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Sample records for infant formula samples

  1. Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

  2. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  3. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

  4. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

  5. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  6. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  7. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  8. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  9. Changing partners: the dance of infant formula changes.

    PubMed

    Polack, F P; Khan, N; Maisels, M J

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the frequency of, reasons for, and outcome of formula changes in infants. In this survey, we interviewed a convenience sample of 100 parents in our pediatric outpatient clinic and 75 parents in private pediatric office practices regarding their baby's initial formula, changes in formula, age at change, reason for change, initiator of the change, and outcome. The infants were 30-210 days old. Sixteen of the 175 infants (9%) were started on nonstandard formulas at birth. Fifty-eight of the remaining 159 infants (36%) were changed from regular to nonstandard formulas. After using nonstandard formulas, only seven infants (4%) were ever challenged subsequently with regular formula and all did well. Colic and regurgitation were the main reasons for switching formulas. In 47% the decision to change the formula was made by the mother and in 44% by the pediatrician. Following the formula change, mothers reported improvement or complete resolution of symptoms in 80% of infants. Although published estimates of formula intolerance range from 2% to 7.5%, one in three infants experiences a formula change, suggesting that nonstandard formulas are used excessively by both mothers and physicians. Nevertheless, in the vast majority of cases, parents report that the changes result in improvement or resolution of symptoms. Thus, while this practice appears to be a simple and effective intervention, it produces a significant population of soy and other nonstandard formula-fed babies who should be drinking regular formulas. Such changes encourage a belief by parents that their infants are allergic or otherwise abnormal and could have a negative impact on subsequent child development. PMID:10618762

  10. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques. PMID:12280100

  11. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  12. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . ... Here are a few ways to save money on infant formula: DO NOT buy just one type of baby bottle at first. Try a few different types to see which kind ...

  13. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Motil, K J

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant. PMID:11021413

  14. Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chou, Pesus; Tseng, Lei-Ron; Lin, Hung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Liu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Hoa-Hsin; Lin, Min-Cheng; Ko, Ching-Fen; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Kuo, Tsung-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates who have respiratory symptoms. PMID:25340315

  15. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  16. The health implications of soy infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF) does. Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility o...

  17. Infant formula distribution and advertising in pregnancy: a hospital survey.

    PubMed

    Howard, C R; Howard, F M; Weitzman, M L

    1994-03-01

    A survey was conducted at a 526-bed community hospital in Rochester, New York, to determine the prevalence of formula advertising and distribution during pregnancy to 136 consecutive intrapartum patients. Women answered a questionnaire about their choice of infant feeding methods and prenatal exposure to formula advertising. Of those who received printed information on infant feeding, 78 percent reported that it was published by a formula company, and 65 percent recalled receiving offers for free formula during their pregnancy. The likelihood of having received such offers was the same in women who planned to breastfeed as in those who planned to formula feed. Thirty-eight percent of women obtained formula through a free offer before their infant's birth. Women who were privately cared for were more likely to have received offers for free formula (p < 0.001) than were women cared for in hospital-affiliated clinics. Ninety percent of women who received free formula prenatally reported their prenatal caregiver as a source of samples. Of samples that women obtained prenatally, 93 percent were from companies that advertise only indirectly through hospitals and physicians, whereas 7 percent were from companies that advertise directly to patients. The prevalence of formula company advertising during the prenatal care of women who deliver in this hospital is high. The continued participation of prenatal caregivers in promotion efforts of formula companies provides a negative or mixed message about the importance of breastfeeding and may be a barrier to its success. PMID:8155218

  18. [Infant formulas and soy protein-based formulas: current data].

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Ghisolfi, J; Goulet, O; Putet, G; Rieu, D; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2001-11-01

    For many years soy bean-based formulas (SBBF) were the only dietary product used for infants with cow's milk intolerance. At the present time, their place in infant nutrition is reduced as a result of the availability of new dietary products without lactose and/or cow's milk proteins and the recognition of soy bean protein allergy. There is no evidence that SBBF have any efficiency in infant colic. SBBF have no indication in the prevention of allergy, nor in premature infants' nutrition. Their main indication is the feeding of infants of vegetarian parents who do not want to use cow's milk products. Studies have shown that SBBF contain large quantities of phytoestrogens, particularly isoflavone. Because of experimental data suggesting a possible deleterious effect of phytoestrogens on the neuroendocrine maturation, the reduction of their content in SBBF must be considered. PMID:11760676

  19. Comparison of three chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular-based identification systems for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii from environmental samples from infant formulae factories.

    PubMed

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Dilasser, Françoise; Maladen, Véronique; Soudrie, Nicole; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lombard, Bertrand; Lafarge, Veŕonique

    2007-07-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an occasional contaminant of powdered infant formula that can cause rare but severe foodborne infections in infants. To determine optimal methods for the detection and identification of E. sakazakii, 38 naturally contaminated samples from infant formulae factories were analyzed by two PCR-based methods and by a method (TS 22964/RM 210) developed by the International Organization for Standardization and the International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) using three different commercial chromogenic agars. The ISO-IDF method includes two enrichment steps, plating of the second enrichment broth on E. sakazakii isolation agar (a chromogenic selective agar), picking of five typical colonies for transfer onto tryptone soy agar, and subsequent confirmation of yellow-pigmented colonies by biochemical characterization. Twenty-two of the 38 samples were positive by the culture method. E. sakazakii isolation agar (ESIA; AES Laboratoires), COMPASS agar (Biokar Diagnostics), and Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar (Oxoid) compared favorably with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG, a selective medium for Enterobacteriaceae), with positive predictive values of 86.96, 88, and 74.07%, respectively, in contrast to 47.83% for VRBG. One additional positive sample was detected using the nonpatented real-time PCR method evaluated, and those results were in 97.3% concordance with the ISO-IDF results. Some discrepancies between the results of the DuPont Qualicon BAX system and those of the ISO-IDF method could be explained by heterogeneity of contamination and sampling. Thus, both PCR-based systems were suitable for detecting and specifically identifying E. sakazakii within 1 to 2 days, and COMPASS agar and ESIA could be used interchangeably as a first-step medium to isolate presumptive E. sakazakii colonies. PMID:17685342

  20. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. PMID:26452789

  1. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821

  2. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. PMID:26471520

  3. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  4. Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E

    1996-04-01

    Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333

  5. Infant formula companies battle for breast.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

  6. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

  7. Aluminum content of infant formulas used in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, G; Aydin, A; Işimer, A; Ozalp, I; Duru, S

    1995-10-01

    In the past few years, there has been an upsurge of interest in aluminum (Al) and human health. The well-recognized manifestations of systemic Al toxicity include fracturing osteomalacia, dialysis encephalopathy, and microcytic hypochromic anemia. The role of Al in causing childhood diseases is also becoming clearer, but the safe plasma level still remains to be determined in newborns, especially in premature newborns, implying that it should be kept low. Premature infants receiving iv fluid therapy show evidence of Al loading. Additionally, the infant-feeding mixtures, especially the soy-based infant formulas, tested may be a significant additional source of Al in the diet of infants with low birthweights, and in infants and in young children with impaired renal function. Careful clinical and biochemical monitoring is warranted to determine whether it will be necessary to eliminate Al contamination of both oral and parenteral preparations used in infants and children who may be at risk for Al intoxication. In this present study, the Al content of infant feeds was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and also compared with those of breast milk, cow's milk, milk powder, and some starches that are commonly used for preparation of infant feed in Turkey. Our results show that Al content of commercially available powdered infant formulas, most of which are imported from Europe, ranged from 1.211 to 10.925 micrograms/g. The mean value was higher than that of breast milk. It was also found that the Al content of cow's milk in various containers was higher than that of breast milk. The highest Al level among cow's milk samples was in the aluminized carton box. PMID:8546886

  8. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  9. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  10. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  13. Reflections about possible nutritional supplements in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Böhles, H; Gebhardt, B; Beeg, T

    1998-06-01

    The composition of infant milk formula intends to mirror breast milk as close as possible. However, there are a variety of substances, like amino acids, fatty acids, polyamines, nucleotides, oligosaccharides, functional proteins, hormones, vitamins, and minerals, which are attributed effects in special situations. A concept is proposed to develop problem oriented "supplementation packages" for infant milk formula. PMID:9698641

  14. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  15. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbents for the extraction of mycotoxins in water samples and infant milk formula prior to high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; González-Sálamo, Javier; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and environmental friendly methodology has been developed for the analysis of a group of six mycotoxins with estrogenic activity produced by Fusarium species (i.e. zearalanone, zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol), using microdispersive SPE the symbol micro should de before dSPE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbent. Separation, determination, and quantification were achieved by HPLC coupled to ion trap MS with an ESI interface. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of µ-dSPE such as pH of the sample, amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and type and volume of elution solvent, were studied and optimized. The methodology was validated for mineral, pond, and wastewater as well as for powdered infant milk using 17β-estradiol-2,4,16,16,17-d5 (17β-E2 -D5 ) as internal standard, obtaining recoveries ranging from 85 to 120% for the three types of water samples and from 77 to 115% for powdered infant milk. RSD values were lower than 10%. The LOQs achieved were in the range 0.05-2.90 μg/L for water samples and 2.02-31.9 μg/L for powdered infant milk samples. PMID:26892029

  16. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk. PMID:26934172

  17. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations. PMID:25167218

  18. Daily intake and urinary excretion of genistein and daidzein by infants fed soy- or dairy-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Shand, N; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-12-01

    Our aims were to measure isoflavone intake from soy- and dairy-based infant formulas and breast milk and to assess the ability of infants to digest and absorb soy isoflavones by measuring daily urinary excretion rates. We recruited 29 infants: 4 received soy-based formula and 25 received dairy-based formula. We collected pooled urine samples from 3-5 disposable diapers worn during a 24-h period and developed and validated methods for extracting isoflavones from the diapers. Infants were studied every 1 or 2 wk, starting at 2-6 wk of age and continuing until 16 wk. Only soy-based formulas contained isoflavones in concentrations detectable by HPLC (limits: 0.05 mg/L for liquids and 0.1 mg/kg for solids). Soy-based formulas provided a mean (+/-SEM) daily dose of isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein) of 3.2 +/- 0.2 mg/kg body wt, which remained fairly constant (CV: 12%) regardless of age < or = 16 wk. Isoflavones were measurable in all samples from soy-fed infants, but not in urine from dairy-fed infants. Daily isoflavone excretion rates varied little among infants [range of mean individual values (mg x kg(-1) d(-1)): daidzein, 0.37 +/- 0.03 to 0.58 +/- 0.06; genistein, 0.15 +/- 0.03 to 0.32 +/- 0.04] and did not change with age < or = 16 wk. The mean percentage of the daily intake recovered in the urine of soy-fed infants was 38 +/- 4% for daidzein and 13 +/- 3% for genistein, and remained constant with age. These values are similar to those for adults and indicate that young infants are able to digest, absorb, and excrete genistein and daidzein from soy-based formulas as efficiently as do adults consuming soy products. PMID:9848517

  19. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  20. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  1. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium longum in fecal samples, duplex 5′ nuclease assays were developed. The assays, targeting rRNA gene intergenic spacer regions, were validated and compared with conventional PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods. The 5′ nuclease assays were subsequently used to determine the relative amounts of different Bifidobacterium species in fecal samples from infants receiving a standard formula or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides (OSF). A breast-fed group was studied in parallel as a reference. The results showed a significant increase in the total amount of fecal bifidobacteria (54.8% ± 9.8% to 73.4% ± 4.0%) in infants receiving the prebiotic formula (OSF), with a diversity of Bifidobacterium species similar to breast-fed infants. The intestinal microbiota of infants who received a standard formula seems to resemble a more adult-like distribution of bifidobacteria and contains relatively more B. catenulatum and B. adolescentis (2.71% ± 1.92% and 8.11% ± 4.12%, respectively, versus 0.15% ± 0.11% and 1.38% ± 0.98% for the OSF group). In conclusion, the specific prebiotic infant formula used induces a fecal microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of breast-fed infants also at the level of the different Bifidobacterium species. PMID:15870317

  2. Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder, infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; Joosten, Han; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Six Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped isolates were obtained from fruit powder (n=3), infant formula (n=2) and an infant formula production environment (n=1) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rpoB gene sequence similarities (91.2-95.8%) were obtained with Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter turicensis and Enterobacter sakazakii and the phylogenetic branch formed by these species was supported by a high bootstrap value. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates could be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by their ability to utilize melibiose, sucrose, D-arabitol, mucate and 1-O-methyl-alpha-galactopyranoside and their negative reactions for D-sorbitol utilization and the Voges-Proskauer test. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization data, and unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov. The type strain is 601/05(T) (=LMG 24057(T)=DSM 19144(T)). PMID:18175715

  3. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Infant formula cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions...

  4. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Infant formula cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions...

  5. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations. PMID:26179516

  6. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  9. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 8075, Feb. 10, 2014. The recalling...

