani; Sopory, Sudhir K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic metabolite produced primarily as a byproduct of glycolysis. Being a potent glycating agent, it can readily bind macromolecules like DNA, RNA, or proteins, modulating their expression and activity. In plants, despite the known inhibitory effects of MG on growth and development, still limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms and response pathways elicited upon elevation in MG levels. To gain insight into the molecular basis of MG response, we have investigated changes in global gene expression profiles in rice upon exposure to exogenous MG using GeneChip microarrays. Initially, growth of rice seedlings was monitored in response to increasing MG concentrations which could retard plant growth in a dose-dependent manner. Upon exposure to 10 mM concentration of MG, a total of 1685 probe sets were up- or down-regulated by more than 1.5-fold in shoot tissues within 16 h. These were classified into 10 functional categories. The genes involved in signal transduction such as, protein kinases and transcription factors, were significantly over-represented in the perturbed transcriptome, of which several are known to be involved in abiotic and biotic stress response indicating a cross-talk between MG-responsive and stress-responsive signal transduction pathways. Through in silico studies, we could predict 7–8 bp long conserved motif as a possible MG-responsive element (MGRE) in the 1 kb upstream region of genes that were more than 10-fold up- or down-regulated in the analysis. Since several perturbations were found in signaling cascades in response to MG, we hereby suggest that it plays an important role in signal transduction probably acting as a stress signal molecule. PMID:26388885

  1. Urban Shrinkage as a Performance of Whiteness: Neoliberal Urban Restructuring, Education, and Racial Containment in the Post-Industrial, Global Niche City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Although Detroit is not a centre of global finance, and plays a declining role in global production, it nevertheless participates in the present remediation of the relationship between cities and the globe. Manoeuvring to reposition the city as the global hub of mobility technology, metropolitan Detroit's neoliberal leadership advances particular…

  2. Technology: A Global Influence. Conference Proceedings. Annual Conference of the National Association of Industrial Technology (19th, Normal, Illinois, October 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Industrial Technology, Ypsilanti, MI.

    Abstracts of the following 52 papers are included in this document: "Development of a Computer-Automated Mechanical Testing System" (Aman); "Bringing Industry High-Tech into the School Curriculum" (Andrews); "Fostering Excellence in Industrial Technology Faculty and Programs" (Bensen); "World Markets and Industrial Technology" (Carlson); "Applied…

  3. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage project: a global partnership for raising the profile of monogenetic volcanism and rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive-Garcia, C.

    2013-12-01

    The present Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage project represents a global partnership for raising the profile of monogenetic volcanism and rifting. From the 19th Century the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault have been at the centre of discussion about the nature of volcanoes, and the origin of rifts. Part of this interest was due to the action of landowners and government agents such as Montlosier and Desmarest (who first realised that the chain were volcanoes), and national leaders such as Napoleon I, who was instrumental in the visit of Humphrey Davey and Michael Farady in 1805. The chain features largely in Scrope's 'Considerations on v olcanoes' 1825, and of Bonney's 'Volcanoes their structure and significance' of 1899. The fault escarpment is discussed at length by Lyell in Principles of Geology (1830), although they did not recognise it yet as a rift. The area has seen the development of a modern scientific-government-private partnership in geoscience research and education that has developed in parallel with the growth of a earth science centre of excellence, now the Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. In addition, local owners and users have taken an important part in the development of this partnership to help create a sustainable management of the area. Partnerships have been developed with other sites around the world to share best practice, especially in managing inhabited natural sites. For over 30 years the area has been part of the evolving Auvergne Region Natural Volcano Park, for five years the central Puy de Dôme is a 'Grande site de France', equivalent to a national monument. Educational attractions grew up first as private - scientific partnerships (e.g. Lemptégy, Volvic, Maison de la Pierre) and then with greater public input like Vulcania and the Puy de Dome. The channelling of visitors has been accomplished by improved access by bus, and a new cog-railway up the Puy de Dôme. I present an overview of the UNESCO project, and show

  4. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.; Shen, S.

    1996-09-01

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  5. Pre-industrial-potential and Last Glacial Maximum global vegetation simulated with a coupled climate-biosphere model: diagnosis of bioclimatic relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crucifix, Michel; Betts, Richard A.; Hewitt, Christopher D.

    2005-03-01

    The global climate-vegetation model HadSM3_TRIFFID has been used to estimate the equilibrium states of climate and vegetation with pre-industrial and last glacial boundary conditions. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the terrestrial biosphere component (TRIFFID) and its response to changes in climate and CO 2 concentration. We also show how, by means of a diagnosis of the distribution of plant functional types according to climate parameters (soil temperature, winter temperature, growing-degree days, precipitation), it is possible to get better insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the biosphere model by reference to field knowledge of ecosystems. The model exhibits profound changes between the vegetation distribution at the Last Glacial Maximum and today that are generally consistent with palaeoclimate data, such as the disappearance of the Siberian boreal forest (taiga), an increase in shrub cover in Europe and an increase of the subtropical desert area. The effective equatorial and sub-tropical tree area is reduced by 18%. There is also an increase in cover of wooded species in North-Western Africa and in Mexico. The analysis of bioclimatic relationships turns out to be an efficient method to infer the contributions of different climatic factors to vegetation changes, both at high latitudes, where the position of the boreal treeline appears in this model to be more directly constrained by the water stress than by summer temperature, and in semi-humid areas where the contributions of temperature and precipitation changes may partly compensate each other. Our study also confirms the major contribution of the decrease in CO 2 to environmental changes and carbon storage through its selective impact on gross primary productivity of C3 and C4 plants and a reduction by 25% of water-use efficiency. Specifically, the reduction in CO 2 concentration increases the amount of precipitation necessary to sustain at least 20% of grass fraction by 50 mm

  6. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950–2010

    PubMed Central

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet

  7. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  8. Global Gene Expression Profiles of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 in Response to Irradiation with UV-B and White Light

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixuan; McCluskey, Michael P.; Ni, Hao; LaRossa, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a transcript profiling methodology to elucidate expression patterns of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and used the technology to investigate changes in gene expression caused by irradiation with either intermediate-wavelength UV light (UV-B) or high-intensity white light. Several families of transcripts were altered by UV-B treatment, including mRNAs specifying proteins involved in light harvesting, photosynthesis, photoprotection, and the heat shock response. In addition, UV-B light induced the stringent response in Synechocystis, as indicated by the repression of ribosomal protein transcripts and other mRNAs involved in translation. High-intensity white light- and UV-B-mediated expression profiles overlapped in the down-regulation of photosynthesis genes and induction of heat shock response but differed in several other transcriptional processes including those specifying carbon dioxide uptake and fixation, the stringent response, and the induction profile of the high-light-inducible proteins. These two profile comparisons not only corroborated known physiological changes but also suggested coordinated regulation of many pathways, including synchronized induction of D1 protein recycling and a coupling between decreased phycobilisome biosynthesis and increased phycobilisome degradation. Overall, the gene expression profile analysis generated new insights into the integrated network of genes that adapts rapidly to different wavelengths and intensities of light. PMID:12446635

  9. Retrieving the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: A method based on a neural network with potential for global-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauzède, R.; Claustre, H.; Jamet, C.; Uitz, J.; Ras, J.; Mignot, A.; D'Ortenzio, F.

    2015-01-01

    neural network-based method is developed to assess the vertical distribution of (1) chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl]) and (2) phytoplankton community size indices (i.e., microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton) from in situ vertical profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence. This method (FLAVOR for Fluorescence to Algal communities Vertical distribution in the Oceanic Realm) uses as input only the shape of the fluorescence profile associated with its acquisition date and geo-location. The neural network is trained and validated using a large database including 896 concomitant in situ vertical profiles of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigments and fluorescence. These profiles were collected during 22 oceanographic cruises representative of the global ocean in terms of trophic and oceanographic conditions, making our method applicable to most oceanic waters. FLAVOR is validated with respect to the retrieval of both [Chl] and phytoplankton size indices using an independent in situ data set and appears to be relatively robust spatially and temporally. To illustrate the potential of the method, we applied it to in situ measurements of the BATS (Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study) site and produce monthly climatologies of [Chl] and associated phytoplankton size indices. The resulting climatologies appear very promising compared to climatologies based on available in situ HPLC data. With the increasing availability of spatially and temporally well-resolved data sets of chlorophyll fluorescence, one possible global-scale application of FLAVOR could be to develop 3-D and even 4-D climatologies of [Chl] and associated composition of phytoplankton communities. The Matlab and R codes of the proposed algorithm are provided as supporting information.

  10. Sensitivity of Temperature Profiles Retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS/TES) Observations to the GSFC Synthetic Mars Model Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maguire, William C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Thompson, R. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Dason, S.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the task of interpreting IR spectral features observed by MGS/TES due to surface minerals requires distinguishing those IR signatures from atmospheric signatures of gas and dust. Surface-atmosphere separation for MGS/TES depends on knowledge of the retrieved temperature profile. In turn, the temperature retrieval Erom the observed data depends on molecular parameters including 15 micron CO2 line shape or line intensities which contribute to defining the Mars synthetic radiative transfer model. Using a simple isothermal, homogeneous single layer model of Pinnock and Shine, we find the ratio of (the error in degrees Kelvin of the retrieved temperature profile) to (the percentage error in the absorption coefficient) (deg K/percent) to be 0.4 at 200K. This ratio at 150K and 250K is 0.2 and 0.6, respectively. A more refined model, incorporating observed MGS/TES retrieved temperature profiles, the TES instrumental resolution and the most recent molecular modelling, will yield an improved knowledge of this error sensitivity. We present results of such a sensitivity study to determine the dependence of temperature profiles inverted from MGS/TES on these and other molecular parameters. This work was supported in part by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program.

  11. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  12. Quantitative analysis of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) viremia profiles from experimental infection: a statistical modelling approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically significant viral disease facing the global swine industry. Viremia profiles of PRRS virus challenged pigs reflect the severity and progression of the infection within the host and provide crucial information for subsequen...

  13. Using a customized DNA microarray for expression profiling of the estrogen-responsive genes to evaluate estrogen activity among natural estrogens and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Terasaka, Shunichi; Aita, Yukie; Inoue, Akio; Hayashi, Shinichi; Nishigaki, Michiko; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Wada-Kiyama, Yuko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Akaba, Shuichi; Tanaka, Junko; Sone, Hideko; Yonemoto, Junzo; Tanji, Masao; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2004-01-01

    We developed a DNA microarray to evaluate the estrogen activity of natural estrogens and industrial chemicals. Using MCF-7 cells, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of estrogen-responsive genes among approximately 20,000 human genes. On the basis of reproducible and reliable responses of the genes to estrogen, we selected 172 genes to be used for developing a customized DNA microarray. Using this DNA microarray, we examined estrogen activity among natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estriol, estrone, genistein), industrial chemicals (diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, methoxychlor), and dioxin. We obtained results identical to those for other bioassays that are used for detecting estrogen activity. On the basis of statistical correlations analysis, these bioassays have shown more sensitivity for dioxin and methoxychlor. PMID:15159206

  14. Global value trees.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term "global value chains" (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  15. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  16. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Object: Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. Methods: We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. Results: There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with “normal” global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. Conclusion: The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate. PMID:26550322

  17. Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-02-01

    This roadmap describes the industry's R&D strategy, priorities, milestones, and performance targets for achieving its long-term goals. It accounts for changes in the industry and the global marketplace since the first roadmap was published in 1997. An updated roadmap was published November 2001. (PDF 1.1 MB).

  18. Bio-optical profile data report: Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-Series, HOT-3, R/V Moana Wave, 6-10 January 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Rhea, W. Joseph; Tran, An Van

    1990-01-01

    Time-series measurements of the incident surface downwelling irradiance and vertical profiles of the Bio-optical properties of the ocean have been measured during the third cruise of the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series to the ALOHA site, 22 degrees 56.4 minutes N, 157 degrees 54.6 minutes W, north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during the period January 6 to 10, 1989. A summary of these data is presented to permit investigators an overview of the data collected. The data are available in digital form for scientific investigators.

  19. Variability of water content and of depth profiles of global fallout 137Cs in grassland soils and the resulting external gamma-dose rates.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, W; Steindl, H; Bunzl, K

    1998-04-01

    137Cs from global fallout of nuclear weapon testings in the 1950s and 1960s was determined in successive layers (0-30 cm) of eight undisturbed grassland soils in Bavaria, Germany. The maximum activity concentration was found in soil layers between 4 and 15 cm below the surface. Using the vertical distribution of the cesium activity, which varied considerably from site to site, the mean residence half-time of 137Cs from global fallout in each soil layer was evaluated with a compartment model. These values ranged from 1.0 to 6.3 years/cm. The mean residence half-time averaged over all soil layers and all sites was 2.7 +/- 1.4 years/cm and, thus, about twice the corresponding residence half-time of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs as determined in the same soil layers (also in 1993). The dose rate of the external gamma-radiation due to 137Cs from global fallout in the soil determined from the depth distributions varied between 0.34 and 0.57 (mean: 0.45 +/- 0.07) nGy/h per kBq/m2. The effect of soil water content on the dose rate was studied by considering four states of the soil, from water content zero to complete water saturation of the total pore volume. It was shown that the difference between the dose rates at the permanent wilting point and the field capacity, which both represent the most relevant water contents of soils, was only 10% of the dose rate at the permanent wilting point for all sites. PMID:9615340

  20. Coupled Line-Profile and Continuum Variations in EZ Canis Majoris: Implications for the Driving Mechanism of Global Wind Structures in Wolf-Rayet Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Thierry; St-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Cardona, Octavio; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Hill, Grant M.

    1998-05-01

    EZ CMa is an apparently unusual Wolf-Rayet star of the nitrogen sequence that exhibits strong variations on a period of 3.77 days with coherency lasting typically about 10 cycles. We have used an extensive set of optical spectroscopic observations to investigate a possible link between its line-profile and photometric continuum variability. Despite the strong epoch dependency of the variations, a persistent correlation is found between changes in the wind line profiles (N V λλ4604, 4620 in particular) and in continuum flux emanating near the stellar core. We suggest that these observations give further support to the idea that the physical conditions prevailing in the vicinity of the star's photosphere have a significant impact on the wind structure and that a spatial dependence of these conditions at the base of the outflow induces the formation of azimuthal wind structures in EZ CMa. The epoch-dependent nature of the variability could be related to long-term behavior of corotating magnetic structures, although pulsational instabilities constitute a viable alternative.

  1. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. Global gene expression profile induced by the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Sara; Oggier, Daniela M; Fent, Karl

    2011-10-01

    Residues of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) are ubiquitously found in aquatic biota but potential adverse effects in fish are fairly unknown. To identify molecular effects and modes of action of EHMC we applied a gene expression profiling in zebrafish using whole genome microarrays. Transcriptome analysis and validation of targeted genes were performed after 14 days of exposure of male zebrafish. Concentrations of 2.2 μg/L and 890 μg/L EHMC lead to alteration of 1096 and 1137 transcripts, respectively, belonging to many pathways. Genes involved in lipid metabolism and estrogenic pathway (vtg1), lipid biosynthesis (ptgds), vitamin A metabolic process (rbp2a), DNA damage and apoptosis (gadd45b), and regulation of cell growth (igfbp1a) were investigated by qRT-PCR analysis in whole body, liver, brain and testis. The analysis showed tissue-specific gene profiles and revealed that EHMC slightly affects the transcription of genes involved in hormonal pathways including vtg1, esr1, esr2b, ar, cyp19b and hsd17β3. PMID:21601967

  3. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma). PMID:27363168

  4. Polychlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls in ash and soil from several industrial areas in North Vietnam: residue concentrations, profiles and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Hue; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Hoang Tung

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBzs) including penta- and hexachlorobenzene can be unintentionally formed from thermal processes in different industrial activities, and very little information is available on the contamination and emission characteristics of these new persistent organic pollutants from industries in Vietnam. In this study, contamination of PCBzs (including penta- and hexachlorobenzene, named PeCBz and HCB, respectively) and PCBs (including CB-28, 52, 101, 153, 138, 180) in fly ash, bottom ash and soil from combustion processes of waste incineration, metallurgy (steel making and zinc production) and cement production from several provinces in the Northern Vietnam, including Hai Duong, Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Hai Phong and Thai Nguyen, was preliminary investigated. The PCBzs concentrations in fly ash, bottom ash and soil ranged from 2.7 to 100 ng g(-1), from 2.7 to 159 ng g(-1) and from 0.28 to 33.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Relatively high residues of PeCBz in fly ash and bottom ash from municipal waste incinerators in some provinces from the Northern Vietnam were encountered. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 18.0 to 8260 ng g(-1), from 1.0 to 10600 ng g(-1) and from 14.5 to 130 ng g(-1) for the fly ash, bottom ash and soil, respectively. Daily intakes of PeCBz, HCB and PCBs through soil ingestion and dermal exposure estimated for children ranged 0.33-9.93 (mean 3.14), 0.39-21.1 (mean 4.9) and 6.09-1530 ng/kg bw/day (mean 346), respectively; and these intakes were about 4.7-5.4 times higher than those estimated for adult. The intakes of PeCBz and HCB were relatively low, while those for PCBs exceeded WHO TDI for some samples. PMID:26049895

  5. Global small-angle X-ray scattering data analysis for multilamellar vesicles: the evolution of the scattering density profile model

    PubMed Central

    Heftberger, Peter; Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heberle, Frederick A.; Pan, Jianjun; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kučerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John; Pabst, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The highly successful scattering density profile (SDP) model, used to jointly analyze small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, has been adapted for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high-resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone X-ray data. Structural parameters such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. The results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and X-ray data. The inclusion of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data in the analysis improved the lipid backbone information but did not improve, within experimental error, the structural data regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid. PMID:24587787

  6. Global expression profile in low grade meningiomas and schwannomas shows upregulation of PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2 compared to their healthy tissue.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martin, Miguel; Lassaletta, Luis; Isla, Alberto; De Campos, Jose M; Pinto, Giovanny R; Burbano, Rommel R; Castresana, Javier S; Melendez, Barbara; Rey, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    Schwannomas and grade I meningiomas are non‑metastatic neoplasms that share the common mutation of gene NF2. They usually appear in neurofibromatosis type 2 patients. Currently, there is no drug treatment available for both tumors, thus the use of wide expression technologies is crucial to identify therapeutic targets. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST was used to test global gene expression in 22 meningiomas, 31 schwannomas and, as non-tumoral controls, 3 healthy meningeal tissues, 8 non-tumoral nerves and 1 primary Schwann cell culture. A non-stringent P-value cut-off and fold change were used to establish deregulated genes. We identified a subset of genes that were upregulated in meningiomas and schwannomas when compared to their respectively healthy tissues, including PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2. Thus, these genes should be thoroughly studied as targets in a possible combined treatment. PMID:25333347

  7. Global expression profile in low grade meningiomas and schwannomas shows upregulation of PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2 compared to their healthy tissue

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-MARTIN, MIGUEL; LASSALETTA, LUIS; ISLA, ALBERTO; DE CAMPOS, JOSE M.; PINTO, GIOVANNY R.; BURBANO, ROMMEL R.; CASTRESANA, JAVIER S.; MELENDEZ, BARBARA; REY, JUAN A.

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas and grade I meningiomas are non-metastatic neoplasms that share the common mutation of gene NF2. They usually appear in neurofibromatosis type 2 patients. Currently, there is no drug treatment available for both tumors, thus the use of wide expression technologies is crucial to identify therapeutic targets. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST was used to test global gene expression in 22 meningiomas, 31 schwannomas and, as non-tumoral controls, 3 healthy meningeal tissues, 8 non-tumoral nerves and 1 primary Schwann cell culture. A non-stringent P-value cut-off and fold change were used to establish deregulated genes. We identified a subset of genes that were upregulated in meningiomas and schwannomas when compared to their respectively healthy tissues, including PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2. Thus, these genes should be thoroughly studied as targets in a possible combined treatment. PMID:25333347

  8. The two most common histological subtypes of malignant germ cell tumour are distinguished by global microRNA profiles, associated with differential transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesised that differences in microRNA expression profiles contribute to the contrasting natural history and clinical outcome of the two most common types of malignant germ cell tumour (GCT), yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas. Results By direct comparison, using microarray data for paediatric GCT samples and published qRT-PCR data for adult samples, we identified microRNAs significantly up-regulated in YSTs (n = 29 paediatric, 26 adult, 11 overlapping) or germinomas (n = 37 paediatric). By Taqman qRT-PCR we confirmed differential expression of 15 of 16 selected microRNAs and further validated six of these (miR-302b, miR-375, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-122, miR-205) in an independent sample set. Interestingly, the miR-302 cluster, which is over-expressed in all malignant GCTs, showed further over-expression in YSTs versus germinomas, representing six of the top eight microRNAs over-expressed in paediatric YSTs and seven of the top 11 in adult YSTs. To explain this observation, we used mRNA expression profiles of paediatric and adult malignant GCTs to identify 10 transcription factors (TFs) consistently over-expressed in YSTs versus germinomas, followed by linear regression to confirm associations between TF and miR-302 cluster expression levels. Using the sequence motif analysis environment iMotifs, we identified predicted binding sites for four of the 10 TFs (GATA6, GATA3, TCF7L2 and MAF) in the miR-302 cluster promoter region. Finally, we showed that miR-302 family over-expression in YST is likely to be functionally significant, as mRNAs down-regulated in YSTs were enriched for 3' untranslated region sequences complementary to the common seed of miR-302a~miR-302d. Such mRNAs included mediators of key cancer-associated processes, including tumour suppressor genes, apoptosis regulators and TFs. Conclusions Differential microRNA expression is likely to contribute to the relatively aggressive behaviour of YSTs and may enable future improvements in

  9. Global metabolomic profiling of human serum from obese individuals by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry to evaluate the intake of breakfasts prepared with heated edible oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Luque de Castro, María D

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic profile of human serum after intake of breakfasts prepared with different heated vegetable oils has been studied. Four oils (olive and sunflower oils, pure and enriched with natural and artificial oxidation inhibitors) were subjected to a simulated heated process prior to breakfast preparation. A metabolomics global profiling approach performed on post-basal serum samples revealed statistical differences among individuals based on breakfast intake, and identified compounds responsible for such differences. Serum samples obtained in basal state (control samples) and 2 and 4h after programmed intakes were analyzed by LC-TOF/MS. The resulting fingerprints were compared and differences between basal and post-basal states evaluated, observing that the intake of different breakfasts altered the metabolic signature of serum. Analysis models based on PLS algorithms were developed to discriminate individuals in post-basal state for each intervention breakfast. Then, Volcano tests enabled to detect significant molecular entities explaining the variability associated to each breakfast. It is worth emphasizing the importance of fatty acids, their derivatives and phospholipids for tentative identification. PMID:23870884

  10. Sequential analysis of global gene expression profiles in immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes: potential molecular markers of oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. Results 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. Conclusion Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource for studies

  11. Global gene expression profiling during Medicago truncatula-Phymatotrichopsis omnivora interaction reveals a role for jasmonic acid, ethylene, and the flavonoid pathway in disease development.

    PubMed

    Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Marek, Stephen M; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Sledge, Mary K; Dixon, Richard A; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2009-01-01

    Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert causes a destructive root rot in cotton, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and many other dicot species. No consistently effective control measures or resistant host germplasm for Phymatotrichum root rot (PRR) are known. The relative genetic intractability of cotton and alfalfa precludes their use as model pathosystem hosts for P. omnivora. Therefore, we used the model legume M. truncatula and its available genetic and genomic resources to investigate PRR. Confocal imaging of P. omnivora interactions with M. truncatula roots revealed that the mycelia do not form any specialized structures for penetration and mainly colonize cortical cells and, eventually, form a mycelial mantle covering the root's surfaces. Expression profiling of M. truncatula roots infected by P. omnivora identified several upregulated genes, including the pathogenesis-related class I and class IV chitinases and genes involved in reactive oxygen species generation and phytohormone (jasmonic acid and ethylene) signaling. Genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were induced (2.5- to 10-fold over mock-inoculated controls) at 3 days postinoculation (dpi) in response to fungal penetration. However, the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes returned to the basal levels with the progress of the disease at 5 dpi. These transcriptome results, confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, showed that P. omnivora apparently evades induced host defenses and may downregulate phytochemical defenses at later stages of infection to favor pathogenesis. PMID:19061398

  12. Computer Simulation of Global Profiles of Carbon Dioxide Using a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Column-Content DIAL System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results of computer simulations of the error in measuring carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles from earth orbit. The simulated sensor is a pulsed, 2-micron, coherent-detection lidar alternately operating on at least two wavelengths. The simulated geometry is a nadir viewing lidar measuring the column content signal. Atmospheric absorption is modeled using FASCODE3P software with the HITRAN 2004 absorption line data base. Lidar shot accumulation is employed up to the horizontal resolution limit. Horizontal resolutions of 50, 100, and 200 km are shown. Assuming a 400 km spacecraft orbit, the horizontal resolutions correspond to measurement times of about 7, 14, and 28 s. We simulate laser pulse-pair repetition frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The range of shot accumulation is 7 to 2.8 million pulse-pairs. The resultant error is shown as a function of horizontal resolution, laser pulse-pair repetition frequency, and laser pulse energy. The effect of different on and off pulse energies is explored. The results are compared to simulation results of others and to demonstrated 2-micron operating points at NASA Langley.

  13. Use of short-term transcriptional profiles to assess the long-term cancer-related safety of environmental and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Russell S; Bao, Wenjun; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri; Andersen, Melvin E; Wolfinger, Russell D

    2009-12-01

    The process for evaluating chemical safety is inefficient, costly, and animal intensive. There is growing consensus that the current process of safety testing needs to be significantly altered to improve efficiency and reduce the number of untested chemicals. In this study, the use of short-term gene expression profiles was evaluated for predicting the increased incidence of mouse lung tumors. Animals were exposed to a total of 26 diverse chemicals with matched vehicle controls over a period of 3 years. Upon completion, significant batch-related effects were observed. Adjustment for batch effects significantly improved the ability to predict increased lung tumor incidence. For the best statistical model, the estimated predictive accuracy under honest fivefold cross-validation was 79.3% with a sensitivity and specificity of 71.4 and 86.3%, respectively. A learning curve analysis demonstrated that gains in model performance reached a plateau at 25 chemicals, indicating that the size of current data set was sufficient to provide a robust classifier. The classification results showed that a small subset of chemicals contributed disproportionately to the misclassification rate. For these chemicals, the misclassification was more closely associated with genotoxicity status than with efficacy in the original bioassay. Statistical models were also used to predict dose-response increases in tumor incidence for methylene chloride and naphthalene. The average posterior probabilities for the top models matched the results from the bioassay for methylene chloride. For naphthalene, the average posterior probabilities for the top models overpredicted the tumor response, but the variability in predictions was significantly higher. The study provides both a set of gene expression biomarkers for predicting chemically induced mouse lung tumors and a broad assessment of important experimental and analysis criteria for developing microarray-based predictors of safety-related end points

  14. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  15. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  16. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to extend yeast lifespan via a dual-phase mode: a conclusion drawn from global transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, DaTing; Wu, Ming; Li, SiMing; Gao, Qian; Zeng, QingPing

    2015-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) promotes longevity among distinct organisms from yeast to mammals. Although CR-prolonged lifespan is believed to associate with enhanced respiratory activity, it is apparently controversial for accelerated energy consumption regardless of insufficient nutrient intake. In reconciling the contradiction of less food supply versus much metabolite dispense, we revealed a CR-based mode of dual-phase responses that encompass a phase of mitochondrial enhancement (ME) and a phase of post-mitochondrial enhancement (PME), which can be distinguished by the expression patterns and activity dynamics of mitochondrial signatures. ME is characterized by global antioxidative activation, and PME is denoted by systemic metabolic modulation. CR-mediated aging-delaying effects are replicated by artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of the antimalarial artemisinin that can alkylate heme-containing proteins, suggesting artesunate-heme conjugation functionally resembles nitric oxide-heme interaction. A correlation of artesunate-heme conjugation with cytochrome c oxidase activation has been established from adduct formation and activity alteration. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide also mimics CR to trigger antioxidant responses, affect signaling cascades, and alter respiratory rhythms, implying hydrogen peroxide is engaged in lifespan extension. Conclusively, artesunate mimics CR-triggered nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide to induce antioxidative networks for scavenging reactive oxygen species and mitigating oxidative stress, thereby directing metabolic conversion from anabolism to catabolism, maintaining essential metabolic functionality, and extending life expectancy in yeast. PMID:25682392

  17. Global Profiling in Vestibular Schwannomas Shows Critical Deregulation of MicroRNAs and Upregulation in Those Included in Chromosomal Region 14q32

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Martin, Miguel; Lassaletta, Luis; de Campos, Jose M.; Isla, Alberto; Gavilan, Javier; Pinto, Giovanny R.; Burbano, Rommel R.; Latif, Farida; Melendez, Barbara; Castresana, Javier S.; Rey, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors that arise from Schwann cells in the VIII cranial pair and usually present NF2 gene mutations and/or loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 22q. Deregulation has also been found in several genes, such as ERBB2 and NRG1. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs approximately 21 to 23 nucleotides in length that regulate mRNAs, usually by degradation at the post-transcriptional level. Methods We used microarray technology to test the deregulation of miRNAs and other non-coding RNAs present in GeneChip miRNA 1.0 (Affymetrix) over 16 vestibular schwannomas and 3 control-nerves, validating 10 of them by qRT-PCR. Findings Our results showed the deregulation of 174 miRNAs, including miR-10b, miR-206, miR-183 and miR-204, and the upregulation of miR-431, miR-221, miR-21 and miR-720, among others. The results also showed an aberrant expression of other non-coding RNAs. We also found a general upregulation of the miRNA cluster located at chromosome 14q32. Conclusion Our results suggest that several miRNAs are involved in tumor formation and/or maintenance and that global upregulation of the 14q32 chromosomal site contains miRNAs that may represent a therapeutic target for this neoplasm. PMID:23776562

  18. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PPAR-γ Agonist-Treated Kidneys in an Orthologous Rat Model of Human Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Daisuke; Kugita, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Aukema, Harold M.; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Morita, Miwa; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Calvet, James P.; Wallace, Darren P.; Toyohara, Takafumi; Abe, Takaaki; Nagao, Shizuko

    2012-01-01

    Kidneys are enlarged by aberrant proliferation of tubule epithelial cells leading to the formation of numerous cysts, nephron loss, and interstitial fibrosis in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Pioglitazone (PIO), a PPAR-γ agonist, decreased cell proliferation, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation, and ameliorated PKD progression in PCK rats (Am. J. Physiol.-Renal, 2011). To explore genetic mechanisms involved, changes in global gene expression were analyzed. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of 30655 genes, 13 of the top 20 downregulated gene ontology biological process gene sets and six of the top 20 curated gene set canonical pathways identified to be downregulated by PIOtreatment were related to cell cycle and proliferation, including EGF, PDGF and JNK pathways. Their relevant pathways were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes database. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 is a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism found in the top 5 genes downregulated by PIO treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the gene product of this enzyme was highly expressed in PCK kidneys and decreased by PIO. These data show that PIO alters the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22666229

  19. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Duleep, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  20. A nano ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach for global metabolomic profiling and case study on drug-resistant multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Drew R; Wu, Zhiping; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C; Peng, Junmin

    2014-04-01

    Global metabolomics relies on highly reproducible and sensitive detection of a wide range of metabolites in biological samples. Here we report the optimization of metabolome analysis by nanoflow ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry. Reliable peak features were extracted from the LC-MS runs based on mandatory detection in duplicates and additional noise filtering according to blank injections. The run-to-run variation in peak area showed a median of 14%, and the false discovery rate during a mock comparison was evaluated. To maximize the number of peak features identified, we systematically characterized the effect of sample loading amount, gradient length, and MS resolution. The number of features initially rose and later reached a plateau as a function of sample amount, fitting a hyperbolic curve. Longer gradients improved unique feature detection in part by time-resolving isobaric species. Increasing the MS resolution up to 120000 also aided in the differentiation of near isobaric metabolites, but higher MS resolution reduced the data acquisition rate and conferred no benefits, as predicted from a theoretical simulation of possible metabolites. Moreover, a biphasic LC gradient allowed even distribution of peak features across the elution, yielding markedly more peak features than the linear gradient. Using this robust nUPLC-HRMS platform, we were able to consistently analyze ~6500 metabolite features in a single 60 min gradient from 2 mg of yeast, equivalent to ~50 million cells. We applied this optimized method in a case study of drug (bortezomib) resistant and drug-sensitive multiple myeloma cells. Overall, 18% of metabolite features were matched to KEGG identifiers, enabling pathway enrichment analysis. Principal component analysis and heat map data correctly clustered isogenic phenotypes, highlighting the potential for hundreds of small molecule biomarkers of cancer drug resistance. PMID:24611431

  1. "A High Speed Laser Profiling Device for Refractory Lininig Thickness Measurements In a Gasifier with Cross-Cut to the Metals, Forest Products, Chemical and Power Generation Industries"

    SciTech Connect

    Michel Bonin; Tom Harvill; Jared Hoog; Don Holve; Alan Alsing; Bob Clark; Steve Hrivnak

    2007-11-01

    Process Metrix began this project with the intent of modifying an existing ranging system and combining the same with a specially designed optical scanner to yield three dimensional range images that could be used to determine the refractory lining thickness in a gasifier. The goal was to make these measurements during short outages while the gasifier was at or near operating temperature. Our initial estimates of the photon counts needed for the modulation-based range finder were optimistic, and we were forced to undertake a redesign of the range finder portion of the project. This ultimately created significant and unanticipated time delays that were exacerbated when Acuity Technologies, the subcontractor responsible for delivering the redesigned range finder, failed to deliver electrical components capable of meeting the specific range error requirements needed for accurate lining thickness measurement. An extensive search for an alternate, off-the-shelf solution was unsuccessful, and Process Metrix was forced to undertake the electronics development internally without project funds. The positive outcome of this effort is a documented set of range finder electronics that have exceptional accuracy, simplicity, temperature stability and detection limit; in sum a package perfectly suited to the measurement requirements and within our control. It is unfortunate yet understandable, given the time delays involved in reaching this milestone, that the Department of Energy decided not to continue the project to completion. The integration of this electronics set into the optomechanical hardware also developed within the scope of the project remains as follow-on project that Process Metrix will finish within the calendar year 2008. Testing in the gasifier is, at this point, not certain pending the award of additional funding needed for field trials. Eastman, our industrial partner in this project, remains interested in evaluating a finished system, and working together we

  2. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.

    2016-02-01

    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the

  3. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  4. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Critical issues affecting the future of dairy industry: individual contributions in the scope of a global approach.

    PubMed

    Malcata, F X

    1999-08-01

    Several constraints that have been affecting the dairy industry are identified in a critical fashion, and directions are given with an emphasis on food processing implemented at the postproduction level. The rationale for modifications aimed at enhancing the appeal of condensed dairy products should be consubstantiated in strengthening of organoleptic characteristics, improvement of nutraceutical impact, and reduction of polluting power. This enumeration follows an order of increasing time scale required for consumer perception and increasing size scale associated with expected impact. Pursuance of such streamlines should lead to manufacture of dairy products that resemble nature more closely in terms of milk coagulation, milk fat modification, milk fermentation, whey fermentation, and starter culture addition. Directions for research and development anticipated as useful and effective in this endeavor, and which have been previously and consistently adopted in the development of an individual research program, are characterization and development of alternative rennets from plant sources, development of starter and nonstarter cultures from adventitious microflora, utilization of probiotic strains as starter cultures, upgrading of whey via physical or fermentation routes, and modification of milk fat via lipase-mediated interesterification reactions. PMID:10480086

  5. English Teaching Profile: Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A profile of the state of English and English instruction in Bahrain covers the following topics: description of the role and status of English language use in industry and commerce, government, and education; the role of English at all levels of the educational system; the availability, characteristics, and qualifications of teachers of English;…

  6. Comparing global-scale topographic and climatic metrics to long-term erosion rates using ArcSwath, an efficient new ArcGIS tool for swath profile analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Niclas; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    The topography of the Earth's surface is the result of the interaction of tectonics, erosion and climate. Thus, topography should contain a record of these processes that can be extracted by topographic analysis. The question considered in this study is whether the spatial variations in erosion that have sculpted the modern topography are representative of the long-term erosion rates in mountainous regions. We compare long-term erosion rates derived from low-temperature thermochronometry to erosional proxies calculated from topographic and climatic data analysis. The study has been performed on a global scale including six orogens: The Himalaya, Andes, Taiwan, Olympic Mountains, Southern Alps in New Zealand and European Alps. The data was analyzed using a new swath profile analysis tool for ArcGIS called ArcSwath (https://github.com/HUGG/ArcSwath) to determine the correlations between the long-term erosion rates and modern elevations, slope angles, relief in 2.5-km- and 5-km-diameter circles, erosion potential, normalized channel steepness index ksn, and annual rainfall. ArcSwath uses a Python script that has been incorporated into an ArcMap 10.2 add-in tool, extracting swath profiles in about ten seconds compared to earlier workflows that could take more than an hour. In ArcMap, UTM-projected point or raster files can be used for creating swath profiles. Point data are projected onto the swath and the statistical parameters (minimum, mean and maximum of the values across the swath) are calculated for the raster data. Both can be immediately plotted using the Python matplotlib library, or plotted externally using the csv-file that is produced by ArcSwath. When raster and point data are plotted together, it is easier to make comparisons and see correlations between the selected data. An unambiguous correlation between the topographic or climatic metrics and long-term erosion rates was not found. Fitting of linear regression lines to the topographic/ climatic metric

  7. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysis of an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus revealed a 1.6-fold increase in sperm mutation frequency in mice exposed to ambient air for 10 wks, followed by a 6-wk break, compared with HEPA-filtered air, indicating that mutations were induced in spermatogonial stem cells. DNA collected after 3 or 10 wks of exposure did not exhibit increased mutation frequency. Bulky DNA adducts were below the detection threshold in testes samples, suggesting that DNA reactive chemicals do not reach the germ line and cause ESTR mutation. In contrast, DNA strand breaks were elevated at 3 and 10 wks, possibly resulting from oxidative stress arising from exposure to particles and associated airborne pollutants. Sperm DNA was hypermethylated in mice breathing ambient relative to HEPA-filtered air and this change persisted following removal from the environmental exposure. Increased germ-line DNA mutation frequencies may cause population-level changes in genetic composition and disease. Changes in methylation can have widespread repercussions for chromatin structure, gene expression and genome stability. Potential health effects warrant extensive further investigation. PMID:18195365

  8. Provider 1997 corporate profiles.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    As the long term care industry seeks out new products, new solutions, and new ways of providing quality care, it is important for long term care providers to know more about the companies they do business with. The following corporate profiles showcase information about leading companies in the long term health care industry. Some of the areas highlighted include: mission of company, history, product lines, support services. We hope you will find this information useful when making purchasing decisions, and we're confident you'll keep this issue of Provider as a handy reference guide. The information in the following corporate profiles was supplied by the companies. Neither Provider magazine nor the American Health Care Association endorses the products and services listed in this section. Provider magazine and the American Health Care Association disclaim any and all liability related to or arising from the information contained in the profiles. PMID:10166888

  9. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  10. Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1990-06-01

    In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

  11. Mask industry assessment: 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  12. Mask industry assessment: 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the eighth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2008 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This in combination with the past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  13. Mask industry assessment: 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2008-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2007 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  14. Mask Industry Assessment: 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2007-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  15. Mask industry assessment: 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This assessment can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of our critical mask industry. It should serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  16. Manufacturing (Industrial) Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 35 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of manufacturing (industrial) technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  17. Global gene expression profiling of a mouse model of ovarian clear cell carcinoma caused by ARID1A and PIK3CA mutations implicates a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Ronald L.; Raab, Jesse R.; Vernon, Mike; Magnuson, Terry; Schisler, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma (OCCC) is an aggressive form of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). OCCC represents 5–25% of all EOC incidences and is the second leading cause of death from ovarian cancer (Glasspool and McNeish, 2013) [1]. A recent publication by Chandler et al. reported the first mouse model of OCCC that resembles human OCCC both genetically and histologically by inducing a localized deletion of ARID1A and the expression of the PIK3CAH1047R substitution mutation (Chandler et al., 2015) [2]. We utilized Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST arrays for the global gene expression profiling of mouse primary OCCC tumor samples and animal-matched normal ovaries to identify cancer-dependent gene expression. We describe the approach used to generate the differentially expressed genes from the publicly available data deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the accession number GSE57380. These data were used in cross-species comparisons to publically available human OCCC gene expression data and allowed the identification of coordinately regulated genes in both mouse and human OCCC and supportive of a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in OCCC pathogenesis (Chandler et al., 2015) [2]. PMID:26484281

  18. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  19. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  20. Mirror Your Audience's Attitude: A Global Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meussling, Vonne

    Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…

  1. Proteomic global profiling for cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Faca, Vitor; Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of cancer molecular diagnostics is the development of simple tests to predict cancer risk, detect cancer early, classify tumors, and monitor response to therapy. Proteomics is well suited for these tasks. However, there are substantial challenges that need to be met to identify the most informative markers using proteomics. Approaches for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis based on isotopic labeling and protein fractionation are presented in this chapter. PMID:19241042

  2. A global profile of replicative polymerase usage

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Carolin A.; Miyabe, Izumi; Brooks, Tony; Retkute, Renata; Hubank, Mike; Nieduszyski, Conrad A.; Carr, Antony M.

    2014-01-01

    Three eukaryotic DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication. Polα-primase initiates each synthesis event and is rapidly replaced by processive DNA polymerases: Polε replicates the leading strand while Polδ performs lagging strand synthesis. However, it is not known whether this division of labour is maintained across the whole genome or how uniform it is within single replicons. Using S. pombe, we have developed a polymerase usage sequencing (Pu-seq) strategy to map polymerase usage genome–wide. Pu–seq provides direct replication origin location and efficiency data and indirect estimates of replication timing. We confirm that the division of labour is broadly maintained across an entire genome. However, our data suggest a subtle variability in the usage of the two polymerases within individual replicons. We propose this results from occasional leading strand initiation by Polδ followed by exchange for Polε. PMID:25664722

  3. The Global Ocean Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Dana

    1992-01-01

    A Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) should be established now with international coordination (1) to address issues of global change, (2) to implement operational ENSO forecasts, (3) to provide the data required to apply global ocean circulation models, and (4) to extract the greatest value from the one billion dollar investment over the next ten years in ocean remote sensing by the world's space agencies. The objectives of GOOS will focus on climatic and oceanic predictions, on assessing coastal pollution, and in determining the sustainability of living marine resources and ecosystems. GOOS will be a complete system including satellite observations, in situ observations, numerical modeling of ocean processes, and data exchange and management. A series of practical and economic benefits will be derived from the information generated by GOOS. In addition to the marine science community, these benefits will be realized by the energy industries of the world, and by the world's fisheries. The basic oceanic variables that are required to meet the oceanic and predictability objectives of GOOS include wind velocity over the ocean, sea surface temperature and salinity, oceanic profiles of temperature and salinity, surface current, sea level, the extent and thickness of sea ice, the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters, and the chlorophyll concentration of surface waters. Ocean circulation models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models can be used to evaluate observing system design, to assimilate diverse data sets from in situ and remotely sensed observations, and ultimately to predict future states of the system. The volume of ocean data will increase enormously over the next decade as new satellite systems are launched and as complementary in situ measuring systems are deployed. These data must be transmitted, quality controlled, exchanged, analyzed, and archived with the best state-of-the-art computational methods.

  4. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  5. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  6. Global Timber Model (GTM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    GTM is an economic model capable of examining global forestry land-use, management, and trade responses to policies. In responding to a policy, the model captures afforestation, forest management, and avoided deforestation behavior. The model estimates harvests in industrial fore...

  7. 1994 corporate profiles.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    As the long term care industry seeks out new products, new solutions, and new ways of providing quality care, it is important for long term care providers to know more about the companies they do business with. The following Corporate Profiles showcase information about leading companies in the long term health care industry. Some of the areas highlighted include: Mission of Company, History, Product Lines, Support Services. We hope you will find this information useful when making purchasing decisions, and we're confident you'll keep this issue of Provider as a handy reference guide. PMID:10133548

  8. 1995 corporate profiles.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    As the long term care industry seeks out new products, new solutions, and new ways of providing quality care, it is important for long term care providers to know more about the companies they do business with. The following Corporate Profiles showcase information about leading companies in the long term health care industry. Some of the areas highlighted include: Mission of Company History Product Lines Support Services. We hope you will find this information useful when making purchasing decisions, and we're confident you'll keep this issue of Provider as a handy reference guide. PMID:10142404

  9. Aluminum: Industry of the future

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    For over a century, the US aluminum industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, aluminum industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US aluminum industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Aluminum Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operations and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by The Aluminum Association, industry leaders began by developing a unified vision of future market, business, energy, and environmental goals. Their vision document, Partnerships for the Future, articulates a compelling vision for the next 20 years: to maintain and grow the aluminum industry through the manufacture and sale of competitively priced, socially desirable, and ecologically sustainable products. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. By developing a unified vision, the aluminum industry has provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate cooperative R and D.

  10. miR-155, identified as anti-metastatic by global miRNA profiling of a metastasis model, inhibits cancer cell extravasation and colonization in vivo and causes significant signaling alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Rikke R.; Søkilde, Rolf; Elias, Daniel; Bak, Martin; Litman, Thomas; Beck, Hans C.; Lyng, Maria B.; Ditzel, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into miRNA regulation in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using global miRNA profiling, 28 miRNAs were found to exhibit significantly altered expression between isogenic metastasizing and non-metastasizing cancer cells, with miR-155 being the most differentially expressed. Highly metastatic mesenchymal-like CL16 cancer cells showed very low miR-155 expression, and miR-155 overexpression in these cells lead to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. Our experiments addressing the underlying mechanism of the altered tumor burden revealed that miR-155-overexpressing CL16 cells were less invasive than CL16 control cells in vitro, while miR-155 overexpression had no effect on cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis in established lung tumors. To identify proteins regulated by miR-155 and thus delineate its function in our cell model, we compared the proteome of xenograft tumors derived from miR-155-overexpressing CL16 cells and CL16 control cells using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. >4,000 proteins were identified, of which 92 were consistently differentially expressed. Network analysis revealed that the altered proteins were associated with cellular functions such as movement, growth and survival as well as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. Downregulation of the three metastasis-associated proteins ALDH1A1, PIR and PDCD4 in miR-155-overexpressing tumors was validated by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that miR-155 inhibits the ability of cancer cells to extravasate and/or colonize at distant organs and brings additional insight into the complexity of miR-155 regulation in metastatic seeding. PMID:26317550

  11. Global Expression Profiling