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Sample records for ineel subregional conceptual

  1. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

    2002-08-01

    The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the

  2. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 2: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Geochemical Influences on the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Robert C. Starr; Brennon Orr

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes previous descriptions of geochemical system conceptual models for the vadose zone and groundwater zone (aquifer) beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The primary focus is on groundwater because contaminants derived from wastes disposed at INEEL are present in groundwater, groundwater provides a pathway for potential migration to receptors, and because geochemical characteristics in and processes in the aquifer can substantially affect the movement, attenuation, and toxicity of contaminants. The secondary emphasis is perched water bodies in the vadose zone. Perched water eventually reaches the regional groundwater system, and thus processes that affect contaminants in the perched water bodies are important relative to the migration of contaminants into groundwater. Similarly, processes that affect solutes during transport from nearsurface disposal facilities downward through the vadose zone to the aquifer are relevant. Sediments in the vadose zone can affect both water and solute transport by restricting the downward migration of water sufficiently that a perched water body forms, and by retarding solute migration via ion exchange. Geochemical conceptual models have been prepared by a variety of researchers for different purposes. They have been published in documents prepared by INEEL contractors, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), academic researchers, and others. The documents themselves are INEEL and USGS reports, and articles in technical journals. The documents reviewed were selected from citation lists generated by searching the INEEL Technical Library, the INEEL Environmental Restoration Optical Imaging System, and the ISI Web of Science databases. The citation lists were generated using the keywords ground water, groundwater, chemistry, geochemistry, contaminant, INEL, INEEL, and Idaho. In addition, a list of USGS documents that pertain to the INEEL was obtained and manually searched

  3. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  4. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  5. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  6. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  7. INEEL Summary on Calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk

    2003-12-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing to recover 235U and 80Kr began at the INEEL in 1953. The resulting acidic high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) was stored in stainless steel tanks in underground concrete vaults. A fluidized-bed calcination process was developed during the 1950s to form a granular calcine solid from the acidic HLW with a seven-fold volume reduction. An engineering-scale demonstration, the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) was constructed and operated in 1963. After the successful demonstration of the process, the WCF was continued as a production facility through 1981, Calcining 15,000 m3 of HLW to 2,160 m3 of calcine.1 The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) was designed and constructed based on the operating experience of the WCF, and began operation in 1982. With a rated capacity of 3,000 gallons/day, the NWCF continued waste processing operations through May of 2000, resulting in an additional 2,226 m3 of calcine (total current inventory of 4,386 m3).2 During waste processing at the NWCF, sodium-bearing waste (SBW) from decontamination activities was blended with HLW to minimize alkali (sodium and potassium) concentrations in the calciner feed solution. This was necessary due to the propensity of sodium and potassium nitrates to melt in the calciner, causing the bed to agglomerate and interfere with fluidization. However, near the end of HLW processing, work was initiated to modify the calcination process to treat SBW directly, blending it with chemical additives such as aluminum nitrate rather than lower alkali content HLW liquids. The result of this development effort was to increase the operating temperature of the calciner from 500°C to 600°C. The 600°C SBW flowsheet was successfully demonstrated at the NWCF during two separate trials during 1999 and 2000.3, 4 The conclusion from these demonstrations was that operating the existing NWCF at 600°C is a viable method for solidifying SBW, and this concept is currently being evaluated

  8. INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

    2000-02-01

    The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

  9. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  12. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  13. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  14. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability. PMID:26796918

  15. INEEL Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report - Quarterly

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Frank Leroy

    1999-02-01

    This document provides a report of an analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of Calendar Year (CY-98) and is the annual report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  16. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    SciTech Connect

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  17. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  18. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.; George, W.; Petrasek, A.; Stump, R.C.; Patterson, J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper will report on preparations being made for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) foreign research reactor (FRR) spent fuel from South Korea and Indonesia to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The roles of US Department of Energy, INEEL, and NAC International in implementing a safe shipment are provided. Special preparations necessitated by making a shipment through a west coast port of the US to the INEEL will be explained. The institutional planning and actions needed to meet the unique political and operational environment for making a shipment from Asia to INEEL will be discussed. Facility preparation at both the INEEL and the FRRs is discussed. Cask analysis needed to properly characterize the various TRIGA configurations, compositions, and enrichments is discussed. Shipping preparations will include an explanation of the integrated team of spent fuel transportation specialists, and shipping resources needed to retrieve the fuel from foreign research reactor sites and deliver it to the INEEL.

  19. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 29 CFR 102.4 - Region; subregion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region; subregion. 102.4 Section 102.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.4 Region; subregion. The term region as used herein shall mean that part of the United States or any Territory...

  1. Development of the INEEL Site Wide Vadose Zone Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Yonk, Alan Keith

    2001-09-01

    The INEEL Vadose Zone Roadmap was developed to identify inadquacies in current knowledge, to assist in contaminant management capabilities relative to the INEEL vadose zone, and to ensure that ongoing and planned Science and Technology developments will meet the risk management challenges facing the INEEL in coming years. The primary objective of the Roadmap is to determine the S&T needs that will facilitate monitoring, characterization, prediction, and assessment activities necessary to support INEEL risk management decisions and to ensure that long-term stewardship of contaminated sites at the INEEL is achieved. The mission of the Roadmap is to insure that the long-term S&T strategy is aligned with site programs, that it takes advantage of progress made to date, and that it can assist in meeting the milestones and budgets of operations.

  2. Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): context.

    PubMed

    O'Shannassy, Teresa O

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and outcome of malaria control initiatives are affected by a great diversity of factors including environment, economy and politics, to name but a few. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the GMS, where the rapid pace of economic development that has occurred over the past decade has brought with it a raft of changes to environment, employment, transport, communication, and demography and wealth patterns. The GMS, as a subregion, continues to gain increasing political and economic significance and has the potential to become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. While the pace of change is impressive, it has also brought with it new challenges in the fight against malaria. On the one hand, improvement in transport networks such as roads and railways, facilitates increased cross-border trade and development, on the other hand such improvements are likely to result in a massive increase in population movements across borders. As travel becomes easier the numbers of migrant workers moving between areas of high and low transmission, also expands, further increasing the risk of the spread of resistant malaria strains. In addition, the increase in large infrastructure projects such as the construction of dams, as well as agricultural plantations, also potentially lead to changes in vector behavior with unknown consequences for malaria transmission. Effectively addressing the new challenges to malaria control will require renewed commitment, coordination and better collaboration between all sectors from governments and non government organizations in the GMS. PMID:24159829

  3. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  4. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL Recommendations for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Blew, R.D.; Jackson, M.R.; Forman, A.D.

    2003-03-24

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  5. 28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND TWO SECTIONS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106356. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106357. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. ROOF PLAN AND DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106357. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106359. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106359. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106358. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106358. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. ELEVATIONS OF EAST AND WEST SIDES. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106355. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-02-26

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  11. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW.

  12. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  13. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  14. Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Berron, David; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.001 PMID:26052749

  15. TRU Management in the Site Treatment Plan at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.; Rasch, D.

    2002-02-25

    The storage of any form of hazardous waste is prohibited unless the waste has available treatment to meet land disposal restriction (LDR) requirements in accordance with 40 CFR 268 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), which allows for the storage of radioactive and hazardous mixed waste (mixed waste) until available treatment can be developed that meets the LDR requirements. Transuranic-contaminated mixed (TRU) waste is covered under the FFCA through the Site Treatment Plan (STP) since the implementation of the plan in November, 1995. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) STP required schedules and milestones for the treatment and shipment of TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Potential enforcement actions for missing compliance milestones exist in the INEEL STP.

  16. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Mustin, T.; Stump, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper reports the activities underway by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from foreign research reactors (FRR) in four European countries to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Those countries are Germany, Italy, Romania, and Slovenia. This is part of the ``Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy`` of returning research reactor SNF containing uranium enriched in the US. This paper describes the results of a pre-assessment trip in September, 1997, to these countries, including: history of the reactors and research being performed; inventory of TRIGA SNF; fuel types (stainless steel, aluminum, or Incoloy) and enrichments; and each country`s plans for returning their TRIGA SNF to the INEEL.

  17. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Environmental Flow and Transport Modeling at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Swen O; Mccarthy, James Michael; Navratil, James Dale

    1999-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located in southeastern Idaho in the USA. The primary mission since the laboratory was founded in 1949 has been nuclear reactor research. Fifty-two reactors have been built and operated on the INEEL. Other principal activities at the laboratory have been reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Low-level radioactive waste generated on site and mixed and transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats plutonium processing facility in Colorado has been disposed on the INEEL at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Waste disposal at the RWMC began in 1952 with shallow land burial in pits and trenches. The INEEL was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. The resulting environmental assessments of the potential negative health impacts of disposed waste at the RWMC have required the use of predictive numerical simulations. A petroleum reservoir simulator called TETRAD was modified for use in simulating environmental flow and transport. Use of this code has allowed the complex subsurface stratigraphy to be simulated, including an extensive region of unsaturated fractured basalt. Dual continual simulation approaches have been used to assess combined aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport of volatile organic compounds as well as dissolved-phase transport of radionuclides. Calibration of the simulator to available monitoring data has increased the confidence in the simulator results to the point where the model sensitivities are being used to direct additional characterization efforts. Eventually, as the model calibration improves and confidence in the model predictions increases, the simulator will be used as a decision tool for selecting remedial alternatives for the wastes buried at the RWMC. An overview of the overall program including a summary of laboratory actinide migration studies will be presented.

  19. Preliminary Environmental Flow and Transport Modeling at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Navratil; J. M. McCarthy; S. O. Magnuson

    1999-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is located in southeastern Idaho in the USA. The primary mission since the laboratory was founded in 1949 has been nuclear reactor research. Fifty-two reactors have been built and operated on the INEEL. Other principal activities at the laboratory have been reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Low-level radioactive waste generated on site and mixed and transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats plutonium processing facility in Colorado has been disposed on the INEEL at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Waste disposal at the RWMC began in 1952 with shallow land burial in pits and trenches. The INEEL was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. The resulting environmental assessments of the potential negative health impacts of disposed waste at the RWMC have required the use of predictive numerical simulations. A petroleum reservoir simulator called TETRAD was modified for use in simulating environmental flow and transport. Use of this code has allowed the complex subsurface stratigraphy to be simulated, including an extensive region of unsaturated fractured basalt. Dual continual simulation approaches have been used to assess combined aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport of volatile organic compounds as well as dissolved-phase transport of radionuclides. Calibration of the simulator to available monitoring data has increased the confidence in the simulator results to the point where the model sensitivities are being used to direct additional characterization efforts. Eventually, as the model calibration improves and confidence in the model predictions increases, the simulator will be used as a decision tool for selecting remedial alternatives for the wastes buried at the RWMC. An overview of the overall program including a summary of laboratory actinide migration studies will be presented.

  20. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  1. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  2. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  3. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  4. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  5. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  6. Differential response of hippocampal subregions to stress and learning.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Darby F; Morch, Kristin; Christie, Brian R; Leasure, J Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus has two functionally distinct subregions-the dorsal portion, primarily associated with spatial navigation, and the ventral portion, primarily associated with anxiety. In a prior study of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rodents, we found that it selectively enhanced cellular plasticity in the dorsal hippocampal subregion while negatively impacting it in the ventral. In the present study, we determined whether this adaptive plasticity in the dorsal subregion would confer CUS rats an advantage in a spatial task-the radial arm water maze (RAWM). RAWM exposure is both stressful and requires spatial navigation, and therefore places demands simultaneously upon both hippocampal subregions. Therefore, we used Western blotting to investigate differential expression of plasticity-associated proteins (brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], proBDNF and postsynaptic density-95 [PSD-95]) in the dorsal and ventral subregions following RAWM exposure. Lastly, we used unbiased stereology to compare the effects of CUS on proliferation, survival and neuronal differentiation of cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subregions. We found that CUS and exposure to the RAWM both increased corticosterone, indicating that both are stressful; nevertheless, CUS animals had significantly better long-term spatial memory. We also observed a subregion-specific pattern of protein expression following RAWM, with proBDNF increased in the dorsal and decreased in the ventral subregion, while PSD-95 was selectively upregulated in the ventral. Finally, consistent with our previous study, we found that CUS most negatively affected neurogenesis in the ventral (compared to the dorsal) subregion. Taken together, our data support a dual role for the hippocampus in stressful experiences, with the more resilient dorsal portion undergoing adaptive plasticity (perhaps to facilitate escape from or neutralization of the stressor), and the ventral portion involved in affective responses

  7. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  8. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  9. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  10. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  11. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  12. Copper Cable Recycling System - The INEEL LSDDP Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Craig C; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Rosenberger, S.

    2001-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) and the DOE’s office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs). The increasing number of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities at nuclear facilities can generate hundreds of tons of cables per facility consuming valuable resources such as disposal space and copper. Driven by increasing environmental concerns as well as economical pressures there is a developing need for the recycling of the uncontaminated copper. As part of the LSDDP program the NUKEM Copper Cable Recycling System (CCRS) was demonstrated November 1999 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This process allows recovering and recycling the uncontaminated copper contained in surface contaminated cables. The NUKEM CCRS was originally developed in Germany for the use during the D&D of commercial power plants. Up to date the CCRS has successfully processed in Germany more than 200 metric tons of contaminated cables resulting in virtually 100% free release of copper under the German standards. A total of 13.5 tons non and surrogate contaminated cables in a wide variety of sizes were successfully processed during the technology demonstration at INEEL. The assessment has demonstrated the mobility and flexibility of this new process.

  13. INEEL Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report - Quarterly for CY-99

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Frank Leroy

    2000-02-01

    This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  14. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  15. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  16. Heritability and reliability of automatically segmented human hippocampal formation subregions.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Christopher D; Hibar, Derrek P; van Velzen, Laura S; Zannas, Anthony S; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; McMahon, Katie; Prasad, Gautam; Kelly, Sinéad; Faskowitz, Joshua; deZubiracay, Greig; Iglesias, Juan E; van Erp, Theo G M; Frodl, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Jahanshad, Neda; Schmaal, Lianne; Sämann, Philipp G; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    The human hippocampal formation can be divided into a set of cytoarchitecturally and functionally distinct subregions, involved in different aspects of memory formation. Neuroanatomical disruptions within these subregions are associated with several debilitating brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Multi-center brain imaging consortia, such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, are interested in studying disease effects on these subregions, and in the genetic factors that affect them. For large-scale studies, automated extraction and subsequent genomic association studies of these hippocampal subregion measures may provide additional insight. Here, we evaluated the test-retest reliability and transplatform reliability (1.5T versus 3T) of the subregion segmentation module in the FreeSurfer software package using three independent cohorts of healthy adults, one young (Queensland Twins Imaging Study, N=39), another elderly (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI-2, N=163) and another mixed cohort of healthy and depressed participants (Max Planck Institute, MPIP, N=598). We also investigated agreement between the most recent version of this algorithm (v6.0) and an older version (v5.3), again using the ADNI-2 and MPIP cohorts in addition to a sample from the Netherlands Study for Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N=221). Finally, we estimated the heritability (h(2)) of the segmented subregion volumes using the full sample of young, healthy QTIM twins (N=728). Test-retest reliability was high for all twelve subregions in the 3T ADNI-2 sample (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.70-0.97) and moderate-to-high in the 4T QTIM sample (ICC=0.5-0.89). Transplatform reliability was strong for eleven of the twelve subregions (ICC=0.66-0.96); however, the hippocampal fissure was not consistently reconstructed across 1.5T and 3T field strengths (ICC=0

  17. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Wager, Tor D.; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95–104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei. PMID:24082116

  18. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  19. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

    1999-08-03

    For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is

  20. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  1. Subregion districting analysis for municipal solid waste collection privatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yueh; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection can improve service quality and reduce cost. To reduce the risk of an incapable company serving an entire collection area and to establish a competitive market, a large collection area should be divided into two or more subregions, with each subregion served by a different company. The MSW subregion districting is generally done manually, based on the planner's intuition. Major drawbacks of a manual approach include the creation of a districting plan with poor road network integrity for which it is difficult to design an efficient collection route. The other drawbacks are difficulty in finding the optimal districting plan and the lack of a way to consistently measure the differences among subregions to avoid unfair competition. To determine an MSW collection subregion districting plan, this study presents a mixed-integer optimization model that incorporates factors such as compactness, road network integrity, collection cost, and regional proximity. Two cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. In both cases, districting plans with good road network integrity and regional proximity have been generated successfully. PMID:18236800

  2. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL: Recommendations for Improvement - August 16, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Roger D. Blew; Michael R. Jackson; Amy D. Forman

    2003-03-01

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  3. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  4. INEEL portable vapor generator operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, G.L.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Leppert, Y.M.; Mottishaw, P.