  11. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  16. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  17. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  18. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(4):e150-e156.]. PMID:27064473

  19. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  20. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula. PMID:12077809

  1. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition. PMID:26075805

  2. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Fecal Lactobacillus Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5′ nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.1% ± 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.4% ± 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants. PMID:16597930

  3. Thermal inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Edelson-Mammel, Sharon G; Buchanan, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    The presence of low levels of Enterobacter sakazakii in dried infant formula have been linked to outbreaks of meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, particularly those who are premature or immunocompromised. In the current study, the ability of 12 strains of E. sakazakii to survive heating in rehydrated infant formula was determined at 58 degrees C with a submerged coil apparatus. The observed D58-values ranged from 30.5 to 591.9 s, with the strains appearing to fall into two distinct heat resistance phenotypes. The z-value of the most heat-resistant strain was 5.6 degrees C. When dried infant formula containing this strain was rehydrated with water preequilibrated to various temperatures, a more than 4-log reduction in E. sakazakii levels was achieved by preparing the formula with water at 70 degrees C or greater. PMID:14717352

  4. Redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L; Crum, Andrea D

    2016-04-01

    Three nationally prominent commercial powdered infant formulas generated hydrogen peroxide, ranging from 10.46 to 11.62 μM, when prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Treating infant formulas with the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly reduced H2O2 generation. In contrast, the addition of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) elevated the level of H2O2 generated in the same infant formulas by approximately 3- to 4-fold above the untreated infant formulas. The infant formulas contained ascorbate radicals ranging from about 138 nM to 40 nM. Treatment with catalase reduced the ascorbate radical contents by as much as 67%. Treatment with DTPA further reduced ascorbate radical signals to below quantifiable levels in most samples, further implicating the involvement of transition metal redox cycling in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Supportive evidence of the generation of ROS is provided using luminol-enhanced luminescence (LEL) in both model mixtures of ascorbic acid and in commercial infant formulas. PMID:26593482

  5. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  6. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  7. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... use a different liner with each feeding, which costs more. If your baby needs special formula because ... see if your insurance will help cover the cost. Not all health plans offer this coverage, but ...

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  9. Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2–12.6 ng g−1, n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3–22 ng g−1. Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

  10. Determination of perchlorate in infant formula by isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Tague, B.; Sparling, M.; Forsyth, D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in infant formula. The perchlorate was extracted from infant formula by using 20 ml of methanol and 5 ml of 1% acetic acid. All samples were spiked with 18O4 isotope-labelled perchlorate internal standard prior to extraction. After purification on a graphitised carbon solid-phase extraction column, the extracts were injected into an ion chromatography system equipped with an Ionpac AS20 column for separation of perchlorate from other anions. The presence of perchlorate in samples was quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Analysis of both perchlorate and its isotope-labelled internal standard was carried out on a Waters Quattro Ultima triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) negative ionisation mode. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 μg 1−1 for liquid infant formula and 0.95 μg kg−1 for powdered infant formula. The recovery ranged from 94% to 110% with an average of 98%. This method was used to analyse 39 infant formula, and perchlorate concentrations ranging from

  11. Growth and development during the first year of life of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula or soy formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adequacy of soy infant formulas to support growth and development is still under debate. The concerns center on the phytochemicals such as isoflavones which are associated with the soy proteins, the sole source of protein in soy infant formulas. To assess growth and development of infants fed br...

  12. Human breast milk provides better antioxidant capacity than infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abd-Ol-Azim; Jannat, Forouzandeh; Mokhtarinasab, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains all of the constituents that are required for the optimal growth and development of a neonate. It supports the development of brain, immune, and physiological systems. This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) method was used to spectophotometrically measure of TAC in breast and formula milk. One hundred and fourty (n = 140) lactating mothers agreed to participate in the study. TAC was also measured in two brands of formula milk (n = 80). The Range of TAC in human breast milk was 234.27-1442.31 μM and in two formula was 160.04-630.92 μM. The average TAC was significantly higher in breast milk (642.94 ± 241.23 μM) compared to formula milk (280.986 ± 100.34 μM) p < 0.0001. The TAC of breast milk was increased with some nutritional parameter such as increased consumption of cheese, vegetables, fruits, bread and nuts. Infants' height at the birthday was directly correlated with antioxidant capacity of breast milk, whilst a reversed correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and infant age. Based on our results, it is concluded that the TAC of breast milk is varied and affected by nutrition. It is alo observed that TAC is significantly higher in breast milk than formula, which means that breast milk provides better antioxidant potency than infant formula. PMID:24381611

  13. Readability and Content Characteristics of Powdered Infant Formula Instructions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Rosenstein, Patricia Fine; Gal, Noga

    2016-04-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess readability characteristics and layout features, including reading grade level, text point size, dimensions (length and width), diagrams, key directions (warnings, proper hygiene, preparation and use, and storage), and compliance to International Code provisions of English-language instructions affixed to a representative sample of brand-name and generic powdered, infant formula containers currently available for purchase in the US. Methods During June 2014, comprehensive Internet searches were conducted to identify brand-name powdered infant formulas currently available for purchase in the US (n = 10). The English-language instruction section affixed to each formula container was evaluated for readability characteristics and layout features, including reading grade level, text point size, dimensions (length and width), diagrams, key directions (warnings, proper hygiene, preparation and use, and storage), and compliance to International Code. Results Overall, containers were similar in circumference (50.8 ± 7.3 cm) and height (14.0 ± 0.0 cm) and held an average of 656.0 ± 12.3 g (range 629-663 g) of powdered infant formula. Both Directions for Preparation and Use and Storage Instructions sections had average reading difficulty scores at the college level. Step-by-Step Preparation Directions and Warnings and Safe Handling sections had reading difficulty between the 8th and 9th grade level. All container labels contained three diagrams depicting step-by-step preparation instructions and a feeding chart. Overall, infant formula containers reviewed in our study adhered to compliance to International Code provisions. Conclusions As negative health outcomes are associated with inappropriately prepared infant formula feedings, healthcare providers should routinely query infant caregivers regarding their formula preparation and administration practices. PMID:26649882

  14. 76 FR 32976 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on requirements related to the recall of infant formula. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Recall Regulations--21 CFR 107.230,...

  15. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. PMID:26686732

  16. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  17. Ewens sampling formulae with and without selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2007-09-01

    We shall first consider the random Dirichlet partitioning of the interval into n fragments at temperature [theta]>0. Using calculus for Dirichlet integrals, pre-asymptotic versions of the Ewens sampling formulae from finite Dirichlet partitions follow up. From these preliminaries, straightforward proofs of the usual sampling formulae from random proportions with Poisson-Dirichlet (PD)([gamma]) distribution can be obtained, while considering the Kingman limit n[NE pointing arrow][infinity], [theta][south east arrow]0, with n[theta]=[gamma]>0. In this manuscript, the Gibbs version of the Dirichlet partition with symmetric selection is considered. By use of similar series expansion calculus for Dirichlet integrals, closed-form expressions of Ewens sampling formulae in the presence of selection are obtained; special types of Bell polynomials are shown to be involved.

  18. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding. PMID:25012139

  19. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  20. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  1. Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Russell J; Jenks, Belinda H

    2004-05-01

    Soy protein has been used in infant feeding in the West for nearly 100 y. Soy protein infant formulas have evolved in this interval to become safe and effective alternatives for infants whose nutritional needs are not met with human milk or formulas based on cow's milk. Modern soy formulas meet all nutritional requirements and safety standards of the Infant Formula Act of 1980. They are commonly used in infants with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy (at least 86% effective), lactose intolerance, galactosemia, and as a vegetarian human milk substitute. Largely as a result of research in animal models, concerns have been voiced regarding isoflavones in soy infant formulas in relation to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune function, and thyroid disease. We discuss the available clinical evidence regarding each of these issues. Available evidence from adult human and infant populations indicates that dietary isoflavones in soy infant formulas do not adversely affect human growth, development, or reproduction. PMID:15113975

  2. Absorption of fortification iron from milk formulas in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Stekel, A.; Olivares, M.; Pizarro, F.; Chadud, P.; Lopez, I.; Amar, M.

    1986-06-01

    The bioavailability of iron added to different types of cows' milk formulas was studied using mono-isotopic and double-isotopic methods in 396 infants aged 5-18 mo. All the milk formulas were fortified with ferrous sulfate in concentrations varying between 10 and 19 mg elemental iron/liter. Iron absorption from low-fat milks and full-fat milks varied from 2.9 to 5.1%. A higher range of mean absorption, 5.9 to 11.3%, was observed in the same formulas with the addition of ascorbic acid at concentrations of 100 mg/l or higher (up to 800 mg/l), demonstrating its enhancing effect on iron absorption in fortified milks. The amount of milk fat, the addition of carbohydrates, or acidification did not seem to influence iron absorption.

  3. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  6. Triazine residues in raw milk and infant formulas from Spanish northwest, by a diphasic dialysis extraction.

    PubMed

    García, M Ángeles; Santaeufemia, M; Melgar, M Julia

    2012-03-01

    Residue levels of herbicides (triazines) were determined in milk by a new and sensitive analytical method. A total of 312 samples were collected (70 infant formulas and 242 raw milk) biweekly during a 24-month period. A method is reported for the analysis of triazine with extraction by diphasic dialysis and determination by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (CG/NPD) and by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to confirm positive results. Detection limits (LODs) were 0.01 mg/l for terbuthylazine, 0.07 mg/l for simazine and 0.04 mg/l for atrazine by CG/NPD. Optimal extraction was obtained with dichloromethane at 34 °C, and stirring at 200 rpm for 4 h. This extraction method improves recovery by up to 89% for terbuthylazine, 75% for simazine and 116% for atrazine. The frequency of total samples containing triazine residues was 12.50%; considering, separately, raw milk and infant formulas, this percentage was 16.11% and 5.71%, respectively. Finally, because one sample contained triazine levels slightly higher than established MRLs and owing to the known effects of these contaminants on infants health and development, urgent actions are needed for monitoring and controlling of the level of contamination in infant formula which not exceeds tolerable limit recommended by European and Spanish legislation. PMID:22137903

  7. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  8. 75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of July 9, 1996 (61 FR 36154), FDA proposed changes in the... Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant...

  9. Vitamin D and Select Fatty Acids in U.S. Infant Formulas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D, a nutrient critical to normal calcium absorption and bone health, plays a significant role in preventing rickets in infants and very young children. The 1980 Infant Formula Act and subsequent legislation mandated fortification of all infant formulas with at least 40 IU but not more than 1...

  10. Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula manufactured in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Estuningsih, Sri; Kress, Claudia; Hassan, Abdulwahed A; Akineden, Omer; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2006-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia. PMID:17186672

  11. Mechanical Milk: An Essay on the Social History of Infant Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how infant formula became an "icon of modernity" separating mothers from babies and causing health and social problems. Gives a 300-year social history of the rise in popularity of infant formula, covering aspects including the body as machine, rise of science and industrialization, formula and public health, the clean milk movement, and…

  12. The content of elements in infant formulas and drinks against mineral requirements of children.

    PubMed

    Molska, A; Gutowska, I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Noceń, I; Chlubek, D

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the content of fluorine (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the drinks for children and infant formulas, a popular supplement or substitute for breast milk produced from cow milk on an industrial scale. Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while F levels using a potentiometric method. F levels in the examined formula samples increased with the intended age range, until the intended age of 1 year, and then decreased. A lower content of Ca, Mg and Zn was observed in formulas intended for children <1 year of age and higher for older children. Fe content increased with the age range. A statistically significant higher content of Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe in samples intended for children with phenylketonuria in comparison to those intended for healthy children or children with food allergies was noted. The content of the analysed elements in juices and nectars showed the highest contents in products intended for infants (under 6 months of age). The lowest levels of elements tested were found in drinks for children over 6 months of age. In conclusion, the concentrations of the examined elements in infant formulas and juices for children were decidedly greater than the standards for the individual age groups. Although the absorption of these elements from artificial products is far lower than from breast milk, there is still the fear of consequences of excessive concentrations of these minerals. PMID:24706326

  13. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods. PMID:26811237

  14. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM. PMID:24507712

  15. Isoflavones, soy-based infant formulas, and relevance to endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Klein, K O

    1998-07-01

    For more than 60 years, soy-based infant formulas have been fed to millions of infants worldwide and studied in controlled clinical research. These products provide essential nutrients required for normal growth and development. The safety of isoflavones in soy-based products, including infant formulas, has been questioned recently owing to reports of possible endocrine effects in animals and in cultured cells. The literature offers no evidence of endocrine effects in humans from infant consumption of modern soy-based formulas. Growth is normal and no changes in the timing of puberty or in fertility rates have been reported in humans who consumed soy formulas as infants. Consequently, soy-based infant formulas continue to be a safe, nutritionally complete feeding option for most infants. PMID:9697385

  16. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 or beta position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. This is important to consider in ...

  17. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  18. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw milk and infant formulas from Spanish northwest.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Santaeufemia, M; Garcia, M A

    2010-10-01

    Residue levels of seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), widely used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or in crops used for animal feed, were determined in raw milk and infant formulas. A total of 312 samples were collected (70 from infant formulas and 242 from raw milk) biweekly during a 24-month period. Pesticides were extracted by means of a solid phase system into acetone. An extract aliquot of acetone was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Recoveries of pesticides spiked in milk samples were 62.2 - 97.2 %. The frequency of total samples containing detectable levels of OPP residues was 6.73 % in total milk and 8.67 % in raw milk. The highest percentage incidence measured was for dichlorvos (5.78 %), followed by coumaphos (2.06 %), and parathion methyl (0.83 %). The range of positive results was calculated to be between 0.005 and 0.220 mg kg(- 1). No residue was detected in the final product (infant formulas), so any risk to consumer health, especially to children's health, would be limited. PMID:20803361

  19. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  20. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-02-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a major component of bark extract of cinnamon. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is approved for use in food (21 CFR 182.60). The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. A 5-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into 10 ml samples of reconstituted infant formula (at 6.0 log CFU/ml) containing 0%, 0.15%, 0.3% or 0.5% trans-cinnamaldehyde. The samples were incubated at 37, 23, 8 or 4 degrees C for 0, 6, 10 and 24 h, and the surviving populations of E. sakazakii at each sampling time were enumerated. In addition, potential cytotoxicity of trans-cinnamaldehyde, if any, was determined on human embryonic intestinal cells (INT-407). The treatments containing trans-cinnamaldehyde significantly reduced (P<0.05) the population of E. sakazakii, compared to the controls. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.5%) reduced the pathogen to undetectable levels by 4 h of incubation at 37 or 23 degrees C and 10 h of incubation at 8 or 4 degrees C, respectively. Trans-cinnamaldehyde produced no cytotoxic effects on human embryonic intestinal cells at the tested concentrations. Results indicate that trans-cinnamaldehyde could potentially be used to kill E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula, however sensory studies are warranted before recommending its use. PMID:19091435

  1. [Infant formulas supplemented with prebiotics: intestinal microbiota and immune responses].

    PubMed

    Fanaro, S; Vigi, V

    2008-06-01

    It is well known that the type of feeding influences the composition of the gut microflora after birth. Human milk favours the growth of a ''bifidus flora'' which, according to several evidences, may activate the immune system and defend from pathogens. Breast milk oligosaccharides, which are involved in many functional effects both at local and systemic level, are thought to stimulate the growth of health promoting microbes, such as bifidobacteria, and may ultimately influence the immune system. In accordance with this current working hypothesis, dietary modulation of the gut microbiota to obtain a ''bifidus flora'' also in bottle-fed infants may be a useful way to stimulate immunological functions and to harbour a biological barrier against pathogens. In several clinical trials prebiotic oligosaccharides have been used to mimic the beneficial effects of breast milk oligosaccharides. A mixture of oligosaccharides has shown its efficacy in stimulating the establishment of a ''bifidus flora'', with stools closer to those found in breast-fed infants. Several experimental data also indicate that oligosaccharides might modulate the immune system and contribute to the improvement of the protective properties of infant formulas. PMID:18487978

  2. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. PMID:26054781

  3. Perchlorate: water and infant formulae contamination in France and risk assessment in infants.

    PubMed

    Vigreux-Besret, Carole; Mahé, Aurélie; Ledoux, Gérald; Garnier, Alexandra; Rosin, Christophe; Baert, Alain; Joyeux, Michel; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Panetier, Pascale; Rivière, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate ions ClO4(-), known to inhibit competitively the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, have been detected in drinking water in France as well as in infant formulae. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) has been established at 0.7 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) based on the inhibition of iodine uptake. Due to this mechanism of action, the iodine status could strongly influence the biological effect of perchlorate. Perchlorate concentrations in water and infant formulae were measured and the exposure of children under 6 months of age calculated. It appeared that the TDI could be exceeded in some children. As the iodine status is not optimal within the entire French population, there appears to be a need to clarify the sources of perchlorate ultimately to decrease exposure. PMID:25830716

  4. Regulating fatty acids in infant formula: critical assessment of U.S. policies and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acids in breast-milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, commonly known as DHA and ARA, contribute to the healthy development of children in various ways. However, the manufactured versions that are added to infant formula might not have the same health benefits as those in breast-milk. There is evidence that the manufactured additives might cause harm to infants’ health, and they might lead to unwarranted increases in the cost of infant formula. The addition of such fatty acids to infant formula needs to be regulated. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has primary responsibility for regulating the composition of infant formula. The central purpose of this study is to assess the FDA’s efforts with regard to the regulation of fatty acids in infant formula. Methods This study is based on critical analysis of policies and practices described in publicly available documents of the FDA, the manufacturers of fatty acids, and other relevant organizations. The broad framework for this work was set out by the author in his book on Regulating Infant Formula, published in 2011. Results The FDA does not assess the safety or the health impacts of fatty acid additives to infant formula before they are marketed, and there is no systematic assessment after marketing is underway. Rather than making its own independent assessments, the FDA accepts the manufacturers’ claims regarding their products’ safety and effectiveness. Conclusions The FDA is not adequately regulating the use of fatty acid additives to infant formula. This results in exposure of infants to potential risks. Adverse reactions are already on record. Also, the additives have led to increasing costs of infant formula despite the lack of proven benefits to normal, full term infants. There is a need for more effective regulation of DHA and ARA additives to infant formula. PMID:24433303

  5. High concentrations of essential and toxic elements in infant formula and infant foods - A matter of concern.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Palm, Brita; Grandér, Margaretha; Vahter, Marie

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed concentrations in and intake of toxic and essential elements from formulas and foods intended for infants during their first 6months of life. Concentrations of the essential elements Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Mo were significantly higher in most formulas than in breast milk. Daily intake of Mn from formula varies from ten up to several hundred times the intake of the breast fed infant, levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. One portion of infant food provided significantly more Fe, Mn, Mo, As, Cd, Pb and U than one feeding of breast milk, but less Ca, Cu and Se. Rice-based products in particular contained elevated As concentrations. Drinking water used to mix powdered formula may add significantly to the concentrations in the ready-made products. Evaluation of potentially adverse effects of the elevated element concentrations in infant formulas and foods are warranted. PMID:25214082

  6. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  7. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  8. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  9. Effects of soy infant formula on growth and development in the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of infants to potential estrogenic isoflavones has made the use of soy formula somewhat controversial. Thus, it is important to determine the long-term health consequences of feeding soy formula to infants. The Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a nonrandomized, longitud...

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  11. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  12. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic zinc absorption by infants from cow milk formula

    SciTech Connect

    Serfass, R.E.; Thompson, J.J.; Ziegler, E.E.

    1986-03-01

    Zinc 67 was injected into a cow, and the enriched milk was used to prepare a formula intrinsically labelled with /sup 67/Zn and with total zinc concentration near 2.5 mg/kg. Extrinsic label (85.03 atom percent /sup 70/Zn) was added (0.10 mg Zn/kg) as the chloride to the formula 12-24 hours before feeding. Metabolic balance studies of 72 hours duration were performed with five normal infants 152 to 397 days of age. Enriched formula was fed during the first 24 hours, followed by unenriched formula for the remainder of the time. Isotope ratios of /sup 70/Zn referenced to /sup 68/Zn were determined on formula and fecal samples by inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry of zinc extracts with relative standard deviations near 1%. Fecal enrichment of one infant did not return to baseline by the end of the balance period. For the remaining four infants zinc retention was negative, with total zinc intake between 6.8 and 8.7 mg/72 hours and total zinc excretion between 6.9 and 11.2 mg/72 hours. Zinc absorption based on balance data ranged from -26 to +12% of intake. Fractional absorption (Mean +/- S. D.) of /sup 67/Zn was 20.2 +/- 12.0% and that of /sup 70/Zn was 21.7 +/- 11.3%. The difference was not statistically significant by Student's t test for paired data. It seems that the extrinsic zinc labels were absorbed similarly.

  14. Protein-lipid interactions in concentrated infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, B.O.; Richardson, T.

    1985-12-01

    Radiolabeled milk proteins ((carbon-14) ..beta..-lactoglobulin or (carbon-14) kappa-casein) were added to raw skim milk used to prepare concentrated humanized infant formula. Ultracentrifugation of the sterilized product allowed separation of three fractions: lipids and the proteins associated with them; free casein micelles and other dense particles; and the fluid phase. Distribution of radiolabeled tracer proteins or of protein measured by chemical methods among these three phases varied significantly with differences in processing conditions (time and temperature of sterilization) or amount of certain additives (potassium hydroxide or urea). In the range of 0 to 8 meq/L of potassium hydroxide added to the formula after homogenization but before sterilization, the lipid layer content of carbon-14 from (carbon-14) kappa-casein in the sterilized product decreased by 4.7% for each 1 meq/L of added potassium hydroxide. Lipid layer content of protein decreased by 2 g/L ( of a total of 32 g/L) for each 1 meq/L potassium hydroxide.

  15. Determinants of infant formula use and relation with growth in the first 4 months.

    PubMed

    Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Hankard, Régis; Forhan, Anne; Bonet, Mercedes; Regnault, Nolwenn; Botton, Jérémie; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2014-04-01

    The wide variety of infant formula available on the market can be confusing for parents and physicians. We aimed to determine associations between predominant type of formula used from birth to 4 months and parental and child characteristics and type of physician consulted, and then to describe relations between type of formula used and growth. Our analyses included 1349 infants from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Infant's feeding mode and type of formula used were assessed at 4 months by maternal self-report. Infant's weight and height from birth to 4 months, measured in routine follow-up, were documented by health professionals in the infant's personal health record. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated by using World Health Organization growth standards. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the type of formula predominantly used; relations with growth were analysed by linear regressions. Partially hydrolysed formulas were more likely to be used by primiparous women (P < 0.001), those breastfeeding longer (P < 0.001) and for infants with family history of allergies (P = 0.002). Thickened formulas were more often used by mothers returning to employment in the first 4 months (P = 0.05) and breastfeeding shortly (P < 0.001). No significant relation was found between infant's growth and type of formula (P > 0.20). Infants breastfed shorter showed higher weight-for-age (P < 0.001) and length-for-age (P = 0.001) z-score changes between birth and 4 months. The use of a specific type of infant formula seems to be mainly related to parental characteristics. Infant's growth in the first 4 months is related to other factors than to the type of formula used. PMID:22642271

  16. Infants fed soy formula appear to maintain steady-state isoflavone concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the isoflavone pharmacokinetics of 71 healthy 3-mounth old infants (40 boys) who were exclusively fed soy-based infant formula (SF) for at least 1 mounth. Each study began after a 4-hr fast. Blood was drawn once from each infant at one of five time points: prior to feeding, 0.5, 1.5, 2...

  17. Migration of bisphenol A from can coatings to liquid infant formula during storage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Information on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from can coatings to foods during storage at room temperature is very limited, and the conclusions from the available studies are not always consistent. To investigate the effect of storage time on BPA migration from can coatings to liquid infant formula at room temperature, samples of 21 canned liquid infant formula products from different cans but the same lot as those analyzed for BPA previously were analyzed for BPA again after storage at room temperature for 10 months. Additional migration of BPA from can coatings to liquid formula during the 10-month storage period at room temperature was observed for 9 of the 21 products, with increases in BPA levels ranging from 29.8 to 110%. Significant differences between the 2007 and 2008 results (P = 0.026) were observed for only one brand of product, which had the lowest BPA levels in the 2007 survey. The BPA levels in the milk-based formula products analyzed in 2008 (mean, 6.8 ng/g) were significantly higher (P = 0.00023) than those in the milk-based formula products analyzed in 2007 (mean, 5.0 ng/g), whereas the differences in BPA levels between the soya-based formula products analyzed in 2008 (mean, 5.3 ng/g) and those analyzed in 2007 (mean, 5.8 ng/g) were not significant (P = 0.097). No obvious correlation between the product expiration date and the level of BPA migration from can coatings was observed. PMID:20003741

  18. Short communication: investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, B; Demirhan, B; Yentür, G

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201 µg/kg. The mean level (± standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 µg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061 µg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580 µg/kg, with the mean level (± standard error) being 0.5499 ± 0.0385 µg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5 µg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025 µg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants. PMID:24731644

  19. Enterobacter sakazakii in dried infant formulas and milk kitchens of maternity wards in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palcich, Gabriela; Gillio, Cintia de Moraes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Pagotto, Franco J; Farber, Jeffrey M; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This study was the first conducted in Brazil to evaluate the presence of Enterobacter sakazakii in milk-based powdered infant formula manufactured for infants 0 to 6 months of age and to examine the conditions of formula preparation and service in three hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of dried and rehydrated infant formula, environments of milk kitchens, water, bottles and nipples, utensils, and hands of personnel were analyzed, and E. sakazakii and Enterobacteriaceae populations were determined. All samples of powdered infant formula purchased at retail contained E. sakazakii at <0.3 [corrected] most probable number (MPN)/100 g. In hospital samples, E. sakazakii was found in one unopened formula can (0.3 MPN/100 g) and in the residue from one nursing bottle from hospital A. All other cans of formula from the same lot bought at a retail store contained E. sakazakii at <0.3 [corrected] MPN/100 g. The pathogen also was found in one cleaning sponge from hospital B. Enterobacteriaceae populations ranged from 10(1) to 10(5) CFU/g in cleaning aids and <5 CFU/g in all formula types (dry or rehydrated), except for the sample that contained E. sakazakii, which also was contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae at 5 CFU/g. E. sakazakii isolates were not genetically related. In an experiment in which rehydrated formula was used as the growth medium, the temperature was that of the neonatal intensive care unit (25 degrees C), and the incubation time was the average time that formula is left at room temperature while feeding the babies (up to 4 h), a 2-log increase in levels of E. sakazakii was found in the formula. Visual inspection of the facilities revealed that the hygienic conditions in the milk kitchens needed improvement. The length of time that formula is left at room temperature in the different hospitals while the babies in the neonatal intensive care unit are being fed (up to 4 h) may allow for the multiplication of E. sakazakii and thus may lead to an

  20. EEG POWER SPECTRAL CHANGES IN BREAST FED, MILK-FORMULA FED OR SOY-FORMULA FED INFANTS IN THE FIRST 6 MONTHS OF LIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of infant soy formula (SF) on brain maturation in the first 6 months of life were investigated in full-term infants by comparing spectral power of resting EEGs. Recordings (124 electrode sites on the scalp) were obtained from 38 breast fed (BF), 47 milk formula fed (MF) and 32 soy formula fe...

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0

  2. Lead and iron status of breast and formula-fed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Kasler, J.S.; Shrock, R.O.; Signs, S.A.

    1981-06-01

    We examined the iron and lead status of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from birth through the first year of life. Not only has the adequacy of iron intake of breast and formula-fed infants been questioned but also the contamination of breast milk with environmental pollutants such as Pb. In addition, it is believed that a state of Fe deficiency may promote the absorption of Pb. We compared the blood Pb and Fe levels of 23 breast-fed and 23 formula-fed infants whose mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal study determining the effects of maternal nutritional and environmental factors on the infants' subsequent growth and development. Serum iron, TIBC and %SAT values were obtained at 6 and 12 mo. Additional biochemical values including Pb and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations were obtained at birth and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Iron status was similar at 6 mo for the breast-fed and formula-fed infants, but somewhat higher for the breast-fed infants at 12 mo (NS). Results indicate no differences in Pb or EP status between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Biochemical values were within normal limits. We conclude that dietary intake of Pb and Fe by infants whether breast-feeding or formula-feeding reflects adequate Fe status and apparent safe Pb state.

  3. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  4. Economic value of atopic dermatitis prevention via infant formula use in high-risk Malaysian infants

    PubMed Central

    Bhanegaonkar, Abhijeet J; Horodniceanu, Erica G; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Woodhull, Sanjay; Khoo, Phaik Choo; Detzel, Patrick; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is best for infants and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life. For those who are unable to be breastfed, previous studies demonstrate that feeding high-risk infants with hydrolyzed formulas instead of cow's milk formula (CMF) may decrease the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To estimate the economic impact of feeding high-risk, not exclusively breastfed, urban Malaysian infants with partiallyhydrolyzed whey-based formula (PHF-W) instead of CMF for the first 17 weeks of life as an AD risk reduction strategy. Methods A cohort Markov model simulated the AD incidence and burden from birth to age 6 years in the target population fed with PHF-W vs. CMF. The model integrated published clinical and epidemiologic data, local cost data, and expert opinion. Modeled outcomes included AD-risk reduction, time spent post AD diagnosis, days without AD flare, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (direct and indirect). Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Costs are expressed in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR; MYR 1,000 = United States dollar [US $]316.50). Results Feeding a high-risk infant PHF-W vs. CMF resulted in a 14% point reduction in AD risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-23%), a 0.69-year (95% CI, 0.25-1.10) reduction in time spent post-AD diagnosis, additional 38 (95% CI, 2-94) days without AD flare, and an undiscounted gain of 0.041 (95% CI, 0.007-0.103) QALYs. The discounted AD-related 6-year cost estimates when feeding a high-risk infant with PHF-W were MYR 1,758 (US $556) (95% CI, MYR 917-3,033) and with CMF MYR 2,871 (US $909) (95% CI, MYR 1,697-4,278), resulting in a per-child net saving of MYR 1,113 (US $352) (95% CI, MYR 317-1,884) favoring PHF-W. Conclusion Using PHF-W instead of CMF in this population is expected to result in AD-related costs savings. PMID:25938073

  5. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  6. Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R; Umbach, David M; Bernbaum, Judy C; Twaddle, Nathan C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166 full-term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula, or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. A total of 381 urine, 361 saliva, and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and used similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots. Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than in the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable only in a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy formula-fed infants than in the cow milk formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies

  7. Tea polyphenols inactivate Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Fei, P; Man, C X; Lou, B B; Niu, J T; Feng, J; Sun, L H; Li, M Y; Jiang, Y J

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of tea polyphenols (TP) against 4 Cronobacter sakazakii strains with different sequence types (ST) isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF). The results showed that in normal saline, 5mg/mL of TP (pH 3.44) could eliminate approximately 7.0 log cfu/mL of C. sakazakii within 1 h; in rehydrated PIF, after acidification with HCl (pH 3.55), TP showed a stronger antibacterial activity compared with the controls (malic acid, ascorbic acid, and citric acid). Further, some differences were obvious in tolerance to TP between C. sakazakii strains with different ST. The tolerance of C. sakazakii CE1 (ST4) to TP was found to be greater than that of the other 3 C. sakazakii strains (ST1, ST8, and ST64). The results of recovered test and transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that the action of TP against C. sakazakii was an irreversible bactericidal process caused by leakage of cytoplasm. Taken together, these results indicated that TP had an effective bactericidal effect against C. sakazakii, and provided a new idea for preventing and inactivating C. sakazakii in PIF. PMID:26627860

  8. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  9. Iron fortification of infant formulas. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) strong endorsement for breastfeeding, most infants in the United States are fed some infant formula by the time they are 2 months old. The AAP Committee on Nutrition has strongly advocated iron fortification of infant formulas since 1969 as a way of reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia and its attendant sequelae during the first year.1 The 1976 statement titled "Iron Supplementation for Infants" delineated the rationale for iron supplementation, proposed daily dosages of iron, and summarized potential sources of iron in the infant diet.2 In 1989, the AAP Committee on Nutrition published a statement that addressed the issue of iron-fortified infant formulas3 and concluded that there was no convincing contraindication to iron-supplemented formulas and that continued use of "low-iron" formulas posed an unacceptable risk for iron deficiency during infancy. The current statement represents a scientific update and synthesis of the 1976 and 1989 statements with recommendations about the use of iron-fortified and low-iron formulas in term infants. PMID:10390274

  10. Trends of US Hospitals Distributing Infant Formula Packs to Breastfeeding Mothers, 2007 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer M.; Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in the prevalence of hospitals and birth centers (hereafter, hospitals) distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers in the United States from 2007 to 2013. Methods The Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey is administered every 2 years to all hospitals with registered maternity beds in the United States. Either a web- or paper-based questionnaire was distributed and completed by the person(s) most knowledgeable about breastfeeding-related hospital practices. We examined the distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers from 2007 to 2013 by state and hospital characteristics. Results The percentage of hospitals distributing infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers was 72.6% in 2007 and 31.6% in 2013, a decrease of 41 percentage points. In 2007, there was only 1 state (Rhode Island) in which <25% of hospitals distributed infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers, whereas, in 2013, there were 24 such states and territories. Distribution declined across all hospital characteristics examined, including facility type, teaching vs. non-teaching, and size (annual number of births). Conclusions The distribution of infant formula discharge packs to breastfeeding mothers declined markedly from 2007 to 2013. Discontinuing the practice of distributing infant formula discharge packs is a part of optimal, evidence-based maternity care to support mothers who want to breastfeed. PMID:26009631

  11. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  12. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography: First Action 2011.15.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Silvera, Karlene R; McSherry, Elliot; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method for the "Determination of Vitamins A (Retinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in Foods by Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study," published by Jonathan W. DeVries and Karlene R. Silvera in J. AOAC Int. in 2002. After evaluation of the original validation data, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for vitamin A, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to determining vitamin A in ready-to-eat infant and adult nutritional formula. In an effort to achieve Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for different types of infant and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels as indicated in the vitamin A (retinol) SMPR. Existing AOAC LC methods are suited for specific vitamin A analytical applications. The original method differs from existing methods in that it can be used to assay samples in all nine sectors of the food matrix. One sector of the food matrix was powdered infant formula and gave support for the First Action approval for vitamin A in infant and adult nutritional formula. In this method, standards and test samples are saponified in basic ethanol-water solution, neutralized, and diluted, converting fats to fatty acids and retinol esters to retinol. Retinol is quantitated by an LC method, using UV detection at 313 or 328 nm for retinol. Vitamin concentration is calculated by comparison of the peak heights or peak areas of retinol in test samples with those of standards. PMID:22649914

  13. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    PubMed

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments. PMID:25784954

  14. Modernization of AOAC Nutrient Methods by Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is one of the most highly regulated products in the world. To comply with global regulations and to ensure the products are manufactured within product specifications, accurate analytical testing is required. Most of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL legacy test methods for infant formula were developed and validated in the 1980s and 1990s. Although these methods performed very well for many years, infant formulas have been updated, and today's products contain many new and novel ingredients. There were a number of cases in which the legacy AOAC methods began to result in problems with the analysis of modern infant formulas, and the use of these methods caused some disputes with regulatory agencies. In 2010, AOAC reached an agreement with the International Formula Council, which has changed its name to the Infant Nutrition Council of America, regarding a project to modernize these AOAC infant-formula test methods. This agreement led to the development of Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs(®)) for 28 nutrients. After SMPR approval, methods were collected, evaluated, validated, and approved through the AOAC Official Methods(SM) process. Forty-seven methods have been approved as AOAC First Action Methods, and eight have been approved as Final Action. PMID:26822860

  15. Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335

  16. Copper and zinc status of infants fed either cow's milk or milk based formula

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.; Anderson, K.; Acosta, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    Infant formula is recommended for the first year for those infants not receiving breast milk. Except for effects on iron, biochemical consequences of feeding cow's milk or infant formula to older infants are unknown. This study compared copper and zinc status in healthy infants between 11 and 13 months of age, who had received either milk based infant formula (n = 17) or cow's milk (n = 13) as their primary beverage for a minimum of 3 months. Diet diaries were requested. Blood was drawn by venipuncture into trace mineral free heparinized tubes and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean plasma zinc levels were similar in both feeding groups: 117 +/- 22 ..mu..g/dl for formula fed infants (FFI) and 119 +/- 39 ..mu..g/dl for cow's milk fed infants (CMI). Intakes for zinc were also similar; 6.0 +/- 2.0 mg/day (FFI) and 5.7 +/- 1.5 mg/day (CMI). Mean plasma copper levels were higher in FFI compared to CMI; 118 +/- 30 ..mu..g/dl and 97 +/- 33 ..mu..g/dl respectively; however, the difference was not statistically was not significant. Intakes for copper did not differ; 0.8 +/- 0.3 mg/day for FFI and 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/day for CMI. Total energy intakes did not differ.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of an Enterobacter Species Associated with Illnesses and Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Emily E.; Ogrodzki, Pauline; Pascoe, Ben; Sheppard, Samuel K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report of the draft genome sequence of an Enterobacter species that may have been transmitted from powdered infant formula (PIF) to infants, resulting in illness. Enterobacter spp. are currently permitted in PIF, but the transmission of this strain indicates that the microbiological criteria for PIF may need revision. PMID:26769921

  18. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  19. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  20. Growth kinetics and model comparison of cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening bacterium, primarily implicated in illnesses associated with the consumption of powdered infant formula (PIF). It can cause rare but invasive infections, leading to sepsis, meningitis, or necrotizing enterocolitis in infants fed with contaminated PIF. Th...

  1. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  2. Bone mineral content in term infants fed human milk, cow milk-based formula, or soy-based formula.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) of the midportion of the humerus was measured with the Norland model 278 bone densitometer in 31 term infants fed human milk (9 inants), cow milk-based formula (11 infants), or soy protein-based formula (11 infants) over the first year of life. Serum and urine minerals, vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured to ensure that intake of minerals and vitamin D was not limiting. Mineralization was similar in all three groups. Over the first year, BMC had a significantly positive slope. However, BMC appeared to increase during the first 4 months, plateau at 6 months, and then resume an increasing pattern. Bone width (BW) increased steadily over the first year; therefore the BMC/BW ratio actually dropped at around 6 months. The BMC was also correlated with body length. "Average density," which was calculated by the formula BMC/pi (BW/2)2, showed a steady decline as age increased. The ratio of BMC to body length over the first year may be an option for comparing individual data to normal data when growth is abnormal. Uncorrected BMC is recommended as a measurement for the infant growing normally; attempts to calculate average density are discouraged. PMID:3392640

  3. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  4. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods. PMID:15240625

  5. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  6. HPLC and UPLC methods for the determination of zearalenone in noodles, cereal snacks and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Meehye; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2014-11-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg(-1) by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg(-1) by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. PMID:24912723

  7. Body composition of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula during the first 6 months of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature on the impact of infant feeding on body composition is sparse and inconclusive. We assessed body composition in infants exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life. Participants are part of the on-going prosp...

  8. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow's-milk formula, or soy formula during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to characterize growth, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content (BMC) longitudinally in breast-fed (BF), cow's milk formula-fed (CMF), or soy formula-fed (SF) healthy infants during the first year of life. Infants were assessed at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Growt...

  9. A robotic DNA purification protocol and real-time PCR for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formulae

    PubMed Central

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Dilasser, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Background Enterobacter sakazakii is the causative agent of rare but severe food-borne infections associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in infants. Rehydrated powdered infant formulae have been implicated as the source of infection in several outbreaks and sporadic cases. In this work, a real time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR assay incorporating an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed for the specific detection of E. sakazakii in foods. Performance of the assay, coupled to an automated DNA extraction system and the E. sakazakii ISO-IDF (TS 22964/RM 210) enrichment procedure, was evaluated on infant formulae and samples from production environment. Results The real-time PCR assay had 100% specificity as assessed using 35 E. sakazakii and 184 non-E. sakazakii strains. According to the E. sakazakii strains tested, the detection limits ranged from 5 to 25 genomic copies. Assays on pure cultures (including real-time PCR and DNA extraction) gave a sensitivity of about 102 to 103 CFU/ml. Out of 41 naturally contaminated infant formulae and environmental samples analysed for the presence of E. sakazakii, 23 were positive by real-time PCR and 22 by the conventional culture method, giving 97.5% concordance with the ISO-IDF reference method. Conclusion This method, combining specific real-time PCR, automated DNA extraction and ISO-IDF standard enrichments, provides a useful tool for rapid screening of E. sakazakii in food and environmental matrices. PMID:17166252

  10. Soy-based and milk-based formula may have similar effects on EEG development in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soy-based and milk-based infant formula had different effects on the development of brain physiological functions. Electroencephalographic data were collected from infants during quiet wakefulness (n = 71: 26 soy formula fed, 45 milk formula fed) at 3, ...

  11. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  12. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  13. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics/prebiotics: lessons learned with regard to documenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition systematically reviewed published evidence on the safety and health effects of the administration of formulae supplemented with probiotics and/or prebiotics compared with unsupplemented formulae. The document could serve as an example of problems relating to the choice and definition of outcomes assessing the addition of new ingredients to infant formulae. The studies were often too small with insufficient power to identify relevant effects, and the follow-up periods in the trials were too short. The clinical outcomes, even those relating to the same domain (eg, gastrointestinal infections) differed. Even if the same outcomes were measured, the definitions of the outcomes were heterogenous, often not widely agreed upon, or just lacking. The use of inappropriate outcome measures and/or their definitions may result in misleading conclusions. It may also lead to an overestimation or underestimation of potential benefits of the intervention or fail to reveal any potential benefits. There is a need for well-designed and carefully conducted randomized controlled trials, with relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria and adequate sample sizes. These studies should use validated clinical outcome measures. PMID:22955362

  14. Carrageenan analysis. Part 2: Quantification in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Kwok, S Karina; Harding, Niles I

    2014-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was validated in accordance with 21CFR Part 58 Good Laboratory Practice for Non-clinical Laboratory Studies to measure the concentration of carrageenan in dose formulations used in a 28-day piglet dietary feeding study of swine-adapted infant formulations stabilised with carrageenan. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg⁻¹ formula. The method for the measurement of carrageenan was LC-MS/MS coupled with ESI in negative-ion mode for detection. Linearity was established over the range 1.00-7.50 µg ml⁻¹. Carrageenan dose formulation samples ranging from 0 to 2250 mg kg⁻¹ of carrageenan were diluted to within the linearity range for measurement. PMID:25164195

  15. Hypersensitivity reaction in an infant fed hydrolyzed lactalbumin contained in a semielemental formula.

    PubMed

    Heyman, M B; Stoker, T W; Rudolph, C D; Frick, O L

    1990-02-01

    Following introduction of milk protein formula feedings, a 6-month-old male developed profuse, watery diarrhea progressing to shock, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Reinstitution of enteral feedings with a formula containing hydrolyzed lactalbumin (Travasorb STD) resulted in recurrence of diarrhea with fever. Intestinal and rectal biopsies showed only nonspecific inflammatory changes. He was discharged on an elemental formula (Vivonex). Twenty-three months later, while admitted for evaluation of hypophosphatemic rickets, immunologic testing using the lymphocyte migration inhibition factor (LIF) test demonstrated positive reactions, especially to alpha-lactalbumin (56% inhibition) and whole cow's milk (22%, normal of less than 20% inhibition). Skin tests revealed sensitivity to cow's milk and eggs. Soy formula also produced diarrhea and bloody stools. Protein hydrolysate formulas, touted as hypoallergenic diets, are useful in infants with intolerance to milk protein. This is the first documented case of an immunological reaction to the hydrolyzed whey protein, lactalbumin. Although protein hydrolysate formulas are effective treatment in most infants with milk protein intolerance, allergic reactions are possible. Caution and close observation should be exercised in immunologically sensitized infants rechallenged with any formula. PMID:2135732

  16. Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these phytoestrogens in early life.

    PubMed

    Setchell, K D; Zimmer-Nechemias, L; Cai, J; Heubi, J E

    1998-12-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been in use for >30 y. These formulas are manufactured from soy protein isolates and contain significant amounts of phytoestrogens of the isoflavone class. As determined by HPLC, the isoflavone compositions of commercially available formulas are similar qualitatively and quantitatively and are consistent with the isoflavone composition of soy protein isolates. Genistein, found predominantly in the form of glycosidic conjugates, accounts for >65% of the isoflavones in soy-based formulas. Total isoflavone concentrations of soy-based formulas prepared for infant feeding range from 32 to 47 mg/L, whereas isoflavone concentrations in human breast milk are only 5.6 +/- 4.4 microg/L (mean +/- SD, n = 9). Infants fed soy-based formulas are therefore exposed to 22-45 mg isoflavones/d (6-11 mg x kg body wt(-1) x d(-1)), whereas the intake of these phytoestrogens from human milk is negligible (<0.01 mg/d). The metabolic fate of isoflavones from soy-based infant formula is described. Plasma isoflavone concentrations reported previously for 4-mo-old infants fed soy-based formula were 654-1775 microg/L (mean: 979.7 microg/L: Lancet 1997:350;23-7), significantly higher than plasma concentrations of infants fed either cow-milk formula (mean +/- SD: 9.4 +/- 1.2 microg/L) or human breast milk (4.7 +/- 1.3 microg/L). The high steady state plasma concentration of isoflavones in infants fed soy-based formula is explained by reduced intestinal biotransformation, as evidenced by low or undetectable concentrations of equol and other metabolites, and is maintained by constant daily exposure from frequent feeding. Isoflavones circulate at concentrations that are 13,000-22,000-fold higher than plasma estradiol concentrations in early life. Exposure to these phytoestrogens early in life may have long-term health benefits for hormone-dependent diseases. PMID:9848516

  17. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  18. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. PMID:27279140

  19. Lead intoxication from lead-contaminated water used to reconstitute infant formula.

    PubMed

    Shannon, M; Graef, J W

    1989-08-01

    The lead found in drinking water can be a source of lead poisoning to young children, particularly those who consume large amounts of water. The authors describe a 13-month-old infant who was discovered to have plumbism during routine evaluation. The lead source was ultimately traced to the daily administration of powdered formula which was prepared with home tap water having a first-draw lead content of 130 parts per billion. This case suggests that whenever infants are fed powdered formula, consideration should be given to analysis of the home tap water for lead content. PMID:2758720

  20. Preparation and characterization of standard reference material 1849 infant/adult nutritional formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Lindstrom, Richard M; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Karen W; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M; Spatz, Rabia O; Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Turk, Gregory C; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H

    2010-01-01

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for SRM 1846 Infant Formula, issued in 1996. Extraction characteristics of SRM 1846 have changed over time, as have NIST's analytical capabilities. While certified mass fraction values were provided for five constituents in SRM 1846 (four vitamins plus iodine), certified mass fraction values for 43 constituents are provided in SRM 1849 (fatty acids, elements, and vitamins) and reference mass fraction values are provided for an additional 43 constituents including amino acids and nucleotides, making it the most extensively characterized food-matrix SRM available from NIST. PMID:20922961

  1. A New Sample Size Formula for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    The focus of this research was to determine the efficacy of a new method of selecting sample sizes for multiple linear regression. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study both empirical predictive power rates and empirical statistical power rates of the new method and seven other methods: those of C. N. Park and A. L. Dudycha (1974); J. Cohen…

  2. The structure of infant formulas impacts their lipolysis, proteolysis and disintegration during in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; De La Chevasnerie, Alix; Sams, Laura; Rousseau, Florence; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Robert, Benoît; Deglaire, Amélie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Bouhallab, Saïd; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Milk lipids supply most of the calories necessary for newborn growth in maternal milk or infant formulas. The chemical composition of infant formulas has been optimized but not the structure of the emulsion. There is still a major difference between the native emulsions of milk fat globules and processed submicronic emulsions in infant formulas. This difference may modify the kinetics of digestion of emulsions in newborns and influence lipid metabolism. To check this, semi-dynamic gastric in vitro digestions were conducted on three matrices: a standardized milk emulsion containing native milk fat globules referred to as minimally-processed emulsion and two processed model infant formulas (homogenized or homogenized/pasteurized). Gastric conditions mimicked those reported in newborns. The minimally-processed emulsion was lipolyzed and proteolyzed slower than processed formulas. The difference in initial structure persisted during digestion. The surface of the droplets was the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis kinetics, the pattern of released fatty acids and proteolysis by faster hydrolysis of adsorbed proteins. PMID:25842331

  3. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional absorption but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effe...

  4. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  5. Should Partial Hydrolysates Be Used as Starter Infant Formula? A Working Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Alarcon, Pedro; Fleischer, David; Hernell, Olle; Kolacek, Sanja; Laignelet, Hugo; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raman, Rita; Rigo, Jacques; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Van Goudoever, Hans J; von Berg, Andrea; Lee, Way S

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHFs) are increasingly used worldwide, both in the prevention of atopic disease in at-risk infants and in the therapeutic management of infants with functional gastrointestinal manifestations. Because prevention is always preferable to treatment, we reviewed the literature aiming to find an answer for the question whether pHF may be recommended for feeding all infants if breast-feeding is not possible. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2014. In addition, to search for data that remained undetected by the searches, we approached authors of relevant articles and major producers of pHFs asking for unpublished data. Because few data were found, nonrandomized, controlled trials and trials in preterm infants were included as well. Overall, only limited data could be found on the efficacy and safety of pHF in healthy term infants. Available data do not indicate that pHFs are potentially harmful for healthy, term infants. With respect to long-term outcomes, particularly referring to immune, metabolic and hormonal effects, data are, however, nonexistent. From a regulatory point of view, pHFs meet the nutrient requirements to be considered as standard formula for term healthy infants. Cost, which is different from country to country, should be considered in the decision-making process. Based on limited available data, the use of pHF in healthy infants is safe with regard to growth. The lack of data, in particular for metabolic consequences and long-term outcomes, is, however, the basis for our recommendation that health authorities should develop and support long-term follow-up studies. Efficacy and long-term safety data are required before a recommendation of this type of formula for all infants can be made. PMID:26513620

  6. Oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-07-01

    The effect of permitted antioxidants, including α-tocopherol, β-carotene, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and their combinations, on the lipid oxidation of structured lipid (SL)-based infant formula (IF) was evaluated. The 3.5% oil-in-water IF emulsion was formulated with a human milk fat analogue enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and stearidonic acid, and the antioxidants were added at 0.005% and 0.02% of the oil. The peroxide value, anisidine value, and hexanal concentration of emulsion samples were measured over a 28-day period. The results showed that whether a compound exhibited antioxidant behavior depended on its mechanism of action, polarity, concentration, and environmental conditions. The most effective antioxidant was ascorbyl palmitate at 0.005%, and a synergistic antioxidant effect was found between α-tocopherol and β-carotene. A high correlation was observed between anisidine value and hexanal content. Our findings have important implications for the successful incorporation of SL into IF products for infant nutrition and health. PMID:25704676

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  8. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Thale, Zia I; Brodin, Birger; Hansen, Steen H; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug substance mainly used in pediatric treatment of infantile spasms. The main source of nutrition for infants is breast milk and/or infant formula. Our hypothesis was that infant formula may affect the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The aim was therefore to investigate the potential effect of coadministration of infant formula with vigabatrin on the oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vigabatrin given with an infant formula on the oral uptake and transepithelial transport was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells. In vivo effects of infant formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. Oral coadministration of vigabatrin and infant formula significantly reduced Cmax and prolonged tmax of vigabatrin absorption. Ligands for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, sarcosine, and proline/l-tryptophan had similar effects on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin. The infant formula decreased the rate of gastric emptying. Here we provide experimental evidence for an in vivo role of PAT1 in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The effect of infant formula on the oral absorption of vigabatrin was found to be due to delayed gastric emptying, however, it seems reasonable that infant formula may also directly affect the intestinal absorption rate of vigabatrin possibly via PAT1. PMID:25505585

  9. Analysis of Nucleotide 5'-Monophosphates in Infant Formulas by HPLC-UV: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.20.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Indyk, Harvey E

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2011.20: 5'-Mononucleotides in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula. After the successful analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 1849a Standard Reference Material (SRM) as a practice sample, 12 laboratories participated in the analysis of duplicate samples of six different infant formula products. The samples were dissolved in high-salt solution to inhibit protein and fat interactions, with the nucleotides [uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), and cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP)] separated from the sample matrix by strong-anion exchange SPE, followed by chromatographic analysis using a C18 stationary phase with gradient elution, UV detection, and quantitation by an internal standard technique using thymidine 5'-monophosphate. For nucleotide-supplemented products, precision is within the Standard Method Performance RequirementsSM (SMPR) 2011.008 target reproducibility limit of ≤11%, with the reproducibility RSD (RSDR) estimated at 7.1-8.7% for CMP, 7.9-9.0% for UMP, 2.8-7.7% for GMP, 5.5-10.3% for IMP, and 2.7-6.2% for AMP, and Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values of 0.9-1.0 for CMP, 0.9-1.0 for UMP, 0.3-0.7 for GMP, 0.6-1.0 for IMP, and 0.3-0.7 for AMP. PMID:26268980

  10. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J.; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  11. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting; Jiang, Yujun

    2015-08-15

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  12. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  13. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  14. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  15. Effect of age on manganese uptake and retention from milk and infant formulas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Loennerdal, B.

    1986-03-01

    Manganese nutrition of the neonate is poorly understood, due in part to a paucity of information on the amount and availability of manganese in infant foods. We have developed a suckling pup model to assess the uptake of manganese from fluid diets by using extrinsic labeling. Human milk, cow milk and infant formulas were fed by intubation to fasted rat pups and adults. Rats were killed after varying time periods, and tissues were removed and counted. A period of 6 h was found to be adequate to allow for stomach emptying while limiting tissue redistribution; 24 h was found to reflect pup manganese retention. From human milk, manganese retention was highest (greater than or equal to 80%) in pups less than or equal to 15 days of age; in older pups average retention decreased to 40%. Using d 14 pups to assess relative Mn uptake from diets, wholebody Mn uptake was highest from cow milk (approximately 89%); uptake from human and cow milk formula was similar (approximately 80%) whereas it was lower from soy formula (approximately 60%). These findings suggest that bioavailability of Mn from infant diets is very high during the suckling period. Since most formulas contain considerably more manganese than is found in human milk, Mn deficiency may be less of a concern than possible toxicity from formulas.

  16. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. PMID:27234410

  17. Simultaneous Quantification of Iodine and Other Elements in Infant Formula by ICP-MS Following an Acid Digestion with Nitric Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Yukiko; Kiyotaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A method for quantifying iodine in infant formula is described. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide converted iodine into iodate in microwave-assisted digestion and prevented iodine volatilization and memory effects. Acetic acid as a carbon source was added to both the sample and standard solutions as a countermeasure against carbon charge transfer to iodine and the addition of acetic acid helped to enhance the sensitivity. The instrument limit of quantification was 0.1 ng mL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was less than 3%. The spike recoveries were between 94.8 and 106%. Good agreement with the values obtained using the tetramethylammonium hydroxide method was obtained for infant formula sold in several countries. This method permitted the simultaneous determination of iodine and 12 other important elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) in infant formula. PMID:26860560

  18. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  19. Determination of Total Iodine in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.15.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Richard S; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) using AOAC First Action Official Method(SM) 2012.15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method's intralaboratory and interlaboratory performance and submit the results to AOAC INTERNATIONAL for adoption as a Final Action Official Method for the determination of total iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. Upon providing acceptable results for practice samples National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a and a low-fat adult nutritional powder, 13 laboratories analyzed seven various infant and adult nutritional products including a blind duplicate of each. Products were chosen with varying levels of iodine and included low-fat, soy-based, and milk-based formulas and NIST SRM 1849a. Random identification numbers were assigned to each of the seven fortified test materials. Digestion of the test samples occurred using a potassium hydroxide solution in an oven or open-vessel microwave system. Iodine was stabilized with ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate after digestion. The solutions were brought to volume followed by filtration. The filtrates were then analyzed by ICP-MS after dilution. Results for all seven test samples met all the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®) 2012.008) guidelines. The RSDr ranged from 0.77 to 4.78% and the RSDR from 5.42 to 11.5%. The Horwitz ratio (HorRat) for each result was excellent, ranging from 0.35 to 1.31%. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to determine iodine in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. PMID:26525260

  20. The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a new view of the cellular mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the links between infant formula feeding and the development of atopy and obesity. Epidemiological evidence points to an allergy- and obesity-preventive effect of breastfeeding. Both allergy and obesity development have been traced back to accelerated growth early in life. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is the master regulator of cell growth, which is predominantly activated by amino acids. In contrast to breastfeeding, artificial infant formula feeding bears the risk of uncontrolled excessive protein intake overactivating the infant's mTORC1 signalling pathways. Overactivated mTORC1 enhances S6K1-mediated adipocyte differentiation, but negatively regulates growth and differentiation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which are deficient in atopic individuals. Thus, the "early protein hypothesis" not only explains increased mTORC1-mediated infant growth but also the development of mTORC1-driven diseases such as allergy and obesity due to a postnatal deviation from the appropriate axis of mTORC1-driven metabolic and immunologic programming. Remarkably, intake of fresh unpasteurized cow's milk exhibits an allergy-preventive effect in farm children associated with increased FoxP3(+) Treg numbers. In contrast to unprocessed cow's milk, formula lacks bioactive immune-regulatory microRNAs, such as microRNA-155, which plays a major role in FoxP3 expression. Uncontrolled excessive protein supply by formula feeding associated with the absence of bioactive microRNAs and bifidobacteria in formula apparently in a synergistic way result in insufficient Treg maturation. Treg deficiency allows Th2-cell differentiation promoting the development of allergic diseases. Formula-induced mTORC1 overactivation is thus the critical mechanism that explains accelerated postnatal growth, allergy and obesity development on one aberrant pathway. PMID:25071855

  1. Bone mineralization and vitamin D/calcium daily intake of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional analysis of bone mineralization during the first year of life of infants (N=107) exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life was conducted. Participants were part of the longitudinal Beginnings study. ...

  2. [Caloric balance in infants with intrauterine dystrophy fed formulas containing unmodified fats].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Z; Symonowicz, H; Koziej, M

    1979-01-01

    The small-for-Date (S-f-D) infants are treated as high risk infants with regard to some metabolic disorders. Special attention should be paid to disorders of energy metabolism. The S-f-D infants already at birth showed the symptoms and results of intrauterine undernutrition, analogical to protein-calorie malnutrition in infants with postnatal dystrophy. The most important effect of intrauterine undernutrition influencing energy metabolism of S-f-D infants were discussed. Higher calorie requirement and higher calorie losses than in full-size (FS) infants were underlined. It was noted that proper feeding may, to a great extent, lessen the results of deficits in gestational age, as well as to increase the survival ability and assure the best possible physical and mental development. As the knowledge of energy metabolism in infants, particularly in those born with intrauterine undernutrition, is insufficient the studies of calorie balance were undertaken. The investigations were carried out in 26 infants observed longitudinally and crossectionally . All infants were fed ad libitum unmodified fat and protein cow's milk formulas containing glucose instead of saccharose in the first trimester and from second trimester gluten--free flour instead of wheat flour. Other meals were given according to obligatory scheme of infants' nutrition. The results of calorie balance studies were compared with the roper data of FS infants in I trimester and II semester of life, which were described in our previous paper. The results of fat an nitrogen balances were also taken into consideration. It was found, that the calorie intake in S-f-D infants is higher, particularly in first months of life, than in FS infants. It is closely related to the degree of intrauterine dystrophy. In this respect S-f-D infants behave similarly as the infants with postnatal dystrophy, which are capable to catch-up by increased calorie intake in answer to previous undernutrition. The calorie excretion in feces

  3. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2′FL Show Growth and 2′FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marriage, Barbara J.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Williams, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the growth and tolerance of infants fed infant formulas with a caloric density closer to human milk (HM) supplemented with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and to study uptake of the HMOs. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, growth and tolerance study was conducted in healthy, singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g), who were enrolled by day of life (DOL) 5. Formula-fed infants were randomized to 1 of 3 formulas with a caloric density of 64.3 kcal/dL. Each formula contained galactooligosaccharides, and the 2 experimental formulas contained varying levels (0.2 and 1.0 g/L) of the HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL). The 3 formula groups were compared with an HM-fed reference group. Infants were exclusively fed either formula (n = 189) or HM (n = 65) from enrollment to 119 DOL. 2′FL was measured in the blood and urine collected from a subset of infants at DOL 42 and 119, and in HM collected from breast-feeding mothers at DOL 42. Results: There were no significant differences among any groups for weight, length, or head circumference growth during the 4-month study period. All of the formulas were well tolerated and comparable for average stool consistency, number of stools per day, and percent of feedings associated with spitting up or vomit. 2′FL was present in the plasma and urine of infants fed 2′FL, and there were no significant differences in 2′FL uptake relative to the concentration fed. Conclusions: This is the first report of infants fed 2′FL-fortified formulas with a caloric density similar to HM. Growth and 2′FL uptake were similar to those of HM-fed infants. PMID:26154029

  4. Severe hypoglycemic encephalopathy due to hypoallergenic formula in an infant.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Erika; Ishige, Mika; Takahashi, Yuno; Kodama, Hiroko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori

    2016-08-01

    A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible. She was found to have been fed exclusively on a hypoallergenic formula (HF) for 7 months, although she was found later to be non-allergic. Evidence of inborn metabolic diseases was absent, therefore biotin deficiency and carnitine deficiency were concluded to be a consequence of reliance on a HF for a prolonged period. Health-care professionals should warn parents of the consequences of using HF. PMID:27324861

  5. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  6. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied. PMID:11485158

  7. US hospitals violate WHO policy on the distribution of formula sample packs: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Merewood, Anne; Grossman, Xena; Cook, John; Sadacharan, Radha; Singleton, Marcella; Peters, Karen; Navidi, Tina

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, as well as most major medical authorities, opposes hospital-based distribution of free infant formula at discharge. The goal of this cross-sectional telephone survey of 3209 US maternity sites, conducted from 2006 to 2007, was to determine the extent of this practice. It was found that 91% of hospitals distributed formula sample packs, and a trend toward discontinuation of the practice was statistically significant (P < .001). It was concluded that most US hospitals distribute infant formula samples, in violation of the WHO Code and the recommendations of organizations including the US Government Accountability Office, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:20871089

  8. Identification and quantification of phosphatidylinositol in infant formulas by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Cocks, Ben; Patel, Andy; Oglobline, Alex; Richardson, Graeme; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-08-15

    Using LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS we were able to identify 10 major phosphatidylinositol (PI) species present in 32 infant formulas (IF) collected from Australia, Europe and the USA. Based on the species fingerprint, the 32 formulas can be classified into several distinct groups by PCA analysis; this grouping pattern reflects origin and the label information of the formulas. The total content of all PI species was determined by LC-Triple Quadrupole MS in negative MRM mode using external standard calibration. The content of PI showed large variation between formulas and was very high in certain cases, which is believed to be related to the use of soybean lecithin in these products. Our study indicates that the content and speciation of PIs have significant contribution to the total amount of inositol in all 32 products surveyed; this contribution may be important for the fine nutritional profile and biological functions of IF products. PMID:27006229

  9. Reproducing the bifidogenic effect of human milk in formula-fed infants: why and how?

    PubMed

    Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac

    2005-10-01

    Awareness of the key role of the intestinal microflora in the generation of the immunophysiological regulation and in the defence against pathogenic agents has attracted our interest in ways of manipulating the microbiota to improve health. Dietary modulation of the intestinal microflora is today one of the main topics of interest in the nutritional sciences. Performing this modulation in the neonatal or early infancy period, when immunological programming takes place, is a relatively new concept. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics whose bifidogenic activity has been proven in adults. However, only recently have they been combined in infant formulas to reproduce the prebiotic effect of human milk oligosaccharides. In two consecutive trials, it has been demonstrated that supplementation of infant formulas with a mixture of GOS and FOS modified the fecal flora of term and preterm infants, stimulating the growth of Bifidobacteria. In the trial with term infants, the bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic mixture was dose dependent and there was also a significant increase in the number of Lactobacilli in the supplemented group. These findings offer a promising horizon for the early prevention of allergy and infections in infants. PMID:16214759

  10. Assessment of Growth of Infants Fed an Amino Acid-Based Formula

    PubMed Central

    Corkins, Mark; Czerkies, Laura A.; Storm, Heidi M.; Sun, Shumei; Saavedra, José M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study’s primary aim was to compare the growth (daily weight gain) of infants consuming a new (Test) amino acid-based formula (AAF) or a commercially available AAF (Control). METHODS Healthy infants were randomized to Test or Control from 14 to 112 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days of age. Tolerance records were completed prior to each visit. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids were ascertained in a subset of infants at 84 days of age. RESULTS A total of 119 subjects completed the study per protocol. Mean daily weight gains were 27.26 ± 4.92 g/day for Control and 27.42 ± 6.37 g/day for Test (P = 0.8812). There were no significant differences between groups in formula intake, adverse events, flatulence, spit-up/vomiting, mood, or sleep. Albumin and plasma amino acids were within normal limits for both groups. CONCLUSIONS Infants fed the new AAF had similar daily weight gains as infants fed a commercially available AAF. PMID:26862300

  11. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  12. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula. PMID:23179103

  13. The potential mechanistic link between allergy and obesity development and infant formula feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a new view of the cellular mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the links between infant formula feeding and the development of atopy and obesity. Epidemiological evidence points to an allergy- and obesity-preventive effect of breastfeeding. Both allergy and obesity development have been traced back to accelerated growth early in life. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is the master regulator of cell growth, which is predominantly activated by amino acids. In contrast to breastfeeding, artificial infant formula feeding bears the risk of uncontrolled excessive protein intake overactivating the infant’s mTORC1 signalling pathways. Overactivated mTORC1 enhances S6K1-mediated adipocyte differentiation, but negatively regulates growth and differentiation of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which are deficient in atopic individuals. Thus, the “early protein hypothesis” not only explains increased mTORC1-mediated infant growth but also the development of mTORC1-driven diseases such as allergy and obesity due to a postnatal deviation from the appropriate axis of mTORC1-driven metabolic and immunologic programming. Remarkably, intake of fresh unpasteurized cow’s milk exhibits an allergy-preventive effect in farm children associated with increased FoxP3+ Treg numbers. In contrast to unprocessed cow’s milk, formula lacks bioactive immune-regulatory microRNAs, such as microRNA-155, which plays a major role in FoxP3 expression. Uncontrolled excessive protein supply by formula feeding associated with the absence of bioactive microRNAs and bifidobacteria in formula apparently in a synergistic way result in insufficient Treg maturation. Treg deficiency allows Th2-cell differentiation promoting the development of allergic diseases. Formula-induced mTORC1 overactivation is thus the critical mechanism that explains accelerated postnatal growth, allergy and obesity development on one aberrant pathway. PMID:25071855

  14. Fecal metabolomics of healthy breast-fed versus formula-fed infants before and during in vitro batch culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, JoMay; Panasevich, Matthew R; Alexander, Danny; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Rossoni Serao, Mariana C; Faber, Trevor A; Bauer, Laura L; Fahey, George C

    2014-05-01

    Nontargeted metabolomics analyses were used (1) to compare fecal metabolite profiles of healthy breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants before and during in vitro fermentation in batch culture and (2) to evaluate fecal metabolomics in assessing infant diet. Samples from healthy BF (n = 4) or FF (n = 4) infants were individually incubated at 37( °)C in anaerobic media containing 1% (wt/vol) galactooligosaccharides, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, inulin, and gum arabic for up to 6 h, and supernatants were analyzed using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS to assess changes in various compounds. Comparison of over 250 metabolites prior to incubation showed that BF samples contained higher relative concentrations (P ≤ 0.05) of 14 compounds including human milk oligosaccharides and other metabolites presumably transferred through breast feeding (linoelaidate, myo-inositol) (P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, feces from FF infants contained 41 identified metabolites at higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) with many indicative of carbon limitation and protein fermentation. Our data are consistent with the notion that carbon-limited cultures catabolize protein and amino acids to obtain energy, whereas the provision of fermentable carbohydrate creates anabolic conditions relying on amino acids for bacterial growth. Results also suggest that fecal metabolomics can be a useful tool for studying interactions among diet, microbes, and host. PMID:24628373

  15. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers. PMID:25730646

  16. Nonthermal Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula Milk: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, M C; Rodrigo, D; Martínez, A

    2016-07-26

    Up-to-date, nonthermal technologies and combinations of them, in accordance with the "hurdle technology" concept, are being applied by different research groups in response to calls by the International Food and Human Health Organizations (ESPGHAN, 2004; FAO/WHO, 2006, 2008) for alternatives to thermal control of Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted powdered infant formula milk. This review highlights (i) current knowledge on the application of nonthermal technologies to control C. sakazakii in infant formula milk and (ii) the importance of the application of nonthermal technologies for the control of C. sakazakii as part of the development of strategies in the context of improving food safety and quality of this product. PMID:25603362

  17. Vitamin D metabolism, mineral homeostasis, and bone mineralization in term infants fed human milk, cow milk-based formula, or soy-based formula.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S; Chow, W; Salmons, S S; Weaver, E; Erickson, M; Hansen, J

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanisms of mineral homeostasis and mineralization in term infants with recommended vitamin D intakes. Infants fed human milk (nine), cow milk-based formula (11), or soy-based formula (11) were studied at 2 weeks and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. While receiving 400 IU of vitamin D, all infants maintained serum vitamin D concentrations higher or equal to normal adult concentrations, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were maintained at or above normal adult levels. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were higher than those of adults in the formula-fed but not in the human milk-fed infants. Serum calcium and phosphorus values were similar in all groups; however, urine phosphorus excretion and urine calcium excretion were adjusted to intakes. Serum parathyroid hormone values were normal in all groups. Bone mineral content significantly increased with age similarly in all groups; however, an apparent plateau occurred at 6 months of age in all groups. Bone width steadily increased with age. Taken as a whole, these data suggest that the vitamin D-sufficient term infant fed human milk, cow milk-based formula, or the soy-based formula studied can regulate mineral metabolism within acceptable physiologic limits to attain similar levels of serum minerals and bone mineral content. PMID:3373390

  18. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable. PMID:7935739

  19. Composition and oxidative stability of a structured lipid from amaranth oil in a milk-based infant formula.

    PubMed

    Pina-Rodriguez, Ashanty M; Akoh, Casimir C

    2010-03-01

    Amaranth oil can be enzymatically modified to match breast milk fat analog requirements. We have developed a structured lipid (SL) from amaranth oil that, in combination with milk fat, delivers recommended amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with palmitic acid specifically esterified at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone. The aim of this study was to study the final fatty acid (FA) contribution and oxidation stability of an infant formula prepared using the structured lipid DCAO (DHA-containing customized amaranth oil). DCAO was included as complementary fat in a "prototype" infant formula, and prepared in parallel with a "control" infant formula under the same processing conditions. The same ingredients but different complementary fat sources were used. A blend of the most commonly used vegetable oils (palm olein, soybean, coconut, and high-oleic sunflower oils) for infant formula was used instead of DCAO in the "control" formula. Additionally, "prototype" and "control" infant formulas were compared to a "commercial" product in terms of FA composition. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the extracted fats from "prototype,"control," and "commercial" infant formulas were evaluated and compared to the OSI of the substrate fat replacers used. DCAO was the least stable compared to other fat analogs. The use of commercial antioxidants in DCAO containing products should prevent oxidation and therefore increase their stability. PMID:20492217

  20. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:24359823

  1. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples. PMID:26319718

  2. The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Kevin; Möller, Jörgen; Basarir, Hasan; Orfanos, Panagiotis; Detzel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly, highlighting the importance of understanding risk factors related to the condition. Childhood obesity, which has itself become increasingly prevalent, is an important predictor of adulthood obesity. Studies suggest that the protein content consumed in infanthood is an important predictor of weight gain in childhood, which may contribute to higher body mass index (BMI). For instance, there is evidence that a lower protein infant formula (lpIF) for infants of overweight or obese mothers can offer advantages over currently-used infant formulas with regard to preventing excessive weight gain. The current study used health economic modelling to predict the long-term clinical and economic outcomes in Mexico associated with lpIF compared to a currently-used formula. A discrete event simulation was constructed to extrapolate the outcomes of trials on the use of formula in infanthood to changes in lifetime BMI, the health outcomes due to the changes in BMI and the healthcare system costs, productivity and quality of life impact associated with these outcomes. The model predicts that individuals who receive lpIF in infancy go on to have lower BMI levels throughout their lives, are less likely to be obese or develop obesity-related disease, live longer, incur fewer health system costs and have improved productivity. Simulation-based economic modelling suggests that the benefits seen in the short term, with the use of lpIF over a currently-used formula, could translate into considerable health and economic benefits in the long term. Modelling over such long timeframes is inevitably subject to uncertainty. Further research should be undertaken to improve the certainty of the model. PMID:26729161

  3. Advanced Glycation End Products in Infant Formulas Do Not Contribute to Insulin Resistance Associated with Their Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Somoza, Veronika; Celec, Peter; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Šebeková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Infant formula-feeding is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. In rodents and healthy humans, advanced glycation end product (AGE)-rich diets exert diabetogenic effects. In comparison with human breast-milk, infant formulas contain high amounts of AGEs. We assessed the role of AGEs in infant-formula-consumption-associated insulin resistance. Methods Total plasma levels of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), AGEs-associated fluorescence (λex = 370 nm/λem = 445 nm), soluble adhesion molecules, markers of micro- binflammation (hsCRP), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes) and leptinemia were determined, and correlated with insulin sensitivity in a cross-sectional study in 166 healthy term infants aged 3-to-14 months, subdivided according to feeding regimen (breast-milk- vs. infant formula-fed) and age (3-to-6-month-olds, 7-to-10-month-olds, and 11-to-14-month-old infants). Effects of the consumption of low- vs. high-CML-containing formulas were assessed. 36 infants aged 5.8±0.3 months were followed-up 7.5±0.3 months later. Results Cross-sectional study: 3-to-6-month-olds and 7-to-10-month-old formula-fed infants presented higher total plasma CML levels and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.01, both), while only the 3-to-6-month-olds displayed lower insulin sensitivity (p<0.01) than their breast-milk-fed counterparts. 3-to-6-month-olds fed low-CML-containing formulas presented lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01), but similar insulin sensitivity compared to those on high-CML-containing formulas. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, levels of leptin and adhesion molecules did not differ significantly between the groups. Follow-up study: at initial investigation, the breast-milk-consuming infants displayed lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01) and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.05), but higher insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) than the formulas-consuming infants. At follow-up, the groups did not differ significantly in

  4. Quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate "1080" in infant formulas and dairy products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Mottier, Pascal; Dubois, Mathieu; Tan, Wan Ping; Delatour, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A fast and easy-to-use confirmatory liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based-method was developed for the analysis of the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA, also called "1080") in infant formulas and related dairy products. Extraction of the compound encompassed sample reconstitution and liquid-liquid extraction under acidic conditions. Time-consuming solid-phase extraction steps for clean-up and enrichment and tedious derivatisation were thus avoided. Resulting sample extracts were analysed by electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode. Quantification was performed by the isotopic dilution approach using (13)C-labelled MFA as internal standard. The procedure was validated according to the European document SANCO/12571/2013 and performance parameters such as linearity (r(2) > 0.99), precision (RSD(r) ≤ 9%, RSD(iR) ≤ 11%) and recovery (96-117%) fulfilled its requirements. Limit of quantifications (LOQ) was 1 µg kg(-1) for infant formulas and related dairy products except for whey proteins powders with a LOQ of 5 µg kg(-1). Method ruggedness was further assessed in another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control. PMID:26366530

  5. Determination of pesticides in milk-based infant formulas by pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mezcua, M; Repetti, M R; Agüera, A; Ferrer, C; García-Reyes, J F; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    An efficient and selective automated analytical method for the determination and quantification of a selected group of 12 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in milk-based infant formulas has been developed. The samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and analysed using GC-MS/MS. The use of alumina as the fat retainer in the PLE extraction cell, together with the application of an injector temperature program during the GC injection process, avoided typical matrix interferences without the application of additional cleanup steps. Mean recoveries of between 70 and 110% were achieved for most of the compounds, except for chlorpyrifos methyl (50%), vinclozoline (48%), fenitrothion (56%) and procymidone (53%), with relative standard deviations ranging from 9 to 17%. Low limits of quantification were obtained for the studied compounds, from 0.01 to 2.6 microg kg(-1), thus guaranteeing their accurate determination within the rigorous requirements established for baby food. The validated method was applied to a pilot monitoring study in Spain. Twenty five samples of different brands of powdered infant formulas were obtained from supermarkets. Positive findings of endosulfan I, endosulfan II, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos ethyl and bifenthrin were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 5.03 microg kg(-1). PMID:17680236

  6. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breast-fed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and in formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Salmenperä, L; Perheentupa, J; Siimes, M A

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of folate were studied in a group of exclusively breast-fed infants and their mothers (their numbers gradually decreased from 200 at birth to 7 at 12 months) and in infants completely weaned to a cow's milk formula (containing 35 micrograms of folate/L) and solid foods. The exclusively breast-fed infants were in no danger of folate deficiency; their plasma levels were elevated after the age of 2 months and, on average, were 2.0-3.3-fold higher than maternal levels throughout the study. None of these infants had an inadequate plasma concentration, whereas up to 5% of the mothers had values less than or equal to 3 micrograms/L, despite supplementation during lactation with 0.1 mg folate/day. In the formula-fed infants, 69-94% of the plasma folate concentrations lay below the lowest concentration for the breast-fed infants. Although no infant had signs of anemia or macrocytosis in red cell indices, the infants weaned earliest had the lowest hemoglobin concentrations (p = 0.09) and the highest mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (p = 0.06) at 9 months of age. Thus, an infant fed a formula containing the recommended amount of folate runs a risk of folate deficiency. PMID:3958855

  7. Bone mineral content is not reduced despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants versus cow's milk based formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Namgung, R; Kim, D H; Tsang, R C

    1998-04-01

    The effect of low or borderline vitamin D status on bone mineralization of exclusively breast milk-fed infants has not been studied. The low vitamin D status of Korean breast milk-fed infants may theoretically have adverse effects on bone mineralization. Assuming that bone mineral content (BMC) relates in part to vitamin D status, we hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and BMC would be low, and serum osteocalcin concentration high, reflecting active bone turnover, in breast milk- versus formula-fed infants born in the winter. Eighteen breast milk- and 17 formula-fed infants were recruited at ages 2 to 5 months. The BMC of the lumbar1-4 spine region was measured by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The BMC and serum osteocalcin levels were similar for both groups. The serum 25-OHD level was significantly lower in breast milk- than formula-fed infants; 44% of the breast milk group versus 6% of the formula group had serum 25-OHD levels less than 28 nmol/L (11 ng/ml), the lower limit of normal. The BMC did not correlate with the serum 25-OHD level. Thus BMC and serum osteocalcin levels in 2- to 5-month-old infants were not different by type of feeding, despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants. We speculate that adequate mineral absorption occurs during this period from a predominantly (vitamin D independent) passive transport mechanism. PMID:9580763

  8. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    PubMed

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder. PMID:26822885

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula.

    PubMed

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Growth of Infants Fed a 100% Whey Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula Compared With a Casein-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David; Czerkies, Laura; Sun, Shumei; Storm, Heidi; Saavedra, José; Sorensen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) with Bifidobacterium lactis (test) with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control). Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days) were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control). Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56%) as compared with the test (41%) group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027) with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P < .0001). The control group reported significantly more days with >3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted. PMID:27336009

  11. Anaphylactic sensitivity of guinea-pigs drinking different preparations of cows' milk and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K J; McLaughlan, P; Devey, M E; Coombs, R R

    1979-03-01

    Guinea-pigs have been given various preparations of cows' milk or infant formulae to drink in an investigation of the capacity of these milk preparations to stimulate per os anaphylactic sensitivity. The treatment, presumably heat, used to concentrate the 'Evaporated' whole cows' milks (three brands were tested) almost abolished their sensitizing capacity to beta lactoglobulin. The brand presumed to be most heated as judged by the degree of caramelization had also lost most of its sensitizing capacity to casein. Injected parenterally, the 'Evaporated' milk adequately sensitized to anaphylaxis. An infant formula, which in its spray dried form was only moderately sensitizing to both beta lactoglobulin and casein, lost most of this sensitizing capacity when processed to a liquid concentrate state. The manufacturing process for the liquid concentrate involved greater and more prolonged heating than required for the spray-dried form. The relevance of these findings in the guinea-pig to cows' milk protein intolerance in the infant and possibly also to cot death is discussed. PMID:455784

  12. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    PubMed

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015. PMID:26525259

  13. Fast HPLC-MS/MS Method for Determining Penicillin Antibiotics in Infant Formulas Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Barreiro, Rocío; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Regal, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The dairy cattle may suffer from different infections relatively often, but the inflammation of the mammary gland is very important to the farmer. These infections are frequently treated with penicillin antimicrobial drugs. However, their use may result in the presence of residues in animal products, such as milk powder and/or infant formulas, and it represents a potential risk for consumers. To monitor this, the EU has defined safe maximum residue limits (MRLs) through Commission Regulation (EU) number 37/2010. Although LC-MS is a trustful option for confirmation and quantification of antibiotics, the analysis of real samples with complex matrices frequently implies previous clean-up steps. In this work, precipitation polymerization has been used and different molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbents were tested and optimized for the fast and simultaneous solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of eight common penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and nafcillin). The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the applicability of these polymers as sorbents for the extraction of penicillins at MRL levels in milk powder (infant formulas) was proved. The limits of detection and quantification were below the legal tolerances, except for LOQ for oxacillin and cloxacillin. PMID:25785233

  14. Fast HPLC-MS/MS Method for Determining Penicillin Antibiotics in Infant Formulas Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Barreiro, Rocío; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Regal, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The dairy cattle may suffer from different infections relatively often, but the inflammation of the mammary gland is very important to the farmer. These infections are frequently treated with penicillin antimicrobial drugs. However, their use may result in the presence of residues in animal products, such as milk powder and/or infant formulas, and it represents a potential risk for consumers. To monitor this, the EU has defined safe maximum residue limits (MRLs) through Commission Regulation (EU) number 37/2010. Although LC-MS is a trustful option for confirmation and quantification of antibiotics, the analysis of real samples with complex matrices frequently implies previous clean-up steps. In this work, precipitation polymerization has been used and different molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbents were tested and optimized for the fast and simultaneous solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of eight common penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and nafcillin). The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the applicability of these polymers as sorbents for the extraction of penicillins at MRL levels in milk powder (infant formulas) was proved. The limits of detection and quantification were below the legal tolerances, except for LOQ for oxacillin and cloxacillin. PMID:25785233

  15. Effect of an α-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    PubMed Central

    Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to α-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0.16 log10 bacterial counts/g dry feces, P = .008); EF was not significantly different from HM group (P = .32). EF group stool consistency was intermediate between CF and HM groups; at week 8, EF group had softer stools than CF (5-point scale: 1 = hard, 5 = watery; consistency score 3.46 vs 2.82, P = .015) without significant differences in stool frequency. Physician-assessed hydration status was normal for all infants. Conclusions. Infant formula with 3.0 g/L OF promoted bifidobacteria growth and softer stools without adversely affecting stool frequency or hydration. PMID:25297064

  16. Parental response to health risk information: experimental results on willingness-to-pay for safer infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Isabell; Roosen, Jutta; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2009-05-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii, a pathogen that can be found in powdered infant milk formula, can cause adverse health effects on infants. Using Vickrey auction, this study examines parents' willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality assurance label on powdered infant milk formula. The influence of ambiguity with the incidence rate information and provision of safe-handling information on WTP are also evaluated using three experimental treatments. Our findings generally imply that parents significantly value a quality assurance label. The mean price premium parents are willing to pay for the safer and quality assurance labelled powdered infant milk formula ranges from 61 to 133 Eurocents per 100 grams (53-116% of the base price per 100 grams) depending on the treatment. While no ambiguity effects are generally found, provision of safe-handling information significantly reduced WTP to 39-69 Eurocents per 100 grams depending on the treatment. PMID:18613316

  17. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd) and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn) in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Clarissa S. P.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Da Cunha, Leandro R.; SouzaDe, Jurandir R.; Braga, Jez W. B.; Dórea, José G.

    2010-01-01

    In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd) and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn) in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%), southeast (29%) and south of Brazil (36%) extending as far as Argentina (7%) and the Netherlands (2%). For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590) was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children. PMID:21139877

  18. Cronobacter Species Contamination of Powdered Infant Formula and the Implications for Neonatal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kalyantanda, Gautam; Shumyak, Lyudmila; Archibald, Lennox Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter is a class of Enterobacteriaceae that cause infections in neonates, especially those born prematurely. Over 90% of these infections have been linked epidemiologically to powdered infant formula (PIF). Contamination of PIF can occur at manufacture, reconstitution, or storage of reconstituted product. Intrinsic properties that enable Cronobacter to cause disease include resistance to heat, ultraviolet radiation, oxygen radicals, stomach acids, and pasteurization; an ability to utilize sialic acid (a nutrition additive to PIF that facilitates the organism’s growth and survival), and an exceptional affinity for biofilms in enteral feeding tubes. As part of ongoing endeavors to reduce the incidence of neonatal PIF-associated Cronobacter infections, the World Health Organization and the US Food and Drug Administration have established guidelines for PIF production, preparation for infant feeding, and storage of reconstituted product. PMID:26191519

  19. Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder).

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2007-05-01

    The ubiqitous microorganism Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare contaminant of infant formula and may cause severe systemic infection in neonates. So far, other food is not known to cause E. sakazakii-infections. The scarce information about the ecology of E. sakazakii and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in children and adults warrant a summary of the current knowledge about the presence of this opportunistic microorganism in food other than infant formula. This review systematizes publications on the presence of E. sakazakii in food and beverages until June 2006. Food other than infant formula has been rarely investigated for the presence of E. sakazakii. Nevertheless, this microorganism could be isolated from a wide spectrum of food and food ingredients. E. sakazakii was isolated from plant food and food ingredients like cereal, fruit and vegetables, legume products, herbs and spices as well as from animal food sources like milk, meat and fish and products made from these foods. The spectrum of E. sakazakii-contaminated food covers both raw and processed food. The kind of processing of E. sakazakii-contaminated food was not restricted to dry products. Fresh, frozen, ready-to-eat, fermented and cooked food products as well as beverages and water suitable for the preparation of food, were found to be contaminated by E. sakazakii. Although E. sakazakii-contaminated food do not have general public health significance, measures for prevention should consider the presence of E. sakazakii in food, food ingredients, their processing and preparation as possible source of contamination, colonization or infection. PMID:17331606

  20. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  1. A critical review of methods for comparing estrogenic activity of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in human milk and infant formula.

    PubMed Central

    Borgert, Christopher J; LaKind, Judy S; Witorsch, Raphael J

    2003-01-01

    The two primary sources of nutrition for infants are human milk and infant formula. Both contain an array of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that may act through many separate hormonal mechanisms. The safety of infant nutrition sources has been questioned based on the possibility that exogenous chemicals may exert adverse effects on nursing or formula-fed infants through estrogen-mediated mechanisms. In response to these and other concerns, the National Research Council recommended assessing the estrogenic potency of natural and anthropogenic hormonally active agents. Furthermore, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifically recommended testing chemicals present in human milk as a representative mixture to which large segments of the population are exposed. To date, no clinical or epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that levels of chemicals currently found in human milk or infant formulas cause adverse effects in infants. Nonetheless, the question is sufficiently important to warrant a consideration of how best to evaluate potential estrogenic risks. We reviewed the types of data available for measuring estrogenic potency as well as methods for estimating health risks from mixtures of chemicals in infant nutrition sources that act via estrogenic mechanisms. We conclude that the science is insufficiently developed at this time to allow a credible assessment of health risks to infants based on estimates of estrogenic potency or on an understanding of toxicologic effects mediated by estrogenic mechanisms. However, clinical and epidemiologic data for infant nutrition sources may provide insights about risks of such substances in human milk and infant formulas. PMID:12826475

  2. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers. PMID:23844590

  3. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products. PMID:26821839

  4. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. PMID:26853289

  5. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  6. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  7. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the European Food Safety Authority asserted that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an optional nutrient for the term infant even when docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present. The brief rationale is based on an explicit, widespread misapplication of the concept of "essential fatty acids" to linoleic acid that implies it is uniquely required as a nutrient per se. Linoleic acid prevents acute clinical symptoms caused by polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diets and is the major precursor for ARA in most human diets. Experimental diets with ARA as the sole n-6 similarly prevent symptoms but at a lower energy percentage than linoleic acid and show ARA is a precursor for linoleic acid. The absence of consistent evidence of ARA benefit from randomized controlled trials is apparently an issue as well. This review highlights basic and clinical research relevant to ARA requirements as an adjunct to DHA in infancy. ARA is a major structural central nervous system component, where it rapidly accumulates perinatally and is required for signaling. Tracer studies show that ARA-fed infants derive about half of their total body ARA from dietary preformed ARA. Clinically, of the 3 cohorts of term infants studied with designs isolating the effects of ARA (DHA-only vs DHA+ARA), none considered ARA-specific outcomes such as vascular or immune function; the study with the highest ARA level showed significant neurocognitive benefit. All breastfed term infants of adequately nourished mothers consume both DHA and ARA. The burden of proof to substantially deviate from the composition of breastmilk is greater than that available from inherently empirical human randomized controlled trial evidence. Infant formulas with DHA but without ARA risk harm from suppression of ARA-mediated metabolism manifest among the many unstudied functions of ARA. PMID:27013482

  8. Dry stress and survival time of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Barron, Juncal Caubilla; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Powdered infant formula is not a sterile product, and opportunistic pathogens could multiply in the reconstituted product, resulting in neonatal infections. In this study, the generation of sublethally injured Enterobacteriaceae during desiccation and their persistence in dehydrated powdered infant formula was assessed during a 2.5-year period. The study included 27 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella Enteritidis, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Escherichia vulneris, Pantoea spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The number of sublethally injured cells generated during desiccation was lower for K. oxytoca, Pantoea spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and capsulated strains of E. sakazakii than for the other Enterobacteriaceae. The Enterobacteriaceae could be divided into three groups with respect to their long-term survival in the desiccated state. C. freundii, C. koseri, and E. cloacae were no longer recoverable after 6 months, and Salmonella Enteritidis, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli could not be recovered after 15 months. Pantoea spp., K. oxytoca, and E. vulneris persisted over 2 years, and some capsulated strains of E. sakazakii were still recoverable after 2.5 years. PMID:17900090

  9. Neonatal animal testing paradigms and their suitability for testing infant formula.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Edwin G

    2013-02-01

    Due to the ever increasing number of substances added to infant formula, and the fact that the majority of data determining the safety of these substances has been derived from adult animals, a search of the available data was performed to determine if an appropriate neonatal model could be found that could be used for performing toxicological safety studies. This exercise utilized three different forms of media. The first informational source is from a publication from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. The second form of informational data utilized was from simple YAHOO and Google Scholar searches on the internet. The third source of information was from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), more specifically, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Review (CDER) preclinical guidance document. Following the examination of the above informational sources, it became apparent that neonatal rats and pigs have been the most utilized of the neonatal models. Following the evaluation of the papers, the experimental paradigm which appears to be the most appropriate for testing substances new to infant formula, and could be used as a pivotal study was the neonatal pig utilizing the automated feeding device called the Autosow. PMID:22924893

  10. Choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography and suppressed conductivity: First Action 2012.20.

    PubMed

    Oates, Kassandra; Chen, Lillian; De Borba, Brian; Mohindra, Deepali; Rohrer, Jeffrey; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data from a method for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography (IC) and suppressed conductivity were generated and presented to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) at the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV, during September 30 to October 3, 2012. The ERP reviewed the data and concluded that the data met the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) established and approved the method as AOAC Official First Action. At the ERP's request, a second, full SLV was performed on 17 SPIFAN matrixes that included fortified and placebo products. Prior to IC analysis, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was used to digest and release bound choline from powder and ready-to-feed (RTF) infant formula and adult nutritional samples. Following hydrolysis, separation of choline from common cations was achieved on a Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac CS19 column followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Total choline was measured and reported as the choline ion in mg/100 g reconstituted material or RTF as-is. The system was calibrated over the analytical range specified in the SMPR (2-250 mg/100 g). Recoveries of spiked samples at 50 and 100% of the fortified choline amounts ranged from 93.1 to 100.7% with RSDs < or = 6.7% for product containing < 2 mg/100 g and < or = 4.1% for product containing 2-100 mg/100 g. Accuracy for the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a was determined over a 6-day interval and found to be 10.2 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g calculated as the reconstituted powder with an RSD of 1.8%. The LOD was determined to be 0.009, and the LOQ 0.012 mg/100 g, well below the SMPR requirements of 0.7 and 2 mg/100 g, respectively. Repeatability RSDs over the range of the assay (2-200 mg/100 g) ranged from 1.0 to 5.93% PMID:24645521

  11. A probabilistic estimation of fluoride intake by infants up to the age of 4 months from infant formula reconstituted with tap water in the fluoridated regions of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Pratt, I; Ryan, M R; Flynn, A

    2004-01-01

    Two probabilistic models were developed to estimate the acute and chronic exposure to fluoride of exclusively formula-fed infants aged 0-4 months as a result of the consumption of infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water in Ireland. The estimates were based on calculated infant formula consumption and accepted body weight standards, together with reported concentrations of fluoride in infant formula powder and measured values for the fluoride content of water in Ireland. The mean acute exposure of infants to fluoride on any single day in areas served by 387 fluoridated water supplies was estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.14 mg/kg body weight depending on age group (95th percentiles 0.2 and 0.26 mg/kg b.w., respectively). These predicted intakes were well below the intake of fluoride associated with acute toxic effects, which is considered to be 5 mg fluoride (F(-))/kg body weight. The mean chronic exposure of infants to fluoride was estimated to be between 0.106 and 0.170 mg/kg b.w./day depending on body weight (95th percentiles 0.108 and 0.172 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). This estimate described the average daily fluoride intake of infants during the first 4 months of life residing in the areas served by 226 water supplies that achieved an average yearly fluoride concentration below 1.03 mg/l. Dental fluorosis may be considered to be the only risk at these low doses and from our work it is estimated that there is a very low risk of moderate dental fluorosis of the permanent dentition in infants exposed to fluoride at these levels. PMID:15316185

  12. Late infantile tetany and secondary hyperparathyroidism in infants fed humanized cow milk formula. Longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, P S; Tsang, R C; Greer, F R; Noguchi, A; Laskarzewski, P; Steichen, J J

    1985-07-01

    Five full-term infants with birth weights appropriate for gestational age presented with hypocalcemic tetany at 5 to 9 days of age. All infants had been fed Similac 20, a cow milk formula. Initial mean serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) levels of the tetanic infants were 6.8, 9.5, and 1.6 mg/dL, respectively. The mean serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated at 79 mu LEq/mL (adult normal values, less than or equal to 57 mu LEq/mL). Following restoration of normocalcemia with Ca supplements, feeding was reinstituted with Similac 20 in two infants and Similac PM 60/40 in three infants. Serum biochemical and hormonal values were compared with those of 18 exclusively breast-fed infants followed up from three weeks to six months and 14 Similac 20-fed full-term infants followed up from one week to six months. In tetanic infants, serum Ca concentrations became elevated (10.4 +/- 0.05 mg/dL; mean +/- SEM) by six weeks (vs 9.2 +/- 0.3 mg/dL in breast-fed infants) (P less than .001) and serum Mg concentrations (2.26 +/- 0.01 mg/dL) by four weeks (vs 1.92 +/- 0.07 mg/dL in breast-fed infants) (P less than .01). Mean serum P concentrations declined progressively. Mean serum PTH concentrations were elevated and ranged from 74 to 143 mu LEq/mL at two to 16 weeks (vs mean 28 to 35 mu LEq/mL in breast-fed infants (P less than .0001). In 14 formula-fed-nontetanic full-term infants, serum PTH concentrations were intermediate between formula-fed-tetanic and breast-fed infants, mean serum Ca concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 10.4 mg/dL, and mean serum P concentrations declined from 8.3 to 7.1 mg/dL. We speculate that acute hypocalcemic tetany in the study infants was induced by the relatively high P load in cow milk formulas (vs human milk); with the continued P load, secondary hyperparathyroidism continued, maintaining P, Ca, and Mg homeostasