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Sample records for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation update.

    PubMed

    Lipley, Nick

    2014-11-01

    THE ROYAL College of Nursing (RCN), Resuscitation Council (UK) and British Medical Association (BMA) have issued a new edition of their guidance on when to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). PMID:25369953

  2. Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants after Delivery Room Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Sara C.; Sun, Yao; Wyckoff, Myra H.; Lee, Henry C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) to short term outcomes of extremely preterm infants. Study Design This was a cohort study of 22-27+6/7 weeks gestational age infants during 2005-2011. DR-CPR was defined as chest compressions and/or epinephrine administration. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with DR-CPR; analysis was stratified by gestational age. Results Of 13 758 infants, 856 (6.2%) received DR-CPR. Infants 23+6/7 weeks 22-24-25+6/7 weeks . Infants receiving DR-CPR receiving DR-CPR had similar outcomes to had more severe intraventricular hemorrhage non-recipients (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07, 1.72). Infants 26-27+6/7 weeks receiving DR-CPR were more likely to die (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30, 2.51) and have intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.56, 2.82). Adjusted hospital DR-CPR rates varied widely (median 5.7%). Conclusion Premature infants receiving DR-CPR had worse outcomes. Mortality and morbidity varied by gestational age. PMID:25521563

  3. [Resuscitation of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Kilian; Leonhardt, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Successful resuscitation of newborn infants depends on adequate preparation, exact evaluation and prompt initiation of support according to the recently updated recommendations by trained personnel. The key step in postnatal adaptation is the initiation of breathing with a subsequent increase in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary gas exchange. Therefore, in compromised newborn infants, adequate ventilation is the most important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ventilation should be initiated with room air in term infants and with low concentrations of supplemental oxygen in preterm infants. Subsequently, oxygen supplementation should always be guided by pulse oximetry. Chest compressions are only effective if adequate ventilation has been ensured. The compression ventilation ratio remains 3:1. The prevention of heat loss and maintaining a normal body temperature by adequate measures is an essential part of the care for healthy as well as asphyxiated infants. Therapeutic hypothermia should only be initiated after successful resuscitation and consultation with the regional neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:21815119

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Clark, Tammi

    2005-01-01

    It is critical for health care providers to have the skills and composure required to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when necessary. Unfortunately, it is easy to postpone updating one's CPR certification when confronted with the demands of leading a practice. New guidelines for CPR have been in effect since 2000. This clinical update provides a brief overview of the new guidelines, some suggestions for incorporating CPR training into the clinician's practice, and clarification for some common legal misconceptions that doctors may have pertaining to administering CPR. PMID:19674653

  5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: new concept.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangha

    2012-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of life-saving actions that improve the chances of survival, following cardiac arrest. Successful resuscitation, following cardiac arrest, requires an integrated set of coordinated actions represented by the links in the Chain of Survival. The links include the following: immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system, early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions, rapid defibrillation, effective advanced life support, and integrated post-cardiac arrest care. The newest development in the CPR guideline is a change in the basic life support sequence of steps from "A-B-C" (Airway, Breathing, Chest compressions) to "C-A-B" (Chest compressions, Airway, Breathing) for adults. Also, "Hands-Only (compression only) CPR" is emphasized for the untrained lay rescuer. On the basis of the strength of the available evidence, there was unanimous support for continuous emphasis on high-quality CPR with compressions of adequate rate and depth, which allows for complete chest recoil, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions and avoiding excessive ventilation. High-quality CPR is the cornerstone of a system of care that can optimize outcomes beyond return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). There is an increased emphasis on physiologic monitoring to optimize CPR quality, and to detect ROSC. A comprehensive, structured, integrated, multidisciplinary system of care should be implemented in a consistent manner for the treatment of post-cardiac arrest care patients. The return to a prior quality and functional state of health is the ultimate goal of a resuscitation system of care. PMID:23101004

  6. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    PubMed

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. PMID:24636360

  7. Drug therapy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1989-03-01

    In contrast to adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is rarely an acute, primary cardiac event. Instead, it is often the terminal event in a progressive deterioration of respiratory or circulatory function. Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest therefore is unusual in the paediatric patient and most survivors have persistent neurological impairment. Rapid vascular access and recall of drug dosages are major obstacles in treating paediatric emergencies. This paper reviews vascular access and alternative drug delivery methods. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternative sites for drug delivery, but the optimal doses and methods of drug administration via these routes are unknown. Indeed, although great progress in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) research has been made over the past 10 years, there are only limited data on paediatric arrest mechanisms and drug treatment. In this paper, recommended dosages and mechanisms of action of drugs useful during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are reviewed, highlighting recent data which suggest that changes in current drug recommendations may be needed. To avoid delays in management, precalculated tables of drugs should be readily available in emergency departments and other care areas where paediatric cases are likely to be seen. Adrenaline (epinephrine) remains the drug of choice in a cardiac arrest, but the most effective dose may be higher than currently used. Treatment of acidosis during the arrest concentrates on restoration of ventilation and blood flow and not on bicarbonate administration. In the post-arrest setting increasing data suggest bicarbonate may not be beneficial and may actually be detrimental. Calcium and atropine also have relatively minor roles in resuscitation pharmacology. Calcium is only indicated to treat hypocalcaemia, counteract the effects of hyperkalaemia or hypermagnesaemia, or reverse calcium channel blocker toxicity. Finally, the role of isoprenaline

  8. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  9. Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carveth, Stephen W.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a key part of emergency cardiac care. It is a basic life support procedure that can be taught in the schools with the assistance of the American Heart Association. (JMF)

  10. 21 CFR 880.6080 - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6080 - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  12. Comparison of Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, Airtraq and Miller laryngoscope for tracheal intubation by novice doctors during infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulation: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Nishi, Shin-ichi; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Tashiro, Chikara

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize that all rescuers should minimize interruption of chest compressions, even for endotracheal intubation. We compared the utility of the Pentax-AWS Airway Scope (AWS) with an infant-sized Intlock (AWS-I), Airtraq laryngoscope (ATQ) and Miller laryngoscope during chest compressions on an infant manikin. Twenty-three novice doctors performed tracheal intubation on an infant manikin using the AWS-I, ATQ and Miller laryngoscope, with or without chest compressions. In Miller laryngoscope trials, one participant failed to secure the airway without chest compressions, while nine failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In ATQ trials, none of the participants failed without compressions, while six failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In AWS-I trials, all participants succeeded regardless of chest compressions. Intubation time was significantly longer with chest compressions with the Miller laryngoscope and ATQ, but not with the AWS-I. The AWS-I is an effective device for endotracheal intubation during chest compressions in infant simulations managed by novice doctors. PMID:23568017

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  14. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks and benefits of ventilation].

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Garelli, Valentina; Lyazidi, Aissam; Suppan, Laurent; Savary, Dominique; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2013-12-11

    Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms that govern cardiopulmonary interactions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) allows to better assess risks and benefits of ventilation. Ventilation is required to maintain gas exchange, particularly when CPR is prolonged. Nevertheless, conventional ventilation (bag mask or mechanical ventilation) may be harmful when excessive or when chest compressions are interrupted. In fact large tidal volume and/or rapid respiratory rate may adversely compromise hemodynamic effects of chest compressions. In this regard, international recommendations that give the priority to chest compressions, are meaningful. Continuous flow insufflation with oxygen that generates a moderate positive airway pressure avoids any interruption of chest compressions and prevents the risk of lung injury associated with prolonged resuscitation. PMID:24416979

  15. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

    2016-03-01

    Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. PMID:26740418

  16. Which Fingers Should We Perform Two-Finger Chest Compression Technique with When Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on an Infant in Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sinn; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Hong, Jun Young

    2016-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness two-finger chest compression technique (TFCC) performed using the right vs. left hand and the index-middle vs. middle-ring fingers. Four different finger/hand combinations were tested randomly in 30 healthcare providers performing TFCC (Test 1: the right index-middle fingers; Test 2: the left index-middle fingers; Test 3: the right middle-ring fingers; Test 4: the left middle-ring fingers) using two cross-over trials. The "patient" was a 3-month-old-infant-sized manikin. Each experiment consisted of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consisting of 2 minutes of 30:2 compression: ventilation performed by one rescuer on a manikin lying on the floor as if in cardiac arrest. Ventilations were performed using the mouth-to-mouth method. Compression and ventilation data were collected during the tests. The mean compression depth (MCD) was significantly greater in TFCC performed with the index-middle fingers than with the middle-ring fingers regardless of the hand (95% confidence intervals; right hand: 37.8-40.2 vs. 35.2-38.6 mm, P = 0.002; left hand: 36.9-39.2 vs. 35.5-38.1 mm, P = 0.003). A deeper MCD was achieved with the index-middle fingers of the right versus the left hand (P = 0.004). The ratio of sufficiently deep compressions showed the same patterns. There were no significant differences in the other data. The best performance of TFCC in simulated 30:2 compression: ventilation CPR performed by one rescuer on an infant in cardiac arrest lying on the floor was obtained using the index-middle fingers of the right hand. Clinical Trial Registry at the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001515). PMID:27247512

  17. Which Fingers Should We Perform Two-Finger Chest Compression Technique with When Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on an Infant in Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness two-finger chest compression technique (TFCC) performed using the right vs. left hand and the index-middle vs. middle-ring fingers. Four different finger/hand combinations were tested randomly in 30 healthcare providers performing TFCC (Test 1: the right index-middle fingers; Test 2: the left index-middle fingers; Test 3: the right middle-ring fingers; Test 4: the left middle-ring fingers) using two cross-over trials. The “patient” was a 3-month-old-infant-sized manikin. Each experiment consisted of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consisting of 2 minutes of 30:2 compression: ventilation performed by one rescuer on a manikin lying on the floor as if in cardiac arrest. Ventilations were performed using the mouth-to-mouth method. Compression and ventilation data were collected during the tests. The mean compression depth (MCD) was significantly greater in TFCC performed with the index-middle fingers than with the middle-ring fingers regardless of the hand (95% confidence intervals; right hand: 37.8–40.2 vs. 35.2–38.6 mm, P = 0.002; left hand: 36.9–39.2 vs. 35.5–38.1 mm, P = 0.003). A deeper MCD was achieved with the index-middle fingers of the right versus the left hand (P = 0.004). The ratio of sufficiently deep compressions showed the same patterns. There were no significant differences in the other data. The best performance of TFCC in simulated 30:2 compression: ventilation CPR performed by one rescuer on an infant in cardiac arrest lying on the floor was obtained using the index-middle fingers of the right hand. Clinical Trial Registry at the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001515). PMID:27247512

  18. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices. PMID:24494769

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, John J; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2007-01-01

    In the 43 years since it was first described, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has grown from an obscure medical theory to a basic first aid skill taught to adults and is now the near-universal technique used in CPR instruction. This article provides insight into the history of CPR. We explore the phenomenon of sudden cardiac arrest, the historical roots of CPR, current practice data and recommendations, and the society's role in the development of this life-saving technique. We conclude with a review of CPR's economic impact on the healthcare system and the ethical and policy issues surrounding CPR. PMID:17179837

  20. Outcome predictors of pediatric extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert B; Harrison, Rick E

    2010-07-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) allows clinicians to potentially rescue pediatric patients unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Clinical and laboratory variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge are beginning to emerge. In this retrospective, historical cohort case series, clinical, and laboratory data from 31 pediatric patients (<21 years of age) receiving ECPR from March 2000 to April 2006 at our university-affiliated, tertiary-care children's hospital were statistically analyzed in an attempt to identify variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge. Seven patients survived to hospital discharge (23%), and 24 patients died. Survival was independent of gender, age, and CPR duration. ECPR survival was, however, associated with a lower pre-ECPR phosphorus concentration (P = 0.002) and a lower pre-ECPR creatinine concentration (P = 0.05). A classification tree analysis, using, in part, a pre-ECPR phosphorus concentration threshold and a CPR ABG base excess concentration threshold, yielded a 96% nominal accuracy of predicting survival to hospital discharge or death. A large, multicenter, prospective cohort study aimed at validating these predictive variables is needed to guide appropriate ECPR patient selection. This study reveals the potential survival benefit of ECPR for pediatric patients, regardless of CPR duration prior to ECPR cannulation. PMID:20145916

  1. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  2. Educational aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, S J

    1990-03-01

    The knowledge and skills surrounding the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have become essential to intensive care nurses and to nurses in general. With formalized training and refresher courses becoming more common in this country, it is evident that after relatively short periods of time the knowledge and skills acquired at such courses may be lost. While much consideration has been given to the content of both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (BCLS and ACLS) courses, relatively little attention has been paid to the educational issues surrounding CPR training. This paper explores some of these issues from the perspective of adult learning (andragogy). Research is cited from a wide range of sources to illustrate that CPR skill and knowledge deterioration is not unique to nursing, and that educational techniques exist which may improve current educational practices. PMID:2329270

  3. Review and Outcome of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Houssein; Al Halabi, Tarek; Hussein, Hussein; Awab, Ahmed; Jones, Kellie; Keddissi, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. PMID:26885387

  4. A Comfortability Level Scale for Performance of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Robert Drew

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses the development of an instrument to appraise the comfortability level of college students in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methodology and findings of data collection are given. (Author/DF)

  5. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Monitoring During Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Xanthos, Theodoros; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Papalois, Apostolos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta

    2015-11-01

    Although high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most significant factors related to favourable outcome, its quality depends on many components, such as airway management, compression depth and chest recoil, hands-off time, and early defibrillation. The most common way of controlling the resuscitation efforts is monitoring of end-tidal carbon dioxide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggests this method both for in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, despite the abundant human and animal studies supporting the usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide, its optimal values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain controversial. In this review, the advantages and effectiveness of end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are discussed and specific target values are suggested based on the available literature. PMID:26150002

  6. Possible SARS Coronavirus Transmission during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; McDonald, L. Clifford; Martinez, Kenneth F.; Ofner, Mariana; Wong, Tom; Wallington, Tamara; Gold, Wayne L.; Mederski, Barbara; Green, Karen; Low, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control. PMID:15030699

  7. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

  8. Results of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hong Ju; Song, Seunghwan; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Survival of children experiencing cardiac arrest refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is very poor. We sought to examine current era outcomes of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) support for refractory arrest. Methods Patients who were <18 years and underwent ECPR between November 2013 and January 2016 were including in this study. We retrospectively investigated patient medical records. Results Twelve children, median age 6.6 months (range, 1 day to 11.7 years), required ECPR. patients’ diseases spanned several categories: congenital heart disease (n=5), myocarditis (n=2), respiratory failure (n=2), septic shock (n=1), trauma (n=1), and post-cardiotomy arrest (n=1). Cannulation sites included the neck (n=8), chest (n=3), and neck to chest conversion (n=1). Median duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was five days (range, 0 to 14 days). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was successfully discontinued in 10 (83.3%) patients. Nine patients (75%) survived more than seven days after support discontinuation and four patients (33.3%) survived and were discharged. Causes of death included ischemic brain injury (n=4), sepsis (n=3), and gastrointestinal bleeding (n=1). Conclusion ECPR plays a valuable role in children experiencing refractory cardiac arrest. The weaning rate is acceptable; however, survival is related to other organ dysfunction and the severity of ischemic brain injury. ECPR prior to the emergence of end-organ injury and prevention of neurologic injury might enhance survival. PMID:27298791

  9. Efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using intratracheal insufflation.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Boussignac, G; Adnot, S; Bertrand, C; Isabey, D; Harf, A

    1996-11-01

    The effects of constant-flow insufflation (CFI) of air in the trachea at the distal end of a modified endotracheal tube as the sole mode of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were studied in pigs. The ventilatory effect of CFI (15 +/- 2 L/min) generating a positive pressure of about 10 cm H2O with concomitant chest compression was studied first. In nine sedated, paralyzed animals disconnected from the ventilator, CFI alone did not significantly alter the decrease in PaO2 and the rise in PaCO2 observed during apnea. By contrast, the combination of precordial compression and CFI (CFI-CPR) maintained arterial blood gases over a 4-min period at the level obtained during mechanical ventilation. In the second part of the study, ventricular fibrillation was induced and CFI-CPR was compared with standard CPR using conventional mechanical ventilation during two successive 4-min periods, in random order. Ventilatory parameters were identical in the two situations, whereas hemodynamic parameters were similar or better with CFI-CPR than with standard CPR. Significant differences were observed between standard CPR and CFI-CPR for systolic aortic pressure (72 +/- 22 versus 82 +/- 27 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.02) and for systolic (322 +/- 216 versus 431 +/- 237 ml/s; p < 0.01) and mean (116 +/- 106 versus 143 +/- 108 ml/s; p < 0.01) common carotid blood flows. The ease of use of CFI together with its beneficial hemodynamic effects suggests that CFI deserves to be investigated further as a mode of ventilation during CPR. PMID:8912743

  10. Ambient oxygen concentrations during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Robertshaw, H; McAnulty, G

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen concentrations were measured at 12 points around a cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice mannequin following simulated ventilation with a self-inflating bag, a 'Waters' bag and a ventilator to determine whether increased oxygen concentrations may contribute to the risk of combustion from arcing defibrillator paddles. Ventilation was simulated using either a mask or via a tracheal tube fitted to the airway. The head of the mannequin rested upon a 10-cm-high pillow. Gas sampling took place after 5 min of ventilation with subsequent removal of the ventilatory device and placement on the pillow to the left of the mouth, with the tubing of the device removed to a point 1 m behind the mouth and with the device left connected to the tracheal tube. Gas was sampled after using all devices at oxygen flows of 10l.min-1 and 15l.min-1. Slightly increased oxygen concentrations were noted over the anterior chest after placement of all devices on the pillow at the higher flow. Concentrations of greater than 30% were measured in the left axilla after placement of all devices on the pillow at both flows. No increase in oxygen concentration was seen when the devices were either left connected to the tracheal tube or removed to a distance of 1 m. It would appear that leaving a patient connected to a ventilator poses no increase in risk of fire from ignition of combustible material in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere during defibrillation. Disconnecting any device which continues to discharge oxygen and leaving it on the pillow before defibrillation is dangerous. PMID:9771170

  11. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  12. Basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation - guidelines of the Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils 2010.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James; Aickin, Richard; Nuthall, Gabrielle

    2012-07-01

    Guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been revised by Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils. Changes encourage CPR out-of-hospital and aim to improve the quality of CPR in-hospital. Features of basic CPR include: omission of abdominal thrusts for foreign body airway obstruction; commencement with chest compression followed by ventilation in a ratio of 30:2 or compression-only CPR if the rescuer is unwilling/unable to give expired-air breathing when the victim is 'unresponsive and not breathing normally'. Use of automated external defibrillators is encouraged. Features of advanced CPR include: prevention of cardiac arrest by rapid response systems; restriction of pulse palpation to 10 s to diagnosis cardiac arrest; affirmation of 15:2 compression-ventilation ratio for children and for infants other than newly born; initial bag-mask ventilation before tracheal intubation; a single direct current shock of 4 J/kg for ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless ventricular tachycardia followed by immediate resumption of CPR for 2 min without analysis of cardiac rhythm and avoidance of unnecessary interruption of continuous external cardiac compressions. Monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide is recommended to detect non-tracheal intubation, assess quality of CPR, and to help match ventilation to reduced cardiac output. The intraosseous route is recommended if immediate intravenous access is impossible. Amiodarone is strongly favoured over lignocaine for refractory VF and adrenaline over atropine for severe bradycardia, asystole and pulseless electrical activity. Family presence at resuscitation is encouraged. Therapeutic hypothermia is acceptable after resuscitation to improve neurological outcome. Extracorporeal circulatory support for in-hospital cardiac arrest may be used in equipped centres. PMID:22017373

  13. A patient with commotio cordis successfully resuscitated by bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K Y; Chan, H Y; Ng, F

    2010-10-01

    Sudden deaths of children and adolescents during competitive sports are usually due to congenital heart diseases. Ventricular fibrillation, however, may also occur in individuals with no underlying cardiac disease who have sustained a low-impact chest wall blow. This phenomenon is described as commotio cordis, and the overall survival rate is poor. Successful resuscitation can be achieved by prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation. We report a teenager who sustained a chest wall blow that resulted in a cardiac arrest during a rugby competition. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was given by bystanders. The ambulance crew arrived with an automated external defibrillator. Ventricular fibrillation was detected and responded to defibrillation. Subsequent investigations including imaging and electrophysiological studies did not reveal any cardiac or brain abnormality, and the patient recovered well neurologically. Accessible cardiopulmonary resuscitation-trained personnel and automated external defibrillators should be present at all organised sporting events. PMID:20890008

  14. Technique of Automated Control Over Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Kiseleva, E. Yu; Kutsov, M. S.; Zhdanov, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a technique of automated control over cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures on the basis of acoustic data. The research findings have allowed determining the primary important characteristics of acoustic signals (sounds of blood circulation in the carotid artery and respiratory sounds) and proposing a method to control the performance of resuscitation procedures. This method can be implemented as a part of specialized hardware systems.

  15. The ethics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. II. Medical logistics and the potential for good response.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J M; Reynolds, B M

    1992-01-01

    Mismatches between provision of paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and potential to benefit are examined. Deficiencies are most likely to occur in peripheral maternity units but futile CPR is more common in emergency departments where the child is unknown. Decision making in individual cases is best retained by the medical profession for the sake of the child and family. American style intervention by the legislature is likely to dissipate scarce resources and perhaps harm infants not capable of benefiting. PMID:1489234

  16. A National Survey of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Tomasetti, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to a national survey by regional directors of the American Heart Association, American National Red Cross, and continuing education programs for the deaf indicated that little is done to train the deaf in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and that communication barriers and inadequate training resources are major reasons. (Author)

  17. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiana Araújo G.; Balbino, Flávia Simphronio; Balieiro, Maria Magda F. G.; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%), in Medicine and Nursing (46%), and were surveys (72%) with healthcare team members (67%) as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a) to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b) to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c) to develop a written institutional policy; d) to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes. PMID:24676198

  18. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills by Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossel, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…

  19. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  20. Efficacy of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.

    2001-01-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when EtCO 2 values are maintained above 25% of prearrest values.

  1. Withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation: proposals for formal guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Doyal, L; Wilsher, D

    1993-01-01

    Working with members of the Royal London Trust and its medical council, Len Doyal and Daniel Wilsher have composed a set of guidelines governing the making of decisions to withhold resuscitation from patients. The guidelines describe the procedures that should be followed when giving orders for non-resuscitation and the clinical, legal, and moral criteria that should be satisfied before such orders are issued. The authors hope that these guidelines will be of help to those responsible for the creation of hospitals' policies for non-resuscitation. Images p1594-a PMID:8329925

  2. Case report on effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Radhe; Madan, Anita; Makkar, Vega; Attri, Joginder Pal

    2016-01-01

    The management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy is an important task for the emergency physicians. Some reasons for cardiac arrest are reversible and should be recognized and managed promptly. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation follows general advanced cardiac life support guidelines with several modifications for pregnant women, taking into account the lives of both mother and fetus. Here, we present the case of 23-year-old pregnant patient who came to Guru Nanak Dev Hospital, Amritsar; in shock, had a cardiac arrest, successfully resuscitated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), delivered by emergency cesarean section and was discharged from ICU on 9th day in healthy state. PMID:26957705

  3. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them. PMID:26380744

  4. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them. PMID:26380744

  5. Measurement of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, J P; Bryson, B L; Donovan, P J; Farquharson, R R; Jaeger, C

    1983-02-01

    Determining adequacy of mechanical ventilation is as important during CPR as in a more stable situation (such as, a patient on a ventilator in an ICU). Yet, such assessment during CPR usually only means listening for breath sounds, checking chest excursion, and blood gases. Exhaled tidal volume (VT) was measured on 45 intubated adult patients during resuscitation using a Wright's spirometer attached to a T-valve above the endotracheal tube. Ten patients had aspiration prior to intubation; 15 received advanced cardiac life support in the field, including esophageal airway insertion. CPR was performed in all cases with a mechanical compression device (Thumper). The pressure ventilator on this device was calibrated (peak inspiratory pressure, VT vs compliance) using a Dixie Test Lung, allowing indirect assessment of pulmonary compliance during CPR. Our findings suggest that lung compliance is markedly reduced within a short time after cardiac arrest. Fifty-five % of patients in this series could not be adequately oxygenated (PaO2 less than 50 torr) despite an FIO2 of 0.8 and adequate ventilation. Due to the reduced cardiac output during CPR causing venoarterial shunting, it is speculated that pulmonary edema is the most plausible explanation for this observation. PMID:6822084

  6. Extracorporeal Life Support for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Adults: Evolving Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kehrl, Thompson; Kaczorowski, David J

    2016-01-01

    For years, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been the cornerstone of treatment for cardiac arrest. However, the survival of patients that suffer a cardiac arrest is unsatisfactory despite the use of CPR. The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) to aid in the resuscitation of patients in cardiac arrest has the potential benefit of immediate restoration of circulation. Previously, several case reports and small series have suggested that ECLS might provide benefit for patients with refractory cardiac arrest. Several recent larger series, including a number of prospective studies, have emerged that provide further evidence for the utility of emergent institution of ECLS as an adjunct to conventional CPR in the management of cardiac arrest. These studies, which are reviewed here, have provided useful insight into the role of ECLS in cardiac arrest and have set the stage for randomized controlled trials. Ongoing ECLS trials, logistical issues, and future direction of ECLS are reviewed as well. PMID:26919179

  7. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  8. Regional blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Luce, J M; Rizk, N A; Niskanen, R A

    1984-10-01

    We studied regional blood flow (QR) using radiolabeled microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A circumferential vest and abdominal binder were used with a mechanical ventilator to deliver 30 simultaneous chest compressions and ventilations per minute. When this device was modified to increase aortic pressure (Pao) during compression and the aortic-to-right atrial pressure gradient (Pao-Pra) during relaxation, cerebral and myocardial QR increased significantly. These findings suggest that QR during CPR can be improved by augmenting perfusion-pressure gradients across the cerebral and coronary circulations. PMID:6488828

  9. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  10. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  11. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic (EMF) and radiomicrosphere (RMS)) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal.

  12. Use of the impedance threshold device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Demestiha, Theano D; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2010-01-01

    Although approximately one million sudden cardiac deaths occur yearly in the US and Europe, cardiac arrest (CA) remains a clinical condition still characterized by a poor prognosis. In an effort to improve the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique, the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for CPR gave the impedance threshold device (ITD) a Class IIa recommendation. The AHA recommendation means that there is strong evidence to demonstrate that ITD enhances circulation, improves hemodynamics and increases the likelihood of resuscitation in patients in CA. During standard CPR, venous blood return to the heart relies on the natural elastic recoil of the chest which creates a transient decrease in intrathoracic pressure. The ITD further decreases intrathoracic pressure by preventing respiratory gases from entering the lungs during the decompression phase of CPR. Thus, although ITD is placed into the respiratory circuit it works as a circulatory enhancer device that provides its therapeutic benefit with each chest decompression. The ease of use of this device, its ability to be incorporated into a mask and other airway devices, the absence of device-related adverse effects and few requirements in additional training, suggest that ITD may be a favorable new device for improving CPR efficiency. Since the literature is short of studies with clinically meaningful outcomes such as neurological outcome and long term survival, further evidence is still needed. PMID:21160680

  13. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

  14. Pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduces myocardial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we sought to examine whether pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane (SEVO) is neuro- and cardioprotective in a pig model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods Twenty-two pigs were subjected to cardiac arrest. After 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (N = 16), animals were randomized to either (1) propofol (CONTROL) anesthesia or (2) SEVO anesthesia for 4 hours. Neurological function was assessed 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. The effects on myocardial and cerebral damage, especially on inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, were studied using cellular and molecular approaches. Results Animals treated with SEVO had lower peak troponin T levels (median [IQR]) (CONTROL vs SEVO = 0.31 pg/mL [0.2 to 0.65] vs 0.14 pg/mL [0.09 to 0.25]; P < 0.05) and improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared to the CONTROL group (P < 0.05). SEVO was associated with a reduction in myocardial IL-1β protein concentrations (0.16 pg/μg total protein [0.14 to 0.17] vs 0.12 pg/μg total protein [0.11 to 0.14]; P < 0.01), a reduction in apoptosis (increased procaspase-3 protein levels (0.94 arbitrary units [0.86 to 1.04] vs 1.18 arbitrary units [1.03 to 1.28]; P < 0.05), increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein expression (P < 0.05) and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.05). SEVO did not, however, affect neurological deficit score or cerebral cellular and molecular pathways. Conclusions SEVO reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the early postresuscitation period. The reduction was associated with a reduced rate of myocardial proinflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, increased HIF-1α expression and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Early administration of SEVO may not

  15. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation using electrically driven devices: a review

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Stefan; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Lange, Ruediger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) immediate resuscitation with chest compressions and ventilation is crucial for survival. As manual resuscitation is associated with several drawbacks, mechanical resuscitation devices have been developed to support resuscitation teams. These devices are able to achieve better perfusion of heart and brain in laboratory settings, but real world experience showed no significant improved survival in comparison to manual resuscitation. This review will focus on two mechanical resuscitation devices, the Lund University Cardiac Assist System (LUCAS) and AutoPulse devices and the actual literature available. In conclusion, the general use of mechanical resuscitation devices cannot be recommended at the moment. PMID:26623121

  16. Rhythm analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gauna, Sofia; Irusta, Unai; Ruiz, Jesus; Ayala, Unai; Aramendi, Elisabete; Eftestøl, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest depends largely on two factors: early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. CPR must be interrupted for a reliable automated rhythm analysis because chest compressions induce artifacts in the ECG. Unfortunately, interrupting CPR adversely affects survival. In the last twenty years, research has been focused on designing methods for analysis of ECG during chest compressions. Most approaches are based either on adaptive filters to remove the CPR artifact or on robust algorithms which directly diagnose the corrupted ECG. In general, all the methods report low specificity values when tested on short ECG segments, but how to evaluate the real impact on CPR delivery of continuous rhythm analysis during CPR is still unknown. Recently, researchers have proposed a new methodology to measure this impact. Moreover, new strategies for fast rhythm analysis during ventilation pauses or high-specificity algorithms have been reported. Our objective is to present a thorough review of the field as the starting point for these late developments and to underline the open questions and future lines of research to be explored in the following years. PMID:24527445

  17. [Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation needs the ventilation].

    PubMed

    Bao, Fang-ping; Pan, Yuan-min; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2014-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is series of rescue measures for saving cardiac arrest patients. Early initiation and good quality of CPR is crucial for increasing chance of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. In recent years, the CPR guidelines have changed a lot, especially in basic life support. The guideline now pays more attention on chest compression and less to ventilation. CPR with chest compression only and without mouth-to-mouth ventilation is more popular. In this article, we outline the development and recent researches of CPR. As depriving oxygen from a collapsed patient for 6 min may result in poor outcome, the average time for ambulance transport is longer (about 10 to 16 min) in China, which makes rescuers easy to feel fatigue, chest compression only CPR is not suitable in China. Though non-professional rescuers have difficulty to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation, they generally show a willingness to do so. To strengthen public standard CPR training including mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compression, is most important to promote CPR in China. PMID:25372633

  18. Trainers' Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, M.; Castrén, M.; Nurmi, J.; Niemi-Murola, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse's Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation). Cronbach's alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student's t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p < 0.01). Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p < 0.01) were less confident about their Nurse's Role (p < 0.01) and Nontechnical Skills (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills. PMID:27144027

  19. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO2). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA). There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes. PMID:25400399

  20. Selected concepts and controversies in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Although more than 80 years of research in cardiac resuscitation produced many important findings and greatly enhanced our understanding of the arrest state, outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest remains poor. Resuscitation guidelines have recently been published, but they may not reflect optimal therapy. Closed-chest compression-induced cardiac output may be higher in pediatric patients, particularly infants, than that previously reported in adults. To achieve higher cardiac outputs, direct cardiac compression is important; the recommended compression location has therefore been changed based on recent data. The optimal rate of compression, however, is uncertain, so further research is needed. Alternative vascular access sites, such as the endotracheal and intraosseous route for drug administration may permit more rapid drug delivery, but data suggest that a larger epinephrine dose than currently recommended should be used. It may also be helpful to dilute the drug in normal saline before endotracheal administration. Although experimental data suggest that a pure alpha-adrenergic agonist may be beneficial in a cardiac arrest, recent data show that epinephrine remains the drug of choice. Finally, the role of sodium bicarbonate in both the arrest and postarrest setting has become controversial. Recent data suggest that bicarbonate may be detrimental and that therapy of acidosis is best directed at improving perfusion, oxygenation, and ventilation. Alternative forms of therapy for acidosis, such as THAM and dichloroacetate may prove beneficial in the postarrest setting. PMID:3052707

  1. The Success Rate of Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ahvaz Training Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Assar, Shideh; Husseinzadeh, Mohsen; Nikravesh, Abdul Hussein; Davoodzadeh, Hannaneh

    2016-01-01

    Research Objective. This study determined the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors influencing it in two training hospitals in Ahvaz. Method. Patients hospitalized in the pediatric wards and exposed to CPR during hospital stay were included in the study (September 2013 to May 2014). The primary outcome of CPR was assumed to be the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the secondary outcome was assumed to be survival to discharge. The neurological outcome of survivors was assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) method. Results. Of the 279 study participants, 138 patients (49.4%) showed ROSC, 81 patients (29%) survived for 24 hours after the CPR, and 33 patients (11.8%) survived to discharge. Of the surviving patients, 16 (48.5%) had favorable neurological outcome. The resuscitation during holidays resulted in fewer ROSC. Multivariate analysis showed that longer CPR duration, CPR by junior residents, growth deficiency, and prearrest vasoactive drug infusion were associated with decreased survival to discharge (p < 0.05). Infants and patients with respiratory disease had higher survival rates. Conclusion. The rate of successful CPR in our study was lower than rates reported by developed countries. However, factors influencing the outcome of CPR were similar. These results reflect the necessity of paying more attention to pediatric CPR training, postresuscitation conditions, and expansion of intensive care facilities. PMID:27293983

  2. Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether or not recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care, because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable. PMID:24655460

  3. Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable. PMID:24685948

  4. Delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barratt, M. R.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The microgravity environment presents several challenges for delivering effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Chest compressions must be driven by muscular force rather than by the weight of the rescuer's upper torso. Airway stabilization is influenced by the neutral body posture. Rescuers will consist of crew members of varying sizes and degrees of physical deconditioning from space flight. Several methods of CPR designed to accommodate these factors were tested in the one G environment, in parabolic flight, and on a recent shuttle flight. Methods: Utilizing study participants of varying sizes, different techniques of CPR delivery were evaluated using a recording CPR manikin to assess adequacy of compressive force and frequency. Under conditions of parabolic flight, methods tested included conventional positioning of rescuer and victim, free floating 'Heimlich type' compressions, straddling the patient with active and passive restraints, and utilizing a mechanical cardiac compression assist device (CCAD). Multiple restrain systems and ventilation methods were also assessed. Results: Delivery of effective CPR was possible in all configurations tested. Reliance on muscular force alone was quickly fatiguing to the rescuer. Effectiveness of CPR was dependent on technique, adequate restraint of the rescuer and patient, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR was adequate but rapidly fatiguing. The CCAD was able to provide adequate compressive force but positioning was problematic. Conclusions: Delivery of effective CPR in microgravity will be dependent on adequate resuer and patient restraint, technique, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR may be employed as a stop gap method until patient restraint is available. Development of an adequate CCAD would be desirable to compensate for the effects of deconditioning.

  5. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Subhajit

    2004-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  7. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE. A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins. The study was set in one university medical center in the China. Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study. Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa. CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants’ physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded. With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01). We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  8. Basic life support knowledge of secondary school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training using a song

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of a “cardiopulmonary resuscitation song” in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. Methods This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. Results On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), (F (1,120)=16.644, p= 0.000). In addition, significant differences about students’ basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Conclusions Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:27442599

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and beyond: the need to improve real-time feedback and physiologic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Steve; Scales, Damon C

    2016-01-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to improve survival outcomes after cardiac arrest. The current standard in studies evaluating CPR quality is to measure CPR process measures-for example, chest compression rate, depth, and fraction. Published studies evaluating CPR feedback devices have yielded mixed results. Newer approaches that seek to optimize CPR by measuring physiological endpoints during the resuscitation may lead to individualized patient care and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27349642

  10. Respiratory function and near infrared spectroscopy recording during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an extremely preterm newborn.

    PubMed

    Li, Elliott S; Cheung, Po-Yin; Pichler, Gerhard; Aziz, Khalid; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case highlighting several controversial and important topics regarding neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current neonatal guidelines recommend a 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio; however, the most effective ratio of delivering chest compressions (CC) remains controversial. We report a case of a male infant at 24 weeks' postmenstrual age weighing 650 g on a background of preterm labor. At initial assessment the infant appeared floppy and apneic with a heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats/min. Mask ventilation was ineffective, thus continuous CC (90/min) with asynchronous ventilations (60/min) was started. HR, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral oxygenation, respiratory function, and exhaled carbon dioxide (ECO2) were continuously measured during CPR. Return of spontaneous circulation defined as HR >60/min was achieved after 90 s of CPR. Mask leak significantly increased during CC. During bradycardia (HR ∼50/min), ECO2 indicated correct tube placement and an increase of ECO2 >12 mm Hg was associated with rapid increase in HR >60/min. PMID:24481290

  11. A Curriculum-Based Health Service Program in Hypertension, Diabetes, Venereal Diseases and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Samuel T.; Janer, Ann L.

    1978-01-01

    Special screening and education courses in hypertension, diabetes, venereal disease, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were added as electives at the Auburn University School of Pharmacy. Applied learning experiences for students and services to the community are achieved. Course goals and content and behavioral objectives in each area are…

  12. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  13. Understanding the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training on Participants' Perceived Confidence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This pre-experimental, participatory action research study investigated the impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training on participants' perceived confidence and willingness to initiate CPR. Parents of seventh and eighth grade students were surveyed. Parent participants were asked to watch the American Heart Association's Family and…

  14. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills. A survey among health and rescue personnel outside hospital].

    PubMed

    Bjørshol, C A

    1996-02-10

    The aim of this study was to survey practical skills and theoretical knowledge in lifesaving first aid among health and rescue workers outside hospital. 45 police officers, 46 firemen, 57 nurses and 42 general practitioners participated. Unprepared, they were presented with a "patient" (resuscitation doll) without respiration or heart beat, and were asked to do what was necessary to revive the "patient". They were afterwards questioned about specific emergency medical situations, how they assessed their own achievement and when they last had training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Only 1% were able to perform satisfactory basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a cardiac arrest according to the accepted guidelines, and only 17% ventilated and compressed efficiently with a rhythm of 2:15 or 1:5. 50% believed they were efficient in lifesaving first aid. Those who had taken a course in first aid during the previous year achieved significantly better results than the rest. It is concluded that health and rescue workers outside hospital follow the European Resuscitation Council's guidelines for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to only a small degree, but that the situation can be improved by more regular training. PMID:8644057

  15. [Tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax following tracheal perforation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, C T; Tsokos, M; Kurz, S D; Kleber, C

    2015-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax can occur at any time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with external cardiac massage and invasive ventilation either from primary or iatrogenic rib fractures with concomitant pleural or parenchymal injury. Airway injury can also cause tension pneumothorax during CPR. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after undergoing elective mandibular surgery. During CPR the upper airway could not be secured by orotracheal intubation due to massive craniofacial soft tissue swelling. A surgical airway was established with obviously unrecognized iatrogenic tracheal perforation and subsequent development of tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax during ventilation. Neither the tension pneumomediastinum nor the tension pneumothorax were decompressed and accordingly resuscitation efforts remained unsuccessful. This case illustrates the need for a structured approach to resuscitate patients with ventilation problems regarding decompression of tension pneumomediastinum and/or tension pneumothorax during CPR. PMID:26036317

  16. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    PubMed

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  17. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and post-cardiac arrest brain injury].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics in the field of resuscitation at present is the drafting of the 2015 version of the Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendation (CoSTR) by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The Japan Resuscitation Council is preparing its 2015 Guideline based on this CoSTR and plans to release it in October 2015. A critical change in the upcoming CoSTR is the adoption of the GRADE system. The new Guideline incorporating the GRADE system will surely be more scientific than the previous Guideline issued in 2010. Meanwhile, an important finding appeared in a report from Nielsen et al.: hypothermia at a targeted temperature of 33 degrees C did not confer a benefit versus 36 degrees in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause. PMID:26915250

  18. Fat embolism with the use of intraosseous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Fiallos, M; Kissoon, N; Abdelmoneim, T; Johnson, L; Murphy, S; Lu, L; Masood, S; Idris, A

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the incidence and magnitude of fat emboli after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intraosseous infusions. An animal laboratory at a university center was used to study 33 mixed-breed piglets. The piglets underwent hypoxic cardiac arrest followed by chest compressions and mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 30 minutes. The animals were divided in groups: group 1 (n = 5), which had no intraosseous cannulas, group 2 (n = 6), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion, groups 3 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), and 5 (n = 8), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion of epinephrine, normal saline, and sodium bicarbonate respectively, and group 6 (n = 2), which was a sham group with no intraosseous cannulas and no cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, representative lung samples were collected from upper and lower lobes of each lung and observed for fat globules and bone marrow elements. Fat globules were seen in the peribronchial blood vessels and intravascular areas throughout all lung fields of groups 1 through 5. There was no difference in appearance or distribution of fat globules among the 5 treatment groups. Analysis of variance showed no statistical significance (P < 0.05) within or among groups 1 through 5. The use of the intraosseous cannula for infusion of emergency drugs and fluids did not increase the magnitude of fat embolization over cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone in this animal model. The benefits of using this procedure in critically ill children as a means of rapid vascular access for resuscitation is well established. However, the risk of fat embolism in this population needs further study. PMID:9258208

  19. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  20. Year in review 2010: Critical Care--Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jeffery C; Eastman, Alexander L; Pepe, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    This review will summarize some of the data published in 2010 and focus on papers published in Critical Care in regard to cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In particular, we discuss the latest research in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest, including methods of inducing hypothermia, potential protective mechanisms, spontaneous hypothermia versus therapeutic hypothermia, and several predictors of outcome. Furthermore, we will discuss the effects of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with physician-assisted advanced cardiac life support, the role of hypercapnea in near-death experiences during cardiac arrest, markers of endothelial injury and endothelial repair after CPR, and the prognostic value of cell-free plasma DNA as a marker of poor outcome after cardiac arrest. PMID:22146697

  1. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in bedside echocardiography-diagnosed massive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won Joon; Lee, Jun Wan; Yoo, Youn Ho; Ryu, Seung; Cho, Sung Wook; Song, Kyoung Hyuk; Park, Sang Il

    2015-10-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the major causes of inhospital cardiac arrest as well as out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Bedside diagnosis of acute PE in the emergency department (ED) can be challenging, especially in a cardiac arrest setting. Even if the early diagnosis of an acute massive PE had been made, hemodynamic instability may be worsened unless obstructive shock gets resolved. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who developed pulseless electrical activity (PEA) after complaining of weakness and dyspnea in an ambulance, presumptively diagnosed as acute PE by bedside focused echocardiography. She received thrombolytic therapy and was rescued by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for recurrent PEA arrest in the ED. Focused bedside echocardiography provides a rapid diagnostic adjunct, and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be a valuable rescue therapy for PEA arrest from massive PE. PMID:26275631

  2. A computerized prospective audit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Wardrope, J; Crosby, A C; Ferguson, D G; Edbrooke, D L

    1986-01-01

    A prospective survey of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is in progress in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital. During the 12 months from January 1985 to January 1986, 123 cardiac arrests were treated in the accident department. Ninety of these arrests occurred outside the hospital; nine of these patients survived to leave hospital. Of the 33 people arresting in the department, 10 survived to leave hospital. The causes of death are presented. PMID:3768122

  3. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  4. Families’ Stressors and Needs at Time of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation: A Jordanian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Masa’Deh, Rami; Saifan, Ahmad; Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background: During cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, family members, in some hospitals, are usually pushed to stay out of the resuscitation room. However, growing literature implies that family presence during resuscitation could be beneficial. Previous literature shows controversial belief whether or not a family member should be present during resuscitation of their relative. Some worldwide association such as the American Heart Association supports family-witnessed resuscitation and urge hospitals to develop policies to ease this process. The opinions on family-witnessed resuscitation vary widely among various cultures, and some hospitals are not applying such polices yet. This study explores family members’ needs during resuscitation in adult critical care settings. Methods: This is a part of larger study. The study was conducted in six hospitals in two major Jordanian cities. A purposive sample of seven family members, who had experience of having a resuscitated relative, was recruited over a period of six months. Semi-structured interview was utilised as the main data collection method in the study. Findings: The study findings revealed three main categories: families’ need for reassurance; families’ need for proximity; and families’ need for support. The need for information about patient’s condition was the most important need. Updating family members about patient’s condition would reduce their tension and improve their acceptance for the end result of resuscitation. All interviewed family members wanted the option to stay beside their loved one at end stage of their life. Distinctively, most of family members want this option for some religious and cultural reasons such as praying and supplicating to support their loved one. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of considering the cultural and religious dimensions in any family-witnessed resuscitation programs. The study recommends that family members of resuscitated patients should

  5. Hypogammaglobulinemia After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Leslie A; Robert, Stephen M; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Dabal, Robert J; Mahdi, Alla M.; Alten, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypogammaglobulinemia has been reported after cardiac surgery and may be associated with adverse outcomes. We sought to define baseline immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease, determine its course following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and determine if post-CPB hypogammaglobulinemia was associated with increased morbidity. Methods Single center, retrospective analysis of infants who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB between June 2010 and December 2011. Ig concentration obtained from banked plasma of 47 patients from a prior study (pre-CPB, immediately post-CPB, and 24- and 48-hours post-CPB). Additionally, any Ig levels drawn for clinical purposes after CPB were included. Ig levels were excluded if drawn after chylothorax diagnosis or intravenous immunoglobulin G administration. Results Median age was 7 days. Preoperative Ig concentration was similar to that described in healthy children. IgG level fell to less than 50% of preoperative concentration by 24-hr post-CPB and failed to recover by 7 days. 25/47 (53%) patients had low IgG after CPB (<248 mg/dl). Despite no difference in demographics or risk factors between patients with low and normal IgG, low IgG patients had more positive fluid balance at 24-hours, increased pro-inflammatory plasma cytokine levels, duration of mechanical ventilation, and CICU length of stay. Additionally, low IgG patients had increased incidence of post-operative infections (40% vs. 14%, p=0.056). Conclusions Hypogammaglobulinemia occurs in half of infants after CPB. Its association with fluid overload and increased inflammatory cytokines suggests it may result from capillary leak. Postoperative hypogammaglobulinemia is associated with increased morbidity, including more secondary infections. PMID:24035378

  6. [New Insights into Maternal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation--Significance of Simulation Research and Training].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Majima, Nozomi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-related mortality, estimated to occur in approximately 1: 50,000 deliveries, is rare in developed countries. The 2010 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Resuscitation emphasize the importance of high-quality chest compression as a key determinant of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. During pregnancy, the uterus can compress the inferior vena cava, impeding venous return and thereby reducing stroke volume and cardiac output. To maximize the effectiveness of chest compressions in pregnancy, the AHA guidelines recommend the 27-30 degrees left-lateral tilt (LLT) position. When CPR is performed on parturients in the LLT position, chest compressions will probably be more effective if performed with the operator standing on the left side of the patient. The videolaryngoscope Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS) was found to be an effective tool for airway management during chest compressions in 27 LLT simulations, suggesting that the AWS may be a useful device for airway management during maternal resuscitation. PMID:26442426

  7. Influence of Rescuers' Gender and Body Mass Index on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation according to the American Heart Association 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Ahmad; Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Al-Hashemi, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor in determining its overall outcome. This study aims to test the association between rescuers' gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and the accuracy of chest compressions (CC) as well as ventilation, according to American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 resuscitation guidelines. Methods. The study included 72 participants of both genders. All the participants received CPR training according to AHA 2010 resuscitation guidelines. One week later, an assessment of their CPR was carried out. Moreover, the weight and height of the participants were measured in order to calculate their BMI. Results. Our analysis showed no significant association between gender and the CC depth (P = 0.53) as well as between gender and ventilation (P = 0.42). Females were significantly faster than males in CC (P = 0.000). Regarding BMI, participants with a BMI less than the mean BMI of the study sample tended to perform CC with the correct depth (P = 0.045) and to finish CC faster than those with a BMI more than the mean (P = 0.000). On the other hand, no significant association was found between BMI and ventilation (P = 0.187). Conclusion. CPR can be influenced by factors such as gender and BMI, as such the individual rescuer and CPR training programs should take these into account in order to maximize victims' outcome.

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Microgravity: Efficacy in the Swine During Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The International Space Station will need to be as capable as possible in providing Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Previous studies with manikins in parabolic microgravity (0 G) have shown that delivering CPR in microgravity is difficult. End tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when PetCO2 values are maintained above 25% of pre-arrest values. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized Yorkshire swine were flown in microgravity during parabolic flight. Physiologic parameters, including PetCO2, were monitored. Standard ACLS protocols were used to resuscitate these models after chemical induction of cardiac arrest. Chest compressions were administered using conventional body positioning with waist restraint and unconventional vertical-inverted body positioning. RESULTS: PetCO2 values were maintained above 25% of both 1-G and O-G pre-arrest values in the microgravity environment (33% +/- 3 and 41 +/- 3). No significant difference between 1-G CPR and O-G CPR was found in these animal models. Effective CPR was delivered in both body positions although conventional body positioning was found to be quickly fatiguing as compared with the vertical-inverted. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be effectively administered in microgravity (0 G). Validation of this model has demonstrated that PetCO2 levels were maintained above a level previously reported to be predictive of survival. The unconventional vertical-inverted position provided effective CPR and was less fatiguing as compared with the conventional body position with waist restraints.

  9. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Resource-limited Health Systems-Considerations for Training and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Jason; Patterson, Dean; Munjal, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    In the past 50 years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has gained widespread recognition as a life-saving skill that can be taught successfully to the general public. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be considered a cost-effective intervention that requires minimal classroom training and low-cost equipment and supplies; it is commonly taught throughout much of the developed world. But, the simplicity of CPR training and its access for the general public may be misleading, as outcomes for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest are poor and survival is dependent upon a comprehensive "chain-of-survival," which is something not achieved easily in resource-limited health care settings. In addition to the significant financial and physical resources needed to both train and develop basic CPR capabilities within a community, there is a range of ethical questions that should also be considered. This report describes some of the financial and ethical challenges that might result from CPR training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is determined that for many health care systems, CPR training may have financial and ethically-deleterious, unintended consequences. Evidence shows Basic Life Support (BLS) skills training in a community is an effective intervention to improve public health. But, health care systems with limited resources should include CPR training only after considering the full implications of that intervention. PMID:25407562

  10. Complete Neurological Recovery After Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Diagnosis and Management of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ramarapu, Srikiran

    2015-12-01

    A 70-year-old man was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of his right knee fracture. When the tourniquet was deflated after 150 minutes, his arterial blood pressure and heart rate decreased precipitously. The patient was deemed to exhibit pulseless electrical activity. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. The bispectral index reading improved to 25 to 30, but his end-tidal carbon dioxide was still very low (5 mm Hg). Transesophageal echocardiography showed a pulmonary embolism. Feedback from echo imaging improved the quality of chest compressions and motivated the resuscitation team to maintain the diastolic blood pressure>25 mm Hg. Although capnographic guidance was ineffective by itself, echocardiography monitoring was very helpful for showing the intracardiac events. PMID:26588031

  11. Are the current guideline recommendations for neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    A recently published review of approaches to optimize chest compressions in the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns discussed the current recommendations and explored potential determinants of effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, not all potential determinants of effective neonatal CPR were explored. Chest compression shallower than the current guideline recommendation of approximately 33% of the anterior-posterior (AP) chest diameter may be safer and more effective. From a physiological standpoint, high-velocity brief duration shallower compression may be more effective than current recommendations. The application of a 1- or 2-finger method of high-impulse CPR, which would depend on the size of the subject, may be more effective than using a 2-thumb (TT) encircling hands method of CPR. Adrenaline should not be used in the treatment of asphyxiated neonates and when necessary titrated vasopressin should be used. PMID:27220864

  12. Resuscitation of extremely preterm infants - controversies and current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of extremely preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of extremely preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the extremely preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, importance of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in extremely premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925

  13. Resuscitation of extremely preterm infants - controversies and current evidence.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V

    2016-05-01

    Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of extremely preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of extremely preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the extremely preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, importance of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in extremely premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925

  14. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  15. Evaluation of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation curriculum in a low resource environment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Camila B.; Janiszewski, David; Aksamit, Deborah; Kateh, Francis; Sampson, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether a 2-day International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Universal Algorithm-based curriculum taught in a tertiary care hospital in Liberia increases local health care provider knowledge and skill comfort level. Methods A combined basic and advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum was developed for low-resource settings that included lectures and low-fidelity manikin-based simulations. In March 2014, the curriculum was taught to healthcare providers in a tertiary care hospital in Liberia. In a quality assurance review, participants were evaluated for knowledge and comfort levels with resuscitation before and after the workshop. They were also videotaped during simulation sessions and evaluated on standardized performance metrics. Results Fifty-two hospital staff completed both pre- and post-curriculum surveys. The median score was 45% pre-curriculum and 82% post-curriculum (p<0.00001). The median provider comfort level score was 4 of 5 pre-curriculum and 5 of 5 post-curriculum (p<0.00001). During simulations, 93.2% of participants performed the pulse check within 10 seconds, and 97.7% performed defibrillation within 180 seconds. Conclusion Clinician knowledge of and comfort level with CPR increased significantly after participating in our curriculum. A CPR curriculum based on lectures and low-fidelity manikin simulations may be an effective way to teach resuscitation in this low-resource setting. PMID:26547092

  16. Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor; Reclassification of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Aids. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-05-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify external cardiac compressors (ECC) (under FDA product code DRM), a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls). FDA is also creating a separate classification regulation for a subgroup of devices previously included within this classification regulation, to be called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aids, and reclassifying these devices from class III to class II for CPR aids with feedback and to class I for CPR aids without feedback. PMID:27224965

  17. A comparison of transoesophageal cardiac pacing and epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Liu, Tang-Wei; Xie, Lu; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao

    2006-09-01

    The use of cardiac pacing to deal with bradycardia is well established. There is debate as to the benefits during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study was performed to compare the effects of transoesophageal cardiac pacing and high-dose epinephrine on the benefits of cardiopulmonary resuscitation after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were randomly selected to a saline group (Sal-gro, treated with normal saline 1 mL IV, n = 10), an epinephrine group (Epi-gro, treated with epinephrine 0.4 mg/kg IV, n = 10), or a pacing group (Pac-gro, treated with normal saline 1 mL IV combined with transoesophageal cardiac pacing, n = 10) in a blinded fashion during resuscitation after 10 minutes of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Manual chest compression was in all cases performed using the same methodology by the same personnel who was blinded to hemodynamic monitor tracings. The rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation was 1 (10%), 7 (70%), and 8 (80%) of 10 in Sal-gro, Epi-gro, and Pac-gro, respectively. The rate of ventilator withdrawal within 60 minutes after resuscitation in Pac-gro was higher than that of Epi-gro (8/8 vs 1/7, respectively; P = .001); the survival rate after 2 hours in Pac-gro was significantly higher than that in Epi-gro (7/8 vs 1/7, respectively; P = .01). The data demonstrate that both epinephrine and transoesophageal cardiac pacing are effective within 10 minutes of asphyxia in rats. It is worth noting that transoesophageal cardiac pacing produced a better outcome with respiration and longer survival time compared with epinephrine after restoration of spontaneous circulation. PMID:16938592

  18. Endovascular treatment of an intramural aortic haematoma following cardiopulmonary resuscitation for myocardial ischemia with ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kopp, R; Axt, R; Klein, A; Weidenhagen, R; Schmucker, R; Czerner, S; Hartl, W H; Jauch, K W; Sigg, M

    2008-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by manual cardiac compression can restore cardiocirculatory function but can also injure patients. Commonly reported are skeletal fractures of the rips and sternum, while injuries to the large thoracic vessels will frequently be lethal. We report the case of a 57-year-old male patient with sudden cardiac arrest because of myocardial ischemia with ventricular fibrillation, successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, associated with an intramural haematoma (IMH) of the descending thoracic aorta treated by endovascular aortic repair. Secondary coronary angiography revealed a severe three vessel coronary disease with an occlusion of the proximal anterior descending branch and a subtotal stenosis of the first segmental branch of the left coronary artery (LCA) and a high-grade stenosis of the posterolateral segmental branch of the circumflex left coronary artery. Stenotic segments of coronary arteries were treated successfully by implantation of three drug-eluting stents followed by dual antiplatelet therapy. The patients recovered almost completely and was discharged for further rehabilitation after 3 weeks. PMID:18241973

  19. Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

    PubMed Central

    Hilberman, M; Kutner, J; Parsons, D; Murphy, D J

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performing CPR when the outcomes are harmful or usage inappropriate. Additionally, policies which usurp good clinical judgment and moral responsibility, thereby contributing to inappropriate CPR usage, should be considered maleficent. Autonomy restricts CPR use when refused but cannot create a right to CPR. Justice requires that we define which medical interventions contribute sufficiently to health and happiness that they should be made universally available. This ordering is necessary whether one believes in the utilitarian standard or wishes medical care to be universally available on fairness grounds. Low-yield CPR fails justice criteria. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed when justified by the extensive outcomes literature; not performed when not desired by the patient or not indicated; and performed infrequently when relatively contraindicated. PMID:9451605

  20. An integrative review: instructional strategies to improve nurses' retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation priorities.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing and responding to a cardiac arrest in the hospital setting is a high stress, high anxiety event for all healthcare providers. It requires the performance of several basic, but extremely important cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and response priorities. If not executed correctly and in a timely manner, a bad outcome may result. Poor retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills and priorities is well documented in the literature. An integrative review of the evidence was conducted to answer the question, "Is there a more effective training method to improve nurses' retention of CPR priorities during an in hospital cardiac arrest as compared to traditional American Heart Association training? "This review evaluated high fidelity and low fidelity simulation training, online or computer-based training and video instruction as potential teaching strategies focusing on CPR priorities. The role of deliberate practice is discussed. The strongest evidence suggests that a teaching plan employing brief, frequent, repetitive or deliberate practice used in collaboration with low fidelity or high fidelity simulation may be a potential strategy to improve nurses' retention of CPR priorities over time. PMID:25830906

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions in the emergency department: An ethnography of tacit knowledge in practice.

    PubMed

    Brummell, Stephen P; Seymour, Jane; Higginbottom, Gina

    2016-05-01

    Despite media images to the contrary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency departments is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore how health care professionals working in two emergency departments in the UK, make decisions to commence, continue or stop resuscitation. Data collection involved participant observation of resuscitation attempts and in-depth interviews with nurses, medical staff and paramedics who had taken part in the attempts. Detailed case examples were constructed for comparative analysis. Findings show that emergency department staff use experience and acquired tacit knowledge to construct a typology of cardiac arrest categories that help them navigate decision making. Categorisation is based on 'less is more' heuristics which combine explicit and tacit knowledge to facilitate rapid decisions. Staff then work as a team to rapidly assimilate and interpret information drawn from observations of the patient's body and from technical, biomedical monitoring data. The meaning of technical data is negotiated during staff interaction. This analysis was informed by a theory of 'bodily' and 'technical' trajectory alignment that was first developed from an ethnography of death and dying in intensive care units. The categorisation of cardiac arrest situations and trajectory alignment are the means by which staff achieve consensus decisions and determine the point at which an attempt should be withdrawn. This enables them to construct an acceptable death in highly challenging circumstances. PMID:27017090

  2. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    PubMed

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p <0.001). The proportion of patients who died during the arrest was 12.5% in those who received epinephrine alone, 30.0% in those who received only epinephrine and bicarbonate, and 46.7% to 57.9% in the remaining groups. Patients receiving only epinephrine had shorter resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p <0.001) and improved survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, providers frequently use nonguideline medications in resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. PMID:27015887

  3. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques. The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bossaert, L; Van Hoeyweghen, R

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of different CPR techniques and the use of adjuncts during the resuscitation attempt by the members of the emergency medical service (EMS) system [bystander, emergency medical technician (EMT), ward nurse, tiered nurse or paramedic, mobile intensive care unit (MICU) has been registrated prospectively during a 5-year period by 7 major Belgian EMS systems. A total of 4548 cardiac arrests have been registered, 3083 happened outside and 1465 inside the hospital. Evaluation of the methods used for assessment of quality of the CPR techniques revealed that this approach was biased both by the status of the health care provider and by the outcome of the patient. Nevertheless, it was evident that the well-accepted standards and guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiac care (American Heart Association and Safar) are poorly applied. This seems to be influenced by the qualification, the experience and the training level of the health care provider. In 998 of 3053 studies out-of-hospital arrests (33%) CPR was initiated by bystanders. Of these, 59% were bystanding health care workers. They performed external chest compression (ECC) more frequently than mouth-to-mouth insufflation (MOMO) (poor technique: 16-19%). In 18% the rescuers were family members who applied more MOMO than ECC (poor technique: +/- 50%). Laymen (23%) performed more ECC than MOMO (poor technique: +/- 33%). EMT and ward nurses apply mainly the bag-valve-mask technique. The bag-valve-tube technique is more frequently used by nurses of a tiered system. The MICU-team applies usually the bag-valve-mask prior to intubation. PMID:2551024

  4. International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation: An excerpt from the Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science. Contributors and Reviewers for the Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Niermeyer, S; Kattwinkel, J; Van Reempts, P; Nadkarni, V; Phillips, B; Zideman, D; Azzopardi, D; Berg, R; Boyle, D; Boyle, R; Burchfield, D; Carlo, W; Chameides, L; Denson, S; Fallat, M; Gerardi, M; Gunn, A; Hazinski, M F; Keenan, W; Knaebel, S; Milner, A; Perlman, J; Saugstad, O D; Schleien, C; Solimano, A; Speer, M; Toce, S; Wiswell, T; Zaritsky, A

    2000-09-01

    The International Guidelines 2000 Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC) formulated new evidenced-based recommendations for neonatal resuscitation. These guidelines comprehensively update the last recommendations, published in 1992 after the Fifth National Conference on CPR and ECC. As a result of the evidence evaluation process, significant changes occurred in the recommended management routines for: * Meconium-stained amniotic fluid: If the newly born infant has absent or depressed respirations, heart rate <100 beats per minute (bpm), or poor muscle tone, direct tracheal suctioning should be performed to remove meconium from the airway. * Preventing heat loss: Hyperthermia should be avoided. * Oxygenation and ventilation: 100% oxygen is recommended for assisted ventilation; however, if supplemental oxygen is unavailable, positive-pressure ventilation should be initiated with room air. The laryngeal mask airway may serve as an effective alternative for establishing an airway if bag-mask ventilation is ineffective or attempts at intubation have failed. Exhaled CO(2) detection can be useful in the secondary confirmation of endotracheal intubation. * Chest compressions: Compressions should be administered if the heart rate is absent or remains <60 bpm despite adequate assisted ventilation for 30 seconds. The 2-thumb, encircling-hands method of chest compression is preferred, with a depth of compression one third the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest and sufficient to generate a palpable pulse. * Medications, volume expansion, and vascular access: Epinephrine in a dose of 0.01-0.03 mg/kg (0.1-0.3 mL/kg of 1:10,000 solution) should be administered if the heart rate remains <60 bpm after a minimum of 30 seconds of adequate ventilation and chest compressions. Emergency volume expansion may be accomplished with an isotonic crystalloid solution or O-negative red blood cells; albumin-containing solutions are no longer the

  5. Usefulness of the bispectral index during cardiopulmonary resuscitation -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Yeonbaek; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of using the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not clearly understood. However, BIS has been a popular anesthetic monitoring device used during operations. The case presented is of a pregnant woman going into cardiac arrest due to an amniotic fluid embolism during a Cesarean section. CPR was performed, but neither the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) nor the return of consciousness was achieved, despite 50 min of effective CPR. However, CPR was continued based on BIS. ROSC was achieved, and an alert consciousness state was reached 1 day postoperation. This finding suggests that BIS be used as a basic monitoring device during CPR and that it may help in deciding to continue CPR. PMID:23372890

  6. Brief Bedside Refresher Training to Practice Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in the Ambulatory Surgery Center Setting.

    PubMed

    Kemery, Stephanie; Kelly, Kelley; Wilson, Connie; Wheeler, Corrine A

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest can occur in any health care setting at any time, requiring nursing staff to be prepared to quickly and adequately perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Currently, the American Heart Association certifies health care providers in Basic Life Support (BLS) for a 2-year period, but evidence indicates that psychomotor skills decline well before the end of the certification time frame. Nurses in the ambulatory surgery setting expressed concern regarding their ability to implement CPR successfully, given the infrequent occurrence of cardiac and respiratory arrests. Using a study by Niles et al. as a model, the authors piloted the implementation of brief CPR refresher training at the bedside of an ambulatory surgery center to assess and increase nurse confidence in BLS skills. PMID:26247660

  7. Association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-12-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy. PMID:24219782

  8. Evaluation of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) for Patient Outcomes and their Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Swati; Grewal, Anju; Gautam, Parshotam L; Luthra, Neeru; Tanwar, Gayatri; Kaur, Amarpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac arrest continues to be a common cause of in-hospital deaths. Even small improvements in survival can translate into thousands of lives saved every year. Aim The aim of our prospective observational study was to elicit the outcomes and predictors of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation among adult patients. Settings and Design All in-hospital adult patients (age >14) who suffered cardiac arrest & were attended by a Code Blue Team between 1st January 2012 & 30th April 2013 were part of the study. Materials and Methods The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was assessed in terms of: Response time, Presenting initial rhythm, Time to first defibrillation, Duration of CPR and Outcome (Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge). Statistical Analysis Age, GOS and mean response time were analysed using t-test and ANOVA. Logistic regression was applied to determine the significance of the various factors in determining mortality. Results ROSC was achieved in 44% of a total of 127 patients included in our study. Asystole/Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) was the most common presenting rhythm (87.5%). The survival to discharge was seen in 7.1% patients of whom only 3.9% patients had good neurological outcome. Regression and survival analysis depicted achievement of ROSC during CPR, absence of co-morbidities and shorter response time of code blue team as predictors of good outcome. Conclusion We found poor outcome of CPR after in-hospital cardiac arrest. This was mainly attributed to an initial presenting rhythm of Asystole/PEA in most cases and delayed response times. PMID:26894150

  9. Role of blood gas analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Lee, You Jin; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the relationship between acid–base findings, such as pH, pCO2, and serum lactate levels, obtained immediately after starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). A prospective observational study of adult, nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients was conducted at an urban academic teaching institution between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2015. Arterial blood sample for acid–base data was taken from all OHCA patients on arrival to the emergency department. Of 224 OHCA patients, 88 patients with unavailable blood samples or delayed blood sampling or ROSC within 4 minutes were excluded, leaving 136 patients for analysis. The pH in the ROSC group was significantly higher than in the non-ROSC group (6.96 vs. 6.85; P = 0.009). pCO2 and lactate levels in the ROSC group were significantly lower than those in the non-ROSC group (74.0 vs. 89.5 mmHg, P < 0.009; 11.6 vs. 13.6 mmol/L, P = 0.044, respectively). In a multivariate regression analysis, pCO2 was the only independent biochemical predictor for sustained ROSC (OR 0.979; 95% CI 0.960–0.997; P = 0.025) and pCO2 of <75 mmHg was 3.3 times more likely to achieve ROSC (OR 0.302; 95% CI 0.146–0.627; P = 0.001). pCO2 levels obtained during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on ER arrival was associated with ROSC in OHCA patients. It might be a potentially marker for reflecting the status of the ischemic insult. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in a larger population. PMID:27336894

  10. A Review of Compression, Ventilation, Defibrillation, Drug Treatment, and Targeted Temperature Management in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jian; Zhu, Jian-Yong; Kee, Ho Sen; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Yuan-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Important studies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques influence the development of new guidelines. We systematically reviewed the efficacy of some important studies of CPR. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE, published from 1964 to 2014. Study Selection: Original articles and critical reviews about CPR techniques were selected for review. Results: The survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is improving. This improvement is associated with the performance of uninterrupted chest compressions and simple airway management procedures during bystander CPR. Real-time feedback devices can be used to improve the quality of CPR. The recommended dose, timing, and indications for adrenaline (epinephrine) use may change. The appropriate target temperature for targeted temperature management is still unclear. Conclusions: New studies over the past 5 years have evaluated various aspects of CPR in OHCA. Some of these studies were high-quality randomized controlled trials, which may help to improve the scientific understanding of resuscitation techniques and result in changes to CPR guidelines. PMID:25673462

  11. The effect of seeing the rhythm display on performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Silfvast, T; Paakkonen, H; Gorski, J

    2002-10-01

    Semiautomated external defibrillators are widely used by prehospital emergency personnel. Some of the devices have a rhythm display and some show only text commands on the screen. To evaluate the effects on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance of seeing the rhythm during resuscitation, 60 fire-fighter students were randomly divided in two groups and trained to use either a defibrillator with a rhythm display or one without a display. The students in both groups formed teams of two rescuers, and their performance of CPR on a manikin was tested using a predefined rhythm sequence in a simulated cardiac arrest situation. The teams using a defibrillator with a rhythm display more often interrupted CPR for pulse checks than those who did not see the rhythm (P=0.003). The duration of CPR between rhythm analyses was shorter in the group who saw the rhythm on the screen (P=0.002). Our data suggest that seeing an organised rhythm on a monitor during CPR interferes with adherence to CPR algorithms which may have a negative influence on the performance of CPR. PMID:12297350

  12. Optimal chest compression in cardiopulmonary resuscitation depends upon thoracic and back support stiffness.

    PubMed

    Dellimore, Kiran H; Scheffer, Cornie

    2012-12-01

    A biomechanical analysis of the constant peak displacement and constant peak force methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has revealed that optimal CC performance strongly depends on back support stiffness, CC rate, and the thoracic stiffness of the patient being resuscitated. Clinically the results presented in this study suggest that the stiffness of the back support surfaces found in many hospitals may be sub-optimal and that a backboard or a concrete floor can be used to enhance CC effectiveness. In addition, the choice of optimal CC rate and maximum sternal force applied by clinicians during peak force CPR is ought to be based on a general assessment of the patient's thoracic stiffness, taking into account the patient's age, gender, and physical condition; which is consistent with current clinical practice. In addition, it is important for clinicians to note that very high peak sternal forces, exceeding the limit above which severe chest wall trauma and abdominal injury occurs, may be required for optimal CC during peak force CPR on patients with very stiff chests. In these cases an alternative CPR technique may be more appropriate. PMID:23054380

  13. A new method without reference channels used for ventricular fibrillation detection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Li, Chao; Wan, Zongming; Li, Liangzhe; Wang, Chunfei; Wang, Yalin; Lu, Hengzhi; Chen, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is observed as the initial rhythm in the majority of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest. It is vitally important to accurately recognize the initial VF rhythm and then implement electrical defibrillation. However, artifacts produced by chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) make the VF detection algorithms utilized by current automated external defibrillators (AEDs) unreliable. CPR must be traditionally interrupted for a reliable diagnosis. However, interruptions in chest compression have a deleterious effect on the success of defibrillation. The elimination of the CPR artifacts would enable compressions to continue during AED VF detection and thereby increase the likelihood of resuscitation success. We have estimated a model of this artifact by adaptively incorporating noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) and least mean squares (LMS) and then removing the artifact from the corrupted ECGs. The simulation experiment indicated that the CPR artifact could be accurately modeled without any reference channels. We constructed a BP neural network to evaluate the results. A total of 372 VF and 645 normal sinus rhythm (SR) ECG samples were included in the analysis, and 24 CPR artifact signals were used to construct corrupted ECGs. The results indicated that at different SNR levels ranging from 0 to -12 dB, the sensitivity and specificity were always above 95 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26831488

  14. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felzen, Marc; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. Objective The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from expert as well as end-user perspective. Methods Two independent medical experts evaluated the medical content of CPR apps from the Google Play store and the Apple App store. The evaluation was based on pre-defined minimum medical content requirements according to current Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines. In a second phase, non-medical end-users tested usability and appeal of the apps that had at least met the minimum requirements. Usability was assessed with the System Usability Scale (SUS); appeal was measured with the self-developed ReactionDeck toolkit. Results Out of 61 apps, 46 were included in the experts’ evaluation. A consolidated list of 13 apps resulted for the following layperson evaluation. The interrater reliability was substantial (kappa=.61). Layperson end-users (n=14) had a high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation 1 [ICC1]=.83, P<.001, 95% CI 0.75-0.882 and ICC2=.79, P<.001, 95% CI 0.695-0.869). Their evaluation resulted in a list of 5 recommendable apps. Conclusions Although several apps for resuscitation training and real incident support are available, very few are designed according to current BLS guidelines and offer an acceptable level of usability and hedonic quality for laypersons. The results of this study are intended to optimize the development of CPR mobile apps. The app ranking supports the informed selection of mobile apps for training situations and CPR campaigns as well as for real incident support. PMID:24647361

  15. A Prospective Study of Survival After In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miranzadeh, Sedigheh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseinpour, Nadimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite several studies, there is no agreement on factors that affect survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of in-hospital CPR and its related factors at Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods A descriptive study was conducted on all cases of CPR performed in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital during a 6-month period in 2014. Through a consecutive sampling method, 250 cases of CPR were studied. A three-part researcher-made instrument was used. The outcome of CPR was documented as either survival to hospital discharge or unsuccessful (death of the patient). Chi-square test, t test, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Of all CPR cases, 238 (95.2%) were unsuccessful and 12 (4.8%) survived to hospital discharge. Only 2.6% of patients who were resuscitated in medical units survived to hospital discharge, whereas this rate was 11.4% in the emergency department. Only 45 (18%) patients were defibrillated during resuscitation; in 11 patients, defibrillation was performed between 15 to 45 minutes after the initiation of CPR. The mean time from initiation of CPR to the first DC shock was 13.93 ± 8.88 minutes. Moreover, the mean duration of CPR was 35.11 ± 11.42 minutes. The survival rate was higher in the morning shift and lower during the time of shift change (9.4% vs. 0). The duration of CPR and speed of arrival of the CPR team were identified as factors that predicted the outcome of CPR. Conclusions The survival rate after in-hospital CPR was very low. The duration of CPR and the time of initiating CPR effects patients’ outcomes. These findings highlight the crucial role of an organized, skilled, well-established and timely CPR team. PMID:27218061

  16. Quantifying the effect of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality on cardiac arrest outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sarah K; Abella, Benjamin S; Becker, Lance B

    2013-03-01

    Background- Evidence has accrued that cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality affects cardiac arrest outcome. However, the relative contributions of chest compression components (such as rate and depth) to successful resuscitation remain unclear. Methods and Results- We sought to measure the effect of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality on cardiac arrest outcome through systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched for any clinical study assessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance on adult cardiac arrest patients in which survival was a reported outcome, either return of spontaneous circulation or survival to admission or discharge. Of 603 identified abstracts, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Effect sizes were reported as mean differences. Missing data were resolved by author contact. Estimates were segregated by cardiopulmonary resuscitation metric (chest compression rate, depth, no-flow fraction, and ventilation rate), and a random-effects model was applied to estimate an overall pooled effect. Arrest survivors were significantly more likely to have received deeper chest compressions than nonsurvivors (mean difference, 2.44 mm; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.69 [P<0.001]; n=6 studies; I(2)=0.0%; P for heterogeneity=0.9). Likewise, survivors were significantly more likely to have received chest compression rates closer to 85 to 100 compressions per minute (cpm) than nonsurvivors (absolute mean difference from 85 cpm, -4.81 cpm; 95% confidence interval, -8.19 to -1.43 [P=0.005]; from 100 cpm, -5.04 cpm; 95% confidence interval, -8.44 to -1.65 [P=0.004]; n=6 studies; I(2)<49%; P for heterogeneity >0.2). No significant difference in no-flow fraction (n=7 studies) or ventilation rate (n=4 studies) was detected between survivors and nonsurvivors. Conclusions- Deeper chest compressions and rates closer to 85 to 100 cpm are significantly associated with improved survival from cardiac arrest. PMID:23481533

  17. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants. PMID:26989518

  18. Implementation of a combined Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Treatment Escalation Plan document in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Claire; Trivedi, Bhavi; Jerome, Ellen; Salih, Samir; Huntley, Christopher; Cooke, Eleanor; Massey, Yolanda; Mella, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of appropriate escalation of treatment was identified as a problem for junior doctors and Critical Care Outreach Nurses at Musgrove Park Hospital. An audit of resuscitation and escalation documentation of all wards found that of the patients who were not for Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (and therefore not for full escalation of care), 78.4% had no documentation of the appropriate level of escalation of treatment should they deteriorate. The majority of junior doctors had experienced cases where they felt that inappropriate treatment had been given, where no escalation plan was documented. Using several Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycles, drawing tools used in other trusts and departments, and the views of clinicians, we developed a treatment escalation plan (TEP) tool, to be included in the resuscitation form. This included consideration of referral to critical care, ward based non-invasive ventilation, and appropriate use of intravenous or oral antibiotics. This then prompted the responsible clinician to consider and document appropriate escalation of treatment. The CPR-TEP form was trialed using a quasi-experiment design allowing the aim to be tested using two groups - intervention and control. All patients in the intervention group were not for CPR and therefore had their TEP-CPR form filled in fully (n=68). The control group consisted of patients who were not for CPR but who did not have a TEP form filled in (n=36). The appropriateness of OOH (out of hours) treatment in those patients who experienced clinical deterioration was judged by questionnaire-based feedback from the in-hours team the following morning. Levels of inappropriate treatment between the two groups were compared to test the aim. At the end of the study period, questionnaire feedback indicated that 11.1% of patients in the group with the new CPR-TEP document had received inappropriate OOH care compared to 44.4% of patients in the group without the document. Using the TEP

  19. Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Chest Compression Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Iyanaga, Masayuki; Gray, Randal; Stephens, Shannon W.; Akinsanya, Olajide; Rodgers, Joel; Smyrski, Kathleen; Wang, Henry E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective While cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression fraction (CCF) is associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes, there is no standard method for the determination of CCF. We compared nine methods for calculating CCF. Methods We studied consecutive adult OHCA patients treated by Alabama Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) during Jan. 1, 2010 - Oct. 28, 2010. Paramedics used portable cardiac monitors with real-time chest compression detection technology (LifePak 12, Physio-Control, Redmond, Washington). We performed both automated CCF calculation for the entire care episode as well as manual review of CPR data in 1-minute epochs, defining CCF as the proportion of each treatment interval with active chest compressions. We compared the CCF values resulting from 9 calculation methods: 1) mean CCF for the entire patient care episode (automated calculation by manufacturer software), 2) mean CCF for first 3 minutes of patient care, 3) mean CCF for first 5 minutes, 4) mean CCF for first 10 minutes, 5) mean CCF for the entire episode except first 5 minutes, 6) mean CCF for last 5 minutes, 7) mean CCF from start to first shock, 8) mean CCF for the first half of resuscitation, 9) mean CCF for the second half of resuscitation. We compared CCF for Methods 2-9 with Method 1 using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni-adjusted p-value of 0.006 (99.5% confidence intervals). Results Among 102 adult OHCA, patient demographics were: mean age 60.3 years (SD 20.8 years), African American 56.9%, male 63.7%, and shockable ECG rhythm 23.5%. Mean CPR duration was 728 seconds (95% CI: 647-809 seconds). Mean CCF for the 9 CCF calculation methods were: 1) 0.587; 2) 0.526; 3) 0.541; 4) 0.566; 5) 0.562; 6) 0.597; 7) 0.530; 8) 0.550; 9) 0.590%. Compared with Method 1, Method 7 CCF (start to first shock) was slightly lower (−0.057; 99.5% CI: −0.100 – (−0.014)). There were no other statistically

  20. Withholding and termination of resuscitation of adult cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to trauma: resource document to the joint NAEMSP-ACSCOT position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Galvagno, Samuel M; Khandker, Samiur R; Malki, Alisa; Bulger, Eileen M

    2013-09-01

    In the setting of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, protocols that direct emergency medical service (EMS) providers to withhold or terminate resuscitation, when clinically indicated, have the potential to decrease unnecessary use of warning lights and sirens and save valuable public health resources. Protocols to withhold resuscitation should be based on the determination that there are no obvious signs of life, the injuries are obviously incompatible with life, there is evidence of prolonged arrest, and there is a lack of organized electrocardiographic activity. Termination of resuscitation is indicated when there are no signs of life and no return of spontaneous circulation despite appropriate field EMS treatment that includes minimally interrupted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation before termination of resuscitation and the proper role of direct medical oversight in termination of resuscitation protocols. This article is the resource document to the position statements, jointly endorsed by the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons' Committee on Trauma, on withholding and termination of resuscitation in traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:24089117

  1. Vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and different shock states: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Krismer, Anette C; Dünser, Martin W; Lindner, Karl H; Stadlbauer, Karl H; Mayr, Viktoria D; Lienhart, Hannes G; Arntz, Richard H; Wenzel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Vasopressin administration may be a promising therapy in the management of various shock states. In laboratory models of cardiac arrest, vasopressin improved vital organ blood flow, cerebral oxygen delivery, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation, and neurological recovery compared with epinephrine (adrenaline). In a study of 1219 adult patients with cardiac arrest, the effects of vasopressin were similar to those of epinephrine in the management of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity; however, vasopressin was superior to epinephrine in patients with asystole. Furthermore, vasopressin followed by epinephrine resulted in significantly higher rates of survival to hospital admission and hospital discharge. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines recommend intravenous vasopressin 40 IU or epinephrine 1mg in adult patients refractory to electrical countershock. Several investigations have demonstrated that vasopressin can successfully stabilize hemodynamic variables in advanced vasodilatory shock. Use of vasopressin in vasodilatory shock should be guided by strict hemodynamic indications, such as hypotension despite norepinephrine (noradrenaline) dosages >0.5 mug/kg/min. Vasopressin must never be used as the sole vasopressor agent. In our institutional routine, a fixed vasopressin dosage of 0.067 IU/min (i.e. 100 IU/50 mL at 2 mL/h) is administered and mean arterial pressure is regulated by adjusting norepinephrine infusion. When norepinephrine dosages decrease to 0.2 microg/kg/min, vasopressin is withdrawn in small steps according to the response in mean arterial pressure. Vasopressin also improved short- and long-term survival in various porcine models of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. In the clinical setting, we observed positive effects of vasopressin in some patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shock, which had no longer responded to adrenergic catecholamines and fluid resuscitation. Clinical employment of

  2. Microdialysis Assessment of Cerebral Perfusion during Cardiac Arrest, Extracorporeal Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats – A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Andreas; Warenits, Alexandra M.; Testori, Christoph; Weihs, Wolfgang; Hosmann, Arthur; Högler, Sandra; Sterz, Fritz; Janata, Andreas; Scherer, Thomas; Magnet, Ingrid A. M.; Ettl, Florian; Laggner, Anton N.; Herkner, Harald; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic alterations during cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) are poorly explored. Markers are needed for a more personalized resuscitation and post—resuscitation care. Aim of this study was to investigate early metabolic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region during ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA) and ECLS versus conventional CPR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350g) underwent 8min untreated VF-CA followed by ECLS (n = 8; bloodflow 100ml/kg), mechanical CPR (n = 18; 200/min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Shams (n = 2) were included. Glucose, glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were compared between treatment groups and animals with and without ROSC. Ten animals (39%) achieved ROSC (ECLS 5/8 vs. CPR 5/18; OR 4,3;CI:0.7–25;p = 0.189). During VF-CA central nervous glucose decreased (0.32±0.1mmol/l to 0.04±0.01mmol/l; p<0.001) and showed a significant rise (0.53±0.1;p<0.001) after resuscitation. Lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio showed a 5fold increase (31 to 164; p<0.001; maximum 8min post ROSC). Glutamate showed a 3.5-fold increase to (2.06±1.5 to 7.12±5.1μmol/L; p<0.001) after CA. All parameters normalized after ROSC with no significant differences between ECLS and CPR. Metabolic changes during ischemia and resuscitation can be displayed by cerebral microdialysis in our VF-CA CPR and ECLS rat model. We found similar microdialysate concentrations and patterns of normalization in both resuscitation methods used. Institutional Protocol Number: GZ0064.11/3b/2011 PMID:27175905

  3. Extracranial Hypothermia During Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Is Neuroprotective In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyoshi, Tetsuhiro; Koerner, Ines P.; Herson, Paco S.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that ischemic brain injury is modulated by peripheral signaling. Peripheral organ ischemia can induce brain inflammation and injury. We therefore hypothesized that brain injury sustained after cardiac arrest (CA) is influenced by peripheral organ ischemia and that peripheral organ protection can reduce brain injury after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to CA/CPR. Brain temperature was maintained at 37.5°C±0.0°C in all animals. Body temperature was maintained at 35.1°C±0.1°C (normothermia) or 28.8°C±1.5°C (extracranial hypothermia [ExHy]) during CA. Body temperature after resuscitation was maintained at 35°C in all animals. Behavioral testing was performed at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after CA/CPR. Either 3 or 7 days after CA/CPR, blood was analyzed for serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and interleukin-1β; mice were euthanized; and brains were sectioned. CA/CPR caused peripheral organ and brain injury. ExHy animals experienced transient reduction in brain temperature after resuscitation (2.1°C±0.5°C for 4 minutes). Surprisingly, ExHy did not change peripheral organ damage. In contrast, hippocampal injury was reduced at 3 days after CA/CPR in ExHy animals (22.4%±6.2% vs. 45.7%±9.1%, p=0.04, n=15/group). This study has two main findings. Hypothermia limited to CA does not reduce peripheral organ injury. This unexpected finding suggests that after brief ischemia, such as during CA/CPR, signaling or events after reperfusion may be more injurious than those during the ischemic period. Second, peripheral organ hypothermia during CA reduces hippocampal injury independent of peripheral organ protection. While it is possible that this protection is due to subtle differences in brain temperature during early reperfusion, we speculate that additional mechanisms may be involved. Our findings add to the growing understanding of brain-body cross

  4. The Value of Serum NR2 Antibody in Prediction of Post-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bidari, Ali; Vaziri, Samira; Moazen Zadeh, Ehsan; Farahmand, Sahar; Talachian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits antibody (NR2-ab) is a sensitive marker of ischemic brain damage in clinical circumstances, such as cerebrovascular accidents. We aimed to assess the value of serum NR2-ab in predicting the post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) survival. Methods: In this cohort study, we examined serum NR2-ab levels 1 hour after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in 49 successfully resuscitated patients. Patients with traumatic or asphyxic arrests, prior neurological insults, or major medical illnesses were excluded. Participants were followed until death or hospital discharge. Demographic data, coronary artery disease risk factors, time before initiation of CPR, and CPR duration were documented. In addition, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure, and survival status of patients were recorded at 1, 6, 24, and 72 hour(s) after ROSC. Descriptive analyses were performed, and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess if NR2-ab level is an independent predictive factor of survival. Results: 49 successfully resuscitated patients were evaluated; 27 (55%) survived to hospital discharge, 4 (8.1%) were in vegetative state, 10 (20.4%) were physically disabled, and 13 (26.5%) were physically functional. Within 72 hours of ROSC all of the 12 NR2-ab positive patients died. In contrast, 31 (84%) of the NR2-ab negative patients survived. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of NR2-ab in prediction of survival were 54.5% (95%CI=32.7%-74.9%), 100% (95%CI=84.5%-100%), infinite, and 45.5% (95%CI=28.8%-71.8%), respectively. Subsequent analysis showed that both NR2-ab status and GCS were independent risk factors of death. Conclusions: A positive NR2-ab serum test 1 hour after ROSC correlated with lower 72-hour survival. Further studies are required to validate this finding and demonstrate the value of a quantitative NR2-ab assay and its optimal time of measurement. PMID:26495391

  5. Serum cortisol level and adrenal reserve as a predictor of patients’ outcome after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Mosaddegh, Reza; Kianmehr, Nahid; Mahshidfar, Babak; Rahmani, Zahra; Aghdam, Hamed; Mofidi, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is thought that pituitary-adrenal axis has a fundamental role in outcome of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). This study designed to evaluate the correlation between adrenal reserve and post-resuscitation outcome. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 consecutive patients with CPA were enrolled in two emergency departments (EDs) over a 3-month period. Plasma cortisol level was measured at the beginning of CPR. Intravenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test was carried out after successful CPR, and blood samples were taken at 30 and 60 minutes, and 24 hours thereafter. Patients were divided into two groups: in-hospital death or hospital discharge. Results: In patients who died, baseline and post-ACTH serum cortisol after 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours were higher than patients who discharged from the hospital, but it was not statistically significant except to that of minute 60 (P=0.49). A model of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age and need for vasopressor infusion correlated with mortality. Conclusion: Current study could not show the statistically significant difference in initial and post-ACTH serum cortisol levels between survivor and non-survivor patients with cardiac arrest who had initial successful CPR, except to that of minute 60. PMID:27489598

  6. Using an inertial navigation algorithm and accelerometer to monitor chest compression depth during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Boussen, Salah; Ibouanga-Kipoutou, Harold; Fournier, Nathalie; Raboutet, Yves Godio; Llari, Maxime; Bruder, Nicolas; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Behr, Michel

    2016-09-01

    We present an original method using a low cost accelerometer and a Kalman-filter based algorithm to monitor cardiopulmonary resuscitation chest compressions (CC) depth. A three-axis accelerometer connected to a computer was used during CC. A Kalman filter was used to retrieve speed and position from acceleration data. We first tested the algorithm for its accuracy and stability on surrogate data. The device was implemented for CC performed on a manikin. Different accelerometer locations were tested. We used a classical inertial navigation algorithm to reconstruct CPR depth and frequency. The device was found accurate enough to monitor CPR depth and its stability was checked for half an hour without any drift. Average error on displacement was ±0.5mm. We showed that depth measurement was dependent on the device location on the patient or the rescuer. The accuracy and stability of this small low-cost accelerometer coupled to a Kalman-filter based algorithm to reconstruct CC depth and frequency, was found well adapted and could be easily implemented. PMID:27246666

  7. Changes of air-tissue ratio evaluated by EBCT after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): validation in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Schuster, Antonius H.; Kleinsasser, Axel; Loeckinger, Alexander; Hoermann, Christoph; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2001-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate changes of the air-tissue ratio (ATR) in previously defined regions of interest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in porcine model. Eight anesthetized and ventilated pigs we scanned in supine position before and 30 minutes after CPR at two different constant PEEP levels (5 cm H2O, 15 cm H2O). Volume scans were obtained using 6 mm slices. The gray values of the lung were divided into steps of 100 HU in order to get access to the changes of ATR. ATR was evaluated in ventral, intermediate and dorsal regions of the lung. CPR for 9 minutes led to an uneven distribution of ventilation. In the ventral region, areas with high ATR increased. Areas with normal ATR decreased. In contrast the dorsal regions with low ATR increased. ATR in the intermediate regions remained almost unchanged. Using the higher PEEP level, areas with normal ATR showed a marked increase accompanied by a decrease of areas with low ATR. After CPR, an uneven distribution of lung aeration was detected. According to the impaired hemodynamics, areas with normal ATR decreased and areas with high and low ATR increased. Using higher PEEP levels improved lung aeration.

  8. Cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation at various compression rates and durations.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, K R; Babbs, C F; Frissora, H A; Davis, R W; Silver, D I

    1981-09-01

    Cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was measured by a modified indicator-dilution technique in 20 anesthetized dogs (6-12 kg), during repeated 1- to 2-min episodes of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation, by a mechanical chest compressor and ventilator. With compression rates from 20 to 140/min and compression durations (duty cycles) from 10 to 90% of cycle time, cardiac output (CO) was predicted by the equation: CO = CR . SVmax . [DC/(k1 . CR + DC)] . [(1 -- DC)/k2 . CR + 1 - DC)], where CR is compression rate, DC is duty cycle, SVmax (19 ml) is the effective capacity of the pumping chamber, and k1 (0.00207 min) and k2 (0.00707 min) are ejection and filling constants. This expression predicts maximal CO for DC = 0.40 and cR = 126/min and 90-100% of maximal CO for 0.3 less than DC less than 0.5 and 70 less than CR less than 150/min. Such mathematical analysis may prove useful in the optimization of CPR. PMID:7282953

  9. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sadrawi, Muammar; Sun, Wei-Zen; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Dai, Chun-Yi; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p < 0.05). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. PMID:27529068

  10. The HANDDS Program: A Systematic Approach for Addressing Disparities in the Provision of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Eigel, Brian; Magid, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) blankets a community with training. Recently, the authors have found that high-risk neighborhoods can be identified, and CPR training can be targeted in the neighborhoods in which it is most needed. This article presents a novel method and pilot implementation trial for the HANDDS (identifying High Arrest Neighborhoods to Decrease Disparities in Survival) program. The authors also seek to describe example methods in which the HANDDS program is being implemented in Denver, Colorado. The HANDDS program uses a simple three-step approach: identify, implement, and evaluate. This systematic conceptual framework uses qualitative and quantitative methods to 1) identify high-risk neighborhoods, 2) understand common barriers to learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods, and 3) implement and evaluate a train-the-trainer CPR Anytime intervention designed to improve CPR training in these neighborhoods. The HANDDS program is a systematic approach to implementing a community-based CPR training program. Further research is currently being conducted in four large metropolitan U.S. cities to examine whether the results from the HANDDS program can be successfully replicated in other locations. PMID:25269587

  11. Web-based video and feedback in the teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Tracey; Rowlands, Angela; Buckwell, Margot; Abbott, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge and skills relating to cardiopulmonary resuscitation tend to be lost over time. The combination of simulation sessions with online video records and online feedback allows for an enduring record of skills sessions to assist students in retaining and revising their learning. This paper reports a qualitative evaluation of such a combination used in inter-disciplinary sessions for volunteer nursing and medical students. Methods included focus groups and free text questionnaires; data were gathered from fourteen students and three teachers. Students had used the online material in a variety of personal ways, and found that the addition to their learning was significant. Their memories of the simulation sessions and of the feedback received immediately afterwards were incomplete, and repeated viewing enabled them to identify good and poor practice with more confidence, and to reflect more carefully on their own and others' practice. Teachers found it easier to give more detailed feedback when given the chance to watch the video than immediately after the session. All felt that the sessions would ideally be embedded in the curriculum. PMID:21546137

  12. Inflammatory mechanisms involved in brain injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, YANXIAO; ZHAO, HUA; WANG, JIALI; ZHANG, LUETAO; LIU, ANCHANG; CHEN, YUGUO

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of fatality and long-term disability worldwide. Recent advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have improved survival rates; however, the survivors are prone to severe neurological injury subsequent to successful CPR following CA. Effective therapeutic options to protect the brain from CA remain limited, due to the complexities of the injury cascades caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the precise mechanisms of neurological impairment following CA-initiated I/R injury require further clarification, evidence supports that one of the key cellular pathways of cerebral injury is inflammation. The inflammatory response is orchestrated by activated glial cells in response to I/R injury. Increased release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules and cellular dysfunction in activated microglia and astrocytes contribute to ischemia-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory cytokines generation, and ultimately to delayed death of neurons. Furthermore, cytokines and adhesion molecules generated within activated microglia, as well as astrocytes, are involved in the innate immune response; modulate influx of peripheral immune and inflammatory cells into the brain, resulting in neurological injury. The present review discusses the molecular aspects of immune and inflammatory mechanisms in global cerebral I/R injury following CA and CPR, and the potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. PMID:27330748

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p < 0.05). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. PMID:27529068

  14. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries: a statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Councils of Southern Africa).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ian; Nadkarni, Vinay; Bahr, Jan; Berg, Robert A; Billi, John E; Bossaert, Leo; Cassan, Pascal; Coovadia, Ashraf; D'Este, Kate; Finn, Judith; Halperin, Henry; Handley, Anthony; Herlitz, Johan; Hickey, Robert; Idris, Ahamed; Kloeck, Walter; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth; Mason, Pip; Mears, Gregory; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Montgomery, William; Morley, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Nolan, Jerry; Okada, Kazuo; Perlman, Jeffrey; Shuster, Michael; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sterz, Fritz; Tibballs, James; Timerman, Sergio; Truitt, Tanya; Zideman, David

    2004-11-23

    Outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002, a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (ie, essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conferences. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage

  15. Initiation of resuscitation in the delivery room for extremely preterm infants: a profile of neonatal resuscitation instructors

    PubMed Central

    Ambrósio, Cristiane Ribeiro; Sanudo, Adriana; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the decisions of pediatricians who teach neonatal resuscitation in Brazil, particularly those who start resuscitation in the delivery room for newborns born at 23-26 gestational weeks. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional study that used electronic questionnaires (Dec/11-Sep/13) sent to instructors of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The primary outcome was the gestational age at which the respondent said that he/she would initiate positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room. Latent class analysis was used to identify the major profiles of these instructors, and logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with belonging to one of the derived classes. RESULTS: Of 685 instructors, 82% agreed to participate. Two latent classes were identified: ‘pro-resuscitation' (instructors with a high probability of performing ventilation on infants born at 23-26 weeks) and ‘pro-limitation' (instructors with a high probability of starting ventilation only for infants born at 25-26 weeks). In the multivariate model, compared with the ‘pro-limitation' class, ‘pro-resuscitation' pediatricians were more likely to be board-certified neonatologists and less likely to base their decision on the probability of the infant's death or on moral/religious considerations. CONCLUSION: The pediatricians in the most aggressive group were more likely to be specialists in neonatology and to use less subjective criteria to make delivery room decisions. PMID:27166771

  16. Drawing the Yongquan protocol into the different stages of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation sequence

    PubMed Central

    Inchauspe, Adrián Angel

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To introduce new applications into the ILCOR-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) “chain” sequence. METHODS: Stages of the CPR sequence (“chain”): prior to the application of chest massage: assess the victim’s state of consciousness and lung-heart failure; seek help (call 911), or in situations in which it is impossible to start the ILCOR protocol: (1) if the victim is trapped in car crash, overturned car, landslide, massive number of victims or catastrophe; or (2) delayed CPR. During chest compression: Yongquan is simultane- ously stimulated by a third rescuer. During defibrillator application: activate K-1 Yongquan through needles before defibrillation. Unsuccessful CPR: “gold standard” for legal clinical death. RESULTS: Implies comparing two hypotheses: Ho (null hypothesis) demonstrates no association between the two variables studied; Ha (alternative hypothesis) implies some degree of relation between them. Difference between the two treatments is observed. If it is greater than the standard error multiplied by a coefficient of security, the difference is significant: Ha will be accepted and Ho rejected. First we will compare CPR without defibrillator (method “A”) and K-1 Yongquan method (method “B”), using percentages of representative samples (treatment “A”: 6.4% response, treatment “B”: 85% response). If │PA - PB│ is greater than the product of 1.96 times the standard error, the difference is significant. Because │PA - PB│ = 0.786 is greater than 0.098, the difference between 0.064 and 0.85 is statistically significant. Thus, we reject Ho and accept Ha as correct. Thus, it is improbable that chance was responsible for this association. This analysis shows that K-1 Yongquan method has a “quality guarantee”. Second, we compare defibrillators (“A”) with K-1 Yongquan method (“B”) (treatment “A”: 48%, treatment “B”: 84%, │PA - PB│= 0.36; │PA - PB│ = 0.36 is greater than SE × 1.96 = 0.0148 and

  17. Feedback on the Rate and Depth of Chest Compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using Only Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Gauna, Sofía; González-Otero, Digna M.; Ruiz, Jesus; Russell, James K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is key to increase survival from cardiac arrest. Providing chest compressions with adequate rate and depth is difficult even for well-trained rescuers. The use of real-time feedback devices is intended to contribute to enhance chest compression quality. These devices are typically based on the double integration of the acceleration to obtain the chest displacement during compressions. The integration process is inherently unstable and leads to important errors unless boundary conditions are applied for each compression cycle. Commercial solutions use additional reference signals to establish these conditions, requiring additional sensors. Our aim was to study the accuracy of three methods based solely on the acceleration signal to provide feedback on the compression rate and depth. Materials and Methods We simulated a CPR scenario with several volunteers grouped in couples providing chest compressions on a resuscitation manikin. Different target rates (80, 100, 120, and 140 compressions per minute) and a target depth of at least 50 mm were indicated. The manikin was equipped with a displacement sensor. The accelerometer was placed between the rescuer’s hands and the manikin’s chest. We designed three alternatives to direct integration based on different principles (linear filtering, analysis of velocity, and spectral analysis of acceleration). We evaluated their accuracy by comparing the estimated depth and rate with the values obtained from the reference displacement sensor. Results The median (IQR) percent error was 5.9% (2.8–10.3), 6.3% (2.9–11.3), and 2.5% (1.2–4.4) for depth and 1.7% (0.0–2.3), 0.0% (0.0–2.0), and 0.9% (0.4–1.6) for rate, respectively. Depth accuracy depended on the target rate (p < 0.001) and on the rescuer couple (p < 0.001) within each method. Conclusions Accurate feedback on chest compression depth and rate during CPR is possible using exclusively the chest

  18. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in High School Using Avatars in Virtual Worlds: An International Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Leif; Heinrichs, LeRoy; Youngblood, Patricia; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today’s youth (ie, the digital native generation). Objective Our main aim was to assess the feasibility of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school students by using avatars in MMVM. We also analyzed experiences, self-efficacy, and concentration in response to training. Methods In this prospective international collaborative study, an e-learning method was used with high school students in Sweden and the United States. A software game platform was modified for use as a serious game to train in emergency medical situations. Using MMVW technology, participants in teams of 3 were engaged in virtual-world scenarios to learn how to treat victims suffering cardiac arrest. Short debriefings were carried out after each scenario. A total of 36 high school students (Sweden, n=12; United States, n=24) participated. Their self-efficacy and concentration (task motivation) were assessed. An exit questionnaire was used to solicit experiences and attitudes toward this type of training. Among the Swedish students, a follow-up was carried out after 6 months. Depending on the distributions, t tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used. Correlation between variables was assessed by using Spearman rank correlation. Regression analyses were used for time-dependent variables. Results The participants enjoyed the training and reported a self-perceived benefit as a consequence of training. The mean rating for self-efficacy increased from 5.8/7 (SD 0

  19. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries. A statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the international liaison committee on resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ian; Nadkarni, Vinay; Bahr, Jan; Berg, Robert A; Billi, John E; Bossaert, Leo; Cassan, Pascal; Coovadia, Ashraf; D'Este, Kate; Finn, Judith; Halperin, Henry; Handley, Anthony; Herlitz, Johan; Hickey, Robert; Idris, Ahamed; Kloeck, Walter; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth; Mason, Pip; Mears, Gregory; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Montgomery, William; Morley, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Nolan, Jerry; Okada, Kazuo; Perlman, Jeffrey; Shuster, Michael; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sterz, Fritz; Tibballs, James; Timerman, Sergio; Truitt, Tanya; Zideman, David

    2004-12-01

    Outcome following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002 a task force of ILCOR met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (i.e., essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conference. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage, confidentiality, management, and registry

  20. A simple accurate chest-compression depth gauge using magnetic coils during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Zhang, Yuhua; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating chest compression depth and a simple chest-compression gauge for validating the accuracy of the method. The chest-compression gauge has two plates incorporating two magnetic coils, a spring, and an accelerometer. The coils are located at both ends of the spring, and the accelerometer is set on the bottom plate. Waveforms obtained using the magnetic coils (hereafter, "magnetic waveforms"), which are proportional to compression-force waveforms and the acceleration waveforms were measured at the same time. The weight factor expressing the relationship between the second derivatives of the magnetic waveforms and the measured acceleration waveforms was calculated. An estimated-compression-displacement (depth) waveform was obtained by multiplying the weight factor and the magnetic waveforms. Displacements of two large springs (with similar spring constants) within a thorax and displacements of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training manikin were measured using the gauge to validate the accuracy of the calculated waveform. A laser-displacement detection system was used to compare the real displacement waveform and the estimated waveform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the real displacement using the laser system and the estimated displacement waveforms were calculated. The estimated displacement error of the compression depth was within 2 mm (<1 standard deviation). All ICCs (two springs and a manikin) were above 0.85 (0.99 in the case of one of the springs). The developed simple chest-compression gauge, based on a new calculation method, provides an accurate compression depth (estimation error < 2 mm).

  1. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE.A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins.The study was set in one university medical center in the China.Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study.Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa.CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants' physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded.With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01).We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  2. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, P. P.; Raj, L. Suja; Dash, P. K.; Sarma, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. Aims: To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. Subjects and Methods: A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3–4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS for Windows version 21.0. Results: The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Conclusions: Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification. PMID:27303137

  3. A Comparison of Chest Compression Quality Delivered During On-Scene and Ground Transport Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Christopher S.; Myers, Lucas A.; Kolb, Logan J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Hess, Erik P.; White, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compressions 1.5 to 2 inches (3.75–5 cm) deep at 100 to 120 per minute. Recent studies demonstrated that manual CPR by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel is substandard. We hypothesized that transport CPR quality is significantly worse than on-scene CPR quality. Methods We analyzed adult patients receiving on-scene and transport chest compressions from nine EMS sites across Minnesota and Wisconsin from May 2008 to July 2010. Two periods were analyzed: before and after visual feedback. CPR data were collected and exported with the Zoll M series monitor and a sternally placed accelerometer measuring chest compression rate and depth. We compared compression data with 2010 AHA guidelines and Zoll RescueNet Code Review software. CPR depth and rate were “above (deep),” “in,” or “below (shallow)” the target range according to AHA guidelines. We paired on-scene and transport data for each patient; paired proportions were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results In the pre-feedback period, we analyzed 105 of 140 paired cases (75.0%); in the post-feedback period, 35 of 140 paired cases (25.0%) were analyzed. The proportion of correct depths during on-scene compressions (median, 41.9%; interquartile range [IQR], 16.1–73.1) was higher compared to the paired transport proportion (median, 8.7%; IQR, 2.7–48.9). Proportions of on-scene median correct rates and transport median correct depths did not improve in the post-feedback period. Conclusion Transport chest compressions are significantly worse than on-scene compressions. Implementation of visual real-time feedback did not affect performance. PMID:27625733

  4. Gas exchange as monitored in mixed venous and arterial blood during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, L; Jorfeldt, L; Stjernström, H; Rubertsson, S

    1992-07-01

    Nineteen anaesthetized piglets were investigated. After catheterization and a stabilization period, ventricular fibrillation was induced with a transthoracic DC shock, after which a 10-min period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) took place. CPR included manual chest compression and mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen. After 1 min of CPR, an infusion of alkaline buffer was begun and completed within 5 min. A total of 50 mmol of either sodium bicarbonate (n = 6) or tris buffer mixture (n = 7) were given. These two groups were compared with a third control group (n = 6) receiving the same volume of normal saline. After 8 min of CPR all animals were given 0.5 mg adrenaline i.v., and after 10 min DC shocks were used to revert the heart back to normal sinus rhythm. Our results demonstrate that blood flow and not ventilation is the limiting factor for the efficient disposal of CO2 during CPR. This also applied when the demand for CO2 transport was increased by administration of sodium bicarbonate. The respiratory exchange ratio increased 1.9-fold, indicating that the transport of carbon dioxide was less affected than that of oxygen. The estimated alveolo-arterial oxygen tension difference, shunt, and overall ventilation/perfusion ratio increased, creating an inverse hyperbolic relationship between arterial PCO2 and PO2. The difference between mixed venous and arterial PCO2 correlated well to the mixed venous PCO2, implying more efficient pulmonary elimination of PCO2 when the mixed venous PCO2 was high. Pulmonary gas exchange during CPR appears to be independent of alkaline buffer therapy in the form of sodium bicarbonate or tris buffer mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1632165

  5. Effects of graded doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.G.; Werman, H.A.; Davis, E.A.; Hobson, J.; Hamlin, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    Although epinephrine has been shown to improve myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the effects of standard as well as larger doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow have not been examined. In this study we compared the effects of various doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow after a 10 min arrest in a swine preparation. Fifteen swine weighing greater than 15 kg each were instrumented for regional myocardial blood flow measurements with tracer microspheres. Regional blood flow was measured during normal sinus rhythm. After 10 min of ventricular fibrillation, CPR was begun and regional myocardial blood flow was determined. Animals were then randomly assigned to receive 0.02, 0.2, or 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine by peripheral injection. One minute after drug administration, regional myocardial blood flow measurements were repeated. The adjusted regional myocardial blood flows (ml/min/100 g) for animals given 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine, respectively, were as follows: left atrium, 0.9, 67.4, and 58.8; right atrium, 0.3, 46.2, and 38.5; right ventricle, 0.7, 82.3, and 66.9; right interventricular septum, 1.7, 125.5, and 99.1; left interventricular septum, 2.8, 182.8, 109.5; mesointerventricular septum, 16.8, 142.2, and 79.2; left ventricular epicardium, 19.2, 98.5 and 108.7; left ventricular mesocardium, 22.8, 135.0, and 115.8; and left ventricular endocardium, 2.5, 176.1, and 132.9). All comparisons between the groups receiving 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg epinephrine were statistically significant (p less than .05).

  6. Outcomes of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Maintenance Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Fahad; Adil, Malik M; Malik, Ahmed A; Schold, Jesse D; Holley, Jean L

    2015-12-01

    Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospitalized patients with ESRD requiring maintenance dialysis are unknown. Outcomes of in-hospital CPR in these patients were compared with outcomes in the general population using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS; 2005-2011). The study population included all adults (≥ 18 years old) from the general population and those with a history of ESRD. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital complications, and discharge outcomes were compared between the two groups. The effects of in-hospital CPR on mortality, length of stay, hospitalization charges, and discharge destination were analyzed. Yearly national trends in survival, discharge to home, and length of stay were also examined using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. During the study period, 56,069 patients with ESRD underwent in-hospital CPR compared with 323,620 patients from the general population. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with ESRD (73.9% versus 71.8%, P<0.001) on univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, gender, and potential confounders, patients with ESRD had higher odds of mortality (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.3; P<0.001). Survival after CPR improved in the year 2011 compared with 2005 (31% versus 21%, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that a greater proportion of patients with ESRD who survived were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. In conclusion, outcomes after in-hospital CPR are improving in patients with ESRD but remain worse than outcomes in the general population. Patients with ESRD who survive are more likely to be discharged to nursing homes. PMID:25908784

  7. What are the barriers to implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in secondary schools? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. Design A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across the interviews. Setting 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. Participants The study population comprised 25 participants, 9 school leadership members and 16 teachers. Results School leadership and teachers considered it important for implementation and sustainability of CPR training that teachers conduct CPR training of students. However, they preferred external instructors to train students, unless teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted in their insecurity about their own CPR skills. CPR training kits seemed to lower expectations of skill requirements to conduct CPR training, but only among those who were familiar with such kits. Conclusions To facilitate implementation of CPR training in schools, it is necessary to have clear guidelines regarding the required proficiency level to train students in CPR, to provide teachers with these skills, and to underscore that extensive skills are not required to

  8. Predictors of Survival from Perioperative Cardiopulmonary Arrests: A Retrospective Analysis of 2,524 Events from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Mhyre, Jill; Kheterpal, Sachin; Christensen, Robert; Tallman, Kristen; Morris, Michelle; Chan, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Background Perioperative cardio-pulmonary arrests are uncommon and little is known about rates and predictors of in-hospital survival. Methods Using the Get-With-The-Guidelines – Resuscitation national cardiopulmonary resuscitation registry, we identified all patients aged 18 years or older who experienced an index, pulseless cardiac arrest in the operating room or within 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, and the secondary outcome was neurologically intact recovery among survivors. Multivariable logistic regression models using generalized estimating equation models were used to identify independent predictors of survival and neurologically intact survival. Results There were 2,524 perioperative cardiopulmonary arrests identified from 234 hospitals. The overall rate of survival to discharge was 31.7% (799/2,524), including 41.8% (254/608) for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, 30.5% (296/972) for asystole, and 26.4% (249/944) for pulseless electrical activity. Ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia were independently associated with improved survival. Asystolic arrests occurring in the operating room and post-anesthesia care unit were associated with improved survival when compared to other perioperative locations. Among patients with neurological status assessment at discharge, the rate of neurologically intact survival was 64.0% (473/739). Pre-arrest neurological status at admission, patient age, inadequate natural airway, pre-arrest ventilatory support, duration of event and event location were significant predictors of neurological status at discharge. Conclusion Among patients with a perioperative cardiac arrest, 1 in 3 survived to hospital discharge, and good neurological outcome was noted in 2 out of 3 survivors. PMID:23838723

  9. Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiac care (ECC). Part VIII: Medicolegal considerations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    These resuscitation guidelines were developed to "enhance the quality of care while protecting the patient's right to accept or reject therapy and to clarify the physician's role in making decisions to provide, withhold, or withdraw life support." Among the issues covered are the obligation to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), reasons to withhold or withdraw CPR, and the liability risks of CPR providers--laypersons, CPR teachers and organizations, and hospitals. Also discussed are the role of hospital ethics committees and medicolegal considerations in treating minors. The guidelines conclude with recommendations that states enact legislation allowing allied health personnel to render emergency care more effectively outside the hospital, providing "good samaritan" immunity to laypersons administering CPR, requiring basic life support training for police and firefighters, and acknowledging the patient's right to self determination in life-or-death decisions. PMID:11643921

  10. Post-mortem CT and MRI: appropriate post-mortem imaging appearances and changes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Dean, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in the form of CT and, less frequently, MRI is an emerging facility in the evaluation of cause-of-death and human identification for the coronial service as well as in assisting the forensic investigation of suspicious deaths and homicide. There are marked differences between the radiological evaluation and interpretation of the CT and MRI features of the live patient (i.e. antemortem imaging) and the evaluation and interpretation of post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. In addition to the absence of frequently utilized tissue enhancement following intravenous contrast administration in antemortem imaging, there are a number of variable changes which occur in the tissues and organs of the body as a normal process following death, some of which are, in addition, affected significantly by environmental factors. Many patients and victims will also have undergone aggressive attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the perimortem period which will also significantly alter post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. It is paramount that the radiologist and pathologist engaged in the interpretation of such post-mortem imaging are familiar with the appropriate non-pathological imaging changes germane to death, the post-mortem interval and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to avoid erroneously attributing such changes to trauma or pathology. Some of the more frequently encountered radiological imaging considerations of this nature will be reviewed. PMID:26562099

  11. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (μG). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions

  12. Outcome and predictors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Amit; Singh, Tirath; Ahluwalia, Gautam; Singh, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outcome and predictors of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) have been extensively studied in western world, but data from developing countries is sparse. Objectives: To study the outcome and predictors of survival after CPR in a Medical ICU (MICU) of a tertiary level teaching hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: A 1-year prospective cohort study. Results: Of 105 in-MICU CPRs, forty patients (38.1%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Only one patient (0.9%) survived up to hospital discharge. The predictors of ROSC were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation as first monitored rhythm, intubation during CPR and CPR duration ≤ 10 min. CPR duration > 10 min was a significant factor for resuscitation failure. Conclusions: The rate of survival to hospital discharge after in-MICU CPRs is extremely poor. Our data may aid treating physicians, resuscitation teams, and families in understanding the likely outcome of patients after in-MICU CPRs. PMID:27076727

  13. Resuscitation with Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor in traumatic haemorrhagic shock: cardiopulmonary performance, oxygen transport and tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongmei; Qi, Jiansong; Dai, Hui; Doods, Henri; Abraham, William M

    2010-03-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of inhibition of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1) on cardiopulmonary performance, oxygen carrying capacity and tissue inflammation in a pig model of traumatic haemorrhage-resuscitation. 2. In 12 instrumented anaesthetized pigs, traumatic haemorrhage was modelled by producing tibia fractures, followed by haemorrhage of 25 mL/kg for 20 min, and then a 4 mm hepatic arterial tear with surgical repair after 20 min. Animals then underwent low-volume fluid resuscitation with either Hextend (vehicle; n = 6; Hospira, Lake Forest, IL, USA) or 3 mg/kg BIIB513 (an NHE-1 inhibitor) + Hextend (n = 6). The experiment was terminated 6 h after the beginning of resuscitation. 3. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, the addition of NHE-1 inhibition with BIIB513 significantly improved the left ventricle stroke work index and attenuated increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Furthermore, BIIB513 treatment significantly increased the oxygenated haemoglobin ratio, blood oxygen content and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation and improved blood oxygen delivery. In addition, BIIB513 treatment reduced lung tissue levels of interleukin-6 by 80%, tumour necrosis factor-alpha by 37% and myeloperoxidase activity by 38%. Nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity in the lung was also slightly and significantly attenuated following BIIB513 treatment. 4. In conclusion, the present study shows that NHE-1 inhibition facilitates the response to fluid resuscitation after traumatic haemorrhage by improving cardiac function, pulmonary vascular function and oxygen carrying capacity, which results in reduced tissue inflammatory injury. PMID:19769605

  14. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with assisted extracorporeal life support during cardiac arrest caused by drug-eluting stent thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; Song, In Ae

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy within 12 months after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation increases the possibility of stent thrombosis. We now report the case of a 66-year-old man who suffered a cardiac arrest due to stent thrombosis after an elective laparoscopic anterior resection. Ten month ago, he underwent DES implantation and then had been taking dual antiplatelet therapy. Nine days prior to the surgery, he discontinued dual antiplatelet therapy. Forty minutes after intensive care unit admission, cardiac arrest occurred. However, his cardiac rhythm did not restore in spite of resuscitation, so immediately veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was implanted. Four days after the surgery, he was weaned from ECMO support, recovered completely, with no cardiopulmonary or neurological sequelae. PMID:24910731

  15. Ischemic Postconditioning and Nitric Oxide Administration Failed to Confer Protective Effects in a Porcine Model of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Psotova, Hana; Ostadal, Petr; Mlcek, Mikulas; Kruger, Andreas; Janotka, Marek; Vondrakova, Dagmar; Svoboda, Tomas; Hrachovina, Matej; Taborsky, Ludek; Dudkova, Vlasta; Strunina, Svitlana; Kittnar, Otomar; Neuzil, Petr

    2016-04-01

    The protective effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) and nitric oxide (NO) administration have been demonstrated in several ischemic scenarios. However, current evidence regarding the effect of IPC and NO in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains lacking. Fifteen female swine (body weight 45 kg) underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) implantation; cardiac arrest-ventricular fibrillation was induced by rapid ventricular pacing. After 20 min of cardiac arrest, blood flow was restored by increasing the ECMO flow rate to 4.5 L/min. The animals (five per group) were then randomly assigned to receive IPC (three cycles of 3 min ischemia and reperfusion), NO (80 ppm via oxygenator), or mild hypothermia (HT; 33.0°C). Cerebral oximetry and aortic blood pressure were monitored continuously. After 90 min of reperfusion, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of troponin I, myoglobin, creatine-phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, neuron-specific enolase, cystatin C, and reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels. Significantly higher blood pressure and cerebral oxygen saturation values were observed in the HT group compared with the IPC and NO groups (P < 0.05). The levels of troponin I, myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly lower in the HT group (P < 0.05); levels of neuron-specific enolase, cystatin C, and ROM were not significantly different. IPC and NO were comparable in all monitored parameters. The results of the present study indicate that IPC and NO administration are not superior interventions to HT for the maintenance of blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation, organ protection, and suppression of oxidative stress following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:26412075

  16. Effectiveness of chest compression feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in lateral tilted and semirecumbent positions: a randomised controlled simulation study.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Oh, J; Chee, Y; Cho, Y; Lee, S; Lim, T H

    2015-11-01

    Feedback devices have been shown to improve the quality of chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients in the supine position, but no studies have reported the effects of feedback devices on chest compression when the chest is tilted. Basic life support-trained providers were randomly assigned to administer chest compressions to a manikin in the supine, 30° left lateral tilt and 30° semirecumbent positions, with or without the aid of a feedback device incorporated into a smartphone. Thirty-six participants were studied. The feedback device did not affect the quality of chest compressions in the supine position, but improved aspects of performance in the tilted positions. In the lateral tilted position, the median (IQR [range]) chest compression rate was 99 (99-100 [96-117]) compressions.min(-1) with and 115 (95-128 [77-164]) compressions.min(-1) without feedback (p = 0.05), and the proportion of compressions of correct depth was 55 (0-96 [0-100])% with and 1 (0-30 [0-100])% without feedback (p = 0.03). In the semirecumbent position, the proportion of compressions of correct depth was 21 (0-87 [0-100])% with and 1 (0-26 [0-100])% without feedback (p = 0.05). Female participants applied chest compressions at a more accurate rate using the feedback device in the lateral tilted position but were unable to increase the chest compression depth, whereas male participants were able to increase the force of chest compression using the feedback device in the lateral tilted and semirecumbent positions. We conclude that a feedback device improves the application of chest compressions during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation when the chest is tilted. PMID:26349025

  17. Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation of a Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Trial in the Asia-Pacific (Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Shin, Sang Do; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Lee, Eui Jung; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Edwin Doctor, Nausheen; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Wong, Kwanhathai Darin; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Lin, Chih-Hao; Goh, E-Shaun; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Alsakaf, Omer Ahmed; Hisamuddin, Nik A B Rahman Nik; Bobrow, Bentley J; McNally, Bryan; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Chan, Edwin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Survival outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Asia are poor (2-11%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are relatively low in Asia. Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has recently emerged as a potentially cost-effective intervention to increase bystander CPR and survival from OHCA. The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), an Asia-Pacific cardiac arrest registry, was set up in 2009, with the aim of understanding OHCA as a disease in Asia and improving OHCA survival. The network has adopted DA-CPR as part of its strategy to improve OHCA survival. Objective. This article aims to describe the conceptualization, study design, potential benefits, and difficulties for implementation of DA-CPR trial in the Asia-Pacific. Methods. Two levels of intervention, basic and comprehensive, will be offered to PAROS participating sites. The basic level consists of implementation of a DA-CPR protocol and training program, while the comprehensive level consists of implementation of the basic level, with the addition of a dispatch quality measurement tool, quality improvement program, and community education program. Sites that are not able to implement the package will contribute control data. The primary outcome of the study is survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 days post cardiac arrest. DA-CPR and bystander CPR are secondary outcomes. Conclusion. Implementation of DA-CPR requires concerted efforts by EMS leaders and supervisors, dispatchers, hospital stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. The DA-CPR trial implemented by the PAROS sites, if successful, can serve as a model for other countries considering such an intervention in their EMS systems. PMID:25152997

  18. Conditions and procedures for in-hospital extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of adult patients.

    PubMed

    Swol, Justyna; Belohlávek, Jan; Haft, Jonathan W; Ichiba, Shingo; Lorusso, Roberto; Peek, Giles J

    2016-04-01

    The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; ECPR) has been repeatedly published as non-randomized studies, mainly case series and case reports. The aim of this article is to support physicians, perfusionists, nurses and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) specialists who regularly perform ECPR or are willing to start an ECPR program by establishing standards for safe and efficient ECPR procedures. This article represents the experience and recommendations of physicians who provide ECPR routinely. Based on its survival and outcome rates, ECPR can be considered when determining the optimal treatment of patients who require CPR. The successful performance of ECLS cannulation during CPR is a life-saving measure and has been associated with improved outcome (including neurological outcome) after CPR. We summarize the general structure of an ECLS team and describe the cannulation procedure and the approaches for post-resuscitation care. The differences in hospital organizations and their regulations may result in variations of this model. PMID:26081929

  19. Assessment of acute myocardial necrosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardioversion by means of combined thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate tomography.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Hohnloser, S H; Kasper, W; Schümichen, C; Reinhardt, M; Moser, E

    1995-11-01

    Diagnosis of acute myocardial necrosis by means of conventional electrocardiographic criteria or the release of cardiac enzymes is often difficult or even impossible in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation with subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation including several DC countershocks. Simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) tomography was prospectively applied to 57 patients without typical clinical or electrocardiographic signs of acute myocardial infarction within 48 h after successful resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Scintigraphic evidence of acute necrosis was present in 23/57 patients (40%). Increased 99mTc-PYP uptake in the pericardial tissue was found in 24 patients (42%). Maximal creatine kinase (CK) concentration was increased in 50/57 patients (88%). CK-MB activity averaged 68+/-52 U/l in patients with positive and 17+/-13 U/l in patients with negative tomograms (P<0.0005), demonstrating the validity of 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography. It may be concluded that simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography is a valuable tool for evaluation of myocardial necrosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation including DC countershock. Acute myocardial necrosis, as indicated by scintigraphy, represents a potential trigger for the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation. Therefore, 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography can be recommended in order to guide further diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in whom the underlying cause of the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation is obscure. PMID:8575479

  20. Implementation of a High-Performance Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Protocol at a Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefos, Kathryn A.; Nable, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health issue. Although OHCA occurs relatively infrequently in the collegiate environment, educational institutions with on-campus emergency medical services (EMS) agencies are uniquely positioned to provide high-quality resuscitation care in an expedient fashion. Georgetown University's…

  1. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P < 0.001) and hypothermic (P < 0.001) than those who only needed positive pressure ventilation (PPV). On logistic regression, DR-CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  2. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P < 0.001) and hypothermic (P < 0.001) than those who only needed positive pressure ventilation (PPV). On logistic regression, DR-CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  3. The need to immobilise the cervical spine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and electric shock administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Desroziers, Milene; Mole, Sophie; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In cases of out-of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), falling to the ground can cause brain and neck trauma to the patient. We present a case of a man in his mid-60s who suffered from an OHCA resulting in a violent collapse. The patient received immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but his spine was immobilised only after a large frontal haematoma was found. The resuscitation efforts resulted in return of spontaneous circulation and discharge from hospital. After this, doctors performed angioplasty, followed by a cardiopulmonary bypass. Later, CT scan examination reported a displaced and unstable fracture of the 6th vertebra without bone marrow involvement. The patient underwent a second operation. 40 days later, he was able to return home without sequela. This case shows the importance of analysing the circumstances of a fall, considering the possibility of two concomitant diagnoses and prioritising investigations and treatment. PMID:27298289

  4. Schoolchildren as lifesavers in Europe - training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for children.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andreas; Van Aken, Hugo; Lukas, Roman P; Weber, Thomas; Breckwoldt, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a major contributor to avoidable deaths in Europe. Immediate initiation of basic life support (BLS) by lay bystanders is among the most successful strategies in its treatment. Despite the fact that more than half of all cardiac arrests are witnessed in a number of European countries, layperson resuscitation is initiated in only one-fifth of all cases. One strategy to promote bystander BLS is to establish cardiac resuscitation training in schools. BLS instructions for schoolchildren - including the use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) - have been shown to be feasible independently of the children's age or physical ability. Nonetheless, it appears reasonable to implement age-adjusted curricula. The earlier in the course of life-long learning BLS instruction begins, the more sustainable training may be. PMID:24054517

  5. A novel mouse model of pediatric cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation reveals age-dependent neuronal sensitivities to ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Deng, G; Yonchek, JC; Quillinan, N; Strnad, FA; Exo, J; Herson, PS; Traystman, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is an unfortunate and devastating condition, often leading to poor neurologic outcomes. However, little experimental data on the pathophysiology of pediatric CA is currently available due to the scarcity of animal models. New Method We developed a novel experimental model of pediatric cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) using postnatal day 20–25 mice. Adult (8–12 weeks) and pediatric (P20–25) mice were subjected to 6 min CA/CPR. Hippocampal CA1 and striatal neuronal injury were quantified 3 days after resuscitation by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Fluoro-Jade B staining, respectively. Results Pediatric mice exhibited less neuronal injury in both CA1 hippocampal and striatal neurons compared to adult mice. Increasing ischemia time to 8 min CA/CPR resulted in an increase in hippocampal injury in pediatric mice, resulting in similar damage in adult and pediatric brains. In contrast, striatal injury in the pediatric brain following 6 or 8 min CA/CPR remained extremely low. As observed in adult mice, cardiac arrest causes delayed neuronal death in pediatric mice, with hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage maturing at 72 hours after insult. Finally, mild therapeutic hypothermia reduced hippocampal CA1 neuronal injury after pediatric CA/CPR. Comparison with Existing Method This is the first report of a cardiac arrest and CPR model of global cerebral ischemia in mice Conclusions Therefore, the mouse pediatric CA/CPR model we developed is unique and will provide an important new tool to the research community for the study of pediatric brain injury. PMID:24192226

  6. Attitudes of Doctors Working in Abant Izzet Baysal University Health Research and Application Center on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Yoldaş, Hamit; Kocoğlu, Hasan; Bayır, Hakan; Yıldız, İsa; Akkaya, Akcan; Demirhan, Abdullah; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the attitudes of doctors about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in this research. Methods Overall, 234 doctors who were working in Abant İzzet Baysal University Health Research and Application Center and who accepted to participate in this research were included. Research data were obtained by a questionnaire containing questions about demographic characteristics of doctors and their knowledge about CPR. Questionnaires were applied between 27.02.2012 and 04.06.2012. The chi-square test was used for categorical variables. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results It was determined that 90% of the participants included in the study applied and/or observed CPR, and 62% of participants did not attend any CPR course. In addition, 64.1% of the doctors were found to be aware of guidelines prepared every 5 years. Although 65.2% of the doctors who attended a course previously gave a correct answer for the question about the number of cardiac compressions during adult CPR, 47.6% of the doctors who did not attend a course gave the correct answer (p=0.014). Additionally, 71.9% of participants who attended a course previously and 51.7% of participants who did not replied correctly to the question ‘What should be done immediately after defibrillation during CPR?’ And also the results for the question about how many joules is necessary to begin defibrillation with a monophasic defibrillator were statistically significant according to the attendance for a CPR course (p<0.005). Conclusion In this study, we have identified the lack of knowledge of the doctors about resuscitation. PMID:27366577

  7. Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Estimation of Healthcare Costs in Potential ‘Do Not Resuscitate’ Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Akhwand S.; Mudasser, Sayed; Khan, Muhammad N.; Abdoun, Hafiz N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving procedure which may fail if applied unselectively. ‘Do not resuscitate’ (DNR) policies can help avoid futile life-saving attempts among terminally-ill patients. This study aimed to assess CPR outcomes and estimate healthcare costs in potential DNR cases. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out between March and June 2014 and included 50 adult cardiac arrest patients who had undergone CPR at Sultan Qaboos Hospital in Salalah, Oman. Medical records were reviewed and treating teams were consulted to determine DNR eligibility. The outcomes, clinical risk categories and associated healthcare costs of the DNR candidates were assessed. Results: Two-thirds of the potential DNR candidates were ≥60 years old. Eight patients (16%) were in a vegetative state, 39 (78%) had an irreversible terminal illness and 43 (86%) had a low likelihood of successful CPR. Most patients (72%) met multiple criteria for DNR eligibility. According to clinical risk categories, these patients had terminal malignancies (30%), recent massive strokes (16%), end-stage organ failure (30%) or were bed-bound (50%). Initial CPR was unsuccessful in 30 patients (60%); the remaining 20 patients (40%) were initially resuscitated but subsequently died, with 70% dying within 24 hours. These patients were ventilated for an average of 5.6 days, with four patients (20%) requiring >15 days of ventilation. The average healthcare cost per patient was USD $1,958.9. Conclusion: With careful assessment, potential DNR patients can be identified and futile CPR efforts avoided. Institutional DNR policies may help to reduce healthcare costs and improve services. PMID:26909209

  8. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral and muscle tissue parameters during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Woldemichael, Ermias; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Toronov, Vladislav

    2015-03-01

    In this series of animal experiments on resuscitation after cardiac arrest we had a unique opportunity to measure hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) parameters directly on the brain dura, or on the brain through the intact pig skull, and simultaneously the muscle hNIRS parameters. Simultaneously the arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral blood flow were recorded in real time using invasive sensors. We used a novel hyperspectral signalprocessing algorithm to extract time-dependent concentrations of water, hemoglobin, and redox state of cytochrome c oxidase during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. In addition in order to assess the validity of the non-invasive brain measurements the obtained results from the open brain was compared to the results acquired through the skull. The comparison of hNIRS data acquired on brain surface and through the adult pig skull shows that in both cases the hemoglobin and the redox state cytochrome c oxidase changed in similar ways in similar situations and in agreement with blood pressure and flow changes. The comparison of simultaneously measured brain and muscle changes showed expected differences. Overall the results show feasibility of transcranial hNIRS measurements cerebral parameters including the redox state of cytochrome oxidase in human cardiac arrest patients.

  9. Effects of mild hypothermia therapy on the levels of glutathione in rabbit blood and cerebrospinal fluid after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Yueliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia therapy on oxidative stress injury of rabbit brain tissue after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Materials and Methods: Rabbit models of cardiac arrest were established. After the restoration of spontaneous circulation, 50 rabbits were randomly divided into normothermia and hypothermia groups. The following five time points were selected: before CPR, immediately after CPR, 2 hr after CPR (hypothermia group reached the target temperature), 14 hr after CPR (hypothermia group before rewarming), and 24 hr after CPR (hypothermia group recovered to normal temperature). Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the normothermia and hypothermia groups were measured. Results: At 2, 14, and 24 hr after CPR, the GSH concentrations in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in the hypothermia group than in the nomorthermia group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia therapy may increase GSH concentrations in rabbit blood and cerebrospinal fluid after CPR as well as promote the recovery of cerebral function. PMID:25810895

  10. Electroencephalography reactivity for prognostication of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A comparison of quantitative analysis and visual analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yingying; Jiang, Mengdi; Chen, Weibi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhou; Gao, Daiquan

    2016-07-28

    Electroencephalogram reactivity (EEG-R) is a positive predictive factor for assessing outcomes in comatose patients. Most studies assess the prognostic value of EEG-R utilizing visual analysis; however, this method is prone to subjectivity. We sought to categorize EEG-R with a quantitative approach. We retrospectively studied consecutive comatose patients who had an EEG-R recording performed 1-3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during normothermia after therapeutic hypothermia. EEG-R was assessed via visual analysis and quantitative analysis separately. Clinical outcomes were followed-up at 3-month and dichotomized as recovery of awareness or no recovery of awareness. A total of 96 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 38 (40%) patients recovered awareness at 3-month followed-up. Of 27 patients with EEG-R measured with visual analysis, 22 patients recovered awareness; and of the 69 patients who did not demonstrated EEG-R, 16 patients recovered awareness. The sensitivity and specificity of visually measured EEG-R were 58% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the quantitative analysis was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97), with the best cut-off value of 0.10. EEG-R through quantitative analysis might be a good method in predicting the recovery of awareness in patients with post-anoxic coma after CPR. PMID:27181515

  11. Comparison of superior vena caval and inferior vena caval access using a radioisotope technique during normal perfusion and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsey, W.C.; Barsan, W.G.; Joyce, S.M.; Hedges, J.R.; Lukes, S.J.; Doan, L.A.