    1997-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed a calibrated vapor generator, which delivers reproducible vapor aliquots of a standard in the picogram to low nanogram range. The basic system design includes: (a) a reservoir that contains the target analyte, (b) a head, which contains the equipment (valves, filters, transducers) necessary to use the reservoir, and (c) a controller assembly that contains the CPU, pump, and air filtering system. The reservoir consists of a known quantity of target or analyte material (i.e., explosive, narcotic, etc.) dissolved in a solvent and deposited on an inert substrate (e.g., glass wool, stainless steel beads, etc.), which is located in a stainless steel block. The reservoir temperature is controlled via thermal electric cooler to generate a level of saturation of the target analyte in the reservoir. Each reservoir contains only a single target analyte; therefore, each analyte has its own complete head. The controller houses a small computer that performs all of the control functions. Also included in the controller are the power supplies, an air pump, a pressure regulator, air filters, flow controllers, and displays.

  5. Contributions of Striatal Subregions to Place and Response Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Henry H.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of different subregions of the striatum in place and response learning was examined using a T-maze. Rats were given NMDA lesions of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), anterior dorsomedial striatum (ADMS), posterior dorsomedial striatum (PDMS), or sham surgery. They were then trained to retrieve food from the west arm of the maze,…

  6. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  7. OREGON ECOLOGICAL REGIONS AND SUBREGIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To aid the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in producing a State Clean Water Strategy and in managing water resources, scientists working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have defined an initial set of regions and subregions of the state with po...

  8. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  9. Altered functional connectivity of the cingulate subregions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, C; Qin, W; Zhu, J; Liu, H; Xu, L; Yu, C

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cingulate cortex; however, it is unknown whether rsFCs of the cingulate subregions are differentially affected in this disorder. We aimed to clarify the issue by comparing rsFCs of each cingulate subregion between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. A total of 102 healthy controls and 94 schizophrenia patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The cingulate cortex was divided into nine subregions, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), areas 24 and 32 of the pregenual ACC, areas 24 and 32 of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), posterior MCC (pMCC), dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered. Results with and without global signal regression were reported. Most cingulate subregions exhibited decreased rsFCs in schizophrenia after global signal regression (GSR). Without GSR, only increased rsFC was found in schizophrenia, which primarily restricted to the aMCC, PCC and RSC. Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR. These findings suggest that GSR can greatly affect between-group differences in rsFCs and the consistently increased rsFCs may challenge the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:26035059

  10. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  11. Assessment results of the Indonesian TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jefimoff, J.; Robb, A.K.; Wendt, K.M.; Syarip, I.; Alfa, T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination performed by technical personnel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) at the Bandung and Yogyakarta research reactor facilities in Indonesia. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation to and storage at the INEEL. This paper delineates the Initial Preparations prior to the Indonesian foreign research reactor (FRR) fuel examination. The technical basis for the examination, the TRIGA SNF Acceptance Criteria, and the physical condition required for transportation, receipt and storage of the TRIGA SNF at the INEEL is explained. In addition to the initial preparations, preparation descriptions of the Work Plan For TRIGA Fuel Examination, the Underwater Examination Equipment used, and personnel Examination Team Training are included. Finally, the Fuel Examination and Results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. Lessons learned from all the activities completed to date is provided in an addendum. The initial preparations included: (1) coordination between the INEEL, FRR or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN), DOE-HQ, and the US State Department and Embassy; (2) incorporating Savannah River Site (SRS) FRR experience and lessons learned; (3) collecting both FRR facility and spent fuel data, and issuing a radionuclide report (Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels) needed for transportation and fuel acceptance at the INEEL; and (4) preexamination work at the research reactor for the fuel examination.

  12. Intrinsic functional connectivity of periaqueductal gray subregions in humans.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Marie-Andree; Erpelding, Nathalie; Kucyi, Aaron; Davis, Karen Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a key brain region of the descending pain modulation pathway. It is also involved in cardiovascular functions, anxiety, and fear; however, little is known about PAG subdivisions in humans. The aims of this study were to use resting-state fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) to parcellate the human PAG and to determine FC of its subregions. To do this, we acquired resting-state fMRI scans from 79 healthy subjects and (1) used a data-driven method to parcellate the PAG, (2) used predefined seeds in PAG subregions to evaluate PAG FC to the whole brain, and (3) examined sex differences in PAG FC. We found that clustering of the left and right PAG yielded similar patterns of caudal, middle, and rostral subdivisions in the coronal plane, and dorsal and ventral subdivisions in the sagittal plane. FC analysis of predefined subregions revealed that the ventolateral(VL)-PAG was supfunctionally connected to brain regions associated with descending pain modulation (anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), upper pons/medulla), whereas the lateral (L) and dorsolateral (DL) subregions were connected with brain regions implicated in executive functions (prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus). We also found sex differences in FC including areas implicated in pain, salience, and analgesia including the ACC and the insula in women, and the MCC, parahippocampal gyrus, and the temporal pole in men. The organization of the human PAG thus provides a framework to understand the circuitry underlying the broad range of responses to pain and its modulation in men and women. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1514-1530, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26821847

  13. Crystalline Phase Separation in Phosphate Containing Waste Glasses: Relevance to INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-09-21

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges have been studied. The type of phase separation that occurs in the phosphate rich borosilicate waste glasses, such as those investigated for INEEL, crystallizes upon cooling. This type of phase separation mechanism is less well studied than amorphous phase separation in phosphate poor borosilicate waste glasses. Therefore, the type of phase separation, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of INEEL-type glasses were examined and the data statistically analyzed in this study.

  14. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  15. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  16. A Model of the INEEL Science & Engineering Expo for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zounar, Elda

    2005-01-01

    Informal education can augment science classroom instruction and draw students to careers in science. The science and engineering expo, created by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a high-impact, inquiry-based, informal-education experience that can be replicated. It engages a broad range of students in…

  17. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  18. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  19. Subregional neuroanatomical change as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Dominic; Brewer, James B.; Hagler, Donald J.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Dale, Anders M.; Weiner, Michael; Thal, Leon; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Gamst, Anthony; Potter, William Z.; Montine, Tom; Anders, Dale; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Vorobik, Remi; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan; Fleisher, Adam S.; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Badger, Beverly; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Stern, Jessica; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Bach, Julie; Duara, Ranjan; Isaacson, Richard; Strauman, Silvia; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; De Santi, Susan M.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; DeKosky, Steven T.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Porsteinsson, Anton; McCallum, Colleen; Cramer, Steven C.; Mulnard, Ruth A.; McAdams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Fletcher, Rita; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Bifano, Laurel A.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Gitelman, Darren; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Villena, Teresa; Mesner, Scott; Aisen, Paul S.; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Obradov, Sanja; Killiany, Ron; Norbash, Alex; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Auchus, Alexander P.; Huang, Juebin; Friedland, Robert P.; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Johnson, Sterling C.; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Highum, Diane; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre N.; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Beversdorf, David Q.; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Pare, Nadia; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Potter, Huntington; Ashok Raj, B.; Giordano, Amy; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Wilks, Kerri L.; Safirstein, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of the temporal and parietal lobes are particularly damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this leads to a predictable pattern of brain atrophy. In vivo quantification of subregional atrophy, such as changes in cortical thickness or structure volume, could lead to improved diagnosis and better assessment of the neuroprotective effects of a therapy. Toward this end, we have developed a fast and robust method for accurately quantifying cerebral structural changes in several cortical and subcortical regions using serial MRI scans. In 169 healthy controls, 299 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 129 subjects with AD, we measured rates of subregional cerebral volume change for each cohort and performed power calculations to identify regions that would provide the most sensitive outcome measures in clinical trials of disease-modifying agents. Consistent with regional specificity of AD, temporal-lobe cortical regions showed the greatest disease-related changes and significantly outperformed any of the clinical or cognitive measures examined for both AD and MCI. Global measures of change in brain structure, including whole-brain and ventricular volumes, were also elevated in AD and MCI, but were less salient when compared to changes in normal subjects. Therefore, these biomarkers are less powerful for quantifying disease-modifying effects of compounds that target AD pathology. The findings indicate that regional temporal lobe cortical changes would have great utility as outcome measures in clinical trials and may also have utility in clinical practice for aiding early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:19996185

  20. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  1. Combating AIDS in the Caribbean: a coordinated subregional approach.

    PubMed

    Narain, J P; White, F M; Kimball, A M; Zessler, L; Zacarías, F R

    1990-01-01

    The extent of the HIV epidemic in the Caribbean is described as related to the subregional coordinating project CAREC, or Caribbean epidemiology Center, an agency under Pan American Health Organization, for 19 English speaking countries and Suriname. By July 1990, 1702 AIDS cases had been reported to CAREC, out of 5726 cases in 27 Caribbean countries excluding Puerto Rico. 90% of the cases occurred in the 5 largest, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Initially the transmission pattern was predominantly among male homo- and bisexuals, but not it is mostly heterosexual with a growing mother-to-child transmission. All countries are now screening blood or blood donors. CAREC is coordinating epidemiologic surveillance, helping national laboratories to screen by providing confirmatory tests, providing culture-relevant health education materials and AIDS information, assisting with surveys, holding training workshops for health care workers, and assisting member countries in designing education and counseling programs for high risk women. PMID:2224333

  2. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  3. Drug abuse problems in countries of the Andean subregion.

    PubMed

    Flores Agreda, R

    1986-01-01

    The scarcity of epidemiological data makes it difficult for an accurate and comprehensive assessment to be made of the drug abuse situation in countries of the Andean subregion. Available evidence, however, indicates that in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru prevalence and incidence rates of drug abuse, particularly of the abuse of basic cocaine paste, are relatively high. Studies indicate that in Bolivia 4-5 per cent of youth are habitual cocaine users and that in Colombia drug abuse was in 1984 the seventh leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. A survey in Peru shows that 37 per cent of secondary school students use drugs, while 27 per cent of the respondents used basic cocaine paste as their first drug. It appears that the abuse of basic cocaine paste has spread evenly across urban social classes. The illegal cultivation of the coca bush has drastically increased in countries of the Andean subregion. For example, it is estimated that more than 135,000 hectares of coca bush are cultivated in Peru, producing approximately 135,000 tons of coca leaves a year, while the amount needed for legitimate purposes in that country is estimated at 10,000 tons a year. In the same country, seizures of basic cocaine paste increased from 4,755 kg in 1980 to 7,168 kg in 1983, and of macerated coca leaf from 2,570 kg in 1979 to 27,822 kg in 1984. The demand for illicit cocaine has substantially increased in the world. It is estimated that the total amount of illicit cocaine consumed in the world was 33-45 tons in 1981 and 50-61 tons in 1983. PMID:3490890

  4. Phase 2B experimental design for the INEEL glass composition variation study

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    2000-08-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Science and Technology (through the Tanks Focus Area [TFA]) and Waste Management are sponsoring a partnership among Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for a collaborative glass composition variation study (CVS). The purpose of the CVS is to investigate property - composition relationships within a glass-composition region compatible with the expected range of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) high-activity wastes (HAWs). The CVS has been conducted in phases to allow INEEL, PNNL, and SRTC researchers to adjust the glass composition region of interest as flowsheet options are refined and/or waste-stream compositions become more defined.

  5. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Telschow; R. S. Schley; S. M. Watson; V. A. Deason

    1999-08-22

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  6. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  7. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  8. In Situ Site Characterization Technologies Demonstrated at the INEEL in Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Kelly Clyde; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    1999-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)continually seeks safer, more cost-effective, and better performing technologies for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) sponsors Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) which are conducted at various DOE sites. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of the DOE sites for demonstration of these newa and improved technologies. The INEEL needs statement defines specific needs or problems for their D&D program. One of the needs identified at the INEEL was for new or improved site characterization technologies. A variety of in-situ site characterization technologies have been demonstrated through the INEEL LSDDP. These technologies provide a safer means of characterization, improved documentation, real-time information, improved D&D schedules, and reduction in costs and radiation exposures to workers. These technologies have provided vast improvements to the D&D site characterizations. Some of these technologies include: • The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System for large-area, surface gamma radiation surveys • Remote underwater characterization system• Identifying heavy metals in painted surfaces and determining the alloy composition in metallic material • In-Situ Object Counting System for free release • Real-time radiological data acquisition with the Surveillance and Measurement’s sodium iodide detector • Electromagnetic radiography to locate contaminated soils. Historically, site characterization has been a slow, costly, and tedious process. However, through these demonstrations, new technologies have provided more accurate data, real-time information, and enhanced site characterization documentation. In addition, a safer work environment has been established as a result of decreasing the worker’s time

  9. Technical Review of Retrieval and Closure Plans for the INEEL INTEC Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A; Burks, Barry L; Quigley, Keith D; Falter, Diedre D

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document the conclusions of a technical review of retrieval and closure plans for the Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility. In addition to reviewing retrieval and closure plans for these tanks, the review process served as an information exchange mechanism so that staff in the INEEL High Level Waste (HLW) Program could become more familiar with retrieval and closure approaches that have been completed or are planned for underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Hanford sites. This review focused not only on evaluation of the technical feasibility and appropriateness of the approach selected by INEEL but also on technology gaps that could be addressed through utilization of technologies or performance data available at other DOE sites and in the private sector. The reviewers, Judith Bamberger of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Dr. Barry Burks of The Providence Group Applied Technology, have extensive experience in the development and application of tank waste retrieval technologies for nuclear waste remediation.

  10. Selective Functional Disconnection of the Dorsal Subregion of the Temporal Pole in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lixue; Qin, Wen; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Liu, Huaigui; Liu, Xingyun; Xu, Yongjie; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes have been reported in schizophrenia, rsFC changes in the temporal pole (TP) remain unknown. The TP contains several subregions with different connection patterns; however, it is not known whether TP subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Sixty-six schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy comparison subjects underwent resting-state fMRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in (SENSE-SPIRAL) imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The TP was subdivided into the dorsal (TPd) and ventral (TPv) subregions. Mean fMRI time series were extracted for each TP subregion and entered into a seed-based rsFC analysis. Direct between-group comparisons revealed reduced rsFC between the right TPd and brain regions involved in language processing and multisensory integration in schizophrenia, including the left superior temporal gyrus, left mid-cingulate cortex, and right insular cortex. The rsFC changes of the right TPd in schizophrenia were independent of the grey matter reduction of this subregion. Moreover, these rsFC changes were unrelated to illness severity, duration of illness and antipsychotic medication dosage. No significant group differences were observed in the rsFC of the left TPd and bilateral TPv subregions. These findings suggest a selective (the right TPd) functional disconnection of TP subregions in schizophrenia. PMID:26058049

  11. Subregional differences in intrinsic amygdala hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Natalia M; Reiter, Maya A; Neuhaus, Emily; Pauley, Greg; Martin, Nathalie; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette

    2016-07-01

    The amygdala is a complex structure with distinct subregions and dissociable functional networks. The laterobasal subregion of the amygdala is hypothesized to mediate the presentation and severity of autism symptoms, although very little data are available regarding amygdala dysfunction at the subregional level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between abnormal amygdalar intrinsic connectivity, autism symptom severity, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We collected resting state fMRI data on 31 high functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder and 38 typically developing (TD) controls aged 14-45. Twenty-five participants with ASD and 28 TD participants were included in the final analyses. ASD participants were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Adult participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted from three amygdalar subregions: centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF). In addition, correlations with the behavioral measures were tested in the adult participants. In general, the ASD group showed significantly decreased connectivity from the LB subregion and increased connectivity from the CM and SF subregions compared to the TD group. We found evidence that social symptoms are primarily associated with under-connectivity from the LB subregion whereas over-connectivity and under-connectivity from the CM, SF and LB subregions are related to co-morbid depression and anxiety in ASD, in brain regions that were distinct from those associated with social dysfunction, and in different patterns than were observed in mildly symptomatic TD participants. Our findings provide new evidence for functional subregional differences in amygdala pathophysiology in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 760-772. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  12. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  13. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  14. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. PMID:23063935

  15. New Sericostomatid Caddisflies (Trichoptera) from the Brazilian Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzenthal, R. W.; Blahnik, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    The caddisfly family Sericostomatidae, with 20 genera and almost 100 species, is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but is absent from the Australasian region, has only a single species in the Oriental region, and occurs only in the southernmost regions of Africa and South America. Within its distribution, it displays 4 centers of species diversity: the southeastern United States, Europe and the western Palearctic, South Africa, and southern Chile. Five genera occur in the Neotropics: Chiloecia (1 species), Grumicha (1 species), Myotrichia (1 species), Notidobiella (3 species), and Parasericostoma (10 species), all occurring in southern Chile, except Grumicha, from southeast Brazil and adjacent Argentina. Recent collecting throughout South America, but especially in SE Brazil, has resulted in the discovery of 4 new species and an extension of the family's range in South America well beyond the Chilean subregion. The new taxa include: 1 new species of Grumicha from southeastern Brazil, 2 new species of Notidobiella from SE Brazil and Ecuador, respectively, and a new species, probably representing a new genus, from Amazonian Brazil. Males, females, and immatures of these new species are described and illustrated. Biogeographical implications suggest both recent dispersal as well as more ancient Gondwanan vicariant patterns.

  16. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  17. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

  18. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-10-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period.

  19. Deforestation causes different sub-regional effects on the Amazon bioclimatic equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, G. F.; Costa, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Deforestation on Amazonia and central Brazil Cerrado could change regional climate, possibly shifting forest equilibrium into a bioclimatic envelope typical of savannas. Although impacts of climate change induced by deforestation are likely to vary sub-regionally, the potential geographic variation of these effects and the thresholds of rainforest and Cerrado removal that will affect Amazonian bioclimatic equilibrium remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of deforestation scenarios of increasing severity on the bioclimatic equilibrium of Amazon sub-regions. Results indicate that sub-regional precipitation responds in three distinct ways to progressive deforestation: a near-constant rate of reduction; a rapid drop for low deforestation levels; and a decrease after intermediate deforestation levels. Additionally, while inner forest regions remain inside rainforest bioclimatic envelope, outer forest regions may cross forest-savanna bioclimatic threshold even at low deforestation levels. We argue that at least 90% of Amazonia and 40% of Cerrado should be sustained to avoid sub-regional bioclimatic savannization.

  20. Using Roadmapping to Meet the Challenge of Implementing the Environmental Management's 2012 Vision at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Mascareqas, C.; McNeel, K.; Stiger, S.; Thiel, E.

    2003-02-26

    Soon after becoming the Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program, Jessie Roberson initiated a thorough Top-to-Bottom review of the EM Program and challenged the sites to conduct business differently. As an example, she emphasized risk reduction, not just risk management. INEEL's 2070 cleanup baseline was considered too long and must be completed significantly sooner. The cleanup costs must also be significantly reduced from the current baseline of $41 Billion. The challenge is to complete most of the cleanup by 2012 and to reduce the EM footprint at the INEEL to one site area, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), also by 2012. The difficulty of the challenge is increased by the requirement to perform the work within nearly flat budgets. The bottom line: do more work in less time for less money. Further complications were added when funding for EM's technology development program was greatly reduced, cutting out most of the technology support to the operational projects. To face this incredible challenge, the INEEL began a several month effort to develop an implementation strategy and the tactics required for success. The strategies to meet EM's challenge under these constraints require the scope of work to be crisply defined with a clear understanding of the completion criteria. A number of techniques will be discussed in this paper that were used to more fully define the completion criteria as well as redefine the cleanup projects and their system boundaries. The mechanics of redefining and recasting cleanup projects at the INEEL to focus on how all the work fits together for an entire site area along with some of the advantages will be discussed. This paper highlights how roadmapping techniques and processes were used to gather information about the site's cleanup programs, review the system boundaries, identify the project risks to completing the cleanup tasks, and to help

  1. Disrupted resting-state insular subregions functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097

  2. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba, Bahamas,…

  3. Chemical Composiiton Analysis of INEEL Phase 3 Glasses: Task Technical and QA Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    2000-08-11

    For about four decades radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive waste from decontamination, laboratory activities and fuels storage activities have also been collected and stored as liquid. These liquid high-activity wastes (HAW) are collectively called Sodium Bearing Wastes (SBW). Currently about 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as a treatment option for SBW. The resulting glass can be sent to either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as remote handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) or to the federal geologic repository for final disposal. In addition to the SBW, roughly 4,000 m3 of calcined high-level wastes (HLW) are currently being stored at INEEL in stainless steel bin sets. These calcined HLW may also be vitrified, either with or without a dissolution and separation process, and sent to the federal geologic repository for final disposal.

  4. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  5. Process Options Description for Steam Reforming Flowsheet Model of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Barnes, C.M.; Nichols, T.T.

    2002-05-21

    Technical information is provided herein that is required for development of a steady-state process simulation of a baseline steam reforming treatment train for Tank Farm waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This document supercedes INEEL/EXT-2001-173, produced in FY2001 to support simulation of the direct vitrification treatment train which was the previous process baseline. A process block flow diagram for steam reforming is provided, together with a list of unit operations which constitute the process. A detailed description of each unit operation is given which includes its purpose, principal phenomena present, expected pressure and temperature ranges, key chemical species in the inlet steam, and the proposed manner in which the unit operation is to be modeled in the steady state process simulation. Models for the unit operations may be mechanistic (based on first principles), empirical (based solely on pilot test data without extrapolation) , or by correlations (based on extrapolative or statistical schemes applied to pilot test data). Composition data for the expected process feed streams is provided.

  6. Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Unger; Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2001-05-31

    This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.

  7. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  8. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  9. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors.

    PubMed

    Root, David H; Melendez, Roberto I; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T Celeste

    2015-07-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  10. Functional connectivity of paired default mode network subregions in primary insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao; Shao, Yi; Liu, Si-yu; Li, Hai-jun; Wan, Ai-lan; Nie, Si; Peng, De-chang; Dai, Xi-jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences between the paired default mode network (DMN) subregions in patients with primary insomnia (PIs). Methods Forty-two PIs and forty-two age- and sex-matched good sleepers (GSs) were recruited. All subjects underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The seed-based region-to-region FC method was used to evaluate the abnormal connectivity within the DMN subregions between the PIs and the GSs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the abnormal FC strength within the paired DMN subregions and the clinical features in PIs. Results Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, Self-Rating Depression Scale score, Self Rating Anxiety Scale score, Self-Rating Scale of Sleep score, and Profile of Mood States score (P<0.001). Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed significant decreased region-to-region FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and the right medial temporal lobe (t=−2.275, P=0.026), and between the left medial temporal lobe and the left inferior parietal cortices (t=−3.32, P=0.001). The abnormal FC strengths between the DMN subregions did not correlate with the clinical features. Conclusion PIs showed disrupted FC within the DMN subregions. PMID:26719693

  11. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  12. Conceptual Metaphor Meets Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the metaphorical representation of concepts and the appropriation of language-based construals can be hypothesized as additional sources of conceptual change alongside those previously proposed. Analyses of construals implicit in the lay and scientific use of the noun "energy" from the perspective of the theory of conceptual…

  13. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  14. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  15. Systems Science, Catastrophe Theory, and Sub-regional Climate Change: 5 Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickrey, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed 5 studies utilizing catastrophe theory to analyze several anthropogenic and broader biological factors in order to ascertain current and future climate changes for sub-regions generally characterized by the following: Appalachian Tennessee; South Southeastern Alaska; Sierra Nevada California; Ohio River Basin; North Central Illinois. Research to date has demonstrated a direct correlation to IPCC and external data sources; an ability to refine feedback predictions; and accuracy through modeling past-to-present structures. Further verification of process is being pursued. Should the data continue to register as verifiable, the finery will enable accurate analysis of current and future climate conditions in various sub-regions, with the model being replicable and distributable globally through web mechanisms for localized use. Analysis may then be employed as a driver for sub-regional mitigation and adaptation policy-making and programs.

  16. Subregions of Motion and Elliptic Halo Orbits in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial elliptic restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of elliptic halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.

  17. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  18. Social conflict resolution regulated by two dorsal habenular subregions in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Yi; Amo, Ryunosuke; Kinoshita, Masae; Cherng, Bor-Wei; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tazu; Takahoko, Mikako; Yamazaki, Masako; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    When animals encounter conflict they initiate and escalate aggression to establish and maintain a social hierarchy. The neural mechanisms by which animals resolve fighting behaviors to determine such social hierarchies remain unknown. We identified two subregions of the dorsal habenula (dHb) in zebrafish that antagonistically regulate the outcome of conflict. The losing experience reduced neural transmission in the lateral subregion of dHb (dHbL)-dorsal/intermediate interpeduncular nucleus (d/iIPN) circuit. Silencing of the dHbL or medial subregion of dHb (dHbM) caused a stronger predisposition to lose or win a fight, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dHbL and dHbM comprise a dual control system for conflict resolution of social aggression. PMID:27034372

  19. Evaluation and Testing of the Cells Unit Crossflow Filter on INEEL Dissolved Calcine Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

    1998-08-01

    Development of waste treatment processes for the remediation of radioactive wastes is currently under way at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). INTEC, formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, previously reprocessed nuclear fuel to retrieve fissionable uranium. Liquid waste raffinates resulting from reprocessing were solidified into a granular calcine material. Approximately 4,000 m3 of calcine are presently being stored in concrete encased stainless steel bins at the INTEC. Greater than 99 weight percent of the calcine is non-radioactive inert materials. By separating radioactive and non-radioactive constituents into high and low activity fractions, a significant high-activity volume reduction can be achieved. Prior to separation, calcine dissolution must be performed. However, dissolution studies have shown a small percentage of solids present after dissolution. Undissolved solids (UDS) in solution must be removed prior to downstream processes such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. Furthermore, residual UDS in solutions have the potential to carry excess radioactivity into low activity waste fractions, if not removed. Filtration experiments were conducted at the INEEL using the Cell Unit Filter (CUF) on actual dissolved H-4 calcine and dissolved Run 1027 non-radioactive pilot plant calcine. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the removal and operational efficiency of crossflow filtration on slurries of various solids loading. The solids loadings tested were, 0.19, 2.44 (H-4) and 7.94 (1027) weight percent, respectively. A matrix of test patterns was used to determine the effects of transmembrane pressure and axial velocity on filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for each solids loading displayed a high dependence on transmembrane pressure, indicating that pressure filtration resistance limits filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for all

  20. Unique challenges for storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, T.A.

    1998-03-01

    Non-commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy presents some unique challenges for interim storage as well as ultimate disposal in a repository. There is an important link between Yucca Mountain Repository work and the future needs of the DOE SNF program. Close coordination and early definition of acceptance criteria are essential. Much of the Yucca Mountain Repository work has focused on commercial SNF which has very high structural integrity and a well documented set of characteristics and burn-up histories. In contrast, DOE non-commercial SNF at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) represents over two hundred fifty fuel types, much of which is degraded. Fuel designs by DOE were centered around various test objectives in experimental reactors. The result was a proliferation of fuel types. Interest in enhanced heat transfer led to use of sodium as a bond between the fuel and cladding. The desire for smaller more compact reactors with higher power densities led to a variety of enrichments from less than 20% to greater than 90%. INEEL has most of the US U-233 spent nuclear fuel, which came from breeder reactor concepts and consideration of a thorium fuel cycle. These various fuel types now must be placed in safe, stable interim dry storage. Emphasis is being placed on the use of commercially available dry storage designs and independent spent fuel storage installations licensed under NRC criteria. A lot of technological development is being done to characterize fuels that do not have the documented fabrication and operational histories of commercial LWR fuels. Program objectives are safe interim storage and least cost transition to geological repository storage.

  1. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  2. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  3. Experience-Dependent and Independent Binocular Correspondence of Receptive Field Subregions in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarnaik, Rashmi; Wang, Bor-Shuen; Cang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The convergence of eye-specific thalamic inputs to visual cortical neurons forms the basis of binocular vision. Inputs from the same eye that signal light increment (On) and decrement (Off) are spatially segregated into subregions, giving rise to cortical receptive fields (RFs) that are selective for stimulus orientation. Here we map RFs of binocular neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex using spike-triggered average. We find that subregions of the same sign (On–On and Off–Off) preferentially overlap between the 2 monocular RFs, leading to binocularly matched orientation tuning. We further demonstrate that such subregion correspondence and the consequent matching of RF orientation are disrupted in mice reared in darkness during development. Surprisingly, despite the lack of all postnatal visual experience, a substantial degree of subregion correspondence still remains. In addition, dark-reared mice show normal monocular RF structures and binocular overlap. These results thus reveal the specific roles of experience-dependent and -independent processes in binocular convergence and refinement of On and Off inputs onto single cortical neurons. PMID:23389996

  4. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  5. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  6. Subregional Training Workshop on Nonformal Environmental Education for Asia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    The Subregional Training Workshop on Nonformal Environmental Education for Asia was organized by Universiti Pertanian Malaysia in cooperation with UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP). The workshop aimed to familiarize participants with IEEP's sourcebook on nonformal environmental education. This report contains…

  7. Hippocampal Subregions Exhibit Both Distinct and Shared Transcriptomic Responses to Aging and Nonneurodegenerative Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Dustin R.; Bixler, Georgina V.; Brucklacher, Robert M.; Yan, Han; Giles, Cory B.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Sonntag, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory with aging affects a large segment of the aged population. Hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, and DG) have been previously reported to express both common and specific morphological, functional, and gene/protein alterations with aging and cognitive decline. To comprehensively assess gene expression with aging and cognitive decline, transcriptomic analysis of CA1, CA3, and DG was conducted using Adult (12M) and Aged (26M) F344xBN rats behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze performance. Each subregion demonstrated a specific pattern of responses with aging and with cognitive performance. The CA1 and CA3 demonstrating the greatest degree of shared gene expression changes. Analysis of the pathways, processes, and regulators of these transcriptomic changes also exhibit a similar pattern of commonalities and differences across subregions. Gene expression changes between Aged cognitively Intact and Aged cognitively Impaired rats often showed an inversion of the changes between Adult and Aged rats. This failure to adapt rather than an exacerbation of the aging phenotype questions a conventional view that cognitive decline is exaggerated aging. These results are a resource for investigators studying cognitive decline and also demonstrate the need to individually examine hippocampal subregions in molecular analyses of aging and cognitive decline. PMID:24994846

  8. Hippocampal subregions exhibit both distinct and shared transcriptomic responses to aging and nonneurodegenerative cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Masser, Dustin R; Bixler, Georgina V; Brucklacher, Robert M; Yan, Han; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Sonntag, William E; Freeman, Willard M

    2014-11-01

    Impairment of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory with aging affects a large segment of the aged population. Hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, and DG) have been previously reported to express both common and specific morphological, functional, and gene/protein alterations with aging and cognitive decline. To comprehensively assess gene expression with aging and cognitive decline, transcriptomic analysis of CA1, CA3, and DG was conducted using Adult (12M) and Aged (26M) F344xBN rats behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze performance. Each subregion demonstrated a specific pattern of responses with aging and with cognitive performance. The CA1 and CA3 demonstrating the greatest degree of shared gene expression changes. Analysis of the pathways, processes, and regulators of these transcriptomic changes also exhibit a similar pattern of commonalities and differences across subregions. Gene expression changes between Aged cognitively Intact and Aged cognitively Impaired rats often showed an inversion of the changes between Adult and Aged rats. This failure to adapt rather than an exacerbation of the aging phenotype questions a conventional view that cognitive decline is exaggerated aging. These results are a resource for investigators studying cognitive decline and also demonstrate the need to individually examine hippocampal subregions in molecular analyses of aging and cognitive decline. PMID:24994846

  9. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  10. Analyzing Public Sector Education Facilities: A Step Further towards Accessible Basic Education Institutions in Destitute Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpur, Mir Aftab Hussain; Napiah, Madzlan; Chandio, Imtiaz Ahmed; Memon, Irfan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Rural subregions of the developing countries are suffering from many physical and socioeconomic problems, including scarcity of basic education institutions. The shortage of education institutions extended distance between rural localities and education institutions. Hence, to curb this problem, this research is aimed to deal with the basic…

  11. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term. PMID:17349002

  12. Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; He, Fei; Wang, Hongye; Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  13. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M.H.; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug–kettle) than unrelated (car–teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. PMID:25496810

  14. Hippocampal sub-regional shape and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Tang, Xiaoying; Carlson, Michelle C

    2016-08-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology, and a target biomarker region for testing intervention efficacy. Over the last few decades, a growing body of evidence from animal and human models suggests that physical activity (PA) is associated with structural benefits to the hippocampus in older adults. Very few human studies, however have explored hippocampal sub-regional specificity of PA; this is significant considering that sub-regions of the hippocampus are associated with distinct cognitive tasks and are differentially affected by disease pathology. This study used objective and self-reported measures of daily walking activity and exercise, and surface-based regional shape analysis using high-field hippocampal sub-regional partitions to explore sub-region specific hippocampal associations in a sample of nondemented, community-dwelling older adults at elevated sociodemographic risk for cognitive decline. Vertex-wise surface areas, which may be more sensitive than global volume measures, were calculated using shape diffeomorphometry, and PA was assessed using step activity monitors and PA questionnaires. We found that daily walking activity in a participant's environment was associated in cross-section mainly with larger surface areas of the subiculum in women. Associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported exercise. Prior studies have found that PA related to exercise and aerobic fitness may be most closely associated with the anterior hippocampus, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These novel findings are the first, to our knowledge, in human models to suggest that PA related to navigation that may not reach the level of moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with specific sub-regions of the hippocampus. These findings underscore the importance of better understanding the independent and related biological mechanisms and pathways by which increasing exercise as well as non

  15. Differential roles of ventral pallidum subregions during cocaine self-administration behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Ma, Sisi; Barker, David J.; Megehee, Laura; Striano, Brendan M.; Ralston, Carla M.; Fabbricatore, Anthony T.; West, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is necessary for drug-seeking behavior. VP contains ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) subregions which receive projections from the nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. To date, no study has investigated the behavioral functions of the VPdl and VPvm subregions. To address this issue, we investigated whether changes in firing rate (FR) differed between VP subregions during four events: approaching toward, responding on, or retreating away from a cocaine-reinforced operandum, and a cocaine-associated cue. Baseline FR and waveform characteristics did not differ between subregions. VPdl neurons exhibited a greater change in FR compared to VPvm neurons during approaches toward, as well as responses on, the cocaine-reinforced operandum. VPdl neurons were more likely to exhibit a similar change in FR (direction and magnitude) during approach and response than VPvm neurons. In contrast, VPvm firing patterns were heterogeneous, changing FRs during approach or response alone, or both. VP neurons did not discriminate cued behaviors from uncued behaviors. No differences were found between subregions during the retreat and no VP neurons exhibited patterned changes in FR in response to the cocaine-associated cue. The stronger, sustained FR changes of VPdl neurons during approach and response may implicate VPdl in the processing of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior via projections to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. In contrast, heterogeneous firing patterns of VPvm neurons may implicate VPvm in facilitating mesocortical structures with information related to the sequence of behaviors predicting cocaine self-infusions via projections to mediodorsal thalamus and ventral tegmental area. PMID:22806483

  16. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution

  17. Hydrogen Gas Generation Model for Fuel-Based Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Stored at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Khericha, S.; Bhatt, R.; Liekhus, K.

    2003-01-14

    The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) initiated efforts to calculate the hydrogen gas generation in remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) containers in order to evaluate continued storage of unvented RH-TRU containers in vaults and to identify any potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. A computer code is developed to calculate the hydrogen concentration in the stored RH-TRU waste drums for known configuration, waste matrix, and radionuclide inventories as a function of time.

  18. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  19. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Reese; D. J. Kuhns

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements are discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper summarizes the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper is to discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL�s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  20. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, Douglass Jack; Reese, Craig Lyle

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements will be discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper will summarize the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper will discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL’s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  1. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  2. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  3. Mapping of contamination at Savannah River Site FBWU by INEEL trolley

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.V.; Gehrke, R.J.; Helmer, R.G.; Josten, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU) 643-11G is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) designated site at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Pre-Work Plan Characterization at the FBWU in May 1996 indicated that radiological contamination was present in surface and near surface soils and identified cesium-137, {sup 137}Cs, the unit specific contaminant, as being primarily in the top 15 cm of soil. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sent the dig-face trolley system to SRS where it demonstrated its capability over a 6.1-m (20 ft.) x 9.6-m (30 ft.) area to rapidly map the contamination on-line with its large area plastic scintillation detector. Also, an extended-range (10 keV to 3 MeV) Ge detector was used at selected locations to identify and quantify the {sup 137}Cs contamination. The coordinate locations of each measurement acquired in either the scanning or fixed position mode was obtained with a survey system based on radial encoders. Topography measurements were also made during measurements to permit correction of field of view and activity concentrations for changes in the ground to detector distance.

  4. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  5. Consultative meeting considers past successes and future programmes for subregional network.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of the consultative meeting held in Beijing during October 18-19, 1999. Representatives from the population information (POPIN) centers in China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam participated in the meeting. The major objectives were to exchange and share experiences among the network members and to draw up a cooperative work plan for carrying out information activities more effectively in the coming year and beyond. Highlights of the meeting include the presentation of the results of an Asia-Pacific POPIN survey, which evaluated information technology (IT) capabilities among members and evaluation of the 1999 IT-focused training workshop; a review of POPIN activities conducted by the subregional network's members in the past year; and a discussion of major topics for cooperative activities. Moreover, a work plan was formulated for the East and South-East Asia POPIN subregional network for October 1999-October 2000. PMID:12349810

  6. Differentially disrupted functional connectivity of the subregions of the amygdala in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqun; Zhang, Min; Han, Ying; Song, Haiqing; Guo, Rongjuan; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala is an important brain area involved in cognitive procession and emotional regulation. Previous studies have typically considered the amygdala as a single structure, which likely masks contribution of individual amygdala subdivisions. Actually, the amygdala is heterogeneous and composed of structurally and functionally distinct nuclei, which may present different connectivity patterns and predict to relevant cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about functional connectivity of amygdala subregions in the resting state in AD subjects. Here, we employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity changes of subregions comparing the AD patients with the age-matched control subjects. Thirty-two AD and 38 control subjects were analyzed. We defined three subregions of the amygdala according to probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlases and mapped the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity for each subregion: The central medial nucleus (CM) of amygdala exhibited connections with the lentiform nucleus, parahippocampus and lateral temporal gyrus; the lateral basal nucleus (LB) of amygdala functionally connected with the parahippocampus, lateral temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex; and the superficial nucleus (SF) of amygdala had connection with the parahippocampus, lentiform nucleus, lateral temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, precentral and postcentral gyrus. Comparing with the controls, the AD patients presented disrupted connectivity patterns in the LB of amygdala, which predicted disconnection with the left uncus, right insula, right precentral gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus and right claustrum. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. PMID:27002909

  7. Bimanual motor deficits in older adults predicted by diffusion tensor imaging metrics of corpus callosum subregions.

    PubMed

    Serbruyns, L; Gooijers, J; Caeyenberghs, K; Meesen, R L; Cuypers, K; Sisti, H M; Leemans, A; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in the microstructural organization of the corpus callosum (CC) may explain declines in bimanual motor performance associated with normal aging. We used diffusion tensor imaging in young (n = 33) and older (n = 33) adults to investigate the microstructural organization of seven specific CC subregions (prefrontal, premotor, primary motor, primary sensory, parietal, temporal and occipital). A set of bimanual tasks was used to assess various aspects of bimanual motor functioning: the Purdue Pegboard test, simultaneous and alternating finger tapping, a choice reaction time test and a complex visuomotor tracking task. The older adults showed age-related deficits on all measures of bimanual motor performance. Correlation analyses within the older group showed that white matter fractional anisotropy of the CC occipital region was associated with bimanual fine manipulation skills (Purdue Pegboard test), whereas better performance on the other bimanual tasks was related to higher fractional anisotropy in the more anterior premotor, primary motor and primary sensory CC subregions. Such associations were less prominent in the younger group. Our findings suggest that structural alterations of subregional callosal fibers may account for bimanual motor declines in normal aging. PMID:24158531

  8. Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Santos e Silva, C. M.; Lima, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper aims of computing climatology and trend analysis of occurrence and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (NEB). We used daily rainfall data of 148 rain gauges collected from the hydrometeorological network managed by the National Water Agency during 1972 to 2002 and used quantiles technique in order to select rainfall events. Defining heavy rainfall events as those when at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above the 95th percentile, normal rainfall was between the 45th and 55th percentiles, and weak rainfall events were under the 5th percentile. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was used to calculate the linear trend of the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. The NEB was divided in five subregions using the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method: Northern coast, Northern semiarid, Northwest, Southern semiarid, and Southern coast. The results suggest that the subregions are less influenced by El Niño and La Niña, and dry areas have higher variability, with the greatest number of intense events.

  9. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  10. Formulation Efforts for Direct Vitrification of INEEL Blend Calcine Waste Simulate: Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Reamer, I. A.

    2001-03-30

    This report documents the results of glass formulation efforts for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high level waste (HWL) calcine. Two waste compositions were used during testing. Testing started by using the Run 78 calcine composition and switched to simulated Blend calcine composition when it became available. The goal of the glass formulation efforts was to develop a frit composition that will accept higher waste loading that satisfies the glass processing and product acceptance constraints. 1. Melting temperature of 1125 ? 25?C 2. Viscosity between 2 and 10 Pa?s at the melting temperature 3. Liquidus temperature at least 100?C below the melting temperature 4. Normalized release of B, Li and Na each below 1 g/m2 (per ASTM C 1285-97) Glass formulation efforts tested several frit compositions with variable waste loadings of Run 78 calcine waste simulant. Frit 107 was selected as the primary candidate for processing since it met all process and performance criteria up to 45 mass% waste loading. When the simulated Blend calcine waste composition became available Frits 107 and 108 compositions were retested and again Frit 107 remained the primary candidate. However, both frits suffered a decrease in waste loading when switching from the Run 78 calcine to simulated Blend calcine waste composition. This was due to increase concentrations of both F and Al2O3 along with a decrease in CaO and Na2O in the simulate Blend calcine waste all of which have strong impacts on the glass properties that limit waste loading of this type of waste.

  11. Distinct Changes in Functional Connectivity in Posteromedial Cortex Subregions during the Progress of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yaqin; Liu, Yong; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Wei, Xuehu; Zhuo, Junjie; Li, Kuncheng; Zhang, Xinqin; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which causes dementia, especially in the elderly. The posteromedial cortex (PMC), which consists of several subregions involved in distinct functions, is one of the critical regions associated with the progression and severity of AD. However, previous studies always ignored the heterogeneity of the PMC and focused on one stage of AD. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we studied the respective alterations of each subregion within the PMC along the progression of AD. Our data set consisted of 21 healthy controls, 18 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 17 patients with mild AD (mAD), and 18 patients with severe AD (sAD). We investigated the functional alterations of each subregion within the PMC in different stages of AD. We found that subregions within the PMC have differential vulnerability in AD. Disruptions in functional connectivity began in the transition area between the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and then extended to other subregions of the PMC. In addition, each of these subregions was associated with distinct alterations in the functional networks that we were able to relate to AD. Our research demonstrated functional changes within the PMC in the progression of AD and may elucidate potential biomarkers for clinical applications. PMID:27147982

  12. State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program - Final Progress Report - 01/01/1996 - 09/30/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Trever, Kathleen

    2000-09-30

    The primary goal is to maintain an independent, impartial, and qualified State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program to assess the potential impacts of present and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities in Idaho; to assure the citizens of Idaho that all present and future DOE activities in Idaho are protective of the health and safety of Idahoans and the environment; and to communicate the findings to the citizens of Idaho in a manner which provides them the opportunity to evaluate impacts of present and future DOE activities in Idaho. This will be accomplished through primary technical work activities and providing clear, factual data and other information to the public.

  13. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62

  14. Improved drying rate diagnostics for saturated fuel debris at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, K.; Christensen, A.

    1999-09-01

    A fuel canning station (FCS) has been operated for {approximately}2 yr to prepare for the dry storage of a variety of spent reactor fuels stored in pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The FCS dewaters the fuel and then passivates possibly pyrophoric components in the fuel. Fuel-loaded canisters are placed into a heated insert, the canister is connected to a vacuum system, and the fuel is heated under a vacuum to remove the water. The dewatering system must also verify that the water was removed. The dryness criteria state that the canister pressure shall not exceed a defined pressure for a specified isolation time. Dewatering did not work well for defected TRIGA elements that had corroded in pool storage, leaving the intact fuel meat mixed with a bed of fines from metal oxides and from sludge that continuously accumulated within the pool. Dewatering these cans proved to be very time consuming. Fueled canisters were heated to 60 C and evacuated between 5 and 10 torr. At these conditions, intact fuels were rapidly dried (<10 h). TRIGA drying periods extended to 9 days. Dryness was qualitatively monitored using the canister pressure-control valve position. The valve closes as the gas flow rate declines, providing an indication that drying is complete. However, the valve remained open when drying TRIGA fuel, leaving no indication of dryness. In addition, dryness could not be verified because the canister pressure exceeded the defined pressure during isolation. Air leakage into the evacuated canister prevented the dryness from being verified. Air in-leakage and water vapor cannot easily be discriminated by the aforementioned procedures. Because the canister design does not seal above atmospheric pressure, a drying temperature that yielded a vapor pressure less than atmospheric pressure was chosen. A sufficiently long isolation test could then determine if air was accumulating in the canister; however, the low temperature reduced

  15. Subregional Shape Alterations in the Amygdala in Patients with Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon Ha; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Bori R.; Jeon, Saerom; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hyun, Heejung; Moon, Sohyeon; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The amygdala has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating fear-related responses including panic attacks. Given the functionally distinct role of the amygdalar subregions, morphometric measurements of the amygdala may point to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying panic disorder. The current study aimed to determine the global and local morphometric alterations of the amygdala related to panic disorder. Methods Volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach to high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images was used to examine the structural variations of the amygdala, with respect to extent and location, in 23 patients with panic disorder and 31 matched healthy individuals. Results There were no significant differences in bilateral amygdalar volumes between patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals despite a trend-level right amygdalar volume reduction related to panic disorder (right, β = -0.23, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.51; left, β = -0.18, p = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.45). Amygdalar subregions were localized into three groups including the superficial, centromedial, and laterobasal groups based on the cytoarchitectonically defined probability map. Surface-based morphometric analysis revealed shape alterations in the laterobasal and centromedial groups of the right amygdala in patients with panic disorder (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Conclusions The current findings suggest that subregion-specific shape alterations in the right amygdala may be involved in the development and maintenance of panic disorder, which may be attributed to the cause or effects of amygdalar hyperactivation. PMID:27336300

  16. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term

    PubMed Central

    Cole, James H.; Filippetti, Maria Laura; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Nam, Kie Woo; Gutman, Boris A.; Murray, Robin M.; Rifkin, Larry; Thompson, Paul M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation), possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic–ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome. Methods Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up) from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years) and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years). Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents’ Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points. Results In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups) larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up. Conclusions This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness. PMID:26091104

  17. Developmental sex differences in resting state functional connectivity of amygdala sub-regions.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Rudolph, Marc D; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-07-15

    During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10 and 16 years (n = 122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ≥ 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA-parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with

  18. Subregional variability in Missouri tornado statistics. Technical report Apr 77-Jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, S.W.; Darkow, G.L.

    1981-11-01

    The reality of subregional variability in tornado occurrence density as evidenced in the county to county variability in Missouri is examined. Reported tornadoes for the period from 1916 through 1975 were used. Demographic and geographic factors known to impact on tornado reporting efficiencies and accuracies are related to county tornado report densities by step-wise multiple linear regression techniques. The analysis suggests that over 75 percent of the county to county apparent variability in reported tornado densities in Missouri is explainable in terms of variability in population density, other related demographic variables and regional scale geographic factors.

  19. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  20. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  1. Application of real-time radioscopy and digital imaging to the examination of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kurt L.; Stanley, Clifford J.

    1999-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex, located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), contains facilities and equipment to manage and characterize transuranic radioactive waste generated primarily at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Laboratory and currently stored at the INEEL. The facility, referred to as the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant, provides space for the systems that characterize and certify the various waste forms for shipping and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. This paper describes the processes and instrumentation used in the nondestructive examination of the TRU waste 55-gal drums.

  2. Environmental Sampling FY01 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury in the Environmental Surrounding the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Michael Lehman

    2001-09-01

    Environmental fate and transport of the toxic air pollutant mercury (Hg) is currently a high-priority regional concern for the INEEL, and national and global concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At the INEEL’s Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), significant quantities (est. 40 kg/year) of Hg may have been released over 37 years of Environmental Management’s (EM) High-Level Waste (HLW) treatment operations. The EPA is very concerned about the continued global buildup of Hg in the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems, and has recently invested heavily in Hg research to better understand its complex environmental cycling.1,2 The Environmental Sampling work began in FY99 as a joint INEEL/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field research effort to (a) better understand the fate and potential impacts of Hg emissions from the INEEL’s HLW treatment operations (operational component) and (b) contribute at a national level to the scientific understanding of local, regional, and global Hg fate and transport (research component). The USGS contributed snow sampling support in the field (Water Resources Division, Salt Lake City) and laboratory analysis of all samples (Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory).

  3. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  4. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  5. Subregions of the inferior parietal lobule are affected in the progression to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sarah J; Killiany, Ronald J

    2010-08-01

    Changes in several regions within the brain have been associated with progression from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). In this study, the IPL was divided into three subregions: the gyrus, the banks of the sulcus, and the fundus to determine if these regions are independent of medial temporal regions in the progression of AD. Participants of the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI); n = 54) underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and neuropsychological examination, and were categorized as normal controls, mild cognitively impaired (MCI), or AD. FreeSurfer was initially used to identify the boundaries of the IPL. Each subregion was then manually traced based on FreeSurfer curvature intensities. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare groups. Results suggest that changes in thickness of the banks of the inferior parietal lobule are occurring early in the progression from normal to MCI, followed by changes in the gyrus and fundus, and these measures are related to neuropsychological performance. PMID:20570398

  6. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike. PMID:17520962

  7. Sub-regional dimensions of agricultural and environmental nitrogen: the case of Asia.

    PubMed

    Syers, John Keith

    2005-09-01

    Asia embraces a wide range of cropping environments, largely related to the diversity of climate. To meet the high food requirements of a very large population (some 59% of the earth's total) large inputs of mineral N fertilizer are required (44.2 Tg N x yr(-1) in the mid 1990 s). However, because of the low (20%-50%) overall efficiency of use of fertilizer N, sometimes coupled with heavy use in intensively-farmed areas (for example in parts of China), losses of fertilizer N from agricultural land are expected to be high. Part of the N lost is thought to cause pollution of the atmosphere and water resources. A sub-regional approach, based on the FAO Agroecological Zone (AEZ) concept, has the potential to provide meaningful assessments of the agricultural and environmental dimensions of N. The AEZ concept can also provide the rationale for locating Sub-regional Centers of the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) by basing the considerations, as far as practicable, on agroecological conditions. PMID:20549430

  8. Sub-regional dimensions of agricultural and environmental nitrogen: the case of Asia.

    PubMed

    Syers, John Keith

    2005-12-01

    Asia embraces a wide range of cropping environments, largely related to the diversity of climate. To meet the high food requirements of a very large population (some 59% of the earth's total) large inputs of mineral N fertilizer are required (44.2 Tg N x yr(-1) in the mid 1990s). However, because of the low (20%-50%) overall efficiency of use of fertilizer N, sometimes coupled with heavy use in intensively-farmed areas (for example in parts of China), losses of fertilizer N from agricultural land are expected to be high. Part of the N lost is thought to cause pollution of the atmosphere and water resources. A sub-regional approach, based on the FAO Agroecological Zone (AEZ) concept, has the potential to provide meaningful assessments of the agricultural and environmental dimensions of N. The AEZ concept can also provide the rationale for locating Sub-regional Centers of the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) by basing the considerations, as far as practicable, on agroecological conditions. PMID:16512197

  9. Anxiety and performance: the disparate roles of prefrontal subregions under maintained psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing interest in anxiety and psychological stress in daily life, little is known about neural correlates that underlie maintained psychological stress and their relationship with anxiety. In particular, the activation characteristics of lateral prefrontal subregions and their relationship with anxiety and cognitive performance under maintained psychological stress remain unknown. This study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a noninvasive and "real-world" functional neuroimaging method, to investigate the hemodynamic responses in wide areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the influence of anxiety under conditions of maintained stress induced by a continuous arithmetic task (2 sets, 15 min each) performed in a natural sitting posture. Although anxiety and performance are not directly correlated, the hemodynamic response in the medial portion of the lateral PFC (dorsolateral and frontopolar PFC) was significantly associated with anxiety, while hemodynamic responses in the ventrolateral PFC were associated with performance. Additionally, in the same medial region of the lateral PFC, trait and state anxieties were related to changes in deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin concentrations, respectively. This NIRS finding suggests disparate roles for prefrontal subregions in anxiety and performance under psychological stress and may lead to a better understanding of neural correlates for anxiety in everyday life. PMID:23425891

  10. Volumetric variation in subregions of the cerebellum correlates with working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Qin, Wen; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between structural variations in the cerebellum and individual differences in working memory performance as assessed by average reaction time (RT) and correction rate (CR) on a 3-back task. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 311 healthy young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify cerebellar areas with volumes correlated to working memory performance when controlling for age, gender, years of education and handedness. We found that RT was positively correlated with the grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally in cerebellar lobules IV/V, VI and VIII, in vermis VII/VIII and in left Crus I; CR was positively correlated with the GMV in the left lobule VI and Crus I. These findings suggest that RT on a working memory task is related to structural variation in both motor and cognitive subregions of the cerebellum, while CR is mainly associated with the cognitive subregions. Our findings provide further evidence that the cerebellum contributes to working memory function. PMID:22206834

  11. Assessing Contributions of Nucleus Accumbens Shell Subregions to Reward-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Michael D.; Hildebrand, David G. C.; Santangelo, Gabrielle; Moffa, Anthony; Pira, Ashley S.; Rycyna, Lisa; Radic, Mia; Price, Katherine; Archbold, Jonathan; McConnell, Kristi; Girard, Lauren; Morin, Kristen; Tang, Anna; Febo, Marcelo; Stellar, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a key role in brain reward processes including drug seeking and reinstatement. Several anatomical, behavioral, and neurochemical studies discriminate between the limbic-associated shell and the motor-associated core regions. Less studied is the fact that the shell can be further subdivided into a dorsomedial shell (NAcDMS) and an intermediate zone (NAcINT) based on differential expression of transient c-Fos and long-acting immediate-early gene ΔFosB upon cocaine sensitization. These disparate expression patterns suggest that NAc shell subregions may play distinct roles in reward-seeking behavior. In this study, we examined potential differences in the contributions of the NAcDMS and the NAcINT to reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior after extinction. Methods Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine, extinguished, and subjected to a reinstatement test session consisting of either an intracranial microinfusion of amphetamine or vehicle targeted to the NAcDMS or the NAcINT. Results Small amphetamine microinfusions targeted to the NAcDMS resulted in statistically significant reinstatement of lever pressing, whereas no statistical difference was observed for microinfusions targeted to the NAcINT. No significant difference was found for vehicle microinfusions in either case. Conclusion These results suggest heterogeneity in the behavioral relevance of NAc shell subregions, a possibility that can be tested in specific neuronal populations in the future with recently developed techniques including optogenetics. PMID:26048642

  12. Impact of 5-HTTLPR on hippocampal subregional activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Garrett, A; Gupta, S; Reiss, A L; Waring, J; Sudheimer, K; Anker, L; Sosa, N; Hallmayer, J F; O'Hara, R

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impacts performance on memory-related tasks and the hippocampal structures that subserve these tasks. The short (s) allele of 5-HTTLPR has been linked to greater susceptibility for impaired memory and smaller hippocampal volume compared to the long allele (l). However, previous studies have not examined the associations between 5-HTTLPR allele and activation in subregions of the hippocampus. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation in hippocampal and temporal lobe subregions in 36 elderly non-clinical participants performing a face-name encoding and recognition task. Although there were no significant differences in task performance between s allele carriers and l homozygotes, right CA1 and right parahippocampal activation during recognition errors was significantly greater in individuals bearing the s allele. In an exploratory analysis, we determined that these effects were more pronounced in s allele carriers with the apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele. Our results suggest that older individuals with the s allele inefficiently allocate neural resources while making errors in recognizing face-name associations, which could negatively impact memory performance during more challenging tasks. PMID:26393485

  13. Transcriptome atlas of the Arabidopsis funiculus--a study of maternal seed subregions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Deirdre; Millar, Jenna L; Girard, Ian J; Chan, Ainsley; Kirkbride, Ryan C; Pelletier, Julie M; Kost, Sara; Becker, Michael G; Yeung, Edward C; Stasolla, Claudio; Goldberg, Robert B; Harada, John J; Belmonte, Mark F

    2015-04-01

    The funiculus anchors the structurally complex seed to the maternal plant, and is the only direct route of transport for nutrients and maternal signals to the seed. While our understanding of seed development is becoming clearer, current understanding of the genetics and cellular mechanisms that contribute to funiculus development is limited. Using laser microdissection combined with global RNA-profiling experiments we compared the genetic profiles of all maternal and zygotic regions and subregions during seed development. We found that the funiculus is a dynamic region of the seed that is enriched for mRNAs associated with hormone metabolism, molecular transport, and metabolic activities corresponding to biological processes that have yet to be described in this maternal seed structure. We complemented our genetic data with a complete histological analysis of the funiculus from the earliest stages of development through to seed maturation at the light and electron microscopy levels. The anatomy revealed signs of photosynthesis, the endomembrane system, cellular respiration, and transport within the funiculus, all of which supported data from the transcriptional analysis. Finally, we studied the transcriptional programming of the funiculus compared to other seed subregions throughout seed development. Using newly designed in silico algorithms, we identified a number of transcriptional networks hypothesized to be responsible for biological processes like auxin response and glucosinolate biosynthesis found specifically within the funiculus. Taken together, patterns of gene activity and histological observations reveal putative functions of the understudied funiculus region and identify predictive transcriptional circuits underlying these biological processes in space and time. PMID:25684030

  14. Interior region-of-interest reconstruction using a small, nearly piecewise constant subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Xu Jingyan; Srivastava, Somesh; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Cammin, Jochen; Tang Qiulin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a method to reconstruct an interior region-of-interest (ROI) image with sufficient accuracy that uses differentiated backprojection (DBP) projection onto convex sets (POCS) [H. Kudo et al., ''Tiny a priori knowledge solves the interior problem in computed tomography'', Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2207-2231 (2008)] and a tiny knowledge that there exists a nearly piecewise constant subregion. Methods: The proposed method first employs filtered backprojection to reconstruct an image on which a tiny region P with a small variation in the pixel values is identified inside the ROI. Total variation minimization [H. Yu and G. Wang, ''Compressed sensing based interior tomography'', Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791-2805 (2009); W. Han et al., ''A general total variation minimization theorem for compressed sensing based interior tomography'', Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2009, Article 125871 (2009)] is then employed to obtain pixel values in the subregion P, which serve as a priori knowledge in the next step. Finally, DBP-POCS is performed to reconstruct f(x,y) inside the ROI. Clinical data and the reconstructed image obtained by an x-ray computed tomography system (SOMATOM Definition; Siemens Healthcare) were used to validate the proposed method. The detector covers an object with a diameter of {approx}500 mm. The projection data were truncated either moderately to limit the detector coverage to diameter 350 mm of the object or severely to cover diameter 199 mm. Images were reconstructed using the proposed method. Results: The proposed method provided ROI images with correct pixel values in all areas except near the edge of the ROI. The coefficient of variation, i.e., the root mean square error divided by the mean pixel values, was less than 2.0% or 4.5% with the moderate or severe truncation cases, respectively, except near the boundary of the ROI. Conclusions: The proposed method allows for reconstructing interior ROI images with sufficient accuracy with a tiny knowledge

  15. Interior region-of-interest reconstruction using a small, nearly piecewise constant subregion

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Xu, Jingyan; Srivastava, Somesh; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Cammin, Jochen; Tang, Qiulin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to reconstruct an interior region-of-interest (ROI) image with sufficient accuracy that uses differentiated backprojection (DBP) projection onto convex sets (POCS) [H. Kudo et al., “Tiny a priori knowledge solves the interior problem in computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2207–2231 (2008)] and a tiny knowledge that there exists a nearly piecewise constant subregion. Methods: The proposed method first employs filtered backprojection to reconstruct an image on which a tiny region P with a small variation in the pixel values is identified inside the ROI. Total variation minimization [H. Yu and G. Wang, “Compressed sensing based interior tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 2791–2805 (2009); W. Han et al., “A general total variation minimization theorem for compressed sensing based interior tomography,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2009, Article 125871 (2009)] is then employed to obtain pixel values in the subregion P, which serve as a priori knowledge in the next step. Finally, DBP-POCS is performed to reconstruct f(x,y) inside the ROI. Clinical data and the reconstructed image obtained by an x-ray computed tomography system (SOMATOM Definition; Siemens Healthcare) were used to validate the proposed method. The detector covers an object with a diameter of ∼500 mm. The projection data were truncated either moderately to limit the detector coverage to ∅350 mm of the object or severely to cover ∅199 mm. Images were reconstructed using the proposed method. Results: The proposed method provided ROI images with correct pixel values in all areas except near the edge of the ROI. The coefficient of variation, i.e., the root mean square error divided by the mean pixel values, was less than 2.0% or 4.5% with the moderate or severe truncation cases, respectively, except near the boundary of the ROI. Conclusions: The proposed method allows for reconstructing interior ROI images with sufficient accuracy with a tiny knowledge that

  16. SEPRADYNE/RADUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28 inch Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  17. SEPRADYNE/REDUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; MALKMUS,D.B.

    1999-08-02

    This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28'' Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.

  18. Initial Report for the Aquifer Background Study: Summary of Uranium and Plutonium Data from INEEL Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Roback; Don L. Koeppen

    2003-06-01

    As part of the “Aquifer Background Study,” Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under contract with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has undertaken a study to determine uranium and plutonium abundances and isotopic composition in groundwater samples collected at the INEEL. To date, four samples have been analyzed for uranium and plutonium and an additional nine samples have been analyzed for uranium. It is expected that several more samples will be analyzed for this study. This report summarizes the results from this initial set of samples. Of the 13 samples analyzed for uranium, four samples have 238U/235U ratios that differ from the natural value of 137.88. These four samples and two additional samples also contain 236U at 3-sigma level above detection limits. The presence of 236U and the non-natural 238U/235U ratios unequivocally indicate the presence of anthropic uranium in four of the samples. A small component of anthropic uranium is also present in two additional samples with positive 236U detection but natural 238U/235U isotope ratios. Two of the samples with anthropic uranium, as well as two samples with no detectable anthropic uranium were analyzed for plutonium. No plutonium was detected in these four samples at detection limits of approximately 5E7 239Pu atoms for three of the samples and approximately 1E8 239Pu atoms for the forth sample. These detection limits correspond to (239+240)Pu activity ratios (assuming a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.18) of 0.002 and 0.004 pCi/L respectively.

  19. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions. PMID:26279209

  20. Digenea in notothenioid fish in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Jeżewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2014-03-01

    Fish of five species of Notothenioidei (104 specimens), Cottoperca trigloides, Patagonotothen brevicauda, P. longipes, P. tessellata and Champsocephalus esox, caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica) were infected with Digenea of nine species (1130 specimens). Faunistic data on the occurrence of all nine parasites are provided. The most abundant digenean species was Macvicaria magellanica found in the intestine of three host species of the genus Patagonotothen. The second most abundant digenean species was Elytrophalloides oatesi found in the stomach of four host species, with exception of P. brevicauda. Three digenean species: Stenakron kerguelense, Whitegonimus ozoufae and Genolinea bowersi, were more abundant in fish caught at the harbor of Ushuaia (depth 7-9 m), remaining six species: M. magellanica, Neolepidapedoides subantarcticus, Postmonorchis variabilis, Derogenes varicus, E. oatesi and Lecithaster macrocotyle, in the eastern mouth of the Beagle Channel (depth 30 m). PMID:24570049

  1. Non-life insurance consumption in Italy: a sub-regional panel data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millo, Giovanni; Carmeci, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    We analyze the consumption of non-life insurance across 103 Italian provinces in 1998-2002 in order to assess its determinants, in the light of the empirical literature. Using sub-regional data, we overcome an important limitation of cross-country analyses, i.e. the systemic heterogeneity due to country-specific characteristics. Individual heterogeneity is accounted for through panel data techniques. However, considering spatial units within a single market raises issues of cross-sectional or spatial dependence, either due to common nationwide and/or regional factors or to spatial proximity. We carefully assess spatial dependence, employing recent diagnostic tests, finding out that the regressors included in our specification successfully account for spatial dependence. Insurance turns out to depend on income, wealth and some demographics, as already established, but also on trust, judicial efficiency and borrowing conditions. These findings help in explaining the gap between Central-Northern Italy and the south of the country.

  2. Track analysis of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of the Subantarctic subregion of South America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa. PMID:27395631

  3. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries. PMID:21308202

  4. Chronic L-dopa decreases serotonin neurons in a subregion of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Stansley, Branden J; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-11-01

    L-Dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is the precursor to dopamine and has become the mainstay therapeutic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Chronic L-dopa is administered to recover motor function in Parkinson's disease patients. However, drug efficacy decreases over time, and debilitating side effects occur, such as dyskinesia and mood disturbances. The therapeutic effect and some of the side effects of L-dopa have been credited to its effect on serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Given these findings, it was hypothesized that chronic L-dopa treatment decreases 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the content of 5-HT in forebrain regions in a manner that is mediated by oxidative stress. Rats were treated chronically with l-dopa (6 mg/kg; twice daily) for 10 days. Results indicated that the number of 5-HT neurons was significantly decreased in the DRN after l-dopa treatment compared with vehicle. This effect was more pronounced in the caudal-extent of the dorsal DRN, a subregion found to have a significantly higher increase in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio in response to acute L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg) or deprenyl (2 mg/kg) prevented the l-dopa-induced decreases in 5-HT neurons. In addition, 5-HT content was decreased significantly in the DRN and prefrontal cortex by l-dopa treatment, effects that were prevented by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Taken together, these data illustrate that chronic L-dopa causes a 5-HT neuron loss and the depletion of 5-HT content in a subregion of the DRN as well as in the frontal cortex through an oxidative-stress mechanism. PMID:25212217

  5. Ground-water data as of 1967, Central Coastal Subregion, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bader, J.S.

    1969-01-01

    Most usable ground water in the predominantly mountainous Central Coastal Subregion occurs in alluvium-filled valleys and coastal plains and in deeper aquifers of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The intervening mountainous areas are underlain by consolidated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, mainly of Mesozoic age. These older rocks contain only small quantities of recoverable ground water and, therefore, are not considered a major source of ground water. In the Central Coastal Subregion, 24 basins have been identified as significant sources of ground water. The total area of the 24 basins is about 3,500 square miles. The water-bearing deposits range in thickness from about 200 to 4,000 feet. Depending on local conditions, recharge infiltrates at rates of less than 1½ feet per day to more than 10 feet per day in the upper part of alluvial fans and stream channels and at the outcrops of the deeper aquifers. The maximum measured depth to water in the water-bearing deposits is 568 ft. In several valleys there are flowing wells. Total storage capacity of 16 of the basins is more than 20,000,000 acre-feet . The usable storage capacity of 18 of the basins is more than 7,600,000 acre-feet; the limiting factors are sea-water intrusion and high pumping lift. Ground-water temperature ranges from about 55° to about 75°F . The dissolved-solids content of the water is generally less than 800 parts per million, but locally is more than 11,000 parts per million. The predominant water type is calcium bicarbonate, but sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and chloride are present locally in significant quantities. Properly constructed wells in some areas can yield 425 gallons per minute.

  6. Distinct Neurogenomic States in Basal Ganglia Subregions Relate Differently to Singing Behavior in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X) to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP), our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain regions during

  7. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  8. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  9. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network. PMID:26966266

  10. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  11. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network subregions in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Gong, Hong-Han; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Si; Peng, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus formation (HF), inferior parietal cortices (IPC), and medial temporal lobe (MTL). The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035). The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033). Conclusion OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC, MPFC, and left MTL within the DMN subregions, and provides an imaging indicator for assessment of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. PMID:26855576

  12. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  13. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  14. In-situ radionuclide transport and preferential groundwater flows at INEEL (Idaho): Decay-series disequilibrium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Roback, R.; Murrell, M.; McLing, T.L.

    2000-03-01

    Uranium and thorium-decay series disequilibria in groundwater occur as a result of water-rock interactions, and they provide site-specific, natural analog information for assessment of in-situ, long-term migration of radionuclides in the far field of a nuclear waste disposal site. In this study, a mass balance model was used to relate the decay-series radionuclide distributions among solution, sorbed and solid phases in an aquifer system to processes of water transport, sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, radioactive ingrowth-decay, and {alpha} recoil. Isotopes of U and Rn were measured in 23 groundwater samples collected from a basaltic aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Idaho. The results show that groundwater activities of Th and Ra isotopes are 2--4 orders lower than those of their U progenitors. Modeling of the observed disequilibria places the following constraints on the time scale of radionuclide migration and water-rock interaction at INEEL: (1) Time for sorption is minutes for Ra and Th; time for desorption is days for Ra and years for Th; and time for precipitation is days for Th, years for Ra, and centuries for U. (2) Retardation factors due to sorption average > 10{sup 6} for {sup 232}Th, {approximately}10{sup 4} for {sup 226}Ra, and {approximately}10{sup 3} for {sup 238}U. (3) Dissolution rates of rocks are {approximately}70 to 800 mg/L/y. (4) Ages of groundwater range from <10 to 100 years. Contours of groundwater age, as well as spatial patterns of radionuclide disequilibria, delineate two north-south preferential flow pathways and two stagnated locales. Relatively high rates of dissolution and precipitation and {alpha}-recoil of {sup 222}Rn occur near the groundwater recharging sites as well as in the major flow pathways. Decay of the sorbed parent radionuclides (e.g., {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) on micro-fracture surfaces constitutes an important source of their daughter ({sup 222}Rn and

  15. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  16. Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Selig, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of factors have recently caused mass coral mortality events in all of the world's tropical oceans. However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs. Methodology/Principle Findings We compiled and analyzed a coral cover database of 6001 quantitative surveys of 2667 Indo-Pacific coral reefs performed between 1968 and 2004. Surveys conducted during 2003 indicated that coral cover averaged only 22.1% (95% CI: 20.7, 23.4) and just 7 of 390 reefs surveyed that year had coral cover >60%. Estimated yearly coral cover loss based on annually pooled survey data was approximately 1% over the last twenty years and 2% between 1997 and 2003 (or 3,168 km2 per year). The annual loss based on repeated measures regression analysis of a subset of reefs that were monitored for multiple years from 1997 to 2004 was 0.72 % (n = 476 reefs, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.08). Conclusions/Significance The rate and extent of coral loss in the Indo-Pacific are greater than expected. Coral cover was also surprisingly uniform among subregions and declined decades earlier than previously assumed, even on some of the Pacific's most intensely managed reefs. These results have significant implications for policy makers and resource managers as they search for successful models to reverse coral loss. PMID:17684557

  17. Age-related changes in glial cells of dopamine midbrain subregions in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Collier, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Aging remains the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD), and there is selective vulnerability in midbrain DA neuron degeneration in PD. By tracking normal aging-related changes with an emphasis on regional specificity, factors involved in selective vulnerability and resistance to degeneration can be studied. Towards this end, we sought to determine whether age-related changes in microglia and astrocytes in rhesus monkeys are region-specific, suggestive of involvement in regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration that may be relevant to PD pathogenesis. Gliosis in midbrain DA subregions was measured by estimating glia number using unbiased stereology, assessing fluorescence intensity for proteins upregulated during activation, and rating morphology. With normal aging, microglia exhibited increased staining intensity and a shift to more activated morphologies preferentially in the vulnerable substantia nigra-ventral tier (vtSN). Astrocytes did not exhibit age-related changes consistent with an involvement in regional vulnerability in any measure. Our results suggest advancing age is associated with chronic mild inflammation in the vtSN, which may render these DA neurons more vulnerable to degeneration. PMID:18715678

  18. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  19. Exogenous features versus prior experiences modulate different subregions of the right IPL during episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The fractionation view holds that distinct cognitive operations are mediated by subregions of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within IPL, we hypothesised that retrieval-related activity in different parts of the right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) may be modulated differentially by information acquired via different combinations of attention signals at encoding. We had two groups of participants watch a 42-min TV episode and, after a 24-hr delay, perform a temporal-order judgment task during fMRI. Each retrieval trial comprised three images presented sequentially, requiring participants to judge the temporal order between the first and last images while ignoring the second image (“distractor”). We manipulated the bottom-up factor by presenting distractors that were extracted from either an event-boundary or a non-boundary of the movie. The top-down factor was manipulated by instructing one group perform a segmentation task reporting the event-boundaries at encoding, while the other group watched the movie passively. Across groups, we found that the stimulus-related factor modulated retrieval activation in the anterior rSMG (areas PFt and PFop), whereas the goal-related influence of prior segmentation interacted with this effect in the middle rSMG (area PF), demonstrating IPL segregation during retrieval as a function of prior bottom-up vs. top-down attention signals. PMID:26057929

  20. Purification of a protein binding to the CDEI subregion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, W D; Philippsen, P

    1989-01-01

    The DNA subregions CDEI and CDEIII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres are highly conserved, and both are binding sites for proteins. We describe here the purfication of a CDEI-specific binding protein using biotin-labeled synthetic CDEI DNA coupled to streptavidin agarose. The binding properties of this 64-kilodalton (kDa) protein were characterized by competition assays and by methylation interference assays. DNA fragments with single base-pair changes at positions 7 and 8 of CDEI were less efficient competitors than fragments with nonmutated CDEI. Mutations at these positions have previously been shown to decrease centromere activity in vivo. Methylation of guanosines at either side of the 8-base-pair CDEI sequence did not interfere with binding, whereas methylation of any of the four guanosines within CDEI prevented binding. A smaller CDEI-specific binding protein of 37 kDa was also purified and characterized. It is most likely a degradation product of the 64-kDa protein. Images PMID:2685569

  1. Phenotypic subregions within the split-hand/foot malformation 1 locus.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Malene B; Kreiborg, Sven; Jensen, Per; Bak, Mads; Mang, Yuan; Lodahl, Marianne; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Tommerup, Niels; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna D

    2016-03-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation 1 (SHFM1) is caused by chromosomal aberrations involving the region 7q21.3, DLX5 mutation, and dysregulation of DLX5/DLX6 expression by long-range position effects. SHFM1 can be isolated or syndromic with incomplete penetrance and a highly variable clinical expression, possibly influenced by sex and imprinting. We report on a new family with five affected individuals with syndromic SHFM1 that includes split-hand/foot malformations, hearing loss, and craniofacial anomalies, and an inv(7)(q21.3q35) present both in the proband and her affected son. The proximal inversion breakpoint, identified by next generation mate-pair sequencing, truncates the SHFM1 locus within the regulatory region of DLX5/6 expression. Through genotype-phenotype correlations of 100 patients with molecularly characterized chromosomal aberrations from 32 SHFM1 families, our findings suggest three phenotypic subregions within the SHFM1 locus associated with (1) isolated SHFM, (2) SHFM and hearing loss, and (3) SHFM, hearing loss, and craniofacial anomalies, respectively (ranked for increasing proximity to DLX5/6), and encompassing previously reported tissue-specific enhancers for DLX5/6. This uniquely well-characterized cohort of SHFM1 patients allowed us to systematically analyze the recently suggested hypothesis of skewed transmission and to confirm a higher penetrance in males vs. females in a subgroup of patients with isolated SHFM. PMID:26839112

  2. Prefrontal subregions and dimensions of insight in first-episode schizophrenia--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shad, Mujeeb U; Muddasani, Sri; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2006-01-30

    Deficits in insight are multidimensional, and include symptom unawareness and misattribution. We and others have observed that these deficits may be related to a prefrontal dysfunction. However, few studies have examined the relationship between specific prefrontal sub-regions and the awareness and attributional dimensions of insight in schizophrenia. This study examined the correlation between insight dimensions of awareness and attribution of symptoms and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume in 14 subjects with first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve (FEAN) schizophrenia. In addition, 21 healthy subjects provided control data for volumetric assessments. Insight was assessed with Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders. Morphometric assessments were adjusted for intra-cranial volume and were conducted by trained raters blind to clinical information using BRAINS-2. Average scores on current awareness of symptoms (1=aware; 5=unaware) were negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume and average scores on current attribution of symptoms (1=attribute; 5=misattribute) with right medial OFC volume. Unawareness and misattribution of symptoms in FEAN schizophrenia may have distinct neuroanatomical bases. DLPFC deficits may have resulted in illness unawareness by interfering with self-monitoring, while OFC abnormalities may have mediated symptom misattribution by conferring aberrant salience to perceived symptomatology. PMID:16361089

  3. Spatially invariant coding of numerical information in functionally defined subregions of human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Eger, E; Pinel, P; Dehaene, S; Kleinschmidt, A

    2015-05-01

    Macaque electrophysiology has revealed neurons responsive to number in lateral (LIP) and ventral (VIP) intraparietal areas. Recently, fMRI pattern recognition revealed information discriminative of individual numbers in human parietal cortex but without precisely localizing the relevant sites or testing for subregions with different response profiles. Here, we defined the human functional equivalents of LIP (feLIP) and VIP (feVIP) using neurophysiologically motivated localizers. We applied multivariate pattern recognition to investigate whether both regions represent numerical information and whether number codes are position specific or invariant. In a delayed number comparison paradigm with laterally presented numerosities, parietal cortex discriminated between numerosities better than early visual cortex, and discrimination generalized across hemifields in parietal, but not early visual cortex. Activation patterns in the 2 parietal regions of interest did not differ in the coding of position-specific or position-independent number information, but in the expression of a numerical distance effect which was more pronounced in feLIP. Thus, the representation of number in parietal cortex is at least partially position invariant. Both feLIP and feVIP contain information about individual numerosities in humans, but feLIP hosts a coarser representation of numerosity than feVIP, compatible with either broader tuning or a summation code. PMID:24293562

  4. Imbalance in subregional connectivity of the right temporoparietal junction in major depression.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Müller, Veronika I; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sorg, Christian; Riedl, Valentin; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Gruber, Oliver; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves impairment in cognitive and interpersonal functioning. The right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ) is a key brain region subserving cognitive-attentional and social processes. Yet, findings on the involvement of the RTPJ in the pathophysiology of MDD have so far been controversial. Recent connectivity-based parcellation data revealed a topofunctional dualism within the RTPJ, linking its anterior and posterior part (aRTPJ/pRTPJ) to antagonistic brain networks for attentional and social processing, respectively. Comparing functional resting-state connectivity of the aRTPJ and pRTPJ in 72 MDD patients and 76 well-matched healthy controls, we found a seed (aRTPJ/pRTPJ) × diagnosis (MDD/controls) interaction in functional connectivity for eight regions. Employing meta-data from a large-scale neuroimaging database, functional characterization of these regions exhibiting differentially altered connectivity with the aRTPJ/pRTPJ revealed associations with cognitive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus) and behavioral (posterior medial frontal cortex) control, visuospatial processing (dorsal visual cortex), reward (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), as well as memory retrieval and social cognition (precuneus). These findings suggest that an imbalance in connectivity of subregions, rather than disturbed connectivity of the RTPJ as a whole, characterizes the connectional disruption of the RTPJ in MDD. This imbalance may account for key symptoms of MDD in cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2931-2942, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090056

  5. Different involvement of subregions within dorsal premotor and medial frontal cortex for pro- and antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Cieslik, Edna C; Seidler, Isabelle; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    The antisaccade task has been widely used to investigate cognitive action control. While the general network for saccadic eye movements is well defined, the exact location of eye fields within the frontal cortex strongly varies between studies. It is unknown whether this inconsistency reflects spatial uncertainty or is the result of different involvement of subregions for specific aspects of eye movement control. The aim of the present study was to examine functional differentiations within the frontal cortex by integrating results from neuroimaging studies analyzing pro- and antisaccade behavior using meta-analyses. The results provide evidence for a differential functional specialization of neighboring oculomotor frontal regions, with lateral frontal eye fields (FEF) and supplementary eye field (SEF) more often involved in prosaccades while medial FEF and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) revealed consistent stronger involvement for antisaccades. This dissociation was furthermore mirrored by functional connectivity analyses showing that the lateral FEF and SEF are embedded in a motor output network, while medial FEF and aMCC are integrated in a multiple demand network. PMID:27211526

  6. Conceptual Design of a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; A. M. Ougouag; Richard M. Moore; W. K. Terry

    2003-11-01

    Efficient electricity and hydrogen production distinguish the Very High Temperature Reactor as the leading Generation IV advanced concept. This graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor achieves a requisite high outlet temperature while retaining the passive safety and proliferation resistance required of Generation IV designs. Furthermore, a recirculating pebble-bed VHTR can operate with minimal excess reactivity to yield improved fuel economy and superior resistance to ingress events. Using the PEBBED code developed at the INEEL, conceptual designs of 300 megawatt and 600 megawatt (thermal) Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactors have been developed. The fuel requirements of these compare favorably to the South African PBMR. Passive safety is confirmed with the MELCOR accident analysis code.

  7. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  8. Conceptual atomism rethought.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susan

    2010-06-01

    Focusing on Machery's claim that concepts play entirely different roles in philosophy and psychology, I explain how one well-known philosophical theory of concepts, Conceptual Atomism (CA), when properly understood, takes into account both kinds of roles. PMID:20584416

  9. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  10. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  11. Organization of cortico-cortical pathways supporting memory retrieval across subregions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Barredo, Jennifer; Verstynen, Timothy D; Badre, David

    2016-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicates that different subregions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) participate in distinct cortical networks. These networks have been shown to support separable cognitive functions: anterior VLPFC [inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars orbitalis] functionally correlates with a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with top-down influences on memory retrieval, while mid-VLPFC (IFG pars triangularis) functionally correlates with a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with postretrieval control processes. However, it is not known to what extent subregional differences in network affiliation and function are driven by differences in the organization of underlying white matter pathways. We used high-angular-resolution diffusion spectrum imaging and functional connectivity analysis in unanesthetized humans to address whether the organization of white matter connectivity differs between subregions of VLPFC. Our results demonstrate a ventral-dorsal division within IFG. Ventral IFG as a whole connects broadly to lateral temporal cortex. Although several different individual white matter tracts form connections between ventral IFG and lateral temporal cortex, functional connectivity analysis of fMRI data indicates that these are part of the same ventral functional network. By contrast, across subdivisions, dorsal IFG was connected with the midfrontal gyrus and correlated as a separate dorsal functional network. These qualitative differences in white matter organization within larger macroanatomical subregions of VLPFC support prior functional distinctions among these regions observed in task-based and functional connectivity fMRI studies. These results are consistent with the proposal that anatomical connectivity is a crucial determinant of systems-level functional organization of frontal cortex and the brain in general. PMID:27281745

  12. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  13. Identification and distribution of projections from monoaminergic and cholinergic nuclei to functionally differentiated subregions of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Daniel J.; Lamperski, Carolyn S.; Waterhouse, Barry D.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in a variety of cognitive and executive functions and is composed of several distinct networks, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). These regions serve dissociable cognitive functions, and are heavily innervated by acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine systems. In this study, fluorescently labeled retrograde tracers were injected into the ACC, mPFC, and OFC, and labeled cells were identified in the nucleus basalis (NB), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and locus coeruleus (LC). DRN and LC showed similar distributions of retrogradely labeled neurons such that most were single labeled and the largest population projected to mPFC. VTA showed a slightly greater proportion of double and triple labeled neurons, with the largest population projecting to OFC. NB, on the other hand, showed mostly double and triple labeled neurons projecting to multiple subregions. Therefore, subsets of VTA, DRN and LC neurons may be capable of modulating individual prefrontal subregions independently, whereas NB cells may exert a more unified influence on the three areas simultaneously. These findings emphasize the unique aspects of the cholinergic and monoaminergic projections to functionally and anatomically distinct subregions of PFC. PMID:23665053

  14. Genetic cell targeting uncovers specific neuronal types and distinct subregions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Amanda Q; Dela Cruz, Julie A D; Sun, Yanjun; Holmes, Todd C; Xu, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays an important role in fear, stress, and anxiety. It contains a collection of subnuclei delineated by gross cytoarchitecture features; however, there has yet to be a systematic examination of specific BNST neuronal types and their associated neurochemical makeup. The present study focuses on improved characterization of the anterior BNST based on differing molecular and chemical expression aided by mouse genetics. Specific Cre driver lines crossed with a fluorescent reporter line were used for genetic cell targeting and immunochemical staining. Using this new approach, we were able to robustly identify specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the BNST. The presence and distribution of excitatory neurons were firmly established; glutamatergic neurons in the anterior BNST accounted for about 14% and 31% of dorsal and ventral BNST cells, respectively. GABAergic neurons expressing different isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase were found to have differential subregional distributions. Almost no parvalbumin-expressing cells were found in the BNST, while somatostatin-expressing cells and calretinin-expressing cells account for modest proportions of BNST cells. In addition, vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing axonal plexuses were prominent in the oval and juxtacapsular subregions. In addition, we discovered that corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing cells contain GABAergic and glutamatergic subpopulations. Together, this study reveals new information on excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the BNST, which will facilitate genetic dissection and functional studies of BNST subregions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2379-2399, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26718312

  15. Mapping the morphogenetic potential of antler fields through deleting and transplanting subregions of antlerogenic periosteum in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Yang, Fuhe; McMahon, Chris; Li, Chunyi

    2012-02-01

    Morphogenetic fields are a localised and regionally regulated group of cells capable of responding to signals leading to the development of organs. In this study, we sought to determine if antlers develop from such a field. We divided antler fields into four subregions: anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. The antlerogenic periosteum (AP) in each subregion (half of the AP) was deleted and then transplanted into an ectopic site. Antlers form from the cells exclusively residing in the AP, which is located in an antler field. The morphogenetic potential of each subregion was assessed by the antler growth from both the defective field and the transplantation site. The results showed that when the AP anterior half was absent, the fields formed antlers missing the first tine, whereas when the anterior half was present, the ectopic sites regenerated antlers containing the first tine. When the medial half was deleted, the fields could only grow spike antlers, and when the medial half was present, the ectopic sites developed branched antlers. In contrast, the antler fields were able to compensate the defects caused by ablation of the posterior or the lateral half to form relatively normal antlers; and the ectopic sites containing these grafted halves only formed spike antlers. Therefore, antler morphogenetic information was primarily held in the AP anterior-medial halves. This study substantiates the presence of morphogenetic fields in regulating the distinct pattern of antler growth, and demonstrates that antler development is a useful model for the study of morphogenetic fields. PMID:22122063

  16. Conceptualization for Evaluation and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, William M. K.; Linton, Rhoda

    Both evaluation and planning typically begin with an attempt to define the conceptual territory of interest; this paper presents an approach to such conceptualization. The term, structured conceptualization, is used to refer to any definable set of procedures which can help a user develop a useful conceptual representation. Structured…

  17. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Moorman, David E; James, Morgan H; McGlinchey, Ellen M; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated. PMID:25529632

  18. A process analysis of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued recall primarily for spatial information. These are tasks that have been assumed to reflect the operations of episodic memory and require interactions between CA3a,b and the dentate gyrus (DG) via mossy fiber inputs into the CA3a,b. The CA3a,b is also important for encoding of spatial information requiring the acquisition of arbitrary and relational associations. All these tasks are assumed to operate within an autoassociative network function of the CA3 region. The CA3a,b also supports retrieval of short-term memory information based on a spatial pattern completion process. Based on afferent inputs into CA3a,b from the DG via mossy fibers and afferents from the entorhinal cortex into CA3a,b as well as reciprocal connections with the septum, CA3a,b can bias the process of encoding utilizing the operation of spatial pattern separation and the process of retrieval utilizing the operation of pattern completion. The CA3a,b also supports sequential processing of information in cooperation with CA1 based on the Schaffer collateral output from CA3a,b to CA1. The CA3c function is in part based on modulation of the DG in supporting pattern separation processes. PMID:23750126

  19. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  20. Sub-Regional Sea Ice Preferences of Pacific Walrus in the Bering Sea Using SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, A.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Johnson, M. A.; Ray, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) uses winter sea ice in the Bering Sea for numerous parts of its natural history including courtship, foraging, and migration. Recent and predicted loss of sea ice has caused the Pacific walrus to be considered for an elevated status under the Endangered Species Act. Study of the ice conditions during this period is required to investigate changes in the Bering Sea ice pack and its effects on walrus sustainability. Using Radarsat-1 data and second-order texture statistics, a classification system was devised to separate sea ice into three distinguishable classes based on walrus needs of open water availability in the pack ice: discontinuous pack ice, continuous pack ice, and open water. Classifications are performed on sub-regional image areas to facilitate classification of heterogeneous seascapes which are thought to be distinguishable by walrus. Spatial, as well as temporal, changes in the seascape cover, based on the classification, are achieved. These results are then combined with ship-based observations of walrus to quantify walrus habitat preference. The three-class algorithm has a success rate of 94% for the discontinuous ice and continuous pack ice. Radarsat-1 images from 2004 - 2008 were analyzed for changes in seasonal and annual discontinuous ice extent. After classification, the spatial extent of discontinuous ice was found to vary throughout 2004 - 2008 in the Bering Sea shelf. Walrus are also shown to prefer discontinuous pack far from the southernmost ice edge. Maps of walrus habitat preference and persistent areas of sea ice seascapes are created and then can be used for the walrus' status consideration under the Endangered Species Act in addition to general species management issues.

  1. Amygdala subregions tied to SSRI and placebo response in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Faria, Vanda; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Örjan; Bani, Massimo; Bettica, Paolo; Pich, Emilio M; Jacobsson, Eva; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2012-09-01

    The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygdala subregions or different modulatory cortical areas. We examined similarities and differences in the neural response to SSRIs and placebo in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labeled water was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 72 patients with SAD during an anxiogenic public speaking task, before and after 6-8 weeks of treatment under double-blind conditions. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Conjunction analysis revealed a common rCBF-attenuation from pre- to post-treatment in responders to SSRIs and placebo in the left basomedial/basolateral and right ventrolateral amygdala. This rCBF pattern correlated with behavioral measures of reduced anxiety and differentiated responders from nonresponders. However, nonanxiolytic treatment effects were also observed in the amygdala. All subgroups, including nonresponders, showed deactivation of the left lateral part of the amygdala. No rCBF differences were found between SSRI responders and placebo responders. This study provides new insights into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis. PMID:22617357

  2. Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Vanda; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Örjan; Bani, Massimo; Bettica, Paolo; Pich, Emilio M; Jacobsson, Eva; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygdala subregions or different modulatory cortical areas. We examined similarities and differences in the neural response to SSRIs and placebo in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labeled water was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 72 patients with SAD during an anxiogenic public speaking task, before and after 6–8 weeks of treatment under double-blind conditions. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Conjunction analysis revealed a common rCBF-attenuation from pre- to post-treatment in responders to SSRIs and placebo in the left basomedial/basolateral and right ventrolateral amygdala. This rCBF pattern correlated with behavioral measures of reduced anxiety and differentiated responders from nonresponders. However, nonanxiolytic treatment effects were also observed in the amygdala. All subgroups, including nonresponders, showed deactivation of the left lateral part of the amygdala. No rCBF differences were found between SSRI responders and placebo responders. This study provides new insights into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis. PMID:22617357

  3. Temporally Dissociable Contributions of Human Medial Prefrontal Subregions to Reward-Guided Learning

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In decision making, dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex show a sensitivity to key decision variables, such as reward prediction errors. It is unclear whether these signals reflect parallel processing of a common synchronous input to both regions, for example from mesocortical dopamine, or separate and consecutive stages in reward processing. These two perspectives make distinct predictions about the relative timing of feedback-related activity in each of these regions, a question we address here. To reconstruct the unique temporal contribution of dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to simultaneously measured EEG activity in human subjects, we developed a novel trialwise fMRI-informed EEG analysis that allows dissociating correlated and overlapping sources. We show that vmPFC uniquely contributes a sustained activation profile shortly after outcome presentation, whereas dmPFC contributes a later and more peaked activation pattern. This temporal dissociation is expressed mainly in the alpha band for a vmPFC signal, which contrasts with a theta based dmPFC signal. Thus, our data show reward-related vmPFC and dmPFC responses have distinct time courses and unique spectral profiles, findings that support distinct functional roles in a reward-processing network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multiple subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex are known to be involved in decision making and learning, and expose similar response patterns in fMRI. Here, we used a novel approach to analyzing simultaneous EEG-fMRI that allows to dissociate the individual time courses of brain regions. We find that vmPFC and dmPFC have distinguishable time courses and time-frequency patterns. PMID:26269631

  4. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste.

  5. Mercury in soils and microbial biomass of the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Ul'yana, Gulyaeva

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clear up the role of soil microflora in the mercury concentration by microorganisms as they are related to a problem of the soil remediation. To complete the tasks as assigned, 150 samples of both various soils formed over the ore bodies outside the ore occurrence zones and waste dumps have been taken in the areas of South Kirgizstan Some 45 soil samples (horizon A, 0-20 cm) and dumps were used for microbiological analyses [1, 2]. The soil cover as seen in the work areas is represented by Haplic Calcisols (gray) soils. All the soils are generally calcareous, in some cases salted, and have various compositions. To grow the microbial biomass in order to determine mercury content levels in there, some soil media characterized by natural concentrations, ratios and forms of the compounds of these metals were used The results showed that the mercury concentrations in soils of the sampling area varied from 0.028 to 357.3 mg/kg. The highest metal content indices (up to 357.3 mg/kg) were found for soils formed over ores, and waste dumps. The lowest mercury content (0.028 to 0.066 mg/kg) was found for soils of the control area. The data on mercury and/or antimony accumulation by the biomass of soil microorganisms grown in soil media are represented. The soil samples having various mercury levels were collected in the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere. It was established that the accumulation of the metals by soil microflora depends on their content in the soil, the microorganism growth is strongly inhibited at mercury concentration of 300 mg/kg in soil. A direct and reliable correlation between the metal content level in soils and their concentration by microorganisms is found. Within the background sites a tendency of increase in mercury extraction from the soil with 1 M HCl solution, in particular from salted soils is observed. In contrast, in the conditions of an excess of mercury content in soils of ore grounds, a weak

  6. Is Neurolaw Conceptually Confused?

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In Minds, Brains, and Law, Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson argue that current attempts to use neuroscience to inform the theory and practice of law founder because they are built on confused conceptual foundations. Proponents of neurolaw attribute to the brain or to its parts psychological properties that belong only to people; this mistake vitiates many of the claims they make. Once neurolaw is placed on a sounder conceptual footing, Pardo and Patterson claim, we will see that its more dramatic claims are false or meaningless, though it might be able to provide inductive evidence for particular less dramatic claims (that a defendant may be lying, or lacks control over their behavior, for instance). In response, I argue that the central conceptual confusions identified by Pardo and Patterson are not confusions at all. Though some of the claims made by its proponents are hasty and sometimes they are confused, there are no conceptual barriers to attributing psychological properties to brain states. Neuroscience can play a role in producing evidence that is more reliable than subjective report or behavior; it therefore holds out the possibility of dramatically altering our self-conception as agents and thereby the law. PMID:25009442

  7. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  8. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  9. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  10. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  12. SLC ir conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1982-06-21

    Work on a one interaction-region, push-pull conceptual design for the SLC is described. The concept which has received the most attention is described. It is a below-ground hall - a 15 m deep rectangular pit covered by a surface building which houses counting rooms, power supplies, cryogenics and other auxiliary equipment. (LEW)

  13. Patterns in Species Composition of Fish and Selected Invertebrate Assemblages in Estuarine Subregions near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperno, R.; Mille, K. J.; Kadison, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Fisheries-Independent Monitoring program monitored the species composition and relative abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the estuarine waters near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, from January 1993 through to December 1996. Sampling sites were located in three distinct physiographic and biotic estuarine subregions: Mosquito Lagoon (ML; 11 stations), Ponce de Leon Inlet (PI; 8 stations), and Tomoka Basin/River (TR; 8 stations). This series of subregions associated with Ponce de Leon Inlet is a species-rich estuarine system that is numerically dominated by a few taxa. A total of 1 080 477 animals representing 160 species and 56 families were recorded. Anchoa spp. (29·9%) and Menidia spp. (12·6%) were the numerically dominant taxa. Sciaenidae and Gobiidae were the most speciose families, with 12 species each (14·0% and 1·7% of the total animals collected, respectively), followed by the bothids 10 species (0·6% of total animals). Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the subregions could be discriminated by their respective species composition and relative abundance. Spatial differences in species composition were principally attributed to differences in the magnitude of seasonal recruitment events and to habitat characteristics associated with the presence of seagrass, inlet dynamics, or the influence of freshwater discharge. The presence of freshwater taxa (centrarchids) and the seasonal recruitment of juvenile Penaeidae, Micropogonias undulatus , Stellifer lanceolatus and Leiostomus xanthurus, characterize the TR area, whereas the presence of species associated with higher salinities ( Opisthonema oglinum and Harengula jaguana) characterize PI and with seagrass ( Lucania parva and Lagodon rhomboides) characterize ML.

  14. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  15. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  16. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  17. coNCePTual

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-13

    A frequently reinvented wheel among network researchers is a suite of programs that test a network’s performance. A problem with having umpteen versions of performance tests is that it leads to a variety in the way results are reported; colloquially, apples are often compared to oranges. Consider a bandwidth test. Does a bandwidth test run for a fixed number of iterations or a fixed length of time? Is bandwidth measured as ping-pong bandwidth (i.e., 2more » * message length / round-trip time) or unidirectional throughput (N messages in one direction followed by a single acknowledgement message)? Is the acknowledgement message of minimal length or as long as the entire message? Does its length contribute to the total bandwidth? Is data sent unidirectionally or in both directions at once? How many warmup messages (if any) are sent before the timing loop? Is there a delay after the warmup messages (to give the network a chance to reclaim any scarce resources)? Are receives nonblocking (possibly allowing overlap in the NIC) or blocking? The motivation behind creating coNCePTuaL, a simple specification language designed for describing network benchmarks, is that it enables a benchmark to be described sufficiently tersely as to fit easily in a report or research paper, facilitating peer review of the experimental setup and timing measurements. Because coNCePTuaL code is simple to write, network tests can be developed and deployed with low turnaround times -- useful when the results of one test suggest a following test that should be written. Because coNCePTuaL is special-purpose its run-time system can perform the following functions, which benchmark writers often neglect to implement: * logging information about the environment under which the benchmark ran: operating system, CPU architecture and clock speed, timer type and resolution, etc. * aborting a program if it takes longer than a predetermined length of time to complete * writing measurement data and

  18. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  19. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  20. Detecting the subregion proceeding to infarction in hypoperfused cerebral tissue: a study with diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Karonen, J O; Vanninen, R L; Nuutinen, J; Perkiö, J; Vainio, P A; Soimakallio, S; Aronen, H J

    2003-06-01

    Diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI have been widely used in ischaemic stroke. We studied 17 patients in whom ischaemic areas showed an ischaemic core, an area of infarct growth and hypoperfused but ultimately surviving tissue. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured on days 1, 2, and 8 in the three subregions and in contralateral control areas. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in these regions on day 1 perfusion maps. On day 1, the ischaemic core had very low ADC and CBF and increased MTT. The ADC in the ischaemic core gradually increased during the week. The area of infarct growth on day 1 had slightly but significantly decreased ADC (96% of control, P=0.028), moderately decreased CBF and increased MTT. On day 1 the hypoperfused but surviving tissue had slightly but significantly increased ADC (103% of control, P=0.001), mildly decreased CBF and increased CBV and MTT. The ADC of the area of infarct growth decreased to the same level as in the ischaemic core on days 2 and 8. That of surviving tissue was still above normal on day 2 (103% of control), but had returned to the normal level by day 8. Measurement of ADC combined with perfusion MRI may help distinguish different subregions in acutely hypoperfused brain. PMID:12750863

  1. Subregional-scale groundwater depletion detected by GRACE for both shallow and deep aquifers in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiyong; Pan, Yun; Gong, Huili; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Demin; Zhao, Wenji

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the capability of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to detect heterogeneous groundwater storage (GWS) variations in two subregions of the North China Plain: the Piedmont Plain (PP, ~54,000 km2, mainly exploiting shallow groundwater) and East Central Plain (ECP, ~86,000 km2, mainly exploiting deep groundwater). Results show that the GWS anomalies estimated from GRACE data (2003-2013) agree well with those estimated from in situ observations (2005-2010) for both PP (R2 = 0.91) and ECP (R2 = 0.75). The shallow GWS (2003-2013) in PP declines faster (-46.5 ± 6.8 mm/yr) than the deep GWS in ECP (-16.9 ± 1.9 mm/yr). However, the shallow GWS in PP recovered more quickly especially during the 2008-2011 drought period. Despite its lower magnitude, the GRACE-derived GWS depletion in ECP reveals the overexploitation of deep GWS. This study demonstrated that the heterogeneous GWS variations can potentially be detected by GRACE at the subregional scale smaller than the typical GRACE footprint (200,000 km2).

  2. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. PMID:26944295

  3. PRA and Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  4. Conceptualization for planning and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Trochim, W M; Linton, R

    1986-01-01

    Conceptualization is a central task in planning and evaluation. There is a need to develop conceptualization methods which can help multiple constituency groups collaborate on the development of conceptual frameworks which can guide the planning and evaluation effort. A general model for conceptualization methods is presented along with considerations for implementation. This model is illustrated in two planning and evaluation studies which involved a broad range of constituent groups within the organizations in the development of "concept maps" which could guide subsequent work. Some general implications of conceptualization methods for planning and evaluation are discussed. PMID:10301179

  5. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  6. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  7. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  8. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr.; Beaver, D.E.

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  9. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region. PMID:20857562

  10. Subregional Expression of Hippocampal Glutamatergic and GABAergic Genes in F344 Rats with Social Isolation after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hisaya; Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that postweaning social isolation (pwSI) alters various behavioral phenotypes, including hippocampus-dependent tasks. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of the expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission-related genes in the distinct hippocampal subregions of pwSI rats. Male F344 rats (age, 4 wk) experienced either pwSI or group housing (controls). At 7 wk of age, the hippocampus of each rat was removed and laser-microdissected into the CA1 and CA3 layers of pyramidal cells and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Subsequently, the expression of glutamatergic- and GABAergic-related genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers, 18 of 24 glutamate receptor subunit genes were at least 1.5-fold increased in expression after pwSI. In particular, the expression of several N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors (for example, Grin2a in CA1, Grik4 in CA3) was significantly increased after pwSI. In contrast, pwSI tended to decrease the expression of GABAA receptor subunit genes, and Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabra4, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gabrg1, and Gabrg2 were all significantly decreased in expression compared with the levels in the group-housed rats. These results indicate a subregion-specific increase of glutamate receptors and reduction of GABAA receptors, suggesting that the hippocampal circuits of pwSI rats may be in more excitable states than those of group-housed rats. PMID:26884404