    1984-10-01

    Recent studies of thoracic pressure changes during external cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that there may be a significant difference in the rate of delivery of intravenous drugs when they are administered through the extrathoracic inferior vena cava (IVC) rather than the intrathoracic superior vena cava (SVC). Comparison of delivery of a radionuclide given using superior and inferior vena caval access sites was made during normal blood flow and during CPR. Mean times from injection to peak emission count in each ventricle were determined. There were no significant differences between mean peak times for SVC or IVC routes during normal flow or CPR. When peak times were corrected for variations in cardiac output, there were no significant differences between IVC and SVC peak times during normal flow. During CPR, however, mean left ventricular peak time, when corrected for cardiac output, was significantly shorter (P less than .05) when the SVC route was used. The mean time for the counts to reach half the ventricular peak was statistically shorter (P less than .05) in both ventricles with the SVC route during the low flow of CPR. This suggests that during CPR, increased drug dispersion may occur when drugs are infused by the IVC route and thus may modify the anticipated effect of the drug bolus. These results suggest that during CPR, both the cardiac output and the choice of venous access are important variables for drug delivery.

  12. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation of brain-dead organ donors: a literature review and suggestions for practice.

    PubMed

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Gardiner, Dale; Shaw, David M

    2016-01-01

    "Organ preserving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OP-CPR)" is defined as the use of CPR in cases of cardiac arrest to preserve organs for transplantation, rather than to revive the patient. Is it ethical to provide OP-CPR in a brain-dead organ donor to save organs that would otherwise be lost? To answer this question, we review the literature on brain-dead organ donors, conduct an ethical analysis, and make recommendations. We conclude that OP-CPR can benefit patients and families by fulfilling the wish to donate. However, it is an aggressive procedure that can cause physical damage to patients, and risks psychological harm to families and healthcare professionals. In a brain-dead organ donor, OP-CPR is acceptable without specific informed consent to OP-CPR, although advance discussion with next of kin regarding this possibility is strongly advised. In a patient where brain death is yet to be determined, but there is known wish for organ donation, OP-CPR would only be acceptable with a specific informed consent from the next of kin. When futility of treatment has not been established or it is as yet unknown if the patient wished to be an organ donor then OP-CPR should be prohibited, in order to avoid any conflict of interest. PMID:26073934

  13. Return of spontaneous Circulation Is Not Affected by Different Chest Compression Rates Superimposed with Sustained Inflations during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott S.; Cheung, Po-Yin; Lee, Tze-Fun; Lu, Min; O'Reilly, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, sustained inflations (SI) during chest compression (CC) have been suggested as an alternative to the current approach during neonatal resuscitation. However, the optimal rate of CC during SI has not yet been established. Our aim was to determine whether different CC rates during SI reduce time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improve hemodynamic recovery in newborn piglets with asphyxia-induced bradycardia. Intervention and measurements Term newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented and exposed to 45-min normocapnic hypoxia followed by asphyxia. Resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Piglets were randomized into three groups: CC superimposed by SI at a rate of 90 CC per minute (SI+CC 90, n = 8), CC superimposed by SI at a rate of 120 CC per minute (SI+CC 120, n = 8), or a sham group (n = 6). Cardiac function, carotid blood flow, cerebral oxygenation and respiratory parameters were continuously recorded throughout the experiment. Main results Both treatment groups had similar time of ROSC, survival rates, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The hemodynamic recovery in the subsequent 4h was similar in both groups and was only slightly lower than sham-operated piglets at the end of experiment. Conclusion Newborn piglets resuscitated by SI+CC 120 did not show a significant advantage in ROSC, survival, and hemodynamic recovery as compared to those piglets resuscitated by SI+CC 90. PMID:27304210

  14. Platelet inhibition with prasugrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Ulrike; Röntgen, Philipp; Zauner, Florian; Tongers, Jörn; Berliner, Dominik; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia improves neurological outcome in combination with early revascularisation, but seems to affect clopidogrel responsiveness. The more potent thienopyridine prasugrel has not yet been sufficiently evaluated during therapeutic hypothermia. We investigated 23 consecutive AMI patients (61 ± 11 years) following out-of-hospital resuscitation undergoing revascularisation and therapeutic hypothermia. Prasugrel efficacy was assessed by the platelet-reactivity-index (PRI) before and 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours (h) following a loading dose of 60 mg via a gastric tube. Mean PRI (± SD) was 70 ± 12 % prior to loading and 60 ± 16 % (2 h, ns), 52 ± 21 % (4 h, p< 0.01), 42 ± 26 % (6 h, p< 0.01), 37 ± 21 % (12 h, p< 0.01), 27 ± 23 % (24 h, p< 0.01), 18 ± 14 % (48 h, p< 0.01), and 13 ± 10 % (72 h, p< 0.01) after loading. Sufficient platelet inhibition occurred later compared to stable AMI patients (6 h vs 2 h); however, high on-treatment platelet reactivity significantly decreased over time and was non-existent after 72 h (PRI> 50 %: 2 h: 72 %, 4 h: 52 %, 6 h: 43 %, 12 h: 29 %, 24 h: 17 %, 48 h: 5 %, 72 h: 0 %). There was no relation between 30-day mortality rate (26 %) and PRI values. Prasugrel significantly reduced platelet reactivity even during vasopressor use, analgosedation and therapeutic hypothermia. Despite a significant delay compared to stable AMI patients, sufficient platelet inhibition was reached in 83 % of patients within 24 h. Therefore, prasugrel administration via gastric tube might be a useful therapeutic strategy in these patients at high risk, providing potent and effective P2Y12 inhibition. PMID:26790884

  15. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education. PMID:27046387

  16. Use of Backboard and Deflation Improve Quality of Chest Compression When Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Is Performed on a Typical Air Inflated Mattress Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jaehoon; Chee, Youngjoon; Lim, Taeho; Song, Yeongtak; Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo

    2013-01-01

    No study has examined the effectiveness of backboards and air deflation for achieving adequate chest compression (CC) depth on air mattresses with the typical configurations seen in intensive care units. To determine this efficacy, we measured mattress compression depth (MCD, mm) on these surfaces using dual accelerometers. Eight cardiopulmonary resuscitation providers performed CCs on manikins lying on 4 different surfaces using a visual feedback system. The surfaces were as follows: A, a bed frame; B, a deflated air mattress placed on top of a foam mattress laid on a bed frame; C, a typical air mattress configuration with an inflated air mattress placed on a foam mattress laid on a bed frame; and D, C with a backboard. Deflation of the air mattress decreased MCD significantly (B; 14.74 ± 1.36 vs C; 30.16 ± 3.96, P < 0.001). The use of a backboard also decreased MCD (C; 30.16 ± 3.96 vs D; 25.46 ± 2.89, P = 0.002). However, deflation of the air mattress decreased MCD more than use of a backboard (B; 14.74 ± 1.36 vs D; 25.46 ± 2.89, P = 0.002). The use of a both a backboard and a deflated air mattress in this configuration reduces MCD and thus helps achieve accurate CC depth during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:23399985

  17. Assessment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices in emergency departments for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Noureddine, Samar; Avedissian, Tamar; Isma’eel, Hussain; El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims in Lebanon is low. A national policy on resuscitation practice is lacking. This survey explored the practices of emergency physicians related to the resuscitation of OHCA victims in Lebanon. Methods: A sample of 705 physicians working in emergency departments (EDs) was recruited and surveyed using the LimeSurvey software (Carsten Schmitz, Germany). Seventy-five participants responded, yielding 10.64% response rate. Results: The most important factors in the participants’ decision to initiate or continue resuscitation were presence of pulse on arrival (93.2%), underlying cardiac rhythm (93.1%), the physician’s ethical duty to resuscitate (93.2%), transport time to the ED (89%), and down time (84.9%). The participants were optimistic regarding the survival of OHCA victims (58.1% reporting > 10% survival) and reported frequent resuscitation attempts in medically futile situations. The most frequently reported challenges during resuscitation decisions were related to pressure or presence of victim’s family (38.8%) and lack of policy (30%). Conclusion: In our setting, physicians often rely on well-established criteria for initiating/continuing resuscitation; however, their decisions are also influenced by cultural factors such as victim’s family wishes. The findings support the need for a national policy on resuscitation of OHCA victims. PMID:27512333

  18. The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Fulbrook, Paul; Latour, Jos; Albarran, John; de Graaf, Wouter; Lynch, Fiona; Devictor, Denis; Norekvål, Tone

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, and the European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement on The Presence of Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. PMID:17919981

  19. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stimulation to the chest (called an automated external defibrillator or AED) is a device that helps start ... CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED). Source Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment ...

  20. Screening for cardiopulmonary events in neonates: a review of the infant car seat challenge.

    PubMed

    Davis, N L

    2015-04-01

    The infant car seat challenge (ICSC), or period of observation in a car safety seat before discharge to monitor for episodes of apnea, bradycardia and desaturation, is one of the most common tests performed on preterm neonates in the United States. However, the utility of the ICSC to identify infants at risk for adverse cardiopulmonary events in the car seat remains unclear. Minimal evidence exists to guide clinicians in performance of this test including appropriate inclusion criteria and failure criteria. In this article, the origins of the ICSC are discussed as well as potential etiologies of desaturations and bradycardia in the car seat position. Current literature on implementation, inclusion and failure criteria, incidence of failure and data on the meaning of a 'passed' vs 'failed' ICSC are discussed. Emphasis is made on minimizing time in car seats and seated devices given concern over the risk of desaturations. PMID:25675050

  1. Factors Related to the Differential Preference for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Between Patients With Terminal Cancer and That of Their Respective Family Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Cheol; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho

    2016-02-01

    There is little information regarding concordance between preferences for end-of-life care of terminally ill patients with cancer and those of their family caregivers. A cross-sectional exploration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) preference in 361 dyads was conducted. Patients or family caregivers who were willing to approve CPR were compared with dyads who did not support CPR. The patient's quality of life was more associated with family caregiver's willingness than patient's willingness. A patient was more likely to prefer CPR than their caregiver in dyads of females and emotionally stable patients. A family caregiver showed stronger support for CPR if the patient had controlled pain or stable health and the family caregiver had not been counseled for CPR. Communications should be focused on these individuals to improve the planning of end-of-life care. PMID:25138648

  2. Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David; Soar, Jasmeet; Hogg, Karen; Linker, Nicholas; Chapman, Simon; Beattie, James M; Jones, Sue; George, Robert; McComb, Janet; Glancy, James; Patterson, Gordon; Turner, Sheila; Hampshire, Susan; Lockey, Andrew; Baker, Tracey; Mitchell, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Resuscitation Council (UK), the British Cardiovascular Society (including the British Heart Rhythm Society and the British Society for Heart Failure) and the National Council for Palliative Care recognise the importance of providing clear and consistent guidance on management of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) towards the end of life, during cardiorespiratory arrest and after death. This document has been developed to provide guidance for the full range of healthcare professionals who may encounter people with CIEDs in the situations described and for healthcare managers and commissioners. The authors recognise that some patients and people close to patients may also wish to refer to this document. It is intended as an initial step to help to ensure that people who have CIEDs, or are considering implantation of one, receive explanation of and understand the practical implications and decisions that this entails; to promote a good standard of care and service provision for people in the UK with CIEDs in the circumstances described; to offer relevant ethical and legal guidance on this topic; to offer guidance on the delivery of services in relation to deactivation of CIEDs where appropriate; to offer guidance on whether any special measures are needed when a person with a CIED receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and to offer guidance on the actions needed when a person with a CIED dies. PMID:27277710

  3. Pro-inflammatory T-Lymphocytes rapidly infiltrate into the brain and contribute to neuronal injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Guiying; Carter, Jessica; Traystman, Richard J.; Wagner, David H.; Herson, Paco S.

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory mechanisms have been linked to neuronal injury following global cerebral ischemia, the presence of infiltrating peripheral immune cells remains understudied. We performed flow cytometry of single cell suspensions obtained from the brains of mice at varying time points after global cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) to characterize the influx in lymphocytes into the injured brain. We observed that CA/CPR caused a large influx of lymphocytes within 3 hours of resuscitation that was maintained for the 3 day duration of our experiments. Using cell staining flow cytometry we observed that the large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD4+ T cells. Intracellular stains revealed a large proportion of pro-inflammatory T cells expressing either TNFα or INFγ. Importantly, the lack of functional T cells in TCRα knockout mice reduced neuronal injury following CA/CPR, implicating pro-inflammatory T cells in the progression of ischemic neuronal injury. Finally, we made the remarkable observation that the novel CD4+CD40+ (Th40) population of pro-inflammatory T cells that are strongly associated with autoimmunity are present in large numbers in the injured brain. These data indicate that studies investigating the neuro-immune response after global cerebral ischemia should consider the role of infiltrating T cells in orchestrating the acute and sustained immune response. PMID:25084739

  4. Quantitative assessment of brain tissue oxygenation in porcine models of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation using hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfabadi, Shahin S.; Toronov, Vladislav; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Hare, Gregory M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to measure real-time tissue oxygenation in the brain. In an invasive animal experiment we were able to directly compare non-invasive NIRS measurements on the skull with invasive measurements directly on the brain dura matter. We used a broad-band, continuous-wave hyper-spectral approach to measure tissue oxygenation in the brain of pigs under the conditions of cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and defibrillation. An additional purpose of this research was to find a correlation between mortality due to cardiac arrest and inadequacy of the tissue perfusion during attempts at resuscitation. Using this technique we measured the changes in concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin [HbO2] and deoxy-hemoglobin [HHb] to quantify the tissue oxygenation in the brain. We also extracted cytochrome c oxidase changes Δ[Cyt-Ox] under the same conditions to determine increase or decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery. In this paper we proved that applying CPR, [HbO2] concentration and tissue oxygenation in the brain increase while [HHb] concentration decreases which was not possible using other measurement techniques. We also discovered a similar trend in changes of both [Cyt-Ox] concentration and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Both invasive and non-invasive measurements showed similar results.

  5. Resuscitation of very preterm infants with 30% vs. 65% oxygen at birth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resuscitation at birth with 100% oxygen is known to increase the oxidative burden with concomitant deleterious effects. Although fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) < 100% are widely used in preterm infants, starting resuscitation at a (too) low FiO2 may result in hypoxia. The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of resuscitating very preterm infants with an initial FiO2 of 30% versus 65%. Methods/design In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 200 very preterm infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks will be randomized to start resuscitation after birth with either 30% or 65% oxygen. The FiO2 will be adjusted based on oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and pulse rate (which should be over 100 beats per minute) in order to achieve a target SpO2 of 88–94% at 10 min of life. The FiO2 and pulse oximetry data will be continuously recorded. The primary outcome is survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as assessed by a physiological test at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The secondary outcomes include the time to achieve SpO2 > 88%, Apgar score at 5 min, cumulative O2 exposure, oxidative stress (as determined by glutathione synthesis and oxidative stress markers), retinopathy of prematurity, brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. This study will provide insight into determining the appropriate initial FiO2 to start resuscitation of very preterm infants. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR243. PMID:22621326

  6. Comparison of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) Performance in the Absence and Presence of Timing Devices for Coordinating Delivery of Ventilatory Breaths and Cardiac Compressions in a Model of Adult Cardiopulmonary Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training during the 18 months preceding each mission. Part of this training ilncludes twoperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) per training guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of CPR by trained clinicians. Similar data for bystander or "trained lay people" (e.g. CMO) performance of CPR (BCPR) have been limited. The purpose of this study was to evailuate whether use of timing devices, such as audible metronomic tones, would improve BCPR perfomance by trained bystanders. Twenty pairs of bystanders trained in two-person BCPR performled BCPR for 4 minutes on a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest patient using three interventions: 1) BCPR with no timing devices, 2) BCPR plus metronomic tones for coordinating compression rate only, 3) BCPR with a timing device and metronome for coordinating ventilation and compression rates, respectively. Bystanders were evaluated on their ability to meet international and AHA CPR guidelines. Bystanders failed to provide the recommended number of breaths and number of compressions in the absence of a timing device and in the presence of audible metronomic tones for only coordinating compression rate. Bystanders using timing devices to coordinate both components of BCPR provided the reco number of breaths and were closer to providing the recommended number of compressions compared with the other interventions. Survey results indicated that bystanders preferred to use a metronome for delivery of compressions during BCPR. BCPR performance is improved by timing devices that coordinate both compressions and breaths.

  7. The System-Wide Effect of Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback and Postevent Debriefing for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Improvement Initiative*

    PubMed Central

    Couper, Keith; Kimani, Peter K.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Chilwan, Mehboob; Cooke, Matthew W.; Davies, Robin P.; Field, Richard A.; Gao, Fang; Quinton, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel; Woolley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of implementing real-time audiovisual feedback with and without postevent debriefing on survival and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality at in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design: A two-phase, multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting: Three UK hospitals, all part of one National Health Service Acute Trust. Patients: One thousand three hundred and ninety-five adult patients who sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest at the study hospitals and were treated by hospital emergency teams between November 2009 and May 2013. Interventions: During phase 1, quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and patient outcomes were measured with no intervention implemented. During phase 2, staff at hospital 1 received real-time audiovisual feedback, whereas staff at hospital 2 received real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing. No intervention was implemented at hospital 3 during phase 2. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints included other patient-focused outcomes, such as survival to hospital discharge, and process-focused outcomes, such as chest compression depth. Random-effect logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for baseline patient characteristics, were used to analyze the effect of the interventions on study outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, neither real-time audiovisual feedback (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31–1.22; p = 0.17) nor real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35–1.21; p = 0.17) was associated with a statistically significant improvement in return of spontaneous circulation or any process-focused outcome. Despite this, there was evidence of a system-wide improvement in phase 2, leading to improvements in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.06–3.30; p = 0.03) and process

  8. A prospective study to determine the circumstances, incidence and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a referral hospital in India, in relation to various factors

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Muralidhar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Cardiac arrest has multifactorial aetiology and the outcome depends on timely and correct interventions. We decided to investigate the circumstances, incidence and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at a tertiary hospital in India, in relation to various factors, including extensive basic life support and advanced cardiac life support training programme for all nurses and doctors. Methods: It has been over a decade and a half with periodical updates and implementation of newer guidelines prepared by various societies across the world about CPR for both in-hospital and out-of hospital cardiac arrests (IHCA and OHCA). We conducted a prospective study wherein all cardiac arrests reported in the hospital consecutively for 12 months were registered for the study and followed their survival up to 1-year. Statistical analysis was performed by using Chi-square test for significant differences in proportions applied to various parameters of the study. Results: The main outcome measures were; (following CPR) return of spontaneous circulation, survival for 24 h, survival from 24 h to 6 weeks or discharge, alive at 1-year. For survivors, an assessment was made about their cerebral performance and overall performance and accordingly graded. All these data were tabulated. Totally 419 arrests were reported in the hospital, out of which 413 were in-hospital arrests. Out of this 260 patients were considered for resuscitation, we had about 27 survivors at the end of 1-year follow-up (10.38%). Conclusion: We conclude by saying there are many factors involved in good clinical outcomes following IHCAs and these variable factors need to be researched further. PMID:25684811

  9. Risk factors for low colloid osmotic pressure during infant cardiopulmonary bypass with a colloidal prime.

    PubMed

    Golab, Hanna D; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2009-05-01

    Extensive variations of colloid osmotic pressure (COP) measured in the priming as well as during infant cardiopulmonary bypass motivated us to audit clinical and laboratory data to identify the risk factors for low COP at the end of bypass. Data of 73 consecutive infant patients with body weight <10 kg, who underwent elective, first time open-heart surgery between March 2005 and December 2006 were examined. The following variables were analyzed: COP, blood loss, transfusion requirements and hematological data. Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for low COP (<15 mmHg) was performed. Forty-eight percent of patients had COP <15 mmHg at the end of bypass. Those patients had significantly lower COP before start of bypass, during, and at the end of the operation. Significant univariate predictors of low COP at the end of bypass were: lower patient weight; lower COP before start of bypass, lower priming COP and larger volume of cardioplegia received into the circulation. After multivariable analysis, lower patient COP before bypass remained the only significant predictor for low COP at the end of bypass. Pre-bypass crystalloid dilution during induction should be avoided, as this is the most important cause of low COP during the bypass. Priming COP and COP management strategy should be adapted to the individual patient demand. PMID:19188213

  10. Effect of the rate of chest compression familiarised in previous training on the depth of chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jinkun; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Je, Sang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess how the quality of metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was affected by the chest compression rate familiarised by training before the performance and to determine a possible mechanism for any effect shown. Design Prospective crossover trial of a simulated, one-person, chest-compression-only CPR. Setting Participants were recruited from a medical school and two paramedic schools of South Korea. Participants 42 senior students of a medical school and two paramedic schools were enrolled but five dropped out due to physical restraints. Intervention Senior medical and paramedic students performed 1 min of metronome-guided CPR with chest compressions only at a speed of 120 compressions/min after training for chest compression with three different rates (100, 120 and 140 compressions/min). Friedman's test was used to compare average compression depths based on the different rates used during training. Results Average compression depths were significantly different according to the rate used in training (p<0.001). A post hoc analysis showed that average compression depths were significantly different between trials after training at a speed of 100 compressions/min and those at speeds of 120 and 140 compressions/min (both p<0.001). Conclusions The depth of chest compression during metronome-guided CPR is affected by the relative difference between the rate of metronome guidance and the chest compression rate practised in previous training. PMID:26873050

  11. Safety and feasibility of the RhinoChill immediate transnasal evaporative cooling device during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A single-center, observational study.

    PubMed

    Grave, Marie-Sophie; Sterz, Fritz; Nürnberger, Alexander; Fykatas, Stergios; Gatterbauer, Mathias; Stättermayer, Albert Friedrich; Zajicek, Andreas; Malzer, Reinhard; Sebald, Dieter; van Tulder, Raphael

    2016-08-01

    We investigated feasibility and safety of the RhinoChill (RC) transnasal cooling system initiated before achieving a protected airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a prehospital setting.In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), transnasal evaporative cooling was initiated during CPR, before a protected airway was established and continued until either the patient was declared dead, standard institutional systemic cooling methods were implemented or cooling supply was empty. Patients were monitored throughout the hypothermia period until either death or hospital discharge. Clinical assessments and relevant adverse events (AEs) were documented over this period of time.In total 21 patients were included. Four were excluded due to user errors or meeting exclusion criteria. Finally, 17 patients (f = 6; mean age 65.5 years, CI95%: 57.7-73.4) were analyzed. Device-related AEs, like epistaxis or nose whitening, occurred in 2 patients. They were mild and had no consequence on the patient's outcome. According to the field reports of the emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, no severe technical problems occurred by using the RC device that led to a delay or the impairment of quality of the CPR.Early application of the RC device, during OHCA is feasible, safe, easy to handle, and does not delay or hinder CPR, or establishment of a secure intubation. For efficacy and further safety data additional studies will be needed. PMID:27559978

  12. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70–0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality. PMID:26952966

  13. “Afraid of Being Witchy with a ‘B’”: A Qualitative Study of How Gender Influences Residents’ Experiences Leading Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kolehmainen, Christine; Brennan, Meghan; Filut, Amarette; Isaac, Carol; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ineffective leadership during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“code”) can negatively affect a patient’s likelihood of survival. In most teaching hospitals, internal medicine residents lead codes. In this study, the authors explored internal medicine residents’ experiences leading codes, with a particular focus on how gender influences the code leadership experience. Method The authors conducted individual, semi-structured telephone or in-person interviews with 25 residents (May 2012 to February 2013) from 9 U.S. internal medicine residency programs. They audio recorded and transcribed the interviews then thematically analyzed the transcribed text. Results Participants viewed a successful code as one with effective leadership. They agreed that the ideal code leader was an authoritative presence; spoke with a deep, loud voice; used clear, direct communication; and appeared calm. Although equally able to lead codes as their male colleagues, female participants described feeling stress from having to violate gender behavioral norms in the role of code leader. In response, some female participants adopted rituals to signal the suspension of gender norms while leading a code. Others apologized afterwards for their counter normative behavior. Conclusions Ideal code leadership embodies highly agentic, stereotypical male behaviors. Female residents employed strategies to better integrate the competing identities of code leader and female gender. In the future, residency training should acknowledge how female gender stereotypes may conflict with the behaviors required to enact code leadership and offer some strategies, such as those used by the female residents in this study, to help women integrate these dual identities. PMID:24979289

  14. Alkaline Phosphatase, Soluble Extracellular Adenine Nucleotides, and Adenosine Production after Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jesse A.; Urban, Tracy; Tong, Suhong; Twite, Mark; Woodruff, Alan

    2016-01-01

    -operative alkaline phosphatase activity leads to impaired capacity to clear adenosine monophosphate. AP supplementation improves serum clearance of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine. These findings represent a potential therapeutic mechanism for alkaline phosphatase infusion during cardiac surgery. New and Noteworthy We identify alkaline phosphatase (AP) as the primary soluble ectonucleotidase in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and show decreased capacity to clear AMP when AP activity decreases post-bypass. Supplementation of AP ex vivo improves this capacity and may represent the beneficial therapeutic mechanism of AP infusion seen in phase 2 studies. PMID:27384524

  15. The validity of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in the emergency department using video-assisted surveillance: an Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Nejad, Hooman; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Hoseinidavarani, Hosein; Hossein-Nejad Nedai, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the quality of CPR procedures performed in Tehran's Rasool-e-Akram Hospital-- the first Emergency Medicine academic center in Iran-using a videotaped real-life (actual) CPR technique, with the aim of pointing out the defects and shortcomings in this regard. The performance of the CPR team in the emergency resuscitation room of Rasool-e-Akram Hospital was evaluated through videotaping. In an expert panel in the educational council of the emergency medicine group scored each item, which could be evaluated through videotaping, based on the existing guidelines. Fifty CPRs were videotaped between May to July 2008. From among the 33 CPRs which were recorded from the very first moment, 25 of them were started which the correct procedure, chest compression and ventilation, whereas procedures such as checking for pulse, getting an IV-line or intubation were performed as the first action in the remaining cases. While many believe CPR is performed properly in our center, the present study revealed that the performance is still distant from the desired ideal. PMID:23852844

  16. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living ... medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ...

  17. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if a patient's breathing stops or if the ... you to choose whether or not you want CPR before an emergency occurs. It is specific about ...

  18. Instructions to “push as hard as you can” improve average chest compression depth in dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muzna; Brown, Todd B.; Saini, Devashish; Pepper, Tracy L; Nandigam, Hari Krishna; Kaza, Niroop; Cofield, Stacey S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) with adequate chest compression depth appears to improve first shock success in cardiac arrest. We evaluate the effect of simplification of chest compression instructions on compression depth in dispatcher-assisted CPR protocol. Methods Data from two randomized, double-blinded, controlled trials with identical methodology were combined to obtain 332 records for this analysis. Subjects were randomized to either modified Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) v11.2 protocol or a new simplified protocol. The main difference between the protocols was the instruction to “push as hard as you can” in the simplified protocol, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” in MPDS. Data were recorded via a Laerdal® ResusciAnne® SkillReporter™ manikin. Primary outcome measures included: chest compression depth, proportion of compressions without error, with adequate depth and with total release. Results Instructions to “push as hard as you can”, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)”, resulted in improved chest compression depth (36.4 vs 29.7 mm, p<0.0001), and improved median proportion of chest compressions done to the correct depth (32% vs <1%, p<0.0001). No significant difference in median proportion of compressions with total release (100% for both) and average compression rate (99.7 vs 97.5 per min, p<0.56) was found. Conclusions Modifying dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions by changing “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” to “push as hard as you can” achieved improvement in chest compression depth at no cost to total release or average chest compression rate. PMID:18635306

  19. Barriers to Calling 911 and Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Residents of Primarily Latino, High-Risk Neighborhoods in Denver, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Ramirez, Lorenzo; Bull, Sheana; Eigel, Brian; Magid, David J.; Padilla, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Study objective Individuals in neighborhoods composed of minority and lower socioeconomic status populations are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event, less likely to have bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and less likely to survive. Latino cardiac arrest victims are 30% less likely than whites to have bystander CPR performed. The goal of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators to calling 911, and learning and performing CPR in 5 low-income, Latino neighborhoods in Denver, CO. Methods Six focus groups and 9 key informant interviews were conducted in Denver during the summer of 2012. Purposeful and snowball sampling, conducted by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Two reviewers analyzed the data to identify recurrent and unifying themes. A qualitative content analysis was used with a 5-stage iterative process to analyze each transcript. Results Six key barriers to calling 911 were identified: fear of becoming involved because of distrust of law enforcement, financial, immigration status, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest event, language, and violence. Seven cultural barriers were identified that may preclude performance of bystander CPR: age, sex, immigration status, language, racism, strangers, and fear of touching someone. Participants suggested that increasing availability of tailored education in Spanish, increasing the number of bilingual 911 dispatchers, and policy-level changes, including CPR as a requirement for graduation and strengthening Good Samaritan laws, may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion Distrust of law enforcement, language concerns, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest, and financial issues must be addressed when community-based CPR educational programs for Latinos are implemented. PMID:25481112

  20. Knowledge and skill retention of in-service versus preservice nursing professionals following an informal training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a repeated-measures quasiexperimental study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Jhuma; Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants-28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals-were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups-in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills. PMID:23971033

  1. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  2. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance. PMID:26381346

  3. Evaluation of a physiologic pulsatile pump system for neonate-infant cardiopulmonary bypass support.

    PubMed

    Undar, A; Masai, T; Inman, R; Beyer, E A; Mueller, M A; McGarry, M C; Frazier, O H; Fraser, C D

    1999-01-01

    An alternate physiologic pulsatile pump (PPP) system was designed and evaluated to produce sufficient pulsatility during neonate-infant open heart surgery. This hydraulically driven pump system has a unique "dual" pumping chamber mechanism. The first chamber is placed between the venous reservoir and oxygenator and the second chamber between the oxygenator and patient. Each chamber has two unidirectional tricuspid valves. Stroke volume (0.2-10 ml), upstroke rise time (10-350 msec), and pump rate (2-250 beats per minute [bpm]) can be adjusted independently to produce adequate pulsatility. This system has been tested in 3-kg piglets (n = 6), with a pump flow of 150 ml/kg/min, a pump rate of 150 bpm, and a pump ejection time of 110 msec. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), all animals were subjected to 25 minutes of hypothermia to reduce the rectal temperatures to 18 degrees C, 60 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), then 10 minutes of cold perfusion with a full pump flow, and 40 minutes of rewarming. During CPB, mean arterial pressures were kept at less than 50 mm Hg. Mean extracorporeal circuit pressure (ECCP), the pressure drop of a 10 French aortic cannula, and the pulse pressure were 67+/-9, 21+/-6, and 16+/-2 mm Hg, respectively. All values are represented as mean+/-SD. No regurgitation or abnormal hemolysis has been detected during these experiments. The oxygenator had no damping effect on the quality of the pulsatility because of the dual chamber pumping mechanism. The ECCP was also significantly lower than any other known pulsatile system. We conclude that this system, with a 10 French aortic cannula and arterial filter, produces adequate pulsatility in 3 kg piglets. PMID:9952008

  4. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on cerebral blood flow in neonates, infants, and children

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, W.J.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Kern, F.H.; Brusino, F.G.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) management in neonates, infants, and children requires extensive alterations in temperature, pump flow rate, and perfusion pressure, with occasional periods of circulatory arrest. The effect of these alterations on cerebral blood flow (CBF) are unknown. This study was designed to determine the relation of temperature and mean arterial pressure to CBF during hypothermic CPB (18-32{degrees}C), with and without periods of total circulatory arrest. CBF was measured before, during, and after hypothermic CPB with xenon-clearance techniques in 67 pediatric patients, aged 1 day-16 years. Patients were grouped based on different CPB techniques: group A, repair during moderate-hypothermic bypass at 25-32{degrees}C; group B, repair during deep-hypothermic bypass at 18-22{degrees}C; and group C, repair with total circulatory arrest at 18{degrees}C. There was a significant correlation of CBF with temperature during CPB. CBF significantly decreased under hypothermic conditions in all groups compared with prebypass levels under normothermia. In groups A and B, CBF returned to baseline levels in the rewarming phase of CPB and exceeded baseline levels after bypass. In group C, no significant increase in CBF was observed during rewarming after total circulatory arrest (32 {plus minus} 12 minutes) or after weaning from CPB. During moderate-hypothermic CPB (25-32{degrees}C), there was no association between CBF and mean arterial pressure. However, during deep-hypothermic CPB (18-22{degrees}C), there was a association between CBF and mean arterial pressure.

  5. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Christian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Brehaut, Jamie C; Osmond, Martin; Charette, Manya L; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2008-01-01

    Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%). Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85%) and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to witnessing a victim in cardiac

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Gastrostomy Tube and Tracheostomy Placement in Anoxic/Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathic Survivors of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Martinez-Schlurmann, Natalia I.; Lidsky, Karen B.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rotta, Alexandre T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current prevalence estimates of gastrostomy tube (GT) /tracheostomy placement in hospitalized patients with anoxic/hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic injury (AHIE) post cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are unknown. We sought, to estimate the prevalence of AHIE in hospitalized patients who had CPR and to identify patient/hospital level factors that predict the performance of GT/tracheostomy in those with AHIE. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 2004–2010). All patients who developed AHIE following CPR were included. In this cohort the odds of having GT and tracheostomy was computed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patient and hospital level factors were the independent variables. Results During the study period, a total of 686,578 CPR events occurred in hospitalized patients. Of these, 94,336 (13.7%) patients developed AHIE. In this AHIE cohort, 6.8% received GT and 8.3% tracheostomy. When compared to the 40–49 yrs age group, those aged >70 yrs were associated with lower odds for GT (OR = 0.65, 95% CI:0.53–0.80, p<0.0001). Those aged <18 years & those >60 years were associated with lower odds for having tracheostomy when compared to the 40–49 years group (p<0.0001). Each one unit increase in co-morbid burden was associated with higher odds for having GT (OR = 1.23,p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.17, p<0.0001). Blacks, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and other races were associated with higher odds for having GT or tracheostomy when compared to whites (p<0.05). Hospitals located in northeastern regions were associated with higher odds for performing GT (OR = 1.48, p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.63, p<0.0001) when compared to those in Western regions. Teaching hospitals (TH) were associated with higher odds for performing tracheostomy when compared to non-TH (OR = 1.36, 1.20–1.54, p<0.0001). Conclusions AHIE injury occurs in a significant number of in-hospital arrests

  7. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocou; Xue, Qinghua; Yan, Fuxia; Liu, Jinping; Li, Shoujun; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF). This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6), the control group (Group C, n = 6), and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6), and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected. Results The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  8. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Allen, Robert H; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0-28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days-4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144-150°. PMID:27003759

  9. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhalala, Utpal S.; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Allen, Robert H.; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0–28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days–4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144–150°. PMID:27003759

  10. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Avian, Alexander; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Baik, Nariae; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained lung inflations (SLI) during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn’t been investigated yet. Objective Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV) in preterm infants? Methods Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS) were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements using ‘NIRO-200-NX’ (Hamamatsu, Japan) were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1–3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s) continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only. Results 40 infants (20 in each group) with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days) and birth weight of 1707 (±470) g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do PMID:26406467

  11. The Role of Plasma and Urine Metabolomics in Identifying New Biomarkers in Severe Newborn Asphyxia: A Study of Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs following Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Daniel; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Berg, Jens Petter; Nakstad, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimizing resuscitation is important to prevent morbidity and mortality from perinatal asphyxia. The metabolism of cells and tissues is severely disturbed during asphyxia and resuscitation, and metabolomic analyses provide a snapshot of many small molecular weight metabolites in body fluids or tissues. In this study metabolomics profiles were studied in newborn pigs that were asphyxiated and resuscitated using different protocols to identify biomarkers for subject characterization, intervention effects and possibly prognosis. Methods A total of 125 newborn Noroc pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and inflicted progressive asphyxia until asystole. Pigs were randomized to resuscitation with a FiO2 0.21 or 1.0, different duration of ventilation before initiation of chest compressions (CC), and different CC to ventilation ratios. Plasma and urine samples were obtained at baseline, and 2 h and 4 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, heart rate > = 100 bpm). Metabolomics profiles of the samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Plasma and urine showed severe metabolic alterations consistent with hypoxia and acidosis 2 h and 4 h after ROSC. Baseline plasma hypoxanthine and lipoprotein concentrations were inversely correlated to the duration of hypoxia sustained before asystole occurred, but there was no evidence for a differential metabolic response to the different resuscitation protocols or in terms of survival. Conclusions Metabolic profiles of asphyxiated newborn pigs showed severe metabolic alterations. Consistent with previously published reports, we found no evidence of differences between established and alternative resuscitation protocols. Lactate and pyruvate may have a prognostic value, but have to be independently confirmed. PMID:27529347

  12. [Resuscitation 2015-the new guidelines].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Böttiger, B W

    2016-06-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is amongst the major causes of death in industrialized countries. The patient's prognosis however is still very serious. Because diagnosis and therapy in medicine constantly undergo further development, guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation are updated und published frequently, to ensure that every patient receives the best state of the art medical therapy and consequently has the best chances to survive. On October 15, 2015, the new guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation were published. This article gives a short summary of the most important changes. PMID:27160260

  13. Part 10: Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Monica E.; de Caen, Allan R.; Chameides, Leon; Atkins, Dianne L.; Berg, Robert A.; Berg, Marc D.; Bhanji, Farhan; Biarent, Dominique; Bingham, Robert; Coovadia, Ashraf H.; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Hickey, Robert W.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Reis, Amelia G.; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Tibballs, James; Zaritsky, Arno L.; Zideman, David

    2013-01-01

    Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, “Family Presence During ResuscitationPeds-003”). These callouts are hyperlinked to evidence-based worksheets, which were used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is located at the end of the text. The worksheets are available in PDF format and are open access. PMID:20956258

  14. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  15. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  16. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  17. Modification of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program Algorithm for Resuscitation of Conjoined Twins.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nicole K; Fuerch, Janene H; Halamek, Louis P

    2016-03-01

    There are no national or international guidelines for the resuscitation of conjoined twins. We have described how the U.S. Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm can be modified for delivery room resuscitation of omphaloischiopagus conjoined twins. In planning for the delivery and resuscitation of these patients, we considered the challenges of providing cardiopulmonary support to preterm conjoined twins in face-to-face orientation and with shared circulation via a fused liver and single umbilical cord. We also demonstrate how in situ simulation can be used to prepare a large, multidisciplinary team of health care professionals to deliver safe, efficient, and effective care to such patients. PMID:26461924

  18. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  19. [Forensic medicine aspects of resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, G

    1987-12-15

    Nowadays, in almost all cases of clinical death, there is at least a remote chance of resuscitation, of restoring breathing and circulation by means of modern methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Statistically, there are more cases of cardiocirculatory arrest due to an internal cause than to a traumatic cause. Just as medical activity in general, resuscitation is increasingly discussed in its legal and ethical aspects. The duty to exercise due care and proper qualification require a very specific approach in the case of resuscitation, as the chain of persons potentially involved in life saving stretches from the medical layman to the specialist trained to deal with emergency situations. As opposed to conditions in other countries, in Austria the duty to render aid and assistance as statutory provision of the penal code can be of great importance in such cases. Criteria and definition, especially in the ad hoc establishment of death, assume a special significance in resuscitation. Over the past years, resuscitation measures within the complex of the procurement of death have repeatedly been put up for discussion. Examples from US judicature may help to define the problem more clearly and also to offer solutions for similar cases. Such decisions should essentially be guided by the consideration of the presumed will of the patient who no longer is in a position to exercise the right of self-determination. PMID:3326291

  20. Gender-related plasma levels of progesterone, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Andreas; Mück, Kristina; Grill, Hans-Jörg; Schirmer, Uwe; Hannekum, Andreas; Lang, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Background It is known that proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants and children. Sex steroids are known to have immunomodulatory functions, and release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is stimulated by progesterone in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 (proinflammatory cytokine) and IL-10, and to relate them to sex and postoperative morbidity. Method Eighteen infants and children (eight female) undergoing CPB were prospectively studied. Plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 and IL-10 were determined before and 10 min after the start of CPB, and immediately after CPB; and 6 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days postoperatively. Organ dysfunction was identified on the basis of arbitrarily defined criteria. Results After CPB, all patients showed significant increases in plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 and IL-10. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in female patients, except for during the immediate postoperative period. According to the criteria used, six out of 10 male patients, but none of the female patients developed multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Conclusion The present study shows that CPB induces a significant and marked increase in plasma levels of progesterone in infants and children. Studies of administration of progesterone-blocking substances to male and female animals may help to elucidate the roles of sex and progesterone in the setting of CBP. PMID:11737923

  1. [Mechanical resuscitation assist devices].

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Breil, M; Ihli, M; Messelken, M; Rauch, S; Schewe, J-C

    2014-03-01

    In Germany 100,000-160,000 people suffer from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) annually. The incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after OHCA varies between emergency ambulance services but is in the range of 30-90 CPR attempts per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Basic life support (BLS) involving chest compressions and ventilation is the key measure of resuscitation. Rapid initiation and quality of BLS are the most critical factors for CPR success. Even healthcare professionals are not always able to ensure the quality of CPR measures. Consequently in recent years mechanical resuscitation devices have been developed to optimize chest compression and the resulting circulation. In this article the mechanical resuscitation devices currently available in Germany are discussed and evaluated scientifically in context with available literature. The ANIMAX CPR device should not be used outside controlled trials as no clinical results have so far been published. The same applies to the new device Corpuls CPR which will be available on the market in early 2014. Based on the current published data a general recommendation for the routine use of LUCAS™ and AutoPulse® CPR cannot be given. The preliminary data of the CIRC trial and the published data of the LINC trial revealed that mechanical CPR is apparently equivalent to good manual CPR. For the final assessment further publications of large randomized studies must be analyzed (e.g. the CIRC and PaRAMeDIC trials). However, case control studies, case series and small studies have already shown that in special situations and in some cases patients will benefit from the automatic mechanical resuscitation devices (LUCAS™, AutoPulse®). This applies especially to emergency services where standard CPR quality is far below average and for patients who require prolonged CPR under difficult circumstances. This might be true in cases of resuscitation due to hypothermia, intoxication and pulmonary embolism as well as

  2. [Lazarus phenomenon: spontaneous resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Casielles García, J L; González Latorre, M V; Fernández Amigo, N; Guerra Vélz, A; Cotta Galán, M; Bravo Capaz, E; de las Mulas Béjar, M

    2004-01-01

    A 94-year-old woman undergoing surgery for simple repair of a duodenal perforation experienced a sudden massive hemorrhage (1500 mL) when the duodenum was separated from adjacent structures. Hemodynamic stability was re-established when fluids were replaced. After the abdominal wall was closed, increased amplitude of the QRS wave was observed and heart rate slowed until there was no pulse. Electromechanical dissociation (EMD) was diagnosed and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. When EMD persisted after 40 minutes, resuscitative measures were stopped and the ventilator was disconnected, though orotracheal intubation and arterial and electrocardiographic monitoring were maintained. After 2 or 3 minutes, heart rhythm restarted spontaneously and arterial pressure waves reappeared on the monitor. The patient progressed well for 72 hours, after which she developed septic shock and multiorgan failure, dying 18 days later. The Lazarus phenomenon may be more common than the medical literature would indicate, possibly because a large gap in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the phenomenon underlies anecdotes about "miracles". As we wait for adequate international consensus on a protocol for monitoring the withdrawal of resuscitative measures, we should act prudently before definitively certifying death. The case we report occurred during a surgical intervention in which the patient had received general anesthesia. We believe that the causes that might explain the Lazarus phenomenon are quite different in that context than they would be in a nonsurgical setting, such that it would be useful to create a national database to keep a record of such intraoperative events. PMID:15495638

  3. An alternative approach to advancing resuscitation science.

    PubMed

    Kern, Karl B; Valenzuela, Terence D; Clark, Lani L; Berg, Robert A; Hilwig, Ronald W; Berg, Marc D; Otto, Charles W; Newburn, Daniel; Ewy, Gordon A

    2005-03-01

    Stagnant survival rates in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain a great impetus for advancing resuscitation science. International resuscitation guidelines, with all their advantages for standardizing resuscitation therapeutic protocols, can be difficult to change. A formalized evidence-based process has been adopted by the International Liason Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) in formulating such guidelines. Currently, randomized clinical trials are considered optimal evidence, and very few major changes in the Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care are made without such. An alternative approach is to allow externally controlled clinical trials more weight in Guideline formulation and resuscitation protocol adoption. In Tucson, Arizona (USA), the Fire Department cardiac arrest database has revealed a number of resuscitation issues. These include a poor bystander CPR rate, a lack of response to initial defibrillation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation, and substantial time without chest compressions during the resuscitation effort. A local change in our previous resuscitation protocols had been instituted based upon this historical database information. PMID:15733752

  4. Action sequence for layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pepe, P E; Gay, M; Cobb, L A; Handley, A J; Zaritsky, A; Hallstrom, A; Hickey, R W; Jacobs, I; Berg, R A; Bircher, N G; Zideman, D A; de Vos, R; Callanan, V

    2001-04-01

    Although some minor modifications were forged, the general consensus was to maintain most of the current guidelines for phone first/phone fast, no-assisted-ventilation CPR, the A-B-C (vs C-A-B) sequence of CPR, and the recovery position. The decisions to leave these guidelines as they are were based on a lack of evidence to justify the proposed changes, coupled with a reluctance to make revisions that would require major changes in worldwide educational practices without such evidence.Nonetheless, some major changes were made. The time-honored procedure ol pulse check by lay rescuers was eliminated altogether and replaced with an assessment for other signs of circulation. Likewise, it was recommended that even the professional rescuer now check for these other signs of circulation. Although professional rescuers may simultaneously check for a pulse, they should do so only for a short period of time (within 10 seconds). There was also enthusiasm for deleting the ventilation aspect of EMS dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions that are provided to rescuers at the scene who are inexperienced in CPR. lt was made clear, though, that the data are applicable only to adult patients who are receiving CPR and that the data are appropriate most for EMS systems with rapid response times. PMID:11290966

  5. Should the "slow code" be resuscitated?

    PubMed

    Lantos, John D; Meadow, William L

    2011-11-01

    Most bioethicists and professional medical societies condemn the practice of "slow codes." The American College of Physicians ethics manual states, "Because it is deceptive, physicians or nurses should not perform half-hearted resuscitation efforts ('slow codes')." A leading textbook calls slow codes "dishonest, crass dissimulation, and unethical." A medical sociologist describes them as "deplorable, dishonest and inconsistent with established ethical principles." Nevertheless, we believe that slow codes may be appropriate and ethically defensible in situations in which cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is likely to be ineffective, the family decision makers understand and accept that death is inevitable, and those family members cannot bring themselves to consent or even assent to a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order. In such cases, we argue, physicians may best serve both the patient and the family by having a carefully ambiguous discussion about end-of-life options and then providing resuscitation efforts that are less vigorous or prolonged than usual. PMID:22047113

  6. An Up-To-Date View of Cardiopulmonary Resusciation Instruction in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction can and should be included as part of first aid and emergency care courses in colleges and universities. Close working relationships with voluntary health organizations that sponsor such courses should be established. (MJB)

  7. [Full Recovery from Cardiopulmonary Arrest caused by Traumatic Asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Hirade, Tomohiro; Murata, Susumu; Saito, Tsukasa; Ogawa, Kohei; Kodani, Nobuhiro; Sakakibara, Manabu; Hirade, Ritsuko; Kushizaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Minami, Kotaro; Nikai, Tetsuro; Nishina, Masayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic asphyxia is a crush injury of the chest characterized by facial edema, cyanosis, conjunctival hemorrhage, and petechiae on the face and chest. The prognosis depends on the duration of chest compression and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiopulmonary arrest. Here we report a case of full recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest caused by traumatic asphyxia. The chest of a 56-year-old man was compressed by a machine while working. Immediately, his colleague started cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which was successful. When he was admitted to our hospital, his consciousness level was E1V2M2(Glasgow coma scale). Our treatment included therapeutic hypothermia, the duration of which was 24 hours at 34 °C. Rewarming his body to 36 °C took place over 48 hours. Thereafter, he recovered completely and was discharged on the 12th hospital day without neurologic sequela. Therapeutic hypothermia was possibly effective in this case. PMID:25743548

  8. Definitive studies on pole-top resuscitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.S.; Ridolpho, P.F.; Cole, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    This report summarizes the history of the application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to the electric shock victim located at the top of a utility pole. This dramatic and urgent situation requires that rescue be attempted with procedures which are thoroughly understood and effective. Questions related to the use of resuscitation and precordial thump at the pole top were subjected to experimental testing, both in animals and in humans. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the advantages of postponing resuscitation until the victim has been lowered to the ground. The author concludes with seven recommendations for emergency treatment at the scene.

  9. Geriatric Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Perera, Thomas; Cortijo-Brown, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    The geriatric population makes up a large portion of the emergency patient population. Geriatric patients have less reserve and more comorbid diseases. They are frequently on multiple medications and are more likely to require aggressive treatment during acute illness. Although it may not be obvious, it is important to recognize the signs of shock as early as possible. Special care and monitoring should be used when resuscitating the elderly. The use of bedside ultrasound and monitoring for coagulopathies are discussed. Clinicians should be constantly vigilant and reassess throughout diagnosis and treatment. Ethical considerations in this population need to be considered on an individual basis. PMID:27475009

  10. “Putting It All Together” to Improve Resuscitation Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a major public health problem affecting thousands of individuals each year in both the before hospital and in-hospital settings. However, although the scope of the problem is large, the quality of care provided during resuscitation attempts frequently does not meet quality of care standards, despite evidence-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines, extensive provider training, and provider credentialing in resuscitation medicine. Although this fact may be disappointing, it should not be surprising. Resuscitation of the cardiac arrest victim is a highly complex task requiring coordination between various levels and disciplines of care providers during a stressful and relatively infrequent clinical situation. Moreover, it requires a targeted, high-quality response to improve clinical outcomes of patients. Therefore, solutions to improve care provided during resuscitation attempts must be multifaceted and targeted to the diverse number of care providers to be successful. PMID:22107978

  11. Role of emergency thoracotomy in the resuscitation of moribund trauma victims: 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Harnar, T J; Oreskovich, M R; Copass, M K; Heimbach, D M; Herman, C M; Carrico, C J

    1981-07-01

    (1) Emergency thoracotomy can be a lifesaving procedure in critically injured patients who present with no detectable pulse or blood pressure. (2) Emergency thoracotomy is nonproductive if cardiac electrical activity is absent. (3) Best results are achieved in patients with chest injuries and the worst results in those with isolated blunt abdominal injury. (4) Survival was better if patient was taken directly to the operating room with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (5) Prehospital airway control, volume resuscitation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation play a significant role in improving the outcome in traumatized patients who undergo emergency thoracotomy. PMID:7258520

  12. Miniature oxygen resuscitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.

    1969-01-01

    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  13. Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Indu A

    2010-01-01

    The following guidelines are intended for practitioners responsible for resuscitating neonates. They apply primarily to neonates undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The updated guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation have assimilated the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the old guidelines and recommendations for daily practice are provided. Current controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed and argued in the context of the ILCOR 2005 consensus. PMID:21189881

  14. Resuscitation and auto resuscitation by airway reflexes in animals.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Zoltan; Donic, Viliam; Benacka, Roman; Jakus, Jan; Gresova, Sona

    2013-01-01

    Various diseases often result in decompensation requiring resuscitation. In infants moderate hypoxia evokes a compensatory augmented breath - sigh and more severe hypoxia results in a solitary gasp. Progressive asphyxia provokes gasping respiration saving the healthy infant - autoresuscitation by gasping. A neonate with sudden infant death syndrome, however, usually will not survive. Our systematic research in animals indicated that airway reflexes have similar resuscitation potential as gasping respiration. Nasopharyngeal stimulation in cats and most mammals evokes the aspiration reflex, characterized by spasmodic inspiration followed by passive expiration. On the contrary, expiration reflex from the larynx, or cough reflex from the pharynx and lower airways manifest by a forced expiration, which in cough is preceded by deep inspiration. These reflexes of distinct character activate the brainstem rhythm generators for inspiration and expiration strongly, but differently. They secondarily modulate the control mechanisms of various vital functions of the organism. During severe asphyxia the progressive respiratory insufficiency may induce a life-threatening cardio-respiratory failure. The sniff- and gasp-like aspiration reflex and similar spasmodic inspirations, accompanied by strong sympatho-adrenergic activation, can interrupt a severe asphyxia and reverse the developing dangerous cardiovascular and vasomotor dysfunctions, threatening with imminent loss of consciousness and death. During progressive asphyxia the reversal of gradually developing bradycardia and excessive hypotension by airway reflexes starts with reflex tachycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in prompt hypertensive reaction, followed by renewal of cortical activity and gradual normalization of breathing. A combination of the aspiration reflex supporting venous return and the expiration or cough reflex increasing the cerebral perfusion by strong expirations, provides a powerful resuscitation and

  15. Resuscitation and auto resuscitation by airway reflexes in animals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Various diseases often result in decompensation requiring resuscitation. In infants moderate hypoxia evokes a compensatory augmented breath – sigh and more severe hypoxia results in a solitary gasp. Progressive asphyxia provokes gasping respiration saving the healthy infant – autoresuscitation by gasping. A neonate with sudden infant death syndrome, however, usually will not survive. Our systematic research in animals indicated that airway reflexes have similar resuscitation potential as gasping respiration. Nasopharyngeal stimulation in cats and most mammals evokes the aspiration reflex, characterized by spasmodic inspiration followed by passive expiration. On the contrary, expiration reflex from the larynx, or cough reflex from the pharynx and lower airways manifest by a forced expiration, which in cough is preceded by deep inspiration. These reflexes of distinct character activate the brainstem rhythm generators for inspiration and expiration strongly, but differently. They secondarily modulate the control mechanisms of various vital functions of the organism. During severe asphyxia the progressive respiratory insufficiency may induce a life-threatening cardio-respiratory failure. The sniff- and gasp-like aspiration reflex and similar spasmodic inspirations, accompanied by strong sympatho-adrenergic activation, can interrupt a severe asphyxia and reverse the developing dangerous cardiovascular and vasomotor dysfunctions, threatening with imminent loss of consciousness and death. During progressive asphyxia the reversal of gradually developing bradycardia and excessive hypotension by airway reflexes starts with reflex tachycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in prompt hypertensive reaction, followed by renewal of cortical activity and gradual normalization of breathing. A combination of the aspiration reflex supporting venous return and the expiration or cough reflex increasing the cerebral perfusion by strong expirations, provides a powerful resuscitation

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity screening leading to cardiopulmonary arrest: fatal complication of a benign procedure.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yashwant; Patri, Sandeep; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K; Gupta, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    A 6-week-old female infant born at 31 weeks of gestation was brought to the ophthalmology office for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. One drop of phenylephrine (2.5%) and tropicamide (1%) ophthalmic solution was instilled in each eye for ROP evaluation. She was breast fed about 5 min after receiving the medication. She was covered in a blanket and soon her mother could not feel her suckling. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated with return of spontaneous circulation in 1-2 min. She was admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit and monitored overnight. After an uncomplicated hospital course, she was discharged the following day. It was determined that the eye drops had induced cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) as apnoea and bradycardia of prematurity resolve by 36 weeks and CPA occurred within minutes of the medication administration. Identification of CPA, prompt intervention and awareness of the offending agent is of prime importance in management of such complications. PMID:27469387

  17. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2015-12-22

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26434495

  18. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26449873

  19. Time needed to achieve changes in oxygen concentration at the T-Piece resuscitator during respiratory support in preterm infants in the delivery room

    PubMed Central

    Follett, Graeme; Cheung, Po-Yin; Pichler, Gerhard; Aziz, Khalid; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the time needed to achieve changes in fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2) from the oxygen blender to the facemask during simulated neonatal resuscitation. METHOD: Two oxygen analyzers were placed at each end of the T-Piece. During simulated ventilation, the duration to achieve the set oxygen concentration at the facemask was measured. This was repeated at different gas flow rates (5 L/min, 8 L/min or 10 L/min) and different FiO2 changes (0.21 to 1.0 to 0.21, with stepwise increases and decreases in 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 increments). RESULTS: A total of 1134 measurements (378 measurements for each flow) were recorded. Overall, the mean (± SD) time required to achieve FiO2 changes at 5 L/min, 8 L/min and 10 L/min was 36±15 s, 31±14 s and 28±14 s, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was a lag time of approximately 30 s to achieve the FiO2 at the facemask. This delay needs to be considered when making serial adjustments to FiO2 during neonatal resuscitation. PMID:25838786

  20. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  1. Association of Cord Blood Magnesium Concentration and Neonatal Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynn H.; Mapp, Delicia C.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Mercer, Brian M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Iams, Jay D.; Sorokin, Yoram; Ramin, Susan M.; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess the relationship between umbilical cord blood magnesium concentration and level of delivery room resuscitation received by neonates. Study design Secondary analysis of a controlled fetal neuroprotection trial that enrolled women at imminent risk for delivery between 24 and 31 weeks’ gestation and randomly allocated them to receive intravenous magnesium sulfate or placebo. The cohort included 1507 infants for whom total cord blood magnesium concentration and delivery room resuscitation information were available. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cord blood magnesium concentration and highest level of delivery room resuscitation, using the following hierarchy: none, oxygen only, bag-mask ventilation with oxygen, intubation or chest compressions. Results There was no relationship between cord blood magnesium and delivery room resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] 0.92 for each 1.0 mEq/L increase in magnesium; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.03). Maternal general anesthesia was associated with increased neonatal resuscitation (OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.72-3.68). Each 1-week increase in gestational age at birth was associated with decreased neonatal resuscitation (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.60 – 0.66). Conclusion Cord blood magnesium concentration does not correlate with the level of delivery room resuscitation of infants exposed to magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. PMID:22056282

  2. Vascular access in resuscitation: is there a role for the intraosseous route?

    PubMed

    Anson, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a time-tested procedure which has been incorporated into the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Intravenous access is often difficult to achieve in shock patients, and central line placement can be time consuming. Intraosseous vascular access, however, can be achieved quickly with minimal disruption of chest compressions. Newer insertion devices are easy to use, making the intraosseous route an attractive alternative for venous access during a resuscitation event. It is critical that anesthesiologists, who are often at the forefront of patient resuscitation, understand how to properly use this potentially life-saving procedure. PMID:24481418

  3. Recommendations for resuscitation after ascent to high altitude and in aircrafts.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Georgiou, Marios; Böttiger, Bernd; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Svavarsdóttir, Hildigunnur; Raffay, Violetta; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    Human exposure to high altitude is increasing, through inhabitation of areas of high altitude, expansion of tourism into more remote areas, and air travel exposing passengers to typical altitudes equivalent to 8005 ft (2440 m). With ascent to high altitude, a number of acute and chronic physiological changes occur, influencing all systems of the human body. When considering that cardiac arrest is the second most common cause of death in the mountains and that up to 60% of the elderly have significant heart disease or other health problems, these changes are of particular importance as they may have a significant impact on resuscitation efforts. Current guidelines for resuscitation lack specific recommendations regarding treatment of cardiac arrest after ascent to high altitude or in aircraft. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive search in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases for studies relevant to resuscitation at high altitude. As no randomized trials evaluating the effects of physiological changes after ascent to high altitude on cardiopulmonary resuscitation were identified, our search was expanded to include all studies addressing important aspects on high altitude physiology which could have a potential impact on the resuscitation of cardiac arrest victims. The aim of this review is to discuss the major physiological changes occurring after ascent to high altitude and their potential effects on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Based on the available data, specific suggestions are proposed regarding resuscitation at high altitude. PMID:23219316

  4. Respiratory and Cardiac Resuscitation Skills of the High School Athletic Coach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Steven

    Athletic coaches (n=149) responded to a survey questionnaire on two cardiac and respiratory emergency procedures: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the Heimlich maneuver. The coaches were asked to indicate how proficient they were at these skills, how important these skills were to their job, the availability and the need for in-service…

  5. Evaluation of a Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Curriculum for Junior and Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderschmidt, Hannelore Falk

    An adaptation of the standard American Heart Association training program was utilized to teach secondary school students cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Students, at both junior and senior high levels, were randomly assigned to practice and no-practice groups, of ten students each. All were taught CPR procedures didactically, but…

  6. Intrapartum fetal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D B

    1980-08-30

    Fetal distress is defined. The pathophysiology of fetal distress is discussed and tretment is recommended. The principles of intrapartum fetal resuscitation are proposed, with particular reference to the inhibition of uterine activity. PMID:7404260

  7. Prolonged Intraoperative Cardiac Resuscitation Complicated by Intracardiac Thrombus in a Patient Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang; DeMaria, Samuel; Cohen, Edmond; Silvay, George; Zerillo, Jeron

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of successful resuscitation after prolonged cardiac arrest during orthotopic liver transplantation. After reperfusion, the patient developed ventricular tachycardia, complicated by intracardiac clot formation and massive hemorrhage. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated stunned and nonfunctioning right and left ventricles, with developing intracardiac clots. Treatment with heparin, massive transfusion and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation ensued for 51 minutes. Serial arterial blood gases demonstrated adequate oxygenation and ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted for potential use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, however, the myocardial function improved and the surgery was completed without further intervention. On postoperative day 6, the patient was extubated without neurologic or cardiac impairment. The patient continues to do well 2 years posttransplant, able to perform independent daily activities of living and his previous job. This case underscores the potential for positive outcomes with profoundly prolonged, effective advanced cardiovascular life support in patients who experience postreperfusion syndrome. PMID:27233818

  8. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, S; Tschan, F; Semmer, N K; Howell, M D; Marsch, S

    2010-01-01

    Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field. PMID:21063563

  9. A survey of resuscitation training in Canadian undergraduate medical programs.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D H; Beckwith, R K

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a national profile of undergraduate training in resuscitation at Canadian medical schools, to compare the resuscitation training programs of the schools and to determine the cost of teaching seven resuscitation courses. DESIGN: Mail survey in 1989 and follow-up telephone interviews in 1991 to update and verify the information. SUBJECTS: The undergraduate deans of the 16 Canadian medical schools. INTERVENTION: The mail survey asked five questions: (a) Is completion of a standard first aid or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course a requirement for admission to medical school? (b) Are these courses and those in basic and advanced cardiac, trauma and neurologic life support for children and adults provided to undergraduate students? (c) During which undergraduate year are these courses offered? (d) Is their successful completion required for graduation? and (e) Who funds the training courses? RESULTS: The medical schools placed emphasis on the seven courses differently. More than half the schools required the completion of courses before admission or taught some courses but did not require the completion of the courses for graduation. On average, fewer than three of the seven courses were taught, and the completion of fewer than two was required for graduation. About half of the courses were funded by the universities. The annual projected maximum cost of teaching the seven courses was $1790 per medical student. CONCLUSION: The seven resuscitation courses have not been fully implemented at the undergraduate level in Canadian medical schools. PMID:2049693

  10. The use of cough cardiopulmonary resuscitation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Schultz, D D; Olivas, G S

    1986-05-01

    In summary, the cough CPR technique uses physiologic principles similar to those that maintain circulation during chest compression with a number of significant advantages over the latter. At the onset of lethal arrhythmias such as asystole, profound bradycardia, VT, and VF, coughing may assist in maintaining consciousness and an optimum systolic blood pressure. It may also generate the mechanism required to convert the arrhythmia. The simplicity and effectiveness of this technique warrants its consideration for greater clinical use by hospital staff in all monitored settings. It has been noted, however, that clinical research is indicated to more closely examine the proposed cause and effect relationship between cough and arrhythmia conversion and to compare the clinical efficacy between the cough CPR technique and chest blow or other clinical practice measures. PMID:3516934

  11. In-hospital resuscitation evaluated by in situ simulation: a prospective simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interruption in chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be characterized as no flow ratio (NFR) and the importance of minimizing these pauses in chest compression has been highlighted recently. Further, documentation of resuscitation performance has been reported to be insufficient and there is a lack of identification of important issues where future efforts might be beneficial. By implementing in situ simulation we created a model to evaluate resuscitation performance. The aims of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of the applied method, and to examine differences in the resuscitation performance between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. Methods A prospective observational study of 16 unannounced simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios was conducted. The participants of the study involved all health care personel on duty who responded to a cardiac arrest. We measured NFR and time to detection of initial rhythm on defibrillator and performed a comparison between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. Results Data from 13 out of 16 simulations was used to evaluate the ability of generating resuscitation performance data in simulated cardiac arrest. The defibrillator arrived after median 214 seconds (180-254) and detected initial rhythm after median 311 seconds (283-349). A significant difference in no flow ratio (NFR) was observed between the first responders, median NFR 38% (32-46), and the resuscitation teams, median NFR 25% (19-29), p < 0.001. The difference was significant even after adjusting for pulse and rhythm check and shock delivery. Conclusion The main finding of this study was a significant difference between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team with the latter performing more adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation with regards to NFR. Future research should focus on the educational potential for in-situ simulation in terms of improving skills of hospital staff and patient

  12. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  13. Emergency center thoracotomy: impact of prehospital resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Durham, L A; Richardson, R J; Wall, M J; Pepe, P E; Mattox, K L

    1992-06-01

    Emergency center thoracotomy was performed at our facility on 389 patients from 1984 through 1989. There were no patients excluded from the study, and survival for all patients was 8.3% with survival rates of 15.2% and 7.3% for stab and gunshot wounds, respectively. Emergency center thoracotomy was performed on 42 patients suffering from isolated extrathoracic injuries with 7% survival. There were no survivors of blunt trauma in this study. Fifty-three percent of the patients arrived with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in progress. The average time of prehospital CPR for survivors was 5.1 minutes compared with 9.1 minutes for nonsurvivors. Of the survivors, prehospital endotracheal intubation prolonged successful toleration of CPR to 9.4 minutes compared with 4.2 minutes for nonintubated surviving patients (p less than 0.001). Emergency center thoracotomy is useful in the resuscitation of victims dying of penetrating truncal trauma. Prehospital endotracheal intubation significantly lengthened the time of successful CPR. PMID:1613838

  14. Endpoints of resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cestero, Ramon F; Dent, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    Despite the multiple causes of the shock state, all causes possess the common abnormality of oxygen supply not meeting tissue metabolic demands. Compensatory mechanisms may mask the severity of hypoxemia and hypoperfusion, since catecholamines and extracellular fluid shifts initially compensate for the physiologic derangements associated with patients in shock. Despite the achievement of normal physiologic parameters after resuscitation, significant metabolic acidosis may continue to be present in the tissues, as evidenced by increased lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. This review discusses the major endpoints of resuscitation in clinical use. PMID:25814109

  15. TRIIODOTHYRONINE INCREASES MYOCARDIAL FUNCTION AND PYRUVATE ENTRY INTO THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AFTER REPERFUSION IN A MODEL OF INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2012-03-01

    We utilized a translational model of infant CPB to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. Methods and Results: Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]-pyruvate for 40 minutes (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (Cont) or immediately after reperfusion (IR) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (IR-Tr) received T3 (1.2 ug/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels (aCAC) and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC ) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC; ) using 13C-labeled pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Neither IR nor IR-Tr modified aCAC. However, compared to IR, T3 (group IR-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after CPB while elevating both PDC and PC (~ four-fold). T3 inhibited IR induced reductions in CAC intermediate molar percent enrichment (MPE) and oxaloacetate(citrate)/malate MPE ratio; an index of aspartate entry into the CAC. Conclusions: T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC thereby providing substrate for elevated cardiac function and work after reperfusion. The increases in pyruvate flux occur with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Additionally, T3 inhibition of reductions in CAC intermediate MPEs indicates that T3 reduces the reliance on amino acids (AA) for anaplerosis after reperfusion. Thus, AA should be more available for other functions such as protein synthesis.

  16. The resuscitation status of a patient: a constant dilemma.

    PubMed

    Dean, J A

    Since the first description of closed chest cardiac massage in 1960, healthcare has evolved considerably. The modern-day skill and expertise of both doctors and nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques are now supported by an advanced medical technology. Indeed, CPR is now perceived as the definitive life-saving procedure. However, paradoxically, it has also prolonged the process of dying and denied many patients a dignified and peaceful death. It has also denied the patient's loved ones the opportunity to be present at the time of death. The main focus of this article is to explore the current ethical issues in clinical practice relating to determining the resuscitation status of patients. Attention will also be given to patient advocacy, and the nurse's role in supporting this concept. PMID:12066047

  17. Modeling cardiac arrest and resuscitation in the domestic pig

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Brandon H; Nguyen, Anh Q; Hollrah, Roger A; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Mallet, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death and permanent disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often succumb to the extensive ischemia-reperfusion injury inflicted on the internal organs, especially the brain. Cardiac arrest initiates a complex cellular injury cascade encompassing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuronal glutamate excitotoxity, which injures and kills cells, compromises function of internal organs and ignites a destructive systemic inflammatory response. The sheer complexity and scope of this cascade challenges the development of experimental models of and effective treatments for cardiac arrest. Many experimental animal preparations have been developed to decipher the mechanisms of damage to vital internal organs following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to develop treatments to interrupt the lethal injury cascades. Porcine models of cardiac arrest and resuscitation offer several important advantages over other species, and outcomes in this large animal are readily translated to the clinical setting. This review summarizes porcine cardiac arrest-CPR models reported in the literature, describes clinically relevant phenomena observed during cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pigs, and discusses numerous methodological considerations in modeling cardiac arrest/CPR. Collectively, published reports show the domestic pig to be a suitable large animal model of cardiac arrest which is responsive to CPR, defibrillatory countershocks and medications, and yields extensive information to foster advances in clinical treatment of cardiac arrest. PMID:25685718

  18. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  19. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  20. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  1. [Resuscitation - Adult advanced life support].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bein, Berthold

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced measures for resuscitation of adults are based on basic measures of resuscitation. The central elements are highly effective chest compressions and avoidance of disruptions that are associated with poor patient outcomes that occur within seconds. The universal algorithm distinguishes the therapy for ventricular fibrillation from the therapy in asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA) by the need of defibrillation, and amiodarone administration in the former. Defibrillation is biphasic. In all other aspects, there are no differences in therapy. In each episode of cardiac arrest, reversible causes should be excluded or treated. For the diagnosis during resuscitation, sonography can be helpful. What is new in the 2015 ERC recommendations is the use of capnography, which can be used for the assessment of ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation), ventilation, resuscitation and intubation quality. Mechanical resuscitation devices can be used in selected situations. Successful primary resuscitation should be directly followed by measures of the post-resuscitation care. PMID:27022698

  2. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Matthew M; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S; Mains, Charles W; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  3. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes. PMID:16043184

  4. A Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Resuscitation by Conventional Closed-chest Technique.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Lorissa; Radhakrishnan, Jeejabai; Gazmuri, Raúl J

    2015-01-01

    A rat model of electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation followed by cardiac resuscitation using a closed chest technique that incorporates the basic components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans is herein described. The model was developed in 1988 and has been used in approximately 70 peer-reviewed publications examining a myriad of resuscitation aspects including its physiology and pathophysiology, determinants of resuscitability, pharmacologic interventions, and even the effects of cell therapies. The model featured in this presentation includes: (1) vascular catheterization to measure aortic and right atrial pressures, to measure cardiac output by thermodilution, and to electrically induce ventricular fibrillation; and (2) tracheal intubation for positive pressure ventilation with oxygen enriched gas and assessment of the end-tidal CO2. A typical sequence of intervention entails: (1) electrical induction of ventricular fibrillation, (2) chest compression using a mechanical piston device concomitantly with positive pressure ventilation delivering oxygen-enriched gas, (3) electrical shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation and reestablish cardiac activity, (4) assessment of post-resuscitation hemodynamic and metabolic function, and (5) assessment of survival and recovery of organ function. A robust inventory of measurements is available that includes - but is not limited to - hemodynamic, metabolic, and tissue measurements. The model has been highly effective in developing new resuscitation concepts and examining novel therapeutic interventions before their testing in larger and translationally more relevant animal models of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. PMID:25938619

  5. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  6. The impact of the code drugs: cardioactive medications in cardiac arrest resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Breed, Meghan; Alibertis, Kostas; Brady, William J

    2012-02-01

    The goal of treating patients who present with cardiac arrest is to intervene as quickly as possible to affect the best possible outcome. The mainstays of these interventions, including early activation of the emergency response team, early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and early defibrillation, are essential components with demonstrated positive impact on resuscitation outcomes. Conversely, the use of the code drugs as a component of advanced life support has not benefited these patients to the same extent as the basic interventions in a general. Although short-term outcomes are improved as a function of these medications, the final outcome has not been altered significantly in most instances. PMID:22107975

  7. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  8. [Automaton resuscitation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lévy, E; Tollet, M; Cosnes, J

    1979-05-19

    The aim of the Automaton Resuscitation is execution, watching and maintenance of a programme of intricate resuscitation tying for the first time the therapeutic to extemporaneous outflow of biological spoliation. This apparatus executes permanently and automatically the taking of biological fluid, estimates its outflow, amounts its total and realizes or the reinstillation of the fluid in the digestive tract or the order of intravenous perfusion tied to fluid spoliation according to an adjustable connection. A first self acting regulator for the juice intestinal reinstillation has been made in 1974. The second one with 4 units of continuous aspiration, data integration, reinstillation and perfusion tied with security had waked for 6 months. Moreover it allows with fiability the reinstillation of the gastric, duodenal, bilious, pancreatic or intestinal juice, on the other hand an intravenous perfusion tied to spontaneous spoliation (digestive) or instigated spoliation (provocated diuresis) and in a fundamental way simplifies the work of the physicians and the nurses. PMID:471743

  9. Damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Timothy H; Walsh, Mark; Aversa, John; Hutchison, Emily M; Olsen, Kristen P; Lawrence Reed, R

    2015-07-01

    The early recognition and management of hemorrhage shock are among the most difficult tasks challenging the clinician during primary assessment of the acutely bleeding patient. Often with little time, within a chaotic setting, and without sufficient clinical data, a decision must be reached to begin transfusion of blood components in massive amounts. The practice of massive transfusion has advanced considerably and is now a more complete and, arguably, more effective process. This new therapeutic paradigm, referred to as damage control resuscitation (DCR), differs considerably in many important respects from previous management strategies for catastrophic blood loss. We review several important elements of DCR including immediate correction of specific coagulopathies induced by hemorrhage and management of several extreme homeostatic imbalances that may appear in the aftermath of resuscitation. We also emphasize that the foremost objective in managing exsanguinating hemorrhage is always expedient and definitive control of the source of bleeding. PMID:25631636

  10. Use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of uteroplacental perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, D C; Pryde, P G; Shah, D M; Iruretagoyena, J I

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass, the extreme of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy, presents unique challenges to minimize maternal and fetal risk. We present our experience with a woman who was diagnosed with a left atrial myxoma following an ischemic cerebrovascular accident. We discuss clinical management specific to cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy and delivery in the context of a multidisciplinary team approach. We recommend using intermittent Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive real-time assessment of uteroplacental perfusion during non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy. Monitoring of perfusion facilitates active feedback for appropriate in utero resuscitation in these cases. PMID:27021885

  11. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  12. Resuscitation in the dental practice.

    PubMed

    Jevon, P

    2016-03-11

    The Resuscitation Council (UK) published new resuscitation guidelines in October 2015. The aim of this article is to understand these new guidelines and how dental practices should implement them. A 'resuscitation in the dental practice poster' has been designed which incorporates the new Resuscitation Council (UK) adult basic life support algorithm. This poster, endorsed by the British Dental Association, is included with this issue of the British Dental Journal. Further copies can be downloaded from: https://www.walsallhealthcare.nhs.uk/Data/Sites/1/media/documents/health-and-safety/resus.pdf. PMID:26964602

  13. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. PMID:27600123

  14. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  15. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  16. Neonatal resuscitation 3: manometer use in a model of face mask ventilation

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, C; Davis, P; Lau, R; Dargaville, P; Doyle, L; Morley, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adequate ventilation is the key to successful neonatal resuscitation. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is initiated with manual ventilation devices via face masks. These devices may be used with a manometer to measure airway pressures delivered. The expiratory tidal volume measured at the mask (VTE(mask)) is a good estimate of the tidal volume delivered during simulated neonatal resuscitation. Aim: To assess the effect of viewing a manometer on the peak inspiratory pressures used, the volume delivered, and leakage from the face mask during PPV with two manual ventilation devices in a model of neonatal resuscitation. Methods: Participants gave PPV to a modified resuscitation mannequin using a Laerdal infant resuscitator and a Neopuff infant resuscitator at specified pressures ensuring adequate chest wall excursion. Each participant gave PPV to the mannequin with each device twice, viewing the manometer on one occasion and unable to see the manometer on the other. Data from participants were averaged for each device used with the manometer and without the manometer separately. Results: A total of 7767 inflations delivered by the 18 participants were recorded and analysed. Peak inspiratory pressures delivered were lower with the Laerdal device. There were no differences in leakage from the face mask or volumes delivered. Whether or not the manometer was visible made no difference to any measured variable. Conclusions: Viewing a manometer during PPV in this model of neonatal resuscitation does not affect the airway pressure or tidal volumes delivered or the degree of leakage from the face mask. PMID:15871988

  17. Neonatal resuscitation 2: an evaluation of manual ventilation devices and face masks

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, C; Davis, P; Lau, R; Dargaville, P; Doyle, L; Morley, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: The key to successful neonatal resuscitation is effective ventilation. Little evidence exists to guide clinicians in their choice of manual ventilation device or face mask. The expiratory tidal volume measured at the mask (VTE(mask)) is a good estimate of the tidal volume delivered during simulated neonatal resuscitation. Aim: To compare the efficacy of (a) the Laerdal infant resuscitator and the Neopuff infant resuscitator, used with (b) round and anatomically shaped masks in a model of neonatal resuscitation. Methods: Thirty four participants gave positive pressure ventilation to a mannequin at specified pressures with each of the four device-mask combinations. Flow, inspiratory tidal volume at the face mask (VTI(mask)), VTE(mask), and airway pressure were recorded. Leakage from the mask was calculated from VTI(mask) and VTE(mask). Results: A total of 10 780 inflations were recorded and analysed. Peak inspiratory pressure targets were achieved equally with the Laerdal and Neopuff resuscitators. Positive end expiratory pressure was delivered with the Neopuff but not the Laerdal device. Despite similar peak pressures, VTE(mask) varied widely. Mask leakage was large for each combination of device and mask. There were no differences between the masks. Conclusion: During face mask ventilation of a neonatal resuscitation mannequin, there are large leaks around the face mask. Airway pressure is a poor proxy for volume delivered during positive pressure ventilation through a mask. PMID:15871989

  18. The impact of in-house surgeons and operating room resuscitation on outcome of traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, D B; Shackford, S R; McGill, T; Mackersie, R; Davis, J; Hansbrough, J

    1989-08-01

    As trauma systems develop, more patients can potentially benefit from immediate surgery. With in-house surgeons available, enthusiasm for direct transfer from the scene to the operating room (OR) has developed in many institutions. The purpose of this study was to define precisely which patients should be taken to the OR for resuscitation. Three hundred twenty-three patients were taken to the OR directly from the field during a 4-year period (6.9% of trauma activations). Indications included the following: (1) cardiac arrest--one vital sign present, (2) persistent hypotension despite field intravenous fluid, and (3) uncontrolled external hemorrhage. A board-certified surgeon and resuscitation team met the field transport team in the OR in all cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with blunt trauma was not accompanied by survival even with immediate surgery by a trained surgeon and it wastes valuable OR resources. Patients with prehospital hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation indicate the need for rapid surgery. Patients with blunt injuries even with hypotension infrequently undergo operations in less than 20 minutes and can be resuscitated in traditional areas where better roentgenograms are obtained. Penetrating injuries to the chest and abdomen with hypotension are the primary indications for OR resuscitation. It can be anticipated with field communication and accompanied by enhanced survival. PMID:2757502

  19. Brain Resuscitation in the Drowning Victim

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia

  20. Hospital implementation of resuscitation guidelines and review of CPR training programmes: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anders S; Lauridsen, Kasper G; Adelborg, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline implementation and CPR training in hospitals. This nationwide study included mandatory resuscitation protocols from each Danish hospital. Protocols were systematically reviewed for adherence to the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines and CPR training in each hospital. Data were included from 45 of 47 hospitals. Adherence to the ERC basic life support (BLS) algorithm was 49%, whereas 63 and 58% of hospitals adhered to the recommended chest compression depth and rate. Adherence to the ERC advanced life support (ALS) algorithm was 81%. Hospital BLS course duration was [median (interquartile range)] 2.3 (1.5-2.5) h, whereas ALS course duration was 4.0 (2.5-8.0) h. Implementation of ERC 2010 guidelines on BLS is limited in Danish hospitals 2 years after guideline publication, whereas the majority of hospitals adhere to the ALS algorithm. CPR training differs among hospitals. PMID:26181002

  1. Successful roadside resuscitative thoracotomy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wall, M J; Pepe, P E; Mattox, K L

    1994-01-01

    Patients with injuries severe enough to require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have a dismal prognosis. Time to surgical intervention is a major determinant of outcome in moribund trauma patients who have a potential for survival. With the exception of endotracheal intubation during evacuation to surgical intervention, no other usual prehospital procedures have been validated to affect outcome in such cases of extremis. This is a report of a case in which resuscitative surgical techniques were extended successfully to the prehospital environment. The patient was a 30-year-old man in extremis after a stab wound to the left chest. Estimating a transport time of 15 minutes, a physician riding with the emergency medical service (EMS) crews elected to perform a resuscitative thoracotomy. Following digital aortic compression, the patient regained both blood pressure and consciousness by the time of arrival at the trauma center. A left lower lobectomy was then performed in the operating room. The patient recovered fully and was discharged home in 21 days, neurologically intact. Four years later, the patient was alive, healthy, and working. This report demonstrates the feasibility of prehospital thoracotomy and raises provocative issues regarding future intense surgical involvement in prehospital care. PMID:8295241

  2. Hypertonic saline dextran resuscitation of thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J W; White, D J; Baxter, C R

    1990-01-01

    Burn treatment requires large volumes of crystalloid, which may exacerbate burn-induced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Small-volume hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) resuscitation has been used for effective treatment of several types of shock. In this study isolated coronary perfused guinea pig hearts were used to determine if HSD improved left ventricular contractile response to burn injuries. Parameters measured included left ventricular pressure (LVP) and maximal rate of LVP rise (+dP/dt max) and fall (-dP/dt max) at a constant preload. Third-degree scald burns comprising 45% of total body surface area (burn groups, N = 75), or 0% for controls (group 1, N = 25) were produced using a template device. In group 2, 25 burned guinea pigs were not fluid resuscitated and served as untreated burns; 20 burns were resuscitated with 4 mL lactated Ringer's (LR) solution/kg/% burn for 24 hours (group 3); additional burn groups were treated with an initial bolus of HSD (4 mL/kg, 2400 mOsm, sodium chloride, 6% dextran 70) followed by either 1, 2, or 4 mL LR/kg/% burn over 24 hours (groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Untreated burn injury significantly impaired cardiac function, as indicated by a fall in LVP (from 88 +/- 3 to 68 +/- 4 mmHg; p = 0.01) and +/- dP/dt max (from 1352 +/- 50 to 1261 +/- 90 and from 1150 +/- 35 to 993 +/- 59; p = 0.01, respectively) and a downward shift of LV function curves from those obtained from control hearts. Compared to untreated burns, hearts from burned animals treated with LR alone showed no significant improvement in cardiac function. However hearts from burned animals treated with HSD + 1 mL LR/kg/% burn had significantly higher LVP (79 +/- 4 vs. 68 +/- 4 mmHg, p = 0.01) and +/- dP/dt max (+dP/dt: 1387 +/- 60 vs. 1261 +/- 90 mmHg/sc, p = 0.01; -dP/dt: 1079 +/- 50 vs. 993 +/- 59 mmHg/sc, p = 0.01) than hearts from untreated burned animals and generated left ventricular function curves comparable to those calculated for hearts from control

  3. Comparison of training in neonatal resuscitation using self inflating bag and T-piece resuscitator

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, S.S.; Adhikari, K.M.; Rajeev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both the self inflating bag and the T-piece resuscitator are recommended for neonatal resuscitation, but many health care workers are unfamiliar with using the latter. A prospective, comparative, observational study was done to determine the ease and effectiveness of training of health care personnel in the two devices using infant training manikins. Methods 100 health care workers, who had no prior formal training in neonatal resuscitation, were divided into small groups and trained in the use of the two devices by qualified trainers. Assessment of cognitive skills was done by pre and post MCQs. Psychomotor skill was assessed post training on manikins using a 10-point objective score. Acceptance by users was ascertained by questionnaire. Assessments were also done after 24 h and 3 months. Comparison was done by Chi square and paired t-tests. Results Pre-training cognitive tests increased from 3.77 (+1.58) to 6.99 (+1.28) on day of training which was significant. Post training assessment of psychomotor skills showed significantly higher initial scores for the T-piece group (7.07 + 2.57) on day of training. Reassessment after 24 h showed significant improvement in cognitive scores (9.89 + 1.24) and psychomotor scores in both groups (8.86 + 1.42 for self inflating bag and 9.70 + 0.57 for T-piece resuscitator). After 3–6 months the scores in both domains showed some decline which was not statistically significant. User acceptability was the same for both devices. Conclusion It is equally easy to train health care workers in both devices. Both groups showed good short term recall and both devices were equally acceptable to the users. PMID:25609858

  4. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  5. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  6. Resuscitation of subdiaphragmatic exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Ross, S E; Schwab, C W

    1988-04-01

    Subdiaphragmatic exsanguination is a major cause of death in civilian trauma. In a 1-year review of 867 consecutive admissions to a Level I Trauma Center, a 4.3 per cent incidence (37 patients) of infradiaphragmatic exsanguination was found. Eleven per cent of all abdominal injuries and 35 per cent of pelvic fractures sustained massive hemorrhage. A treatment protocol incorporating immediate airway control, MAST device, super-large bore venous access, warming rapid infusors, immediate type O blood transfusion, emergency department thoracotomy, and emergent operation as required, produced an overall mortality of 54 per cent. Mortality was higher for pelvic fracture (59%) than abdominal injury (43%). No patient survived ED thoracotomy. Continued developments in resuscitation techniques, as well as prehospital, and operative care are required to reduce mortality from exsanguinating hemorrhage. PMID:3355017

  7. Hypersensitivity reaction in an infant fed hydrolyzed lactalbumin contained in a semielemental formula.

    PubMed

    Heyman, M B; Stoker, T W; Rudolph, C D; Frick, O L

    1990-02-01

    Following introduction of milk protein formula feedings, a 6-month-old male developed profuse, watery diarrhea progressing to shock, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Reinstitution of enteral feedings with a formula containing hydrolyzed lactalbumin (Travasorb STD) resulted in recurrence of diarrhea with fever. Intestinal and rectal biopsies showed only nonspecific inflammatory changes. He was discharged on an elemental formula (Vivonex). Twenty-three months later, while admitted for evaluation of hypophosphatemic rickets, immunologic testing using the lymphocyte migration inhibition factor (LIF) test demonstrated positive reactions, especially to alpha-lactalbumin (56% inhibition) and whole cow's milk (22%, normal of less than 20% inhibition). Skin tests revealed sensitivity to cow's milk and eggs. Soy formula also produced diarrhea and bloody stools. Protein hydrolysate formulas, touted as hypoallergenic diets, are useful in infants with intolerance to milk protein. This is the first documented case of an immunological reaction to the hydrolyzed whey protein, lactalbumin. Although protein hydrolysate formulas are effective treatment in most infants with milk protein intolerance, allergic reactions are possible. Caution and close observation should be exercised in immunologically sensitized infants rechallenged with any formula. PMID:2135732

  8. IS IT TIME TO RETHINK CORD MANAGEMENT WHEN RESUSCITATION IS NEEDED?

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Judith S.; Erickson-Owens, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    An infant who receives a placental transfusion at birth, either from cord milking or delayed cord clamping, obtains about 30% more blood volume than the infant whose cord is cut immediately. Receiving an adequate blood volume from placental transfusion at birth may be protective for the distressed neonate as it prevents hypovolemia and can support optimal perfusion to all organs. New research shows that ventilating before clamping the umbilical cord can reduce large swings in cardiovascular function and help to stabilize the infant. Hypovolemia, often associated with nuchal cord or shoulder dystocia, may lead to an inflammatory cascade and subsequent ischemic injury. A sudden unexpected neonatal asystole at birth may occur from severe hypovolemia. The restoration of blood volume is an important action to protect the hearts and brains of these neonates. Current protocols for resuscitation imply immediate cord clamping and the care of the infant away from the mother's bedside. We suggest that an obstetrical provider can achieve placental transfusion for the distressed neonate by milking the cord several times or resuscitating the infant at the perineum with an intact cord. Milking the cord can be done quickly within the current Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines. Cord blood gases can be collected with delayed cord clamping. “Bringing the resuscitation” to the mother's bedside is a novel concept and supports an intact cord. Adopting a policy for resuscitation with an intact cord in a hospital setting will take concentrated effort and team work by obstetrics, pediatrics, midwifery, and nursing. PMID:25297530

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert S.; Scott, Bryonnie; Carter, Simon J.; Taylor, Matthew; Peirce, Eleanor; Davies, Patrick; Maconochie, Ian K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary arrest in children is an uncommon event, and often fatal. Resuscitation is often attempted, but at what point, and under what circumstances do continued attempts to re-establish circulation become futile? The uncertainty around these questions can lead to unintended distress to the family and to the resuscitation team. Objectives To define the likely outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children, within different patient groups, related to clinical features. Data Sources MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-Process & Other non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and Cochrane central register of trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment database, along with reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included articles. Study Eligibility Criteria Prospective cohort studies which derive or validate a clinical prediction model of outcome following cardiopulmonary arrest. Participants and Interventions Children or young people (aged 0 – 18 years) who had cardiopulmonary arrest and received an attempt at resuscitation, excluding resuscitation at birth. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Risk of bias assessment developed the Hayden system for non-randomised studies and QUADAS2 for decision rules. Synthesis undertaken by narrative, and random effects meta-analysis with the DerSimonian-Laird estimator. Results More than 18,000 episodes in 16 data sets were reported. Meta-analysis was possible for survival and one neurological outcome; others were reported too inconsistently. In-hospital patients (average survival 37.2% (95% CI 23.7 to 53.0%)) have a better chance of survival following cardiopulmonary arrest than out-of-hospital arrests (5.8% (95% CI 3.9% to 8.6%)). Better neurological outcome was also seen, but data were too scarce for meta-analysis (17% to 71% ‘good’ outcomes, compared with 2.8% to 3.2%). Limitation Lack of consistent outcome reporting and

  10. Considerations for resuscitation at high altitude in elderly and untrained populations and rescuers.

    PubMed

    Suto, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-03-01

    With the development of transportation technologies, elderly people with chronic diseases are increasingly enjoying trekking and tours of nature resorts that include mountain highlands. Because of problems related to circulation, respiration, metabolism, and/or the musculoskeletal system in this population, the impact of high altitude on cardiopulmonary function is increased. Alpine accidents, therefore, tend to be more common in this population, and cases of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) at high altitudes seem to be increasing. However, relatively few studies have described cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at high altitudes. Although insufficient studies are available to standardize CPR guidelines at high altitude at this time, the aim of this review is to summarize previous studies relevant to physiologic changes after exposure to high-altitude environments and exercise, which may be a risk factor for CPA in elderly trekkers. In addition, we summarize our previous studies that described the effect of CPR procedures on cardiopulmonary function in untrained rescuers. The available data suggest that prolonged CPR at high altitudes requires strenuous work from rescuers and negatively affects their cardiopulmonary physics and subjectively measured fatigue. Alpine rescue teams should therefore be well prepared for their increased physical burden and difficult conditions. Elderly travelers should be made aware of their increased risk of CPA in alpine settings. The use of mechanical devices to assist CPR should be considered wherever possible. PMID:24388065

  11. Cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival due to penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Kosuge, Takayuki; Tahara, Yoshio; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to clarify the outcome of patients with cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival due to penetrating trauma (PT-CPA) and to establish the treatment strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The clinical course of 29 patients with PT-CPA over the past 10 years was examined. We have taken three approaches to these patients: (i) an aggressive treatment strategy; (ii) an in-hospital system supporting this aggressive resuscitation; and (iii) the pre-hospital emergency medical service (EMS) system in our city. RESULTS Although the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was established in 59% of patients, only 17% survived for 7 days, 14% were discharged, and 7% were neurologically intact. Of 10 patients showing pulseless electrical activity (PEA) on the scene, ROSC was established in 100% and 30% were discharged; however, of 12 patients showing asystole, ROSC was established in 33% and no patient could be discharged. There was no difference in the time interval from the arrival at the emergency department to ROSC between discharged patients and patients who died. The time interval from collapse to arrival at the emergency department in discharged patients and patients who went to the intensive care unit was shorter than that of patients who died in the emergency department with and without ROSC. CONCLUSIONS We cannot decide to give up and terminate resuscitation in any PT-CPA patients and cannot define salvageable patients. However, our data show that 30-min resuscitation is thought to be relevant and that we should not give up on resuscitation because of the time interval without ROSC after arrival at the hospital. PMID:20353643

  12. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhwan; Perales Villarroel, José Paul; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest. PMID:26770657

  13. Cardiorespiratory Monitoring during Neonatal Resuscitation for Direct Feedback and Audit.

    PubMed

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; van Zanten, Henriëtte A; Schilleman, Kim; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J; Witlox, Ruben S G M; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal resuscitation is one of the most frequently performed procedures, and it is often successful if the ventilation applied is adequate. Over the last decade, interest in seeking objectivity in evaluating the infant's condition at birth or the adequacy and effect of the interventions applied has markedly increased. Clinical parameters such as heart rate, color, and chest excursions are difficult to interpret and can be very subjective and subtle. The use of ECG, pulse oximetry, capnography, and respiratory function monitoring can add objectivity to the clinical assessment. These physiological parameters, with or without the combination of video recordings, can not only be used directly to guide care but also be used later for audit and teaching purposes. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this will improve the quality of delivery room management. In this narrative review, we will give an update of the current developments in monitoring neonatal resuscitation. PMID:27148507

  14. A systematic review of intensive cardiopulmonary management after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Casha, Steven; Christie, Sean

    2011-08-01

    Intensive cardiopulmonary management is frequently undertaken in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly due to the occurrence of neurogenic shock and ventilatory insufficiency and in an attempt to reduce secondary injury. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the evidence that intensive care management improves outcome after SCI and to attempt to define key parameters for cardiopulmonary support/resuscitation. We review the literature in five areas: management of SCI patients in specialized centers, risk in SCI patients of cardiopulmonary complications, parameters for blood pressure and oxygenation/ventilation support following SCI, risk factors for cardiopulmonary insufficiency requiring ICU care after SCI, and preventative strategies to reduce the risks of cardiopulmonary complications in SCI patients. The literature supports that, in light of the significant incidence of cardiorespiratory complications, SCI patients should be managed in a monitored special care unit. There is weak evidence supporting the maintenance of MAP >85 mmHg for a period extending up to 1 week following SCI. PMID:20030558

  15. A Systematic Review of Intensive Cardiopulmonary Management after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Intensive cardiopulmonary management is frequently undertaken in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly due to the occurrence of neurogenic shock and ventilatory insufficiency and in an attempt to reduce secondary injury. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the evidence that intensive care management improves outcome after SCI and to attempt to define key parameters for cardiopulmonary support/resuscitation. We review the literature in five areas: management of SCI patients in specialized centers, risk in SCI patients of cardiopulmonary complications, parameters for blood pressure and oxygenation/ventilation support following SCI, risk factors for cardiopulmonary insufficiency requiring ICU care after SCI, and preventative strategies to reduce the risks of cardiopulmonary complications in SCI patients. The literature supports that, in light of the significant incidence of cardiorespiratory complications, SCI patients should be managed in a monitored special care unit. There is weak evidence supporting the maintenance of MAP >85 mmHg for a period extending up to 1 week following SCI. PMID:20030558

  16. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Without Heparin.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Kent H; Barbara, David W

    2016-03-01

    Due to familiarity, short half-life, ease of monitoring, and the availability of a reversal agent, heparin remains the anticoagulant of choice for cardiac operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, occasionally patients require CPB but should not receive heparin, most often because of acute or subacute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In these cases, if it is not feasible to wait for the disappearance of HIT antibodies, an alternative anticoagulant must be selected. A number of non-heparin anticoagulant options have been explored. However, current recommendations suggest the use of a direct thrombin inhibitor such as bivalirudin. This review describes the use of heparin alternatives for the conduct of CPB with a focus on the direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:26872706

  17. Indications for Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Pregnancy and Impact on Fetal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S-M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiac operations in pregnant patients are a challenge for physicians in multidisciplinary teams due to the complexity of the condition which affects both mother and baby. Management strategies vary on a case-by-case basis. Feto-neonatal and maternal outcomes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pregnancy, especially long-term follow-up results, have not been sufficiently described. Methods: This review was based on a complete literature retrieval of articles published between 1991 and April 30, 2013. Results: Indications for CPB during pregnancy were cardiac surgery in 150 (96.8 %) patients, most of which consisted of valve replacements for mitral and/or aortic valve disorders, resuscitation due to amniotic fluid embolism, autotransfusion, and circulatory support during cesarean section to improve patient survival in 5 (3.2 %) patients. During CPB, fetuses showed either a brief heart rate drop with natural recovery after surgery or, in most cases, fetal heart rate remained normal throughout the whole course of CPB. Overall feto-neonatal mortality was 18.6 %. In comparison with pregnant patients whose baby survived, feto-neonatal death occurred after a significantly shorter gestational period at the time of onset of cardiac symptoms, cardiac surgery/resuscitation under CPB in the whole patient setting, or cardiac surgery/resuscitation with CPB prior to delivery. Conclusions: The most common surgical indications for CPB during pregnancy were cardiac surgery, followed by resuscitation for cardiopulmonary collapse. CPB was used most frequently in maternal cardiac surgery/resuscitation in the second trimester. Improved CPB conditions including high flow, high pressure and normothermia or mild hypothermia during pregnancy have benefited maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes. A shorter gestational period and the use of CPB during pregnancy were closely associated with feto-neonatal mortality. It is therefore important to attempt delivery ahead of

  18. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  19. Code Status and Resuscitation Options in the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Haresh L.; Patel, Neal R.; Choma, Neesha N.; Grande, Jonathan; Giuse, Dario A.; Lehmann, Christoph U.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The advance discussion and documentation of code-status is important in preventing undesired cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related End of Life interventions. Code-status documentation remains infrequent and paper-based, which limits its usefulness. This study evaluates a tool to document code-status in the electronic health records at a large teaching hospital, and analyzes the corresponding data. Methods Encounter data for patients admitted to the Medical Center were collected over a period of 12 months (01-APR-2012 – 31-MAR-2013) and the code-status attribute was tracked for individual patients. The code-status data were analyzed separately for adult and pediatric patient populations. We considered 131,399 encounters for 83,248 adult patients and 80,778 encounters for 55,656 pediatric patients in this study. Results 71% of the adult patients and 30% of the pediatric patients studied had a documented code-status. Age and severity of illness influenced the decision to document code-status. Demographics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and proximity of primary residence were also associated with the documentation of code-status. Conclusion Absence of a recorded code-status may result in unnecessary interventions. Code-status in paper charts may be difficult to access in cardiopulmonary arrest situations and may result in unnecessary and unwanted interventions and procedures. Documentation of Code-status in electronic records creates a readily available reference for care providers. PMID:25447035

  20. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  1. [Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Cardio-Pulmonary Arrest : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Kuribayashi, Sohei; Kawamura, Masataka; Nakano, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Matsushima, Asako; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    A 40-year-old woman withuntreated type II diabetes mellitus was discovered withcardiopulmonary arrest in her room. On admission, she had ventricular fibrillation. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her own pulse restarted. The plasma glucose was 722 mg/dl and venous PH was 6.704. Abdominal computed tomography revealed gas within the parenchyma of the left kidney. We diagnosed her with emphysematous pyelonephritis and conducted emergency nephrectomy. Urinary and blood cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. Antibiotic therapy was initiated with doripenem and she was restrictively treated with intravenous insulin to control her plasma glucose. On the 8th day of hospital stay, she underwent resection of the small intestine because of necrosis. After multidisciplinary therapy, she was discharged with complete resolution of the infection. PMID:27624108

  2. Separation of craniopagus Siamese twins using cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D E; Reitz, B A; Carson, B S; Long, D M; Dufresne, C R; Vander Kolk, C A; Maxwell, L G; Tilghman, D M; Nichols, D G; Wetzel, R C

    1989-11-01

    Occipitally joined craniopagus Siamese twins were separated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest. The 7-month-old infants shared a large sagittal venous sinus that precluded conventional neurosurgical approach because of risk of exsanguination and air embolism. After craniotomy and preliminary exposure of the sinus, each twin underwent sternotomy and total cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest allowed safe division and subsequent reconstruction of the sinus remnants. Several unusual problems were encountered, including transfusion of a large blood volume from one extracorporeal circuit to the other through the common venous sinus, deleterious warming of the exposed brain during circulatory arrest, and thrombosis of both pump oxygenators. Both infants survived, although recovery was complicated in each by neurologic injury, cranial wound infection, and hydrocephalus. This case demonstrates the valuable supportive role of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest in the management of complex surgical problems of otherwise inoperable patients. PMID:2682024

  3. Burn Resuscitation in the Austere Environment.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael; Jeng, James; Moghazy, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described. PMID:27600127

  4. Persistently Altered Brain Mitochondrial Bioenergetics After Apparently Successful Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kilbaugh, Todd J; Sutton, Robert M; Karlsson, Michael; Hansson, Magnus J; Naim, Maryam Y; Morgan, Ryan W; Bratinov, George; Lampe, Joshua W; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Becker, Lance B; Margulies, Susan S; Berg, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Background Although advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation have improved survival from cardiac arrest (CA), neurologic injury persists and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics may be critical for targeted neuroresuscitation. The authors sought to determine if excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postresuscitation care and good traditional survival rates result in persistently disordered cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics in a porcine pediatric model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation CA. Methods and Results After 7 minutes of asphyxia, followed by ventricular fibrillation, 5 female 1-month-old swine (4 sham) received blood pressure–targeted care: titration of compression depth to systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg and vasopressor administration to a coronary perfusion pressure >20 mm Hg. All animals received protocol-based vasopressor support after return of spontaneous circulation for 4 hours before they were killed. The primary outcome was integrated mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) function. CA animals displayed significantly decreased maximal, coupled oxidative phosphorylating respiration (OXPHOSCI+CII) in cortex (P<0.02) and hippocampus (P<0.02), as well as decreased phosphorylation and coupling efficiency (cortex, P<0.05; hippocampus, P<0.05). Complex I– and complex II–driven respiration were both significantly decreased after CA (cortex: OXPHOSCI P<0.01, ETSCII P<0.05; hippocampus: OXPHOSCI P<0.03, ETSCII P<0.01). In the hippocampus, there was a significant decrease in maximal uncoupled, nonphosphorylating respiration (ETSCI+CII), as well as a 30% reduction in citrate synthase activity (P<0.04). Conclusions Mitochondria in both the cortex and hippocampus displayed significant alterations in respiratory function after CA despite excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postresuscitation care in asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation CA. Analysis of integrated ETS function identifies mitochondrial

  5. Remote ischemic preconditioning improves post resuscitation cerebral function via overexpressing neuroglobin after cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ran; Yu, Tao; Lin, Jia-Li; Ren, Guang-Dong; Li, Yi; Liao, Xiao-Xing; Huang, Zi-Tong; Jiang, Chong-Hui

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on post resuscitation cerebral function in a rat model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. The animals were randomized into six groups: 1) sham operation, 2) lateral ventricle injection and sham operation, 3) cardiac arrest induced by ventricular fibrillation, 4) lateral ventricle injection and cardiac arrest, 5) remote ischemic preconditioning initiated 90min before induction of ventricular fibrillation, and 6) lateral ventricle injection and remote ischemic preconditioning before cardiac arrest. Reagent of Lateral ventricle injection is neuroglobin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides which initiated 24h before sham operation, cardiac arrest or remote ischemic preconditioning. Remote ischemic preconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5min of limb ischemia, followed by 5min of reperfusion. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by current and lasted for 6min. Defibrillation was attempted after 6min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The animals were then monitored for 2h and observed for an additionally maximum 70h. Post resuscitation cerebral function was evaluated by neurologic deficit score at 72h after return of spontaneous circulation. Results showed that remote ischemic preconditioning increased neurologic deficit scores. To investigate the neuroprotective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning, we observed neuronal injury at 48 and 72h after return of spontaneous circulation and found that remote ischemic preconditioning significantly decreased the occurrence of neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. To further comprehend mechanism of neuroprotection induced by remote ischemic preconditioning, we found expression of neuroglobin at 24h after return of spontaneous circulation was enhanced. Furthermore, administration of neuroglobin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides before induction of remote ischemic preconditioning showed that the level of neuroglobin was decreased then partly abrogated

  6. Challenging the 4- to 5-minute rule: from perimortem cesarean to resuscitative hysterotomy.

    PubMed

    Rose, Carl H; Faksh, Arij; Traynor, Kyle D; Cabrera, Daniel; Arendt, Katherine W; Brost, Brian C

    2015-11-01

    Although perimortem delivery has been recorded in the medical literature for millennia, the procedural intent has evolved to the current fetocentric approach, predicating timing of delivery following maternal cardiopulmonary arrest to optimize neonatal outcome. We suggest a call to action to reinforce the concept that if the uterus is palpable at or above the umbilicus, preparations for delivery should be made simultaneous with initiation of maternal resuscitative efforts; if maternal condition is not rapidly reversible, hysterotomy with delivery should be performed regardless of fetal viability or elapsed time since arrest. Cognizant of the difficulty in determining precise timing of arrest in clinical practice, if fetal status is already compromised further delay while attempting to assess fetal heart rate, locating optimal surgical equipment, or transporting to an operating room will result in unnecessary worsening of both maternal and fetal condition. Even if intrauterine demise has already occurred, maternal resuscitative efforts will typically be markedly improved following delivery with uterine decompression. Consequently we suggest that perimortem cesarean delivery be renamed "resuscitative hysterotomy" to reflect the mutual optimization of resuscitation efforts that would potentially provide earlier and more substantial benefit to both mother and baby. PMID:26212180

  7. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  8. Massive Air Embolism During Interventional Laser Therapy of the Liver: Successful Resuscitation Without Chest Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Roth, Ute; Empen, Klaus

    2002-08-15

    We report on a rare, acute, life-threatening complication during percutaneous thermal therapy for hepatic metastases. Massive cardiac air embolism occurred during a maneuver of deep inspiration after the dislodgement of an introducer sheath into a hepatic vein. The subsequent cardiac arrest was treated successfully by immediate transthoracic evacuation of the air by needle aspiration followed by electrical defibrillation. In procedures that may be complicated by gas embolism, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should not be initiated before considering the likelihood of air embolism, and eventually aspiration of the gas.

  9. Statins for post resuscitation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Silfvast, Tom; Tenhunen, Jyrki

    2009-07-01

    After sudden cardiac arrest, successful resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation, a multi-faceted ischaemia/reperfusion related disorder develops. This condition now known as post resuscitation syndrome is characterised by marked increases in the inflammatory response and changes in coagulation profile and vascular reactivity. Additionally, the production of reactive oxygen species and activation of cytotoxic cascades of metabolism add to these injury mechanisms resulting in multiorgan perfusion deficits and dysfunction. Especially in the cerebrum these injuries may be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has shown that statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) exert numerous beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases irrespective of the lipid status. Remarkably, these pleiotropic effects seem to extended beyond cardiovascular diseases such as immunomodulative and antioxidative properties. We hypothesised that administration of statins early in the post resuscitation phase would prove beneficial in the resuscitated patient via several pleiotropic effects. These include inhibition of excessive coagulation and inflammatory response, suppression of oxygen radical production and improved vascular reactivity. The discussed effects are mediated via multiple pathways activated in the cardiac arrest victim, to which statins have been shown to have a beneficial modulating effect in experimental settings and non-cardiac arrest patients. To test this hypothesis in clinical practice, a randomized, controlled trial with sufficient power and standardised post resuscitation treatment would be necessary. The generally good tolerance of statin therapy with minimal adverse effects would support this experiment, although a parenteral form of the drug to ensure adequate dosage might be a prerequisite. PMID:19254829

  10. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia.

    PubMed

    Menticoglou, Savas; Schneider, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  11. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  12. Neonatal Resuscitation in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Berkelhamer, Sara K; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D; Niermeyer, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Almost one quarter of newborn deaths are attributed to birth asphyxia. Systematic implementation of newborn resuscitation programs has the potential to avert many of these deaths as basic resuscitative measures alone can reduce neonatal mortality. Simplified resuscitation training provided through Helping Babies Breathe decreases early neonatal mortality and stillbirth. However, challenges remain in providing every newborn the needed care at birth. Barriers include ineffective educational systems and programming; inadequate equipment, personnel and data monitoring; and limited political and social support to improve care. Further progress calls for renewed commitments to closing gaps in the quality of newborn resuscitative care. PMID:27524455

  13. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  14. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P.; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  15. Exhaled CO2 Parameters as a Tool to Assess Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching during Neonatal Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott Shang-shun; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; LaBossiere, Joseph; Lee, Tze-Fun; Cowan, Shaun; Bigam, David L.; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), partial pressure of exhaled CO2 (PECO2), and volume of expired CO2 (VCO2) can be continuously monitored non-invasively to reflect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion status. Although ETCO2 ≥14mmHg has been shown to be associated with return of an adequate heart rate in neonatal resuscitation and quantifying the PECO2 has the potential to serve as an indicator of resuscitation quality, there is little information regarding capnometric measurement of PECO2 and ETCO2 in detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survivability in asphyxiated neonates receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Seventeen newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented, and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters including ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, heart rate, cardiac output, and carotid artery flow were continuously measured and analyzed. Results There were no differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between surviving and non-surviving piglets prior to CPR. Surviving piglets had significantly higher ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, cardiac index, and carotid artery flow values during CPR compared to non-surviving piglets. Conclusion Surviving piglets had significantly better respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during resuscitation compared to non-surviving piglets. In addition to optimizing resuscitation efforts, capnometry can assist by predicting outcomes of newborns requiring chest compressions. PMID:26766424

  16. FLUID RESUSCITATION: PAST, PRESENT, AND THE FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Santry, Heena P.; Alam, Hasan B.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhage remains a major cause of preventable death following both civilian and military trauma. The goals of resuscitation in the face of hemorrhagic shock are restoring end-organ perfusion and maintaining tissue oxygenation while attempting definitive control of bleeding. However, if not performed properly, resuscitation can actually exacerbate cellular injury caused by hemorrhagic shock, and the type of fluid used for resuscitation plays an important role in this injury pattern. This article reviews the historical development and scientific underpinnings of modern resuscitation techniques. We summarized data from a number of studies to illustrate the differential effects of commonly used resuscitation fluids, including isotonic crystalloids, natural and artificial colloids, hypertonic and hyperoncotic solutions, and artificial oxygen carriers, on cellular injury and how these relate to clinical practice. The data reveal that a uniformly safe, effective, and practical resuscitation fluid when blood products are unavailable and direct hemorrhage control is delayed has been elusive. Yet, it is logical to prevent this cellular injury through wiser resuscitation strategies than attempting immunomodulation after the damage has already occurred. Thus, we describe how some novel resuscitation strategies aimed at preventing or ameliorating cellular injury may become clinically available in the future. PMID:20160609

  17. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  18. Resuscitative thoracotomy in penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Lindsay M; Hsee, Li; Civil, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    The resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) is an important procedure in the management of penetrating trauma. As it is performed only in patients with peri-arrest physiology or overt cardiac arrest, survival is low. Experience is also quite variable depending on volume of penetrating trauma in a particular region. Survival ranges from 0% to as high as 89% depending on patient selection, available resources, and location of RT (operating or emergency rooms). In this article, published guidelines are reviewed as well as outcomes. Technical considerations of RT and well as proper training, personnel, and location are also discussed. PMID:25342073

  19. Liquid Ventilation for the Induction of Ultrafast Hypothermia in Resuscitation Sciences: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kohlhauer, Matthias; Berdeaux, Alain; Kerber, Richard E; Micheau, Philippe; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-06-01

    Liquid ventilation was initially proposed for lung lavage and respiratory support. More recently, it was also investigated as an experimental strategy for ultrafast cooling or organ preservation during ischemic disorders. The goal of this article is to identify and review the studies that investigated liquid ventilation in the field of resuscitation sciences. An exhaustive analysis of the literature was performed using the Medline database up to 15th September 2015. Articles were selected according to their relevance. All articles focusing on respiratory support were excluded. On the basis of 76 retrieved studies from the Medline database, 29 were included in this review. All studies were experimental reports and most of them investigated the cooling properties of liquid ventilation in animal models of experimental cardiac arrest or coronary artery occlusion in rabbits or pigs. Animal studies demonstrated a wide range of potential applications of total liquid ventilation in resuscitation sciences. This strategy is able to provide ultrafast cooling, independent of the body weight. In animal models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it was shown to provide potent benefits widely linked to cooling rapidity. PMID:26910322

  20. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  1. To resuscitate or not: a dilemma in terminal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hinkka, H; Kosunen, E; Metsänoja, R; Lammi, U K; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P

    2001-06-01

    One of the difficult dilemmas in terminal care is the decision on whether to start or withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Is this decision made on purely medical grounds, or is it also influenced by the physician's personal characteristics or education? The aim of this study was to look at factors affecting this decision. A questionnaire was sent out to a stratified sample of 1180 Finnish doctors. The response rate was 62%. The physicians were asked whether they would (a) start CPR or (b) withhold CPR in a scenario describing the unexpected death of a young terminal cancer patient. Data were also collected on demographics, post-graduate training, experience of terminal care, general life values and attitudes, and experiences of severe illness in the family. The proportion of surgeons, internists, GPs and oncologists who said they would have started CPR was 16, 10, 19 and 14%, respectively. Among physicians aged under 35 years, from 35 to 49 years and over 49 years, the proportions of physicians choosing active CPR were 29, 14 and 13%, respectively (P<0.001). As for those with personal experience of terminal care, 13% indicated they would have started CPR compared with 23% of those who had no experience (P<0.01). Those who made a decision in favour of CPR showed a significantly (P<0.001) more negative attitude to withdrawing life-sustaining treatment and valued length of life to a much greater extent (P<0.01). PMID:11719124

  2. Simulation analysis of three intubating supraglottic devices during infant chest compression.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Hanako; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Nishi, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation suggest that supraglottic devices are alternatives for tracheal intubation with minimal interruption of chest compression. We examined the utility of three intubating supraglottic devices, air-Q® (air-Q), Ambu® aura-i (aura-i), and i-gel® (i-gel), utilizing manikin simulation. Twenty-two novice physicians performed securing of airway on an infant manikin with the three devices. We measured the rate of success on ventilation and the insertion time with or without chest compression. Successful ventilation rate did not significantly decrease with chest compression in the three devices (without chest compression: air-Q, 21/22; aura-i, 20/22; i-gel, 20/22, during chest compression: air-Q, 20/22; aura-i, 20/22; i-gel, 18/22). The insertion time with air-Q and aura-i did not extend significantly for chest compression. In contrast, the insertion time with i-gel was significantly extended in chest compression (P < 0.05). Air-Q and aura-i are more useful for airway management during chest compression than i-gel. PMID:25711262

  3. Marked variation in newborn resuscitation practice: A national survey in the UK☆

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Chantelle; Ward, Carole; Grubb, Mark; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John; Marlow, Neil; Sharkey, Don

    2012-01-01

    Background Although international newborn resuscitation guidance has been in force for some time, there are no UK data on current newborn resuscitation practices. Objective Establish delivery room (DR) resuscitation practices in the UK, and identify any differences between neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and other local neonatal services. Methods We conducted a structured two-stage survey of DR management, among UK neonatal units during 2009–2010 (n = 192). Differences between NICU services (tertiary level) and other local neonatal services (non-tertiary) were analysed using Fisher's exact and Student's t-tests. Results There was an 89% response rate (n = 171). More tertiary NICUs institute DR CPAP than non-tertiary units (43% vs. 16%, P = 0.0001) though there was no significant difference in frequency of elective intubation and surfactant administration for preterm babies. More tertiary units commence DR resuscitation in air (62% vs. 29%, P < 0.0001) and fewer in 100% oxygen (11% vs. 41%, P < 0.0001). Resuscitation of preterm babies in particular, commences with air in 56% of tertiary units. Significantly more tertiary units use DR pulse oximeters (58% vs. 29%, P < 0.01) and titrate oxygen based on saturations. Almost all services use occlusive wrapping to maintain temperature for preterm infants. Conclusions In the UK, there are many areas of good evidence based DR practice. However, there is marked variation in management, including between units of different designation, suggesting a need to review practice to fulfil new resuscitation guidance, which will have training and resource implications. PMID:22245743

  4. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research. PMID:27229641

  5. Fluid Resuscitation in Sepsis: Reexamining the Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan, Bharath Kumar; Cove, Matthew Edward

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis results in widespread inflammatory responses altering homeostasis. Associated circulatory abnormalities (peripheral vasodilation, intravascular volume depletion, increased cellular metabolism, and myocardial depression) lead to an imbalance between oxygen delivery and demand, triggering end organ injury and failure. Fluid resuscitation is a key part of treatment, but there is little agreement on choice, amount, and end points for fluid resuscitation. Over the past few years, the safety of some fluid preparations has been questioned. Our paper highlights current concerns, reviews the science behind current practices, and aims to clarify some of the controversies surrounding fluid resuscitation in sepsis. PMID:25180196

  6. Video recording of emergency department trauma resuscitations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra M

    2003-01-01

    Although hospitals are faced with the challenges of appropriately informing the public regarding health care and protecting the privacy of patients, a comprehensive policy concerning videotaping of trauma resuscitations can be developed to comply with regulatory bodies. Video recording of trauma team resuscitations can be utilized as an effective quality improvement tool to evaluate trauma team performance, psychomotor skills and techniques, and to identify educational needs related to specific trauma populations. Video recording of Trauma resuscitations is an effective tool for improving trauma team performance by educating clinical staff regarding roles and responsibilities. PMID:16265920

  7. Electroencephalographic seizures during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Stockard, J.; Calanchini, P.; Bickford, R.; Billinger, T.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven cardiac operations are reported in which there was electroencephalographic and/or clinical evidence of seizure activity during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In four patients seizure activity appeared after acute episodes of cerebral ischaemia resulting from either hypotension or pump-generated emboli occurring at the beginning of CPB, or from air embolism occurring at the end of CPB when the myocardium was closed and defibrillated. In the remaining seven patients the seizures appeared to result from the synergistic action of a toxic substance in the perfusate with pre-existing or CPB-induced alterations in cerebral physiology. Images PMID:4819907

  8. Resuscitative strategies in traumatic hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Managing trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock is complex and difficult. Despite our knowledge of the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients that we have accumulated during recent decades, the mortality rate of these patients remains high. In the acute phase of hemorrhage, the therapeutic priority is to stop the bleeding as quickly as possible. As long as this bleeding is uncontrolled, the physician must maintain oxygen delivery to limit tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and organ dysfunction. This process involves fluid resuscitation, the use of vasopressors, and blood transfusion to prevent or correct acute coagulopathy of trauma. The optimal resuscitative strategy is controversial. To move forward, we need to establish optimal therapeutic approaches with clear objectives for fluid resuscitation, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels to guide resuscitation and limit the risk of fluid overload and transfusion. PMID:23311726

  9. Removal of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Artifacts with an Enhanced Adaptive Filtering Method: An Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yushun; Yu, Tao; Chen, Bihua; He, Mi; Li, Yongqin

    2014-01-01

    Current automated external defibrillators mandate interruptions of chest compression to avoid the effect of artifacts produced by CPR for reliable rhythm analyses. But even seconds of interruption of chest compression during CPR adversely affects the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival. Numerous digital signal processing techniques have been developed to remove the artifacts or interpret the corrupted ECG with promising result, but the performance is still inadequate, especially for nonshockable rhythms. In the present study, we suppressed the CPR artifacts with an enhanced adaptive filtering method. The performance of the method was evaluated by comparing the sensitivity and specificity for shockable rhythm detection before and after filtering the CPR corrupted ECG signals. The dataset comprised 283 segments of shockable and 280 segments of nonshockable ECG signals during CPR recorded from 22 adult pigs that experienced prolonged cardiac arrest. For the unfiltered signals, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 46.8%, respectively. After filtering, a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 96.0% were achieved. This animal trial demonstrated that the enhanced adaptive filtering method could significantly improve the detection of nonshockable rhythms without compromising the ability to detect a shockable rhythm during uninterrupted CPR. PMID:24795878

  10. Assessment of the use of the laryngeal tube for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Genzwuerker, H V; Finteis, T; Slabschi, D; Groeschel, J; Ellinger, K

    2001-12-01

    During 60 3-min CPR sequences, the face mask, laryngeal tube and tracheal tube were compared using an Ambu Megacode Trainer. Ten 3-min sequences each were performed for both a combination of the face mask and laryngeal tube with a bag-valve device (compression-ventilation ratio 5:1). With continuous chest compressions, ten 3-min CPR sequences each were performed for a combination of the laryngeal tube and tracheal tube with a bag-valve device and ten 3-min CPR sequences each for a combination of the laryngeal tube and tracheal tube with an automatic transport ventilator. Signs of gastric inflation occurred only with the face mask. Ventilation with the laryngeal tube was significantly better than with the face mask and comparable to the tracheal tube during ventilation with the bag-valve device and with the automatic transport ventilator. Chest compressions caused a significant decrease in tidal volumes during ventilation with the automatic transport ventilator. The findings of this study support the idea of the laryngeal tube as a new adjunct for emergency airway management, but will have to be verified during clinical practice. PMID:11738781

  11. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  12. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Colm P F; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Carlin, John B; Morley, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    Objective Use of video recordings of newborn infants to determine: (1) if clinicians agreed whether infants were pink; and (2) the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (Spo2) at which infants first looked pink. Methods Selected clips from video recordings of infants taken immediately after delivery were shown to medical and nursing staff. The infants received varying degrees of resuscitation (including none) and were monitored with pulse oximetry. The oximeter readings were obscured to observers but known to the investigators. A timer was visible and the sound was inaudible. The observers were asked to indicate whether each infant was pink at the beginning, became pink during the clip, or was never pink. If adjudged to turn pink during the clip, observers recorded the time this occurred and the corresponding Spo2 was determined. Results 27 clinicians assessed videos of 20 infants (mean (SD) gestation 31(4) weeks). One infant (5%) was perceived to be pink by all observers. The number of clinicians who thought each of the remaining 19 infants were never pink varied from 1 (4%) to 22 (81%). Observers determined the 10 infants with a maximum Spo2 ⩾95% never pink on 17% (46/270) of occasions. The Spo2 at which individual infants were perceived to turn pink varied from 10% to 100%. Conclusion Among clinicians observing the same videos there was disagreement about whether newborn infants looked pink with wide variation in the Spo2 when they were considered to become pink. PMID:17613535

  17. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  18. Trauma systems, shock, and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Fallon, W F

    1993-01-01

    This review of early care covers issues pertaining to the analysis of system function, prehospital intravascular volume replacement, diagnosis of proximity vascular injury, the role of emergency thoracotomy, and the value of transesophageal echocardiography. The first six articles deal with various aspects of system function, from triage to analysis of outcome. The next series of articles reviews work in progress evaluating optimal fluid for resuscitation. Hypertonic saline and dextran combinations have been shown to restore vital signs better than isotonic solutions; they are safe, require smaller volumes, and may improve head injury outcome. Danger lies in the restoration of perfusion without hemorrhage control. Two articles on emergency thoracotomy review the indications and outcome in blunt and penetrating trauma. Survival in blunt trauma is virtually zero. An article and two editorials summarize state of the art for diagnosis and treatment of proximity vascular injury. Two articles describe the potential use of the new technique of transesophageal echocardiography. This new modality has not formed a solid indication at present and can be considered investigational in trauma care. PMID:7584006

  19. 'Scoop and run' strategy for a resuscitative sternotomy following unstable penetrating chest injury.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Guillermo Parra; Peng, Edward W K; Marks, Richard; Sarkar, Pradip K

    2010-03-01

    The optimal management strategy of an unstable penetrating thoracic trauma remains a debate. It is unclear whether a 'stay and treat' or 'scoop and run' to the nearest operating theatre with cardiothoracic expertise is the best strategy. We describe a successful outcome of a young patient with injuries to the left internal mammary artery, upper lobe and main pulmonary artery following a stab injury to his left chest. He was transferred to the nearest cardiac centre for emergency sternotomy. Thoracotomy is the classical surgical approach in emergency setting but sternotomy allows adequate exposure to repair any cardiac injury, institution of cardiopulmonary bypass, and careful inspection of the mediastinal structures to prevent any late complications including pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm. An immediate transfer, where possible, to the nearest trauma centre with cardiothoracic expertise for 'resuscitative' sternotomy is advocated in penetrating thoracic injury for optimal outcome. An emergency room thoracotomy should be reserved to those in the extremis. PMID:20026489

  20. Intensify, resuscitate or palliate: decision making in the critically ill patient with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Quentin A

    2010-01-01

    The survival prospects of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy (HM) are reviewed, as are the variables which might influence decisions about the limitation of life sustaining therapies (LLST). Approximately 40% of patients with HM admitted to ICU survive to hospital discharge and a broad admission policy is warranted. Short term survival is predicted by the severity of the underlying physiological disturbance rather than cancer specific characteristics, although the prognostic importance of neutropenia and prior stem cell transplantation remains to be clarified. Survival to hospital discharge in cancer patients following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is only 6-8%. Poor performance status and progressive deterioration despite ICU support appear to predict worse outcome. Patients should be provided with realistic information in order to make an informed decision about CPR. Decisions about LLST must be individualised. Consideration should be given to the patient's wishes and prognosis, the immediate clinical circumstances and their potential reversibility. PMID:19913962

  1. Initiation of Resuscitation with High Tidal Volumes Causes Cerebral Hemodynamic Disturbance, Brain Inflammation and Injury in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Polglase, Graeme R.; Miller, Suzanne L.; Barton, Samantha K.; Baburamani, Ana A.; Wong, Flora Y.; Aridas, James D. S.; Gill, Andrew W.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Tolcos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Aims Preterm infants can be inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room, causing lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about their effects on the brain. The aim of this study was to compare an initial 15 min of high VT resuscitation strategy to a less injurious resuscitation strategy on cerebral haemodynamics, inflammation and injury. Methods Preterm lambs at 126 d gestation were surgically instrumented prior to receiving resuscitation with either: 1) High VT targeting 10–12 mL/kg for the first 15 min (n = 6) or 2) a protective resuscitation strategy (Prot VT), consisting of prophylactic surfactant, a 20 s sustained inflation and a lower initial VT (7 mL/kg; n = 6). Both groups were subsequently ventilated with a VT 7 mL/kg. Blood gases, arterial pressures and carotid blood flows were recorded. Cerebral blood volume and oxygenation were assessed using near infrared spectroscopy. The brain was collected for biochemical and histologic assessment of inflammation, injury, vascular extravasation, hemorrhage and oxidative injury. Unventilated controls (UVC; n = 6) were used for comparison. Results High VT lambs had worse oxygenation and required greater ventilatory support than Prot VT lambs. High VT resulted in cerebral haemodynamic instability during the initial 15 min, adverse cerebral tissue oxygenation index and cerebral vasoparalysis. While both resuscitation strategies increased lung and brain inflammation and oxidative stress, High VT resuscitation significantly amplified the effect (p = 0.014 and p<0.001). Vascular extravasation was evident in the brains of 60% of High VT lambs, but not in UVC or Prot VT lambs. Conclusion High VT resulted in greater cerebral haemodynamic instability, increased brain inflammation, oxidative stress and vascular extravasation than a Prot VT strategy. The initiation of resuscitation targeting Prot VT may reduce the severity of brain injury in preterm neonates. PMID:22761816

  2. MRI Catheterization in Cardiopulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognostication in patients with complex cardiopulmonary disease can be a clinical challenge. A new procedure, MRI catheterization, involves invasive right-sided heart catheterization performed inside the MRI scanner using MRI instead of traditional radiographic fluoroscopic guidance. MRI catheterization combines simultaneous invasive hemodynamic and MRI functional assessment in a single radiation-free procedure. By combining both modalities, the many individual limitations of invasive catheterization and noninvasive imaging can be overcome, and additional clinical questions can be addressed. Today, MRI catheterization is a clinical reality in specialist centers in the United States and Europe. Advances in medical device design for the MRI environment will enable not only diagnostic but also interventional MRI procedures to be performed within the next few years. PMID:24394821

  3. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  4. Regional blood flow redistribution in preterm piglets with hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dyess, D L; Powell, R W; Roberts, W S; Tacchi, E J; Swafford, A N; Ferrara, J J; Ardell, J L

    1995-07-01

    Acute hemorrhage in premature infants occurs as the result of obstetrical complications, birth trauma, or operative procedures. This study evaluates the response of the preterm piglet to acute hemorrhage and resuscitation. Piglets delivered by Caesarean section 7-14 days preterm underwent acute arterial/venous hemorrhage (20 cc/kg). At 0, 15, and 60 min after hemorrhage, hemodynamic parameters and regional blood flows (reference organ technique) were measured. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood (20 cc/kg), crystalloid (60 cc/kg), or colloid (dextran 40, 20 cc/kg) with study parameters obtained 30 min later (statistical analysis by ANOVA). Significant decreases in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) occurred after hemorrhage. BP and CO were reestablished to near control levels following resuscitation with blood and crystalloid. Dextran failed to return BP to baseline; however, it resulted in CO 1.7 x control. Heart and CNS blood flow were not significantly influenced by hemorrhage; however, dextran increased flows to these organs significantly above control levels. In the kidney and small bowel, flows decreased significantly following hemorrhage; blood and crystalloid restored flows to near baseline, while dextran resulted in flows significantly greater. In summary, the preterm piglet responds to hemorrhage with maintenance of blood flow to the heart and brain and significantly decreased flows to the kidney and small intestine. Flows following resuscitation with blood and crystalloid are comparable to those in control. Dextran resuscitation resulted in flows significantly greater than baseline; this response might be detrimental with ongoing hemorrhage and/or prolonged ischemia. PMID:7630133

  5. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  6. The Cardiocerebral Resuscitation protocol for treatment of out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health problem in most westernized industrialized nations. In spite of national and international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care, the overall survival of patients with OHCA was essentially unchanged for 30 years--from 1978 to 2008 at 7.6%. Perhaps a better indicator of Emergency Medical System (EMS) effectiveness in treating patients with OHCA is to focus on the subgroup that has a reasonable chance of survival, e.g., patients found to be in ventricular fibrillation (VF). But even in this subgroup, the average survival rate was 17.7% in the United States, unchanged between 1980 and 2003, and 21% in Europe, unchanged between 1980 and 2004. Prior to 2003, the survival of patients with OHCA, in VF in Tucson, Arizona was less than 9% in spite of incorporating previous guideline recommendations. An alternative (non-guidelines) approach to the therapy of patients with OHCA and a shockable rhythm, called Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, based on our extensive physiologic laboratory studies, was introduced in Tucson in 2003, in rural Wisconsin in 2004, and in selected EMS areas in the metropolitan Phoenix area in 2005. Survival of patients with OHCA due to VF treated with Cardiocerebral Resuscitation in rural Wisconsin increased to 38% and in 60 EMS systems in Arizona to 39%. In 2004, we began a statewide program to advocate chest compression-only CPR for bystanders of witnessed primary OHCA. Over the next five years, we found that survival of patients with a shockable rhythm was 17.7% in those treated with standard bystander CPR (mouth-to-mouth ventilations plus chest compression) compared to 33.7% for those who received bystander chest-compression-only CPR. This article on Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, by invitation following a presentation at the 2011 Danish Society Emergency Medical Conference, summarizes the results of therapy of patients with primary OHCA treated with

  7. Do Not Resuscitate, Anesthesia, and Perioperative Care: A Not So Clear Order

    PubMed Central

    Sumrall, William D.; Mahanna, Elizabeth; Sabharwal, Vivek; Marshall, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advance directives guide healthcare providers to listen to and respect patients' wishes regarding their right to die in circumstances when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required, and hospitals accredited by The Joint Commission are required to have a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) policy in place. However, when surgery and anesthesia are necessary for the care of the patient with a DNR order, this advance directive can create ethical dilemmas specifically involving patient autonomy and the physician's responsibility to do no harm. Methods: This paper discusses the ethical considerations regarding perioperative DNR orders and provides guidance on how to handle situations that may arise in the conduct of perioperative care. Results: Because of the potential conflicts between ethical care and the restrictions of DNR orders, it is critically important to discuss the medical and ethical issues surrounding this clinical scenario with the patient or surrogate prior to any surgical intervention. However, many anesthesiologists do not adequately address this ethical dilemma prior to the procedure. Conclusion: Practitioners are advised to first consider what is best for the patient and, when in doubt, to communicate with patients or surrogates and with colleagues to arrive at the most appropriate care plan. If irreconcilable conflicts arise, consultation with the institution's bioethics committee, if available, is beneficial to help reach a resolution. PMID:27303230

  8. Out-of-Hospital Perimortem Cesarean Section as Resuscitative Hysterotomy in Maternal Posttraumatic Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Francesca; Zerbi, Simone Maria; Colombo, Dario; Landriscina, Mario; Kette, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The optimal treatment of a severe hemodynamic instability from shock to cardiac arrest in late term pregnant women is subject to ongoing studies. However, there is an increasing evidence that early “separation” between the mother and the foetus may increase the restoration of the hemodynamic status and, in the cardiac arrest setting, it may raise the likelihood of a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the mother. This treatment, called Perimortem Cesarean Section (PMCS), is now termed as Resuscitative Hysterotomy (RH) to better address the issue of an early Cesarean section (C-section). This strategy is in contrast with the traditional treatment of cardiac arrest characterized by the maintenance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) maneuvers without any emergent surgical intervention. We report the case of a prehospital perimortem delivery by Caesarean (C) section of a foetus at 36 weeks of gestation after the mother's traumatic cardiac arrest. Despite the negative outcome of the mother, the choice of performing a RH seems to represent up to date the most appropriate intervention to improve the outcome in both mother and foetus. PMID:25530891

  9. Therapeutic effects of various methods of MSC transplantation on cerebral resuscitation following cardiac arrest in rats

    PubMed Central

    LEONG, KA-HONG; ZHOU, LI-LI; LIN, QING-MING; WANG, PENG; YAO, LAN; HUANG, ZI-TONG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted into the brain of rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by three different methods: Direct stereotaxic injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV), intra-carotid administration (A), and femoral venous infusion (V). The three different methods were compared by observing the effects of MSCs on neurological function following global cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, in order to determine the optimum method for MSC transplantation. MSCs were transplanted in groups A, V and LV following the restoration of spontaneous circulation. Neurological deficit scale scores were higher in the transplantation groups, as compared with the control group. Neuronal damage, brain water content and serum levels of S100 calcium-binding protein B were reduced in the hippo-campus and temporal cortex of the transplantation groups, as compared with the control rats following resuscitation. MSCs were able to migrate inside the brain tissue following transplantation, and were predominantly distributed in the hippocampus and temporal cortex where the neurons were vulnerable during global cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that transplantation of MSCs may notably improve neurological function following CPR in a rat model. Of the three different methods of MSC transplantation tested in the present study, LV induced the highest concentration of MSCs in brain areas vulnerable to global cerebral ischemia, and therefore, produced the best neurological outcome. PMID:26935023

  10. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4–6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions. PMID:26543849

  11. Cavopulmonary anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass†

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Ezzeldin A.; El Midany, Ashraf A.H.; Zalat, Mahmoud M.; Helmy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is an increasing trend to perform the bidirectional superior cavopulmonary (Glenn) anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass. In this report, we present our results of off-pump bidirectional Glenn operation done without using a venoatrial shunt to decompress the randomized comparative study was superior vena cava during clamping. METHODS A prospective, non-randomized comparative study was conducted in 50 patients with functional single ventricle anomalies who underwent bidirectional Glenn anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 25), where it was done without a veno-atrial shunt, and Group II (n = 25), where it was done with a veno-atrial shunt. Two patients in Group I and 4 patients in Group II had a bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt. Five patients in Group I and three patients in Group II had a previous left modified Blalock–Taussig shunt. All patients underwent a complete neurological examination both preoperatively as well as postoperatively. RESULTS The early hospital mortality was 4% (2/50), one in each group. The median follow-up was 14 months. The mean internal venous pressure on clamping the superior vena cava was 37.07 ± 7.12 mmHg in Group I and 24 ± 4.4 mmHg in Group II. The mean clamp time was 9.85 ± 3.52 min in Group I and 21.3 ± 4.4 min in Group II. The transcranial pressure gradient was 62.37 ± 15.01 mmHg in Group I, while 65.08 ± 13.89 in Group II. The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.57 ± 75 days in Group I, 3.3 ± 1.09 in Group II. There were no major neurological complications apart from treatable convulsions in one case in Group I (4%), 2 cases in Group II (8%), and delayed recovery in one case (4%) in Group I. CONCLUSIONS Off-pump bidirectional Glenn operation without caval decompression is a safe, simple and more economic procedure. PMID:23335651

  12. Cardiopulmonary loading in motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2007-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine physiological responses during motocross riding. Nine Finnish A-level motocross riders performed a 15-min ride at a motocross track and a test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the laboratory. Cardiopulmonary strain was measured continuously during the ride as well as in the VO2max test. During the ride, mean VO2 was 32 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (s = 4), which was 71% (s = 12) of maximum, while ventilation (V(E)) was 73% (s = 15) of its maximum. The relative VO2 and V(E) values during the riding correlated with successful riding performance (r = 0.80, P < 0.01 and r = 0.79, P < 0.01, respectively). Mean heart rate was maintained at 95% (s = 7) of its maximum. Mean blood lactate concentration was 5.0 mmol x l(-1) (s = 2.0) after the ride. A reduction of 16% (P < 0.001) in maximal isometric handgrip force was observed. In conclusion, motocross causes riders great physical stress. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for the isometric and dynamic muscle actions experienced during a ride. PMID:17497401

  13. Chest compressions in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta type II: No new rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R D; Steinberg, M A

    2000-11-01

    The case report of a newborn female with osteogenesis imperfecta type II who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with manual chest compressions for several minutes is presented. Chest radiographs taken before and after the chest compressions were administered were reviewed by several radiologists from 3 different hospitals and demonstrated no new radiographically visible rib fractures. Collagen analysis, the patient's clinical appearance, and clinical course, as well as a consultant's opinion aided in confirmation of the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type II. A review of 4 previous studies concerning rib fractures and CPR is included. This unique case supports previous articles that have concluded that rib fractures rarely, if ever, result from CPR in pediatrics, even in children with a lethal underlying bone disease, such as osteogenesis imperfecta type II. cardiopulmonary resuscitation, chest compressions, osteogenesis imperfecta, rib fractures, bone disease. PMID:11061808

  14. Successful Management of a Patient with Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) due to Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and Lung Injury by Transition from Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support (PCPS) to Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO).

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Isoda, Kikuo; Gatate, Yodo; Akita, Koji; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cardiopulmonary arrest. Percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support (PCPS) using the right femoral artery and vein was initiated, because ventricular fibrillation continued. Although we succeeded in defibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a chest radiograph indicated a pneumothorax in the right lung and a pulmonic contusion in the left lung caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Two days after PCI, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) from the right radial artery suddenly decreased, and his cardiac function showed improvement on an echocardiogram. To avoid additional brain damage, we converted the treatment to veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by changing the blood returning site of PCPS from the right femoral artery to the right jugular vein. Thereafter, the patient's PaO2 level gradually improved. PMID:27432096

  15. Resuscitation training for emergency nurses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charmaine

    2015-03-01

    Equipment and training for nurses in Africa are scarce but, as this article explains, if aid were targeted at local suppliers of cheap but vital equipment, such as resuscitation manikins, nursing practice would be enhanced and patient outcomes may improve. PMID:25746887

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Emergency Resuscitative Thoracotomy versus Closed Chest Compressions among Patients with Critical Blunt Trauma: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kodai; Inoue, Shigeaki; Morita, Seiji; Watanabe, Nobuo; Shintani, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Ogura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although emergency resuscitative thoracotomy is performed as a salvage maneuver for critical blunt trauma patients, evidence supporting superior effectiveness of emergency resuscitative thoracotomy compared to conventional closed-chest compressions remains insufficient. The objective of this study was to investigate whether emergency resuscitative thoracotomy at the emergency department or in the operating room was associated with favourable outcomes after blunt trauma and to compare its effectiveness with that of closed-chest compressions. Methods This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study. Data were obtained from the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period between 2004 and 2012. The primary and secondary outcomes were patient survival rates 24 h and 28 d after emergency department arrival. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable generalized mixed-effects regression analysis. We adjusted for the effects of different hospitals by introducing random intercepts in regression analysis to account for the differential quality of emergency resuscitative thoracotomy at hospitals where patients in cardiac arrest were treated. Sensitivity analyses were performed using propensity score matching. Results In total, 1,377 consecutive, critical blunt trauma patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department or operating room were included in the study. Of these patients, 484 (35.1%) underwent emergency resuscitative thoracotomy and 893 (64.9%) received closed-chest compressions. Compared to closed-chest compressions, emergency resuscitative thoracotomy was associated with lower survival rate 24 h after emergency department arrival (4.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively, P < 0.001) and 28 d after arrival (1.2% vs. 6.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariable generalized mixed-effects regression analysis with and without a propensity score-matched dataset revealed that the odds ratio for an unfavorable survival rate after 24 h

  17. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shari L.; Bhandari, Rohit K.; Kumar, Sunil D.

    2016-01-01

    The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA) is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p = 0.05), with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, resp.). Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p = 0.04). Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p = 0.03). Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all. PMID:27379186

  18. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  19. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  1. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  2. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  3. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  4. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  5. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  11. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  12. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  13. Small intestine perforation due to accidental press-through package ingestion in an elderly patient with Lewy body dementia and recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Tsuyoshi; Tokumaru, Aya M; Harada, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    An octogenarian with Lewy body dementia presented to our hospital in cardiac arrest and was successfully resuscitated. Although he had abdominal pain the previous day, small bowel wall oedema and ascites were the only abnormalities noted on abdominal CT. Despite treatment with catecholamines and antimicrobials, he died of recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest later the same day. An autopsy showed that the patient's death was the result of a small bowel perforation caused by accidental ingestion of a press-through package (PTP). Precautions regarding PTP use and improved packaging design are necessary to prevent PTP ingestion, especially in elderly patients with dementia. PMID:26678691

  14. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  15. A case of cardiopulmonary arrest caused by laxatives-induced hypermagnesemia in a patient with anorexia nervosa and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Masuda, Yoshiki; Imaizumi, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Kyan, Ryoko; Goto, Kyoko; Asai, Yasufumi

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of laxatives induced severe hypermagnesemia complicated with cardiopulmonary arrest. A 55-year-old woman, with nephritic syndrome and anorexia nervosa, was later transported to our emergency room (ER) because of oliguria and consciousness disturbance. During transfer to the intensive care unit from the ER, cardiopulmonary arrest suddenly occurred. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately performed, and spontaneous circulation was restored after 3 min. Thereafter, administration of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine was required to maintain systolic blood pressure at 80 mmHg. Arterial blood gas analysis showed severe metabolic alkalosis, and blood biochemical tests revealed hypermagnesemia (serum magnesium concentration, 18.5 mg/dl) and renal dysfunction. Continuous infusion of diuretics followed by massive hydration and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was started. Five days after starting CHDF, magnesium concentration was almost normalized and administration of catecholamine was stopped. It was thought that progression of renal dysfunction that occurred in the patient taking a magnesium product for chronic constipation caused reduction in magnesium excretion ability, resulting in hypermagnesemia-induced cardiopulmonary arrest. To avoid a rebound phenomenon following magnesium flux from cells, continuous blood purification seems to be an effective treatment for symptomatic hypermagnesemia. PMID:21904782

  16. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P < 0.001). In Group 1, two infants had junctional ectopic tachycardia, and another had a pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  17. Advances in fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Lorraine N.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.

    2001-01-01

    The optimal fluid for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock would combine the volume expansion and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood without the need for cross-matching or the risk of disease transmission. Although the ideal fluid has yet to be discovered, current options are discussed in this review, including crystalloids, colloids, blood and blood substitutes. The future role of blood substitutes is not yet defined, but the potential advantages in trauma or elective surgery may prove to be enormous. PMID:11407826

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  19. The Sunflower Cardiopulmonary Research Project of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Leon

    A three year project designed to determine the value of a health program incorporating a cardiopulmonary fitness program is described. The instructional programs were in heart health, pulmonary health, nutrition, and physical fitness. A noncompetitive exercise and fitness period was employed in addition to the normal physical education time.…

  20. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  1. Review article: Updated resuscitation guidelines for 2016: A summary of the Australian and New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leman, Peter; Morley, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This review paper summarises the key changes made to the resuscitation guidelines used in Australia and New Zealand. They were released by the Australian and New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation in January 2016. These are local adaptations of the evidence previously published in October 2015 by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). They are presented across the main working groups in ILCOR: ALS, BLS, paediatrics, neonates, acute coronary syndromes, first aid and 'Education, Implementation and Teams'. PMID:27357213

  2. Prolonged cardiac arrest and resuscitation by extracorporeal life support: favourable outcome without preceding anticoagulation in an experimental setting.

    PubMed

    Foerster, K; D'Inka, M; Beyersdorf, F; Benk, C; Nguyen-Thanh, T; Mader, I; Fritsch, B; Ihling, C; Mueller, K; Heilmann, C; Trummer, G

    2013-11-01

    State-of-the-art cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) restores circulation with inconsistent blood-flow and pressure. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) following CPR opens the opportunity for "controlled reperfusion". In animal experiments investigating CPR with ECLS, systemic anticoagulation before induced cardiac arrest is normal, but a major point of dispute, since preliminary heparinization in patients undergoing unwitnessed cardiac arrest is impossible. In this study, we investigated options for ECLS after an experimental 15 minutes normothermic cardiac arrest, without preceding anticoagulation, in pigs. Neurological recovery was assessed by a scoring system, electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, brain histology was performed on day seven after cardiac arrest. We demonstrated that preliminary heparin administration was not necessary for survival or neurological recovery in this setting. Heparin flushing of the cannulae seemed sufficient to avoid thrombus formation. These findings may ease the way to using ECLS in patients with sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:23827862

  3. Approach to Infants Born at 22 to 24 Weeks’ Gestation: Relationship to Outcomes of More-Mature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Li, Lei; Cotten, C. Michael; Laughon, Matthew; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Goldberg, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if a center’s approach to care of premature infants at the youngest gestational ages (22–24 weeks’ gestation) is associated with clinical outcomes among infants of older gestational ages (25–27 weeks’ gestation). METHODS: Inborn infants of 401 to 1000 g birth weight and 22 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks’ gestation at birth from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled into a prospectively collected database at 20 centers participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Markers of an aggressive approach to care for 22- to 24-week infants included use of antenatal corticosteroids, cesarean delivery, and resuscitation. The primary outcome was death before postnatal day 120 for infants of 25 to 27 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were the combined outcomes of death or a number of morbidities associated with prematurity. RESULTS: Our study included 3631 infants 22 to 24 weeks’ gestation and 5227 infants 25 to 27 weeks’ gestation. Among the 22- to 24-week infants, use of antenatal corticosteroids ranged from 28% to 100%, cesarean delivery from 13% to 65%, and resuscitation from 30% to 100% by center. Centers with higher rates of antenatal corticosteroid use in 22- to 24-week infants had reduced rates of death, death or retinopathy of prematurity, death or late-onset sepsis, death or necrotizing enterocolitis, and death or neurodevelopmental impairment in 25- to 27-week infants. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that physicians’ willingness to provide care to extremely low gestation infants as measured by frequency of use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improved outcomes for more-mature infants. PMID:22641761

  4. Infant Colic.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how to respond best to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine." PMID:27017027

  5. Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Carla; Normand, Domitille; Jabre, Patricia; Azoulay, Elie; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Lapostolle, Frederic; Baubet, Thierry; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Javaud, Nicolas; Borron, Stephen W.; Vicaut, Eric; Adnet, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background The themes of qualitative assessments that characterize the experience of family members offered the choice of observing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a loved one have not been formally identified. Methods and Findings In the context of a multicenter randomized clinical trial offering family members the choice of observing CPR of a patient with sudden cardiac arrest, a qualitative analysis, with a sequential explanatory design, was conducted. The aim of the study was to understand family members’ experience during CPR. All participants were interviewed by phone at home three months after cardiac arrest. Saturation was reached after analysis of 30 interviews of a randomly selected sample of 75 family members included in the trial. Four themes were identified: 1- choosing to be actively involved in the resuscitation; 2- communication between the relative and the emergency care team; 3- perception of the reality of the death, promoting acceptance of the loss; 4- experience and reactions of the relatives who did or did not witness the CPR, describing their feelings. Twelve sub-themes further defining these four themes were identified. Transferability of our findings should take into account the country-specific medical system. Conclusions Family presence can help to ameliorate the pain of the death, through the feeling of having helped to support the patient during the passage from life to death and of having participated in this important moment. Our results showed the central role of communication between the family and the emergency care team in facilitating the acceptance of the reality of death. PMID:27253993

  6. Challenges and possibilities in forward resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Timothy James; De Pasquale, Marc; Strandenes, Geir; Sunde, Geir; Ward, Kevin R

    2014-05-01

    The environmental and logistical constraints of the prehospital setting make it a challenging place for the treatment of trauma patients. This is perhaps more pronounced in the management of battlefield casualties before extraction to definitive care. In seeking solutions, interest has been renewed in implementing damage control resuscitation principles in the prehospital setting, a concept termed remote damage control resuscitation. These developments, while improving conflict survival rates, are not exclusive to the military environment, with similar situations existing in the civilian setting. By understanding the pathophysiology of shock, particularly the need for oxygen debt repayment, improvements in the assessment and management of trauma patients can be made. Technology gaps have previously hampered our ability to accurately monitor the prehospital trauma patient in real time. However, this is changing, with devices such as tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation monitors and point-of-care lactate analysis currently being refined. Other monitoring modalities including newer signal analysis and artificial intelligence techniques are also in development. Advances in hemostatic resuscitation are being made as our understanding and ability to effectively monitor patients improve. The reevaluation of whole-blood use in the prehospital environment is yielding favorable results and challenging the negative dogma currently associated with its use. Management of trauma-related airway and respiratory compromise is evolving, with scope to improve on currently accepted practices. The purpose of this review is to highlight the challenges of treating patients in the prehospital setting and suggest potential solutions. In doing so, we hope to maintain the enthusiasm from people in the field and highlight areas for prehospital specific research and development, so that improved rates of casualty survival will continue. PMID:24296432

  7. Fluid resuscitation strategies in the Israeli army.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Michael M

    2003-05-01

    Medical training in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is currently based on the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support course of the American College of Surgeons termed Military Trauma Life Support. The Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines provide a systematic standardized approach to the treatment of trauma casualties that has been very successful in civilian trauma. On the battlefield, however, these guidelines have been modified according to the combat environment. The factors that influence these changes are tactical considerations, availability and level of training of medical personal, direct enemy fire, medical equipment limitations, means of transportation of casualties, and the variable transportation time from the front line to the first medical echelon. The basic strategy of the IDF is to bring the military physician or paramedic and airlifted surgical units as close as possible to the front line, to minimize evacuation time. Also, evacuation helicopters that land in the combat zone close to the front line, sometimes under direct fire, usually have a military physician on board. The dilemma of "scoop and run" or "stay and stabilize" in hemorrhagic shock has been solved in the IDF toward early rapid evacuation of casualties to a surgical unit. Immediately after airway and breathing have been secured, if evacuation time is less than 1 hour, the intravenous line and fluid resuscitation is started en route to the medical facility. When evacuation time is longer than 1 hour, an intravenous line is always started before evacuation. In controlled hemorrhagic shock, where the source of bleeding has been controlled and evacuation time is less than 1 hour, fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline is started, to achieve normalization of hemodynamic parameters. When evacuation time exceeds 60 minutes, colloids such as Hemaccel or hydroxyethyl starch are added. In uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, where internal bleeding has

  8. Resuscitative challenges in nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ben Abraham, Ron; Weinbroum, Avi A

    2003-09-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction such as nerve agents has become real since last year. The medical community has established protocols for the rapid evacuation and decontamination of affected civilians. However, protocols for resuscitative measures or acute perioperative care in cases of life-saving surgical interventions in toxic-traumatized casualties are still lacking. The database concerning the effects of nerve agent poisoning in humans is limited, and is largely based on reports of unintentional exposures to pesticide organophosphate poisoning and similar chemical substances. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on the possible pharmacological interactions between nerve agents and acute care. PMID:12972890

  9. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy induced by emotional stress leading to severe mitral regurgitation, cardiogenic shock and cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Ali Reza; Ansarin, Khalil; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Azhough, Ramin; Faraji, Smaeil; Bozorgi, Farshid

    2009-07-10

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) which is usually precipitated by profound emotional and physical stress has been widely reported in the past. In this case we report a young female patient who developed sudden dyspnea and palpitation after an profound stress (fierce argument).The patient had characteristic feature of progressive pulmonary edema. Her symptom worsened gradually leading to cardiopulmonary arrest in a few hours from the onset. After resuscitation an immediately performed echocardiography showed a severe mitral regurgitation due to rupture of antromedial papillary muscle. Left ventricular function showed akinetic mid-to-distal portion of the left ventricular chamber and hyperkinetic in basal segment. Inotrop infusion and aortic balloon pump placement was done because of unstable homodynamics. Semi-elective surgical valve replacement was performed. One year after the acute event the patient remained asymptomatic. Clinicians should recognize that Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy is one etiology of acute pulmonary edema with normal coronary artery finding. PMID:18657330

  10. A retrospective study evaluating response time and survival from a cardiopulmonary arrest: a creative inquiry project with undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, John J; Seawright, Jenna; Wadsworth, Rachel; Flehan, Allison; Duncan, Emily; Easler, Anna Grace; Echols, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest is a major health problem that claims lives daily in the United States. The adoption of a new standard of care or healthcare technology needs to be evaluated based on patient outcomes. This review focuses on this problem and possible solutions. This retrospective study reviews clinical characteristics of cardiac resuscitative events associated with "code blue" team response. Team-based investigations are led by a faculty mentor and typically span 2 to 4 semesters. Students take ownership of their projects and take the risks necessary to solve problems and get answers. This review indicates areas of concern that need to be improved to create better patient outcomes. Findings include that improved documentation will provide data elements for review analysis that then may be utilized to improve care related to cardiac arrest. PMID:23222232

  11. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

  12. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

  13. Fluid distribution kinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Törnudd, Mattias; Hahn, Robert G.; Zdolsek, Joachim H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the isovolumetric distribution kinetics of crystalloid fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting participated in this prospective observational study. The blood hemoglobin and the serum albumin and sodium concentrations were measured repeatedly during the distribution of priming solution (Ringer's acetate 1470 ml and mannitol 15% 200 ml) and initial cardioplegia. The rate of crystalloid fluid distribution was calculated based on 3-min Hb changes. The preoperative blood volume was extrapolated from the marked hemodilution occurring during the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01115166. RESULTS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's acetate averaged 8 minutes, corresponding to a transcapillary escape rate of 0.38 ml/kg/min. The intravascular albumin mass increased by 5.4% according to mass balance calculations. The preoperative blood volume, as extrapolated from the drop in hemoglobin concentration by 32% (mean) at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, was 0.6-1.2 L less than that estimated by anthropometric methods (p<0.02). The mass balance of sodium indicated a translocation from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid space in 8 of the 10 patients, with a median volume of 236 ml. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's solution during isovolumetric cardiopulmonary bypass was 8 minutes, which is the same as for crystalloid fluid infusions in healthy subjects. The intravascular albumin mass increased. Most patients were hypovolemic prior to the start of anesthesia. Intracellular edema did not occur. PMID:25141112

  14. Management of Cardiopulmonary Complications of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Prabha; Vashishtha, C.; Nasa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced portal hypertension accompanying end-stage liver disease results in an altered milieu due to inadequate detoxification of blood from splanchnic circulation by the failing liver. The portosystemic shunts with hepatic dysfunction result in an increased absorption and impaired neutralisation of the gastrointestinal bacteria and endotoxins leads to altered homeostasis with multiorgan dysfunction. The important cardiopulmonary complications are cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and right-sided hydrothorax. PMID:21994850

  15. The role of simulation in teaching pediatric resuscitation: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation for teaching the knowledge, skills, and behaviors necessary for effective pediatric resuscitation has seen widespread growth and adoption across pediatric institutions. In this paper, we describe the application of simulation in pediatric resuscitation training and review the evidence for the use of simulation in neonatal resuscitation, pediatric advanced life support, procedural skills training, and crisis resource management training. We also highlight studies supporting several key instructional design elements that enhance learning, including the use of high-fidelity simulation, distributed practice, deliberate practice, feedback, and debriefing. Simulation-based training is an effective modality for teaching pediatric resuscitation concepts. Current literature has revealed some research gaps in simulation-based education, which could indicate the direction for the future of pediatric resuscitation research. PMID:25878517

  16. Design of a Functional Training Prototype for Neonatal Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Sivaramakrishnan; Ganesan, Sona; Jayapal, Kavitha; Kannan, Sadhani

    2014-01-01

    Birth Asphyxia is considered to be one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality around the world. Asphyxiated neonates require skilled resuscitation to survive the neonatal period. The project aims to train health professionals in a basic newborn care using a prototype with an ultimate objective to have one person at every delivery trained in neonatal resuscitation. This prototype will be a user-friendly device with which one can get trained in performing neonatal resuscitation in resource-limited settings. The prototype consists of a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) that measures the pressure applied and is interfaced with Arduino® which controls the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) indication for pressure and compression counts. With the increase in population and absence of proper medical care, the need for neonatal resuscitation program is not well addressed. The proposed work aims at offering a promising solution for training health care individuals on resuscitating newborn babies under low resource settings.

  17. Effect of lipid emulsion during resuscitation of a patient with cardiac arrest after overdose of chlorpromazine and mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Hirose, Tomoya; Hattori, Yuji; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    No specific treatment exists for poisoning with most fat-soluble drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) may be effective therapy against such drugs, but effects of ILE treatment are unclear. A 24-year-old woman with depression seen sleeping in the morning was found comatose in the evening, and an emerging lifesaving technologies service was called. After emerging lifesaving technologies departure to hospital, she stopped breathing, became pulseless, and cardiopulmonary life support was started immediately. Electrocardiographic monitoring showed asystole during resuscitation even after arrival at hospital. Empty packaging sheets of 60-tablet chlorpromazine (CPZ) (50 mg/tablet) and 66-tablet mirtazapine (MZP) (15 mg/tablet) found at the scene suggested drug-related cardiopulmonary arrest. Along with conventional administration of adrenaline (total dose, 5 mg), 20% Intralipid 100 mLwas given intravenously 8 minutes after hospital arrival and readministered 27 minutes after hospital arrival because of continued asystole. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred 29 minutes after arrival (70 minutes after cardiac arrest). The patient recovered without any major complications and was transferred to another hospital for psychiatric treatment 70 days after admission. Concentrations of CPZ and MZP were still high when return of spontaneous circulation was achieved with ILE. This case suggested the possible benefit of ILE in treating life threatening cardiotoxicity from CPZ and MZP overdose. PMID:26314213

  18. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  19. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not should not be fed ...

  20. Effect of Crew Size on Objective Measures of Resuscitation for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Guyette, Francis X.; Rittenberger, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is no consensus among emergency medical services (EMS) systems as to the optimal numbers and training of EMS providers who respond to the scene of prehospital cardiac arrests. Increased numbers of providers may improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but this has not been studied as part of a comprehensive resuscitation scenario. Objective To compare different all-paramedic crew size configurations on objective measures of patient resuscitation using a high-fidelity human simulator. Methods We compared two-, three-, and four- person all-paramedic crew configurations in the effectiveness and timeliness of performing basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) skills during the first 8 minutes of a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Crews were compared to determine differences in no-flow fraction (NFF) as a measure of effectiveness of CPR and time to defibrillation, endotracheal intubation, establishment of intravenous access, and medication administration. Results There was no significant difference in mean NFF among the two-, three-, and four-provider crew configurations (0.32, 0.26, and 0.27, respectively; p = 0.105). More three- and four-person groups completed ALS procedures during the scenario, but there was no significant difference in time to performance of BLS or ALS procedures among the crew size configurations for completed procedures. There was a trend toward lower time to intubation with increasing group size, though this was not significant using a Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 0.01 (379, 316, and 263 seconds, respectively; p = 0.018). Conclusion This study found no significant difference in effectiveness of CPR or in time to performance of BLS or ALS procedures among crew size configurations, though there was a trend toward decreased time to intubation with increased crew size. Effectiveness of CPR may be hindered by distractions related to the performance of ALS procedures with increasing group

  1. Arginine vasopressin in advanced cardiovascular failure during the post-resuscitation phase after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Viktoria; Luckner, Günter; Jochberger, Stefan; Wenzel, Volker; Ulmer, Hanno; Pajk, Werner; Knotzer, Hans; Friesenecker, Barbara; Lindner, Karl; Hasibeder, Walter; Dünser, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been employed successfully during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but there exist only few data about the effects of AVP infusion for cardiovascular failure during the post-cardiac arrest period. Cardiovascular failure is one of the main causes of death after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Although the "post-resuscitation syndrome" has been described as a "sepsis-like" syndrome, there is little information about the haemodynamic response to AVP in advanced cardiovascular failure after cardiac arrest. In this retrospective study, haemodynamic and laboratory variables in 23 patients with cardiovascular failure unresponsive to standard haemodynamic therapy during the post-cardiac arrest period were obtained before, and 30 min, 1, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of a supplementary AVP infusion (4 IU/h). During the observation period, AVP significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure (58+/-14 to 75+/-19 mmHg, p < 0.001), and decreased noradrenaline (norepinephrine) (1.31+/-2.14 to 0.23+/-0.3 microg/kg/min, p = 0.03), adrenaline (epinephrine) (0.58+/-0.23 to 0.04+/-0.03 microg/kg/min, p = 0.001), and milrinone requirements (0.46+/-0.15 to 0.33+/-0.22 microg/kg/min, p < 0.001). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure changed significantly (p < 0.001); an initial increase being followed by a decrease below baseline values. While arterial lactate concentrations (95+/-64 to 21+/-18 mg/dL, p < 0.001) and pH (7.27+/-0.14 to 7.4+/-0.14, p < 0.001) improved significantly, total bilirubin concentrations (1.12+/-0.95 to 3.04+/-3.79 mg/dL, p = 0.001) increased after AVP. There were no differences in the haemodynamic or laboratory response to AVP between survivors and non-survivors. In this study, advanced cardiovascular failure that was unresponsive to standard therapy could be reversed successfully with supplementary AVP infusion in >90% of patients surviving cardiac arrest. PMID:17069952

  2. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  3. Development of our TAVI protocol for emergency initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Bainbridge, D; Jones, P M; Chu, M W A; Kiaii, B

    2015-01-01

    All transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) cases are done in our hybrid operating room with a multidisciplinary team and a primed cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit on pump stand-by. We decided that we would resuscitate all patients undergoing a TAVI procedure via a transfemoral, transapical or transaortic approach, if required. Perfusion plays an essential role in providing rescue CPB for patient salvage when catastrophic complications occur. To coordinate the multidisciplinary effort, we have developed a written safety checklist that assigns a pre-determined role for team members for the rapid sequence initiation of CPB. Although many TAVI patients are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacements, we feel strongly that rescue CPB should be offered to all TAVI patients to allow the correction of potentially reversible complications. This protocol is included in every surgical "Time Out" involving a TAVI procedure (Figure 1). The protocol has led to rapid and safe CPB initiation in less than five minutes of cardiac arrest. It has also led to a coordinated and consistent team, with pre-specified roles and improved communication. We discuss a case series of four TAVI patients who required emergent use of CPB. The first few cases did not have a written protocol. The experience from these cases led to the development of our protocol. We identified a lack of coordination, wasted movements, unnecessary delayed resuscitation and overall chaos, each of which was targeted for correction with the protocol. We will discuss the merits of the protocol in two recent TAVI cases which required emergent CPB. PMID:25143415

  4. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  5. A Randomized Controlled Study of Manikin Simulator Fidelity on Neonatal Resuscitation Program Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin…

  6. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  7. The optimum timing of resuscitative thoracotomy for non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Takino, M; Okada, Y

    1993-08-01

    Open-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a promising method for non-traumatic cardiac arrest. In this preliminary study, we investigated the optimum timing of thoracotomy which brings high rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and keeps the incidence of unnecessary thoracotomy minimal. Ninety-five adult patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed. Of those, 26 patients were treated by the open-chest CPR in a prospective consecutive fashion. In this group, the ROSC rate was investigated in connection with the interval from hospital arrival, or ambulance call, to thoracotomy. Another 69 patients were treated by standard CPR. In this uncontrolled group, the interval from arrival at hospital to ROSC was investigated to define the 'natural hospital course' by the conventional treatment. Patient characteristics in the open-chest CPR group and the standard CPR group were similar. In the open-chest CPR group, 15 patients obtained ROSC. There was a tendency that the ROSC rate was highest in the patients with thoracotomy within 5 min of hospital arrival and declined as the timing of thoracotomy was delayed. Similar tendency was noted when the timing of thoracotomy was counted from the ambulance call. In the standard CPR group, only two patients obtained ROSC during the initial 5 min of hospital course. These results suggest that thoracotomy within 5 min of hospital arrival brings the highest ROSC rate while keeps the incidence of unnecessary thoracotomy acceptable. PMID:8210734

  8. Availability and Utilization of Cardiac Resuscitation Centers

    PubMed Central

    Mumma, Bryn E.; Diercks, Deborah B.; Holmes, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends regionalized care following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at cardiac resuscitation centers (CRCs). Key level 1 CRC criteria include 24/7 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability, therapeutic hypothermia capability, and annual volume of ≥40 patients resuscitated from OHCA. Our objective was to characterize the availability and utilization of resources relevant to post-cardiac arrest care, including level 1 CRCs in California. Methods We combined data from the AHA, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), and surveys to identify CRCs. We surveyed emergency department directors and nurse managers at all 24/7 PCI centers identified by the AHA to determine their post-OHCA care capabilities. The survey included questions regarding therapeutic hypothermia use and specialist availability and was pilot-tested prior to distribution. Cases of OHCA were identified in the 2011 OSHPD Patient Discharge Database using a “present on admission” diagnosis of cardiac arrest (ICD-9-CM code 427.5). We defined key level 1 CRC criteria as 24/7 PCI capability, therapeutic hypothermia, and annual volume ≥40 patients admitted with a “present on admission” diagnosis of cardiac arrest. Our primary outcome was the proportion of hospitals meeting these criteria. Descriptive statistics and 95% CI are presented. Results Of the 333 acute care hospitals in California, 31 (9.3%, 95% CI 6.4–13%) met level 1 CRC criteria. These hospitals treated 25% (1937/7780; 95% CI 24–26%) of all admitted OHCA patients in California in 2011. Of the 125 hospitals identified as 24/7 PCI centers by the AHA, 54 (43%, 95% CI 34–52%) admitted ≥40 patients following OHCA in 2011. Seventy (56%, 95% CI 47–65%) responded to the survey; 69/70 (99%, 95% CI 92–100%) reported having a therapeutic hypothermia protocol in effect by 2011. Five percent of admitted OHCA patients (402/7780; 95% CI 4

  9. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching

  10. Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation-Mediated Tissue Water Distribution is Normalized by Adjunctive Peritoneal Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, El Rasheid; Matheson, Paul J; Flessner, Michael F; Garrison, R Neal

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adjunctive direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) from hemorrhagic shock (HS) improves intestinal blood flow and abrogates postresuscitation edema. HS causes water shifts as a result of sodium redistribution and changes in transcapillary Starling forces. Conventional resuscitation (CR) with crystalloid aggravates water sequestration. We examined the compartment pattern of organ tissue water after HS and CR, and modulation of tissue edema by adjunctive DPR. STUDY DESIGN Rats were hemorrhaged (40% mean arterial pressure for 60 minutes) and assigned to four groups (n = 7): sham, no HS; HS no resuscitation; HS+CR (shed blood plus 2 volumes Ringer’s lactate); and HS+CR+DPR (20 mL clinical intraperitoneal (IP) dialysis fluid). Isotopic markers determined equilibrium distribution volumes [VD] in gut, liver, lung, and muscle by quantitative autoradiography (2-hour postresuscitation). Total tissue water (TTW) was determined by wet-dry weights. Extracellular water was measured from 14C-mannitol VD, and intravascular volume (IVV) from 131I-labeled IgG VD. Cellular and interstitial water volumes were calculated. RESULTS HS alone decreased IVV in all tissues and TTW in gut, lung, and muscle, but not liver, compared with shams. IVV remained decreased with all resuscitations despite restoration of central hemodynamics. CR caused interstitial edema in gut, liver, and muscle, and cellular edema in lung. DPR reduced (liver, muscle) or prevented (gut, lung) these volume shifts. CONCLUSIONS HS decreases IVV. HS-induced water shifts are organ-specific and prominent in gut, lung, and muscle. CR restores central hemodynamics, does not restore IVV, and alters organ-specific TTW distribution. Adjunctive DPR with IP dialysis fluid normalizes TTW and water compartment distribution and prevents edema. Combined effect of DPR and intravascular fluid replacement appears to prevent global tissue edema and improve outcomes from HS. PMID:18471737

  11. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. PMID:24215731

  12. Cerebral blood flow in humans following resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Cohan, S.L.; Mun, S.K.; Petite, J.; Correia, J.; Tavelra Da Silva, A.T.; Waldhorn, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and may indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage.

  13. [RESUSCITATION MEASURES IN CASE OF CARDIAC ARREST].

    PubMed

    Lamhaut, Lionel; Cariou, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Improving the survival rate of sudden cardiac death victims mainly relies in the prompt activation of the "chain of survival", resulting in efficient performance at basic life support maneuvers by bystanders. Among these maneuvers, cardiac compressions and use of automated external defibrillation are the most important components. Since basic life support is easy to learn, spreading its practice throughout the general population should be a priority for public health policy. Following initial resuscitation, the last step of the "chain of survival" is ensured by expert pre-hospital and ICU teams, which are able to provide appropriate care. Organization and sequence of these different steps are the object of regularly updated guidelines, summarized in the form of algorithms that facilitate their application. PMID:26619726

  14. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  17. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  18. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  20. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    PubMed Central

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation. Results The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from various degrees of tissue injury to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Investigators have long researched the ways in which cardiopulmonary bypass may insult the human body. Potential solutions arose and laid the groundwork for development of safer postoperative care strategies. Conclusion Steady progress has been made in cardiopulmonary bypass in the decades since it was first conceived of by Gibbon. Despite the constant evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and attempts to minimize their complications, it is still essential that clinicians respect the particularities of each patient's physiological function. PMID:26107456

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Manitoba Schools. A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This manual outlines the curriculum for the Heart Saver Program, designed for students in the tenth grade in Manitoba. It contains guidelines for instruction on: (1) risk factors of heart disease; (2) warning signals of heart attack; (3) factors involved in intervening in an emergency; (4) anatomy and physiology; (5) techniques for dealing with an…

  13. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  14. Termination of resuscitative efforts: medical futility for the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, M

    2001-12-01

    Despite years of research on the resuscitation of the patient with critical traumatic injuries, controversy remains surrounding the criteria to waive initiation of resuscitation in the pre-hospital setting or to terminate such efforts in the emergency department. The decision to initiate or continue resuscitation on moribund trauma patients is associated with considerable costs. Ambulance transport using lights and sirens carries potential risk. Emergency department thoracotomy, with exposure to high risk bodily fluids, involvement of numerous staff, and usage precious blood products, is a procedure that has fewer and fewer indications. This review presents guidelines to help determine when to initiate resuscitation for the critically injured trauma patient and when to cease these efforts in the emergency department. Since there are economic, societal, and ethical implications, each system should establish their own criteria, using these guidelines as a basis. PMID:11805549

  15. The use of multiple intraosseous catheters in combat casualty resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debjeet; Philbeck, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    During the current military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, establishing intravenous (IV) access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties remains a persistent challenge. Intraosseous (IO) access has emerged as a viable alternative in resuscitation. In this case report, a 19 year-old male soldier was severely wounded by a roadside bomb in Iraq. Given the heavy initial blood loss, anatomic location of the injuries and gross wound contamination, peripheral IV access could not be established. Instead, multiple IO catheters were used to initiate fluid resuscitation prior to transfer to a combat support hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such extensive usage of IO catheters. Multiple IO catheters can be placed rapidly and safely and may help solve the challenge of establishing vascular access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties. PMID:19317188

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Aymen N.; Winch, Peter D.; Tobias, Joseph D.; Yeates, Keith O.; Miao, Yongjie; Galantowicz, Mark; Hoffman, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th edition). Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF) patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF) + dexmedetomidine (DEX) (LDF + DEX) group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046). The bispectral index (BIS) value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011). For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027). Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID

  17. Colloid administration normalizes resuscitation ratio and ameliorates "fluid creep".

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amanda; Faraklas, Iris; Watkins, Holly; Allen, Ashlee; Cochran, Amalia; Morris, Stephen; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Although colloid was a component of the original Parkland formula, it has been omitted from standard Parkland resuscitation for over 30 years. However, some burn centers use colloid as "rescue" therapy for patients who exhibit progressively increasing crystalloid requirements, a phenomenon termed "fluid creep." We reviewed our experience with this procedure. With Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed all adult patients with > or =20%TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, who completed formal resuscitation. Patients were resuscitated using the Parkland formula, adjusted to maintain urine output of 30 to 50 ml/hr. Patients who required greater amounts of fluid than expected were given a combination of 5% albumin and lactated Ringer's until fluid requirements normalized. Results were expressed as an hourly ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). Predicted values for this ratio vary for individual patients but are usually less than 0.5 to 1.0. Fifty-two patients were reviewed, of whom 26 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone, and the remaining 26 required albumin supplementation (AR). The groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, mortality, and time between injury and admission. AR patients had larger total and full-thickness burns and more inhalation injuries. Patients managed with crystalloid alone maintained mean resuscitation ratios from 0.13 to 0.40, whereas AR patients demonstrated progressively increasing ratios to a maximum mean of 1.97, until albumin was started. Administration of albumin produced a dramatic and precipitous return of ratios to within predicted ranges throughout the remainder of resuscitation. No patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Measuring hourly I/O ratios is an effective means of expressing and tracking fluid requirements. The addition of colloid to Parkland resuscitation rapidly reduces hourly fluid requirements, restores normal

  18. Effect of vasopressin on hippocampal injury in a rodent model of asphyxial cardiopulmonary arrest

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, NAN; ZANG, XIU-XIAN; DONG, NING; LIU, FANG; WANG, SHAO-KUN; YAN, HE; XU, DA-HAI; LIU, XIAO-LIANG; PANG, LI

    2016-01-01

    The effect of vasopressin on the neuronal injury following the restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in cardiac arrest (CA) is not yet fully understood. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of vasopressin alone, or in combination with epinephrine, on the ROSC and hippocampal injury in a rat model of asphyxial CA. Asphyxial CA was induced in 144 rats by clamping the tracheal tube, and animals were allocated equally into the following three groups: Treatment with vasopressin (0.8 U/kg); epinephrine (0.2 mg/kg); or vasopressin (0.8 U/kg) plus epinephrine (0.2 mg/kg). An additional 48 rats underwent a sham surgical procedure without asphyxial CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hippocampal tissue was harvested at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h post-ROSC, and the levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were determined using immunohistochemistry. In comparison with rats treated with epinephrine alone, higher ROSC success rates were observed in rats treated with vasopressin, or vasopressin plus epinephrine. In addition, treatment with vasopressin attenuated hippocampal injury and reduced hippocampal p38 MAPK and NF-κB expression more efficiently compared with epinephrine alone. In conclusion, treatment with vasopressin exhibits a protective effect in patients experiencing CA, and this may be attributed to the inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB expression. PMID:27073454

  19. [An infant with unexplained epilepsy].

    PubMed

    van Gaal, J Carlijn; Petru, Ronald; Sie, Lilian T J

    2010-01-01

    A 6-month-old male infant with an unremarkable past medical history was admitted to the emergency department in an epileptic state. The seizures were resistant to treatment with conventional drugs. The child was sedated, intubated and admitted to the intensive care department. Despite extensive investigations no underlying disease was found. The seizures persisted and the child was repeatedly admitted to the hospital. Four months after the first presentation, ventricular fibrillation occurred from which the child was successfully resuscitated. His stomach appeared to contain a disinfectant and a severe ethanol-intoxication was found, leading to the diagnosis "Munchausen syndrome by proxy". The incidence of this syndrome is underestimated. Recognition of this potentially fatal phenomenon is often difficult, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. Paediatricians and general practitioners should be aware of this syndrome in children presenting with an unusual disease or an unusual medical history reported by the parents or care providers. PMID:21176267

  20. Umbilical Cord Milking Improves Transition in Premature Infants at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, Anup; Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord milking (UCM) improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC). The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. Methods Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR), SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP), and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC. Results 41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC. Conclusions UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434732 PMID:24709780

  1. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff ... Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death ...

  2. OUTCOMES OF THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PEDIATRIC MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY PERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Ündar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of the Conference was to bring together internationally know clinicians, bioengineers, and basic scientists involved in research on pediatric mechanical cardiac support systems and pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. The primary focus was to explicitly describe the problems with current pediatric mechanical circulatory support systems, methods, and techniques during acute and chronic support. The organizers were able to bring together respected international scholars from over 25 different countries at past conferences that has already made a significant impact on the treatment of pediatric cardiac patients during the past three years. Over 1,300 participants (250–300 participants each year) from many countries, including Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have participated in the 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 events. To date, The Fifth International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion is the only conference solely dedicated to pediatric cardiac devices used during acute and chronic mechanical circulatory support. There is no other national or international conference to precisely define the problems with pediatric cardiac patients, and to suggest solutions with new methodologies and devices for pediatric patients, but specifically for neonates and infants. PMID:20021466

  3. Acute paraplegia in a preterm infant with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, J; Tekes, A; Klein, J; Lemmon, M; Felling, R J; Chavez-Valdez, R

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 1-month old, 28-week gestational age infant who presented with acute paraplegia after cardiopulmonary arrest. Later imaging confirms cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) and a suspected infarction in the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. A prothrombotic state may explain the numerous areas of infarction visualized on neuroimaging. To our knowledge this is the first case report of acute and persistent paraplegia in an infant with CSVT and conus medullaris injury, which may be due to venous infarction of the spinal cord. PMID:26012477

  4. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.; Baldwin, B.; White, W.D.; Reves, J.G.; Greeley, W.J. )

    1991-04-01

    We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow.

  5. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  6. Resuscitation of the trauma patient: tell me a trigger for early haemostatic resuscitation please!

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew J; Lone, Nazir; Walsh, Timothy S

    2011-01-01

    The management of trauma-related coagulopathy and haemorrhage is changing from a reactive strategy to a proactive early intervention with blood products and haemostatic agents. Although major haemorrhage and massive transfusion are associated with higher mortality, the pattern of this association with modern trauma care is poorly described. In addition, early predictors of massive transfusion, which might trigger a proactive haemostatic resuscitation strategy, are not currently available. We review recent literature relating to predictors of massive transfusions and the relationship between transfusion and mortality. PMID:21371347

  7. Better outcome after pediatric resuscitation is still a dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Kishore, Kamal; Lata, Indu

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac arrest is not a single problem. Although most episodes of pediatric cardiac arrest occur as complications and progression of respiratory failure and shock. Sudden cardiac arrest may result from abrupt and unexpected arrhythmias. With a better-tailored therapy, we can optimize the outcome. In the hospital, cardiac arrest often develops as a progression of respiratory failure and shock. Typically half or more of pediatric victims of in-hospital arrest have pre-existing respiratory failure and one-third or more have shock, although these figures vary somewhat among reporting hospitals. When in-hospital respiratory arrest or failure is treated before the development of cardiac arrest, survival ranges from 60% to 97%. Bradyarrthmia, asystole or pulseless electric activity (PEA) were recorded as an initial rhythm in half or more of the recent reports of in-hospital cardiac arrest, with survival to hospital discharge ranging from 22% to 40%. Data allowing characterization of out of hospital pediatric arrest are limited, although existing data support the long-held belief that as with hospitalized children, cardiac arrest most often occurs as a progression of respiratory failure or shock to cardiac arrest with bradyasystole rhythm. Although VF (Ventricular fibrillation, is a very rapid, uncoordinated, ineffective series of contractions throughout the lower chambers of the heart. Unless stopped, these chaotic impulses are fatal) and VT (Ventricular tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. To be classified as tachycardia, the heart rate is usually at least 100 beats per minute) are not common out-of-cardiac arrest in children, they are more likely to be present with sudden, witnessed collapse, particularly among adolescents. Pre-hospital care till the late 1980s was mainly concerned with adult care, and the initial focus for pediatric resuscitation was provision of oxygen and ventilation, with initial rhythm at

  8. Trilinolein improves erythrocyte deformability during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S K; Chan, P; Lee, T Y; Yung, J M; Hong, C Y

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro effect of trilinolein, a triglyceride with linoleic acid as the major fatty acid residue in the esterified positions of glycerol, on erythrocyte deformability was studied in blood samples collected from 12 patients before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Erythrocyte deformability was measured with a filtration method and expressed as red cell filtration rate (RFR). RFR was reduced after CPB and the reduction was time dependent. Trilinolein at a concentration of 10(-7) M significantly reversed the CPB-induced reduction of RFR when it was mixed with blood samples collected 30, 60 and 90 min from the start of CPB. This study confirmed the effect of CPB on erythrocyte deformability and showed that this damage could be significantly improved by mixing blood with trilinolein. PMID:8054252

  9. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed. PMID:26834284

  10. Miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass: the Hammersmith technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional Cardiopulmonary Bypass (cCPB) is a trigger of systemic inflammatory reactions, hemodilution, coagulopathy, and organ failure. Miniaturised Cardiopulmonary Bypass (mCPB) has the potential to reduce these deleterious effects. Here, we describe our standardised ‘Hammersmith’ mCPB technique, used in all types of adult cardiac operations including major aortic surgery. Methods The use of mCPB remains limited by the diversity of technologies which range from extremely complex, micro systems to ones very similar to cCPB. Our approach is designed around the principle of balancing the benefits of miniaturisation; reducing foreign surface area while maintaining patient safety. Results From January 2010 to March 2011, a single surgeon performed 184 consecutive operations (Euro score Logistic 8.4+/-9.9): 61 aortic valve replacements, 78 CABGs, 25 aortic valve replacement and CABG and 17 other procedures (major aortic surgery, re-do operations or double/triple valve replacements). Our clinical experience suggests that: i. Venous drainage is optimally maintained using kinetic energy. ii. Venous collapse pressure depends on the patient’s anatomy and cannula size, but most importantly on the negative pressure generated by venous drainage. iii. The patient-prime interaction is optimised with antegrade and retrograde autologous priming, which mixes the blood and prime away from the tissues and results in a reduced oncotic destabilization. iv. mCPB is a safe and reproducible technique Conclusion The Hammersmith mCPB is a “next generation” system which uses standard commercially available components. It aims to maintain safety margin and the benefit of miniaturised system whilst reducing the human factor demands. PMID:23731623

  11. Knowledge of and attitudes towards resuscitation in New Zealand high‐school students

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, M M; Pearson, J; Galletly, D C; Larsen, P D

    2006-01-01

    Background Introducing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in the high‐school curriculum has been widely recommended as a long‐term strategy to educate the wider community. Although CPR has been included in the New Zealand school curriculum, it is listed as an optional subject only. Aim To assess the attitude towards and knowledge of CPR in 16–17‐year‐old high‐school students in New Zealand. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 494 students aged 16–17 years across six high schools in Wellington, New Zealand. Both knowledge and attitude were evaluated in the questionnaire. Results Students showed poor theoretical knowledge, with a mean (SD) score of 5.61 (2.61) out of a maximum score of 18. Although there was no difference between male and female students, those who had received previous first‐aid training (70%) showed greater knowledge (6.04 (2.56)) than their untrained counterparts (4.91 (2.24); p = 0.001). Those students with a positive attitude towards CPR and first‐aid training (63%) acquired a higher knowledge score (6.12 (2.4)) than those with a negative attitude (17%; 4.65 (2.5); p = 0.001). Students with negative associations were also less likely to want to learn more about CPR and first aid (11%) when compared with those with positive associations (92%), and indicated less willingness to perform CPR on a stranger (negative v positive, 47% v 70%). Conclusions These findings suggest that although most high‐school students are willing and motivated to learn CPR, a smaller percentage of students had a negative attitude towards CPR that would act as a barrier to future learning or performance of resuscitation. Introducing CPR training to high schools is still recommended; however, this study shows the need to associate this training with positive references in an attempt to assist those for whom negative attitude may present as a barrier to learning and retaining CPR knowledge. PMID:17130593

  12. Study of Cardiac Arrest Caused by Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism and Thrombolytic Resuscitation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian-Xing; Li, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Jun; Tong, Nan; Xiao, Hong-Li; An, Le

    2016-01-01

    Background: The success rate of resuscitation in cardiac arrest (CA) caused by pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is low. Furthermore, there are no large animal models that simulate clinical CA. The aim of this study was to establish a porcine CA model caused by PTE and to investigate the pathophysiology of CA and postresuscitation. Methods: This model was induced in castrated male pigs (30 ± 2 kg; n = 21) by injecting thrombi (10–15 ml) via the left external jugular vein. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was performed at baseline, CA, and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). After CTPA during CA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with thrombolysis (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator 50 mg) was initiated. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and blood gas data were monitored. Cardiac troponins T, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were compared between baseline and CA with paired-sample t-test and compared among different time points for survival animals with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Seventeen animals achieved CA after emboli injection, while four achieved CA after 5–8 ml more thrombi. Nine animals survived 6 h after CPR. CTPA showed obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Mean aortic pressure data showed occurrence of CA caused by PTE (Z = −2.803, P = 0.002). The maximal rate of mean increase of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax) was statistically decreased (t = 6.315, P = 0.000, variation coefficient = 0.25), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) decreased to the lowest value (t = 27.240, P = 0.000). After ROSC (n = 9), heart rate (HR) and mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) remained different versus baseline until 2 h after ROSC (HR, P = 0.036; MRVP, P = 0.027). Myoglobin was statistically increased from CA to 1 h after ROSC (P = 0.036, 0.026, 0.009, respectively), and BNP was increased

  13. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  14. [Preliminary study of colloid osmotic pressure for cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Xiang, L; Luo, J

    1996-12-01

    The ideal colloid osmotic pressure is beneficial to decrease the fluid accumulated in the pulmonary and other tissue during cardiopulmonary bypass. Schupbach reported the proper colloidosmotic pressure for cardiopulmonary bypass was 2.1 kPa (16 mmHg). Colloid osmotic pressures of blood and priming fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass were measured in 28 patients with heart disease by using colloid osmotic pressure detection apparatus. The value of colloid osmotic pressure suitable for the designed standard was apparently different among the Gelofusine group and other groups. P value was 0.005. Priming fluid for cardiopulmonary bypass needs to satisfy the quality and the quantity of colloid osmotic pressure. Using Albumin isn't economical. Whole blood and plazma are not suitable for increasing colloid osmotic pressure. Hydroxyethyl starch or Gelofusine is best choice in priming to get designed standard of colloid osmotic pressure. The ratio of hydroxyethyl starch or Gelofusine in priming fluid should beyond 1/2. PMID:9590779

  15. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice... May 28, 1976. Any other cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator shall have an approved PMA...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice... May 28, 1976. Any other cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator shall have an approved PMA...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  3. Design of a Functional Training Prototype for Neonatal Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Sivaramakrishnan; Ganesan, Sona; Jayapal, Kavitha; Kannan, Sadhani

    2014-01-01

    Birth Asphyxia is considered to be one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality around the world. Asphyxiated neonates require skilled resuscitation to survive the neonatal period. The project aims to train health professionals in a basic newborn care using a prototype with an ultimate objective to have one person at every delivery trained in neonatal resuscitation. This prototype will be a user-friendly device with which one can get trained in performing neonatal resuscitation in resource-limited settings. The prototype consists of a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) that measures the pressure applied and is interfaced with Arduino(®) which controls the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) indication for pressure and compression counts. With the increase in population and absence of proper medical care, the need for neonatal resuscitation program is not well addressed. The proposed work aims at offering a promising solution for training health care individuals on resuscitating newborn babies under low resource settings. PMID:27417489

  4. Lessons Learned for the Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    The lessons learned regarding the resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock are numerous and come from a better understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and experience in this population over 10-plus years of combat operations. We have now come to better understand that the greatest benefit in survival can come from improved treatment of hemorrhage in the prehospital phase of care. We have learned that there is an endogenous coagulopathy that occurs with severe traumatic injury secondary to oxygen debt and that classic resuscitation strategies for severe bleeding based on crystalloid or colloid solutions exacerbate coagulopathy and shock for those with life-threatening hemorrhage. We have relearned that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy, or one that at least recapitulates the functionality of whole blood, may reduce death from hemorrhage and reduce the risks of excessive crystalloid administration which include acute lung injury, abdominal compartment syndrome, cerebral edema, and anasarca. Appreciation of the importance of shock and coagulopathy management underlies the emphasis on early hemostatic resuscitation. Most importantly, we have learned that there is still much more to understand regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the resuscitation strategies required to improve outcomes for casualties with hemorrhagic shock. PMID:27215864

  5. New perspectives of volemic resuscitation in polytrauma patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea; Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Carmen Alina; Vernic, Corina; Dumbuleu, Corina Maria; Nartita, Radu; Sandesc, Dorel

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, fluid resuscitation of multiple trauma patients is still a challenging therapy. Existing therapies for volume replacement in severe haemorrhagic shock can lead to adverse reactions that may be fatal for the patient. Patients presenting with multiple trauma often develop hemorrhagic shock, which triggers a series of metabolic, physiological and cellular dysfunction. These disorders combined, lead to complications that significantly decrease survival rate in this subset of patients. Volume and electrolyte resuscitation is challenging due to many factors that overlap. Poor management can lead to post-resuscitation systemic inflammation causing multiple organ failure and ultimately death. In literature, there is no exact formula for this purpose, and opinions are divided. This paper presents a review of modern techniques and current studies regarding the management of fluid resuscitation in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. According to the literature and from clinical experience, all aspects regarding post-resuscitation period need to be considered. Also, for every case in particular, emergency therapy management needs to be rigorously respected considering all physiological, biochemical and biological parameters. PMID:27574675

  6. Current Neonatal Resuscitation Practices among Paediatricians in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Patel, Dipen V.; Sethi, Ankur R.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed neonatal resuscitation practices among paediatricians in Gujarat. Methods. Cross-sectional survey of 23 questions based on guidelines of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) was conducted using web-based tool. Questionnaire was developed and consensually validated by three neonatologists. Results. Total of 142 (21.2%) of 669 paediatricians of Gujarat, India, whose e-mail addresses were available, attempted the survey and, from them, 126 were eligible. Of these, 74 (58.7%) were trained in neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with mechanical ventilation facilities was available for 54% of respondents. Eighty-eight (69.8%) reported correct knowledge and practice regarding effective bag and mask ventilation (BMV) and chest compressions. Knowledge and practice about continuous positive airway pressure use in delivery room were reported in 18.3% and 30.2% reported use of room air for BMV during resuscitation. Suctioning oral cavity before delivery in meconium stained liquor was reported by 27.8% and 38.1% cut the cord after a minute of birth. Paediatricians with NRP training used appropriate method of tracheal suction in cases of nonvigorous newborns than those who were not trained. Conclusions. Contemporary knowledge about neonatal resuscitative practices in paediatricians is lacking and requires improvement. Web-based tools provided low response in this survey. PMID:24688549

  7. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    PubMed

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  8. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-01-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  9. Effect of a pharmacologically induced decrease in core temperature in rats resuscitated from cardiac arrest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Targeted temperature management is recommended to reduce brain damage after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in humans although the optimal target temperature remains controversial. 1 4 The American Heart Association (AHA) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation...

  10. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

  11. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  12. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or her hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. Grasp reflex . This reflex occurs if you ... reflex occurs in slightly older infants when the child is held upright and the baby’s body is ...

  13. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  14. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Resuscitation Following Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Friess, Stuart; Polderman, Kees H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. Neurocritical care interventions, including targeted temperature management (TTM), have significantly improved neurological outcomes in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. Patients remaining comatose following resuscitation from cardiac arrest should be considered for TTM. This protocol will review induction, maintenance, and re-warming phases of TTM, along with management of TTM side effects. Aggressive shivering suppression is necessary with this treatment to ensure the maintenance of a target temperature. Ancillary testing, including electrocardiography, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, continuous electroencephalography monitoring, and correction of electrolyte, blood gas, and hematocrit changes, are also necessary to optimize outcomes. PMID:26438463

  15. One hospital's experience with a "Do not resuscitate" policy.

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, A.; Moore, S.; O'Connor, J.; Woodward, C.

    1981-01-01

    A "No not resuscitate" policy was instituted at McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, in January 1979. Its objectives were to ensure that physicians decide on the appropriateness of resuscitation attempts before they might be needed; to have each physician consult his or her patients, or the families of incompetent patients, to determine their wishes concerning further treatment; and to provide legal protection of or physicians and the hospital in regard to the policy. To determine the effectiveness of the "Do not resuscitate" policy a questionnaire was sent to a sample of the professional staff of the hospital; the overall response rate was 87%. The respondents felt that a better way of informing hospital staff of the policy and its objectives was needed. However, the results of the questionnaire suggested that, on the whole, the policy was perceived as beneficial to both patients and physicians at the hospital. PMID:7306894

  16. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  17. Initial resuscitation and management of pediatric septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kelly; Weiss, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    The pediatric sepsis syndrome remains a common cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization costs worldwide. The initial resuscitation and management of pediatric sepsis is focused on 1) rapid recognition of abnormal tissue perfusion and restoration of adequate cardiovascular function, 2) eradication of the inciting invasive infection, including prompt administration of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial medications, and 3) supportive care of organ system dysfunction. Efforts to improve early and aggressive initial resuscitation and ongoing management strategies have improved outcomes in pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock, though many questions still remain as to the optimal therapeutic strategies for many patients. In this article, we will briefly review the definitions, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathophysiology of sepsis and provide an extensive overview of both current and novel therapeutic strategies used to resuscitate and manage pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:25604591

  18. A randomized trial of continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale for and design of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Continuous Chest Compressions Trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Siobhan P; Wang, Henry; Aufderheide, Tom P; Vaillancourt, Christian; Schmicker, Robert H; Cheskes, Sheldon; Straight, Ron; Kudenchuk, Peter; Morrison, Laurie; Colella, M Riccardo; Condle, Joseph; Gamez, George; Hostler, David; Kayea, Tami; Ragsdale, Sally; Stephens, Shannon; Nichol, Graham

    2015-03-01

    The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium is conducting a randomized trial comparing survival with hospital discharge after continuous chest compressions without interruption for ventilation versus currently recommended American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation with interrupted chest compressions in adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without obvious trauma or respiratory cause. Emergency medical services perform study cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 3 intervals of manual chest compressions (each ~2 minutes) or until restoration of spontaneous circulation. Patients randomized to the continuous chest compression intervention receive 200 chest compressions with positive pressure ventilations at a rate of 10/min without interruption in compressions. Those randomized to the interrupted chest compression study arm receive chest compressions interrupted for positive pressure ventilations at a compression:ventilation ratio of 30:2. In either group, each interval of compressions is followed by rhythm analysis and defibrillation as required. Insertion of an advanced airway is deferred for the first ≥6 minutes to reduce interruptions in either study arm. The study uses a cluster randomized design with every-6-month crossovers. The primary outcome is survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are neurologically intact survival and adverse events. A maximum of 23,600 patients (11,800 per group) enrolled during the post-run-in phase of the study will provide ≥90% power to detect a relative change of 16% in the rate of survival to discharge, 8.1% to 9.4% with overall significance level of 0.05. If this trial demonstrates improved survival with either strategy, >3,000 premature deaths from cardiac arrest would be averted annually. PMID:25728722

  19. Damage control resuscitation: from emergency department to the operating room.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Juan C; Barbeau, James M; Islam, Tareq M; Wahl, Georgia; Greiffenstein, Patrick; McSwain, Norman E

    2011-02-01

    Damage control surgery emphasizes limited operations with control of bleeding and contamination. Traditional management centered upon correction of acidosis and hypotension with crystalloids. Damage control resuscitation (DCR) is permissive hypotension and early hemostatic resuscitation combined identified and corrects coagulopathy with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), restricting use of crystalloids. We hypothesize a survival advantage in patients managed with DCR when compared with a historical cohort of patients. During the 2-year retrospective review, a 1-year period after institution of DCR was compared with a historical control. Resuscitation strategies were analyzed and stratified into emergency department (ED) resuscitation and intraoperative resuscitation. Univariate analysis of continuous data was done with Student's t test followed by multiple logistic regression. Fifty-seven and 61 patients were managed during the NonDCR and DCR periods respectively. Baseline demographic patient characteristics and physiologic variables were similar between groups. ED DCR patients received less crystalloids: 1.1 versus 4.7 liters (P = 0.0001), more FFP: 1.8 versus 0.5 (P = 0.001). NonDCR had a lower initial systolic pressure in the operating room when compared with DCR: 81 mm Hg versus 95 mm Hg (P = 0.03). DCR patients received less intraoperative crystalloids: 5.7 versus 15.8 liters (P = 0.0001) and more FFP: 15.1 versus 6.2 (P = 0.0001). DCR conveyed a survival benefit (Odds Ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 (0.18-0.90), P = 0.024). NonDCR group had 13.2 days longer hospital length of stay. Damage control resuscitation, beginning in the ED, used more packed red blood cells and FFP minimizing crystalloids. DCR was associated with a survival advantage and shorter length of stay in patients with severe hemorrhage. PMID:21337881

  20. Optimizing ventilation in conjunction with phased chest and abdominal compression-decompression (Lifestick) resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Karl B; Hilwig, Ronald W; Berg, Robert A; Schock, Robert B; Ewy, Gordon A

    2002-01-01

    The best method for employment of phased chest and abdominal compression-decompression (Lifestick) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has yet to be determined. Of particular concern with using this technique is the combining of ventilation with the phased compressions and decompressions. Twenty domestic swine (50+/-1 kg) were equally divided into four groups. Following 10 min of untreated VF, CPR was begun. Group 1 received Lifestick (LS) CPR with only passive ventilation ('passive'); Group 2 received LS-CPR with synchronized positive pressure ventilations (ppv) at a chest compression ratio of 15:2 (15:2 S); Group 3 had LS-CPR with synchronized ppv at 5:1 (5:1 S); and Group 4 received LS-CPR with asynchronous ppv at 5:1 (5:1 A). Endpoints included hemodynamics, blood gases, minute ventilation, and 24 h outcome. Asynchronous ventilation (5:1 A) had significantly worse hemodynamics including aortic and right atrial systolic, aortic diastolic, and coronary perfusion pressures than the other groups (P<0.05). Passive ventilation had the poorest arterial and mixed venous blood gases (P<0.05), but did not differ from 15:2 S in minute ventilation produced (8 vs 10 l/min). No differences in outcome were seen. The ventilation technique combined with LS-CPR can make a significant difference in hemodynamics as well as ventilation. Optimizing other forms of basic and advanced cardiac life support through different ventilation methods deserves new consideration, including a re-examination of the current single rescuer recommendation of a 15:2 ratio. Optimal ventilation strategy when using the LS device at 60 compressions per min appears to be 5:1 S. Such data is important for conducting clinical trials with this new CPR adjunct. PMID:11801354

  1. Paediatric out-of-hospital resuscitation in an area with scattered population (Galicia-Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Pilar Blanco-Ons; Sánchez-Santos, Luis; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Cegarra-García, María; Barreiro-Díaz, Maria Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) is a rare event in childhood. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of paediatric CRA and the immediate results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Galicia, a community with a very scattered population. Methods All children (aged from newborn to 16 years old) who suffered an out-of-hospital CRA in Galicia and were assisted by the Public Foundation Medical Emergencies of Galicia-061 staff, from June 2002 to February 2005, were included in the study. Data were prospectively recorded following the Utstein's style guidelines. Results Thirty-one cases were analyzed (3.4 CRA annual cases per 100.000 paediatric population). The arrest was respiratory in 16.1% and cardiac in 83.9% of cases. CRA occurred at home in 58.1% of instances. Time CRA to initiation of CPR was shorter than 10 minutes in 32.2% and longer than 20 minutes in 29.0% of cases. 22.6% of children received bystander CPR. The first recorded rhythm was asystole in 67.7% of cases. Bag-mask ventilation was used in 67.7% and in 83.8% oro-tracheal intubation was done. A peripheral venous access was achieved in 67.7% and intraosseous access was used in 16.1% of patients. 93.5% of children were treated with adrenaline. After initial CPR, sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 38.7% of cases. Six children (19.4%) survived until hospital discharge. Four of 5 children with respiratory arrest survived, whereas only 2 of 26 children with cardiac arrest survived until hospital discharge. Conclusion Despite the handicap of a highly disseminated population, paediatric CRA characteristics and CPR results in Galicia are comparable to references from other communities. Programs to increase bystander CPR, equip laypeople with basic CPR skills and to update life support knowledge of health staff are needed to improve outcomes. PMID:17501988

  2. An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Resuscitation Skills Retention and Performance among Health Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…

  3. Negative emotionality and cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ponirakis, A; Susman, E J; Stifter, C A

    1998-09-01

    This research examined the relations among maternal emotionality, biology, and infant outcome and autonomic nervous system reactivity (cardiac vagal tone). The sample consisted of 27 pregnant adolescents and their 3-week-old infants. Measures of anxiety, depression, anger, and saliva cortisol were obtained from the adolescents both pre- and postnatally. Infant outcome measures consisted of gestational age at delivery, birth weight, number of risk factors at birth and at 24 hr, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, abnormalities on newborn physical exam, number of resuscitation measures used on the infant, and cardiac vagal tone. Significant relations were found among the adolescent's emotionality, infant physical outcomes, and cardiac vagal tone. Higher concentrations of adolescent cortisol were associated with lower infant Apgar scores and an increased need for resuscitation measures performed on the infant. The positive association between negative emotions and better infant outcomes also was found and may reflect the sensitivity of the adolescents to their feelings and needs during pregnancy. Social support during pregnancy mediated the effects of maternal negative emotionality and infant cardiac vagal tone. PMID:9742411

  4. Can pregnant women be safely placed on cardiopulmonary bypass?

    PubMed Central

    Sepehripour, Amir H.; Lo, Tammy T.; Shipolini, Alex R.; McCormack, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether cardiopulmonary bypass can be used safely with satisfactory maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 679 papers were found using the reported searches of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. Reported measures were maternal and foetal mortality and complications, mode of delivery, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times, perfusate flow rate and temperature and maternal NYHA functional class. The most recent of the best evidence studies, a retrospective observational study of 21 pregnant patients reported early and late maternal mortalities of 4.8 and 14.3%, respectively, and a foetal mortality of 14.3%. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 53 and 35 min, respectively, and the median bypass temperature was 37°C. Three larger retrospective reviews of the literature reported maternal mortality rates of 2.9–5.1% and foetal mortality rates of 19–29%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass times ranged from 50.5 to 77.8 min. Another retrospective observational study reported maternal mortality of 13.3% and foetal mortality of 38.5%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 89.1 and 62.8 min, respectively, with a mean bypass temperature of 31.8°C. A retrospective case series reported no maternal mortality and one case of foetal mortality. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 101 and 88 min, respectively. Eight case reports described 10 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no reports of maternal mortality and one report of foetal mortality. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 105 and 50 min, respectively. We conclude that while the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

  5. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary distress with high mortality. Pulmonary involvement in European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection has been reported, whereas knowledge of potential cardiac manifestations is limited. We aimed to comprehensively investigate cardiopulmonary involvement in patients with PUUV-infection. Methods Twenty-seven hospitalised patients with PUUV-infection were examined with lung function tests, chest high-resolution CT (HRCT), echocardiography including speckle tracking strain rate analysis, ECG and measurements of cardiac biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) and troponin T. Patients were re-evaluated after 3 months. Twenty-five age and sex-matched volunteers acted as controls for echocardiography data. Results Two-thirds of the patients experienced respiratory symptoms as dry cough or dyspnoea. Gas diffusing capacity was impaired in most patients, significantly improving at follow-up but still subnormal in 38%. HRCT showed thoracic effusions or pulmonary oedema in 46% of the patients. Compared to controls, the main echocardiographic findings in patients during the acute phase were significantly higher pulmonary vascular resistance, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower left ventricular ejection fraction and impaired left atrial myocardial motion. Pathological ECG, atrial fibrillation or T-wave changes, was demonstrated in 26% of patients. NT-ProBNP concentrations were markedly increased and were inversely associated with gas diffusing capacity but positively correlated to pulmonary vascular resistance. Furthermore, patients experiencing impaired general condition at follow-up had significantly lower gas diffusing capacity and higher pulmonary vascular resistance, compared to those feeling fully recovered. Conclusions In

  6. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Lafountain, Richard A; da Silveira, Juliana Serafim; Varghese, Juliet; Mihai, Georgeta; Scandling, Debbie; Craft, Jason; Swain, Carmen B; Franco, Veronica; Raman, Subha V; Devor, Steven T; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2016-04-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]max) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for quantification of cardiac function. The combination of CPX and CMR may offer unique insights into cardiopulmonary pathophysiology; however, the MRI-compatible equipment needed to combine these tests has not been available to date. We sought to determine whether CPX testing in the MRI environment, using equipment modified for MRI yields results equivalent to those obtained in standard exercise physiology (EP) lab. Ten recreationally trained subjects completed [Formula: see text]max tests in different locations; an EP laboratory and an MRI laboratory, using site specific equipment. CMR cine images of the heart were acquired before and immediately after maximal exercise to measure cardiac function. Subjects in all tests met criteria indicating that peak exercise was achieved. Despite equipment modifications for the MRI environment, [Formula: see text]max was nearly identical between tests run in the different labs (95% lower confidence limit (LCL)  =  0.8182). The mean difference in [Formula: see text]max was less than 3.40 ml (kg/min)(-1), within the variability expected for tests performed on different days, in different locations, using different metabolic carts. MRI performed at rest and following peak exercise stress indicated cardiac output increased from 5.1  ±  1.0 l min(-1) to 16.4  ±  5.6 l min(-1), LVEF increased from 65.2  ±  3.3% to 78.4  ±  4.8%, while RVEF increased from 52.8  ±  5.3% to 63.4  ±  5.3%. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between [Formula: see text]max and stroke volume (R  =  0.788, P  =  0.006), while the correlation with cardiac output did not reach statistical significance (R

  7. Blood Transfusion Strategies for Hemostatic Resuscitation in Massive Trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Massive transfusion practices were transformed during the 1970s without solid evidence supporting the use of component therapy. A manual literature search was performed for all references to the lethal triad, acute or early coagulopathy of trauma, fresh whole blood, and component transfusion therapy in massive trauma, and damage control resuscitation. Data from recent wars suggest traditional component therapy causes a nonhemostatic resuscitation worsening the propagation of the lethal triad hastening death. These same studies also indicate the advantage of fresh whole blood over component therapy even when administered in a 1:1:1 replacement ratio. PMID:26897426

  8. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  9. Cardiopulmonary effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B

    1980-01-01

    IMV is a combination of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation. For numerous reasons, IMV is potentially more advantageous than conventional techniques. By maintaining spontaneous breathing, mechanical augmentation can be titrated to adjust alveolar minute ventilation levels to normal, thereby decreasing the incidence of respiratory alkalemia. There are major differences between the cardiopulmonary effects of IMV and conventional mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous inspiration decreases Ppl and results in better distribution of inspired gas, a better V/Q, and less physiological dead space. In addition, transmural filling pressures, venous return, and cardiac output are more normal than during conventional mechanical ventilation. Maintenance of spontaneous ventilation lowers mean Paw and pulmonary vascular resistance. If venous admixture occurs, it can be minimized by titrating PEEP. Thus, more effective therapy for hypoxemia is possible. If spontaneous breathing is to persist and be efective, work-of-breathing must be minimized. This can be accomplished best when a continuous flow of gas provides optimal CPAP to maintain FRC and to minimize the effects of decreased compliance without depressing cardiac function. PMID:7007253

  10. Association of Opioids and Sedatives with Increased Risk of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest from an Administrative Database

    PubMed Central

    Overdyk, Frank J.; Dowling, Oonagh; Marino, Joseph; Qiu, Jiejing; Chien, Hung-Lun; Erslon, Mary; Morrison, Neil; Harrison, Brooke; Dahan, Albert; Gan, Tong J.

    2016-01-01

    Background While opioid use confers a known risk for respiratory depression, the incremental risk of in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest, respiratory arrest, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPRA) has not been studied. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk profile of in-hospital CPRA for patients receiving opioids and medications with central nervous system sedating side effects (sedatives). Methods A retrospective analysis of adult inpatient discharges from 2008–2012 reported in the Premier Database. Patients were grouped into four mutually exclusive categories: (1) opioids and sedatives, (2) opioids only, (3) sedatives only, and (4) neither opioids nor sedatives. Results Among 21,276,691 inpatient discharges, 53% received opioids with or without sedatives. A total of 96,554 patients suffered CPRA (0.92 per 1000 hospital bed-days). Patients who received opioids and sedatives had an adjusted odds ratio for CPRA of 3.47 (95% CI: 3.40–3.54; p<0.0001) compared with patients not receiving opioids or sedatives. Opioids alone and sedatives alone were associated with a 1.81-fold and a 1.82-fold (p<0.0001 for both) increase in the odds of CPRA, respectively. In opioid patients, locations of CPRA were intensive care (54%), general care floor (25%), and stepdown units (15%). Only 42% of patients survived CPRA and only 22% were discharged home. Opioid patients with CPRA had mean increased hospital lengths of stay of 7.57 days and mean increased total hospital costs of $27,569. Conclusions Opioids and sedatives are independent and additive risk factors for in-hospital CPRA. The impact of opioid sparing analgesia, reduced sedative use, and better monitoring on CPRA incidence deserves further study. PMID:26913753

  11. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; Frigiola, Alessandro; Giamberti, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi; Conforti, Erika; Gavilanes, Antonio D. W.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Vles, Hans J. S.; Li Volti, Giovanni; Gazzolo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD) newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN) measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P < 0.01) during CPB and at the end of the surgical procedure. Moreover, ADN showed a flat pattern and no significant differences (P > 0.05) have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations. PMID:26417594

  12. First resuscitation of critical burn patients: progresses and problems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M; García-de-Lorenzo, A; Asensio, M J

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the aim of the resuscitation of burn patients is to maintain end-organ perfusion with fluid intake as minimal as possible. To avoid excess intake, we can improve the estimation using computer methods. Parkland and Brooke are the commonly used formulas, and recently, a new, an easy formula is been used, i.e. the 'Rule of TEN'. Fluid resuscitation should be titrated to maintain the urine output of approximately 30-35 mL/h for an average-sized adult. The most commonly used fluids are crystalloid, but the phenomenon of creep flow has renewed interest in albumin. In severely burn patients, monitoring with transpulmonary thermodilution together with lactate, ScvO2 and intraabdominal pressures is a good option. Nurse-driven protocols or computer-based resuscitation algorithms reduce the dependence on clinical decision making and decrease fluid resuscitation intake. High-dose vitamin C, propranolol, the avoidance of excessive use of morphine and mechanical ventilation are other useful resources. PMID:26873418

  13. Can the ETView VivaSight SL Rival Conventional Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope During Adult Resuscitation by Novice Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Czyzewski, Lukasz; Kurowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the ETView VivaSight SL (ETView) single-lumen airway tube with an integrated high-resolution imaging camera in a manikin-simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation scenario with and without chest compression. This was a randomized crossover manikin trial. Following a brief training session, 107 volunteer novice physicians who were inexperienced with airway management attempted to intubate a manikin using a Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC) and an ETView, with and without chest compressions. The participants were instructed to make 3 attempts in each scenario. In this trial, we compared intubation time, intubation success rates, and glottic visibility using a Cormack & Lehane Grade. Dental compression and ease of use of each device were also assessed. Median intubation times for the ETView and MAC without chest compressions were 17 (IQR, 15–19) s and 27 (IQR, 25–33) s, respectively (P < 0.001). The ETView proved more successful on the first intubation attempt than the MAC, regardless of compressions. Continuation of compressions caused an increase in intubation times for both the ETView (P = 0.27) and the MAC (P < 0.005). The ETView VivaSight SL is an effective tool for endotracheal intubation when used by novice physicians in a manikin-simulated cardiac arrest, both with and without chest compressions. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02295618. PMID:26020389

  14. Intraperitoneal Resuscitation Improves Intestinal Blood Flow Following Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, El Rasheid; Garrison, R. Neal; Spain, David A.; Matheson, Paul J.; Harris, Patrick D.; Richardson, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of peritoneal resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Summary Background Data Methods for conventional resuscitation (CR) from hemorrhagic shock (HS) often fail to restore adequate intestinal blood flow, and intestinal ischemia has been implicated in the activation of the inflammatory response. There is clinical evidence that intestinal hypoperfusion is a major factor in progressive organ failure following HS. This study presents a novel technique of peritoneal resuscitation (PR) that improves visceral perfusion. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were bled to 50% of baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) and resuscitated with shed blood plus 2 equal volumes of saline (CR). Groups were 1) sham, 2) HS + CR, and 3) HS + CR + PR with a hyperosmolar dextrose-based solution (Delflex 2.5%). Groups 1 and 2 had normal saline PR. In vivo videomicroscopy and Doppler velocimetry were used to assess terminal ileal microvascular blood flow. Endothelial cell function was assessed by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. Results Despite restored heart rate and MAP to baseline values, CR animals developed a progressive intestinal vasoconstriction and tissue hypoperfusion compared to baseline flow. PR induced an immediate and sustained vasodilation compared to baseline and a marked increase in average intestinal blood flow during the entire 2-hour post-resuscitation period. Endothelial-dependent dilator function was preserved with PR. Conclusions Despite the restoration of MAP with blood and saline infusions, progressive vasoconstriction and compromised intestinal blood flow occurs following HS/CR. Hyperosmolar PR during CR maintains intestinal blood flow and endothelial function. This is thought to be a direct effect of hyperosmolar solutions on the visceral microvessels. The addition of PR to a CR protocol prevents the splanchnic ischemia that initiates systemic inflammation. PMID:12724637

  15. Strategies to sustain a quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    van Heerden, Carlien; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many neonatal deaths can be prevented globally through effective resuscitation. South Africa (SA) committed towards attaining the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, SA’s district hospitals have the highest early neonatal mortality rates. Modifiable and avoidable causes associated with patient-related, administrative and health care provider factors contribute to neonatal mortality. A quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation could contribute towards decreasing neonatal mortality, thereby contributing towards the attainment of the MDG4. Aim The aim of this study was, (1) to explore and describe the existing situation regarding neonatal resuscitation in a district hospital, (2) to develop strategies to sustain a neonatal resuscitation quality improvement initiative and (3) to decrease neonatal mortality. Changes that occurred and the sustainability of strategies were evaluated. Setting A maternity section of a district hospital in South Africa. Methods The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model formed the theoretical framework for the study. The Problem Resolving Action Research model was applied and the study was conducted in three cycles. Purposive sampling was used for the quantitative and qualitative aspects of data collection. Data was analysed accordingly. Results The findings indicated that the strategies formulated and implemented to address factors related to neonatal resuscitation (training, equipment and stock, staff shortages, staff attitude, neonatal transport and protocols) had probable sustainability and contributed towards a reduction in neonatal mortality in the setting. Conclusion These strategies had the probability of sustainability and could potentially improve neonatal outcomes and reduce neonatal mortality to contribute toward South Africa’s’ drive to attain the MDG4. PMID:27380840

  16. Blood transfusion therapy for traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Tahara, Yoshio; Iwashita, Masayuki; Kosuge, Takayuki; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Arata, Shinju; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion therapy (BTT), which represents transplantation of living cells, poses several risks. Although BTT is necessary for trauma victims with hemorrhagic shock, it may be futile for patients with blunt traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (BT-CPA). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined the medical records of consecutive patients with T-CPA. The study period was divided into two periods: The first from 1995-1998, when we used packed red cells (PRC) regardless of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the second from 1999-2004, when we did not use PRC before ROSC. The rates of ROSC, admission to the ICU, and survival-to-discharge were compared between these two periods. Results: We studied the records of 464 patients with BT-CPA (175 in the first period and 289 in the second period). Although the rates of ROSC and admission to the ICU were statistically higher in the first period, there was no statistical difference in the rate of survival-to-discharge between these two periods. In the first period, the rate of ROSC was statistically higher in the non-BTT group than the BTT group. However, for cases in which ROSC was performed and was successful, there were no statistical differences in the rate of admission and survival-to-discharge between the first and second group, and between the BTT and non-BTT group. Conclusion: Our retrospective consecutive study shows the possibility that BTT before ROSC for BT-CPA and a treatment strategy that includes this treatment improves the success rate of ROSC, but not the survival rate. BTT is thought to be futile as a treatment for BT-CPA before ROSC. PMID:23493056

  17. Embolic Activity During In Vivo Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    DeFoe, Gordon R.; Dame, Norman A.; Farrell, Mark S.; Ross, Cathy S.; Langner, Craig W.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Neurologic injury after cardiac surgery is principally associated with emboli. Although much work has focused on surgical sources of emboli, less attention has been focused on emboli associated with the heart–lung machine. We tested whether emboli are associated with discrete processes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled between April 2008 and May 2011 at a single medical center. During each surgical procedure, emboli were counted in three CPB locations: the venous side (Channel 1), before the arterial line filter (Channel 2), and after the arterial line filter (Channel 3). We used prespecified event markers to identify perfusionist interventions. Identical circuits were used on all patients. Of the 100 patients enrolled, 62 underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 17 underwent isolated valve operations, and 21 underwent CABG plus valve. Median counts across Channels 1, 2, and 3 were 69,853, 3,017, and 1,251, respectively. The greatest contributor to emboli in Channels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were achieving the calculated CPB flow, opening of the electronic arterial line clamp, and introducing a hemofilter. The circuit technology was efficient in reducing total emboli counts from Channels 1–2 irrespective of the size of the emboli. Nearly 71% of all emboli 30–100 mm in size were removed from the circuit between Channels 2 and 3. No significant association was found between emboli counts and S100B release. Emboli occur frequently during CPB and are predominantly associated with the initiation of bypass, operation of the electronic arterial line clamp, and the initiation of a hemofilter. Continued work to reduce the occurrence of emboli is warranted. PMID:25208432

  18. A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Judith; Fries, Dietmar; Solomon, Cristina; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Ausserer, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often associated with important blood loss, allogeneic blood product usage, morbidity, and mortality. Coagulopathy during CPB is complex, and the current lack of uniformity for triggers and hemostatic agents has led to a wide variability in bleeding treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a simplified picture of the data available on patients' coagulation status at the end of CPB in order to provide relevant information for the development of tailored transfusion algorithms. A nonsystematic literature review was carried out to identify changes in coagulation parameters during CPB. Both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time increased during CPB, by a median of 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. However, there was marked variability across the published studies, indicating these tests may be unreliable for guiding hemostatic therapy. Some thrombin generation (TG) parameters were affected, as indicated by a median increase in TG lag time of 55.0%, a decrease in TG peak of 17.5%, and only a slight decrease in endogenous thrombin potential of 7%. The most affected parameters were fibrinogen levels and platelet count/function. Both plasma fibrinogen concentration and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness decreased during CPB (median change of 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively) as did platelet count (44.5%) and platelet component (34.2%). This review provides initial information regarding changes in coagulation parameters during CPB but highlights the variability in the reported results. Further studies are warranted to guide physicians on the parameters most appropriate to guide hemostatic therapy. PMID:27268940

  19. Gravity and Development of Cardiopulmonary Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Shunji; Eno, Yuko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    Cardio-pulmonary reflex, which our cardiac activity is synchronized to the respiration by autonomic nervous system regulation, is called as "respiratory sinus arrhythmia" and commonly found in adult. The physiological function of the espiratory sinus arrhythmia is considered to maximize the gas exchange during respiration cycle. This respiration induced heart rate variability (RHRV) is only found in mammals and avian showing a remarkable postnatal development, whereas no RHRV in aquatic species such as fish or amphibian. To elucidate our hypothesis that gravity exposure may plays a key role in the postnatal development of RHRV as well as its evolutional origin in these ground animals, we have studied effects of hypergravity (2G) on the postnatal development of RHRV using rat. Pregnant Wister rats were kept in centrifugal cages system for 38 days from 6th days of pregnant mother to have neonates until 23 days old. Electrocardiograph was recorded from the neonates in 2 to 23 days old in 2G group with simultaneous control (1G) group. The RHRV analysis was performed by calculating a component of Fourier power spectral coincide with the respiration frequency. In both groups, averaged resting heart rate gradually increase from 2 to 23 days old. When comparing the heart rate between the two groups, the 2G group indicated significantly lower (240± 8 bpm) than 1G control (326±21 bpm, p¡0.001) in 2 days old, where as no significance in 23 days old. The RHRV of 2 days old neonates in both groups indicated very small magnitude but significantly lower in 2G group than 1G control (p¡0.01). The RHRV gradually increase during the first 2 weeks and then rapid increased to reached 45 fold of magnitude in 1G control, whereas 69 fold in 2G group. The results strongly suggested that the postnatal innervation from respiration to cardiovascular centers was gravity dependent.

  20. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor functional down regulation in the cerebellum of hypoxic neonatal rats: neuroprotective role of glucose and oxygen, epinephrine resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Binoy; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-02-01

    Brain damage due to an episode of hypoxia remains a major problem in infants causing deficit in motor and sensory function. Molecular processes regulating the dopamine receptors play a very important role in motor and cognitive functions. Disturbances in the development of the dopaminergic system lead to dyskinesia, dystonia, tics and abnormal eye movements. The present study is to understand the hypoxic damage to the dopamine content and dopamine D(1), dopamine D(2) receptors in cerebellum and the neuroprotective effect of glucose supplementation prior to the current sequence of resuscitation-oxygen and epinephrine supplementation in neonatal rats. Dopamine content in the cerebellum showed a significant decrease in hypoxic neonatal rats when compared to control. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed a decrease in B(max) during hypoxia. The cerebellar dopamine, dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed significant decrease on supplementation of 100% oxygen alone to hypoxic rats when compared to control rats. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors mRNA showed significant decrease during epinephrine supplementation prior to resuscitation. These dopaminergic receptor alterations were reversed to near control by glucose supplementation. Thus our results suggest that glucose acts as a neuroprotective agent in dopaminergic receptors function. This has immense clinical significance to correct the resuscitation sequence in neonatal care. PMID:19720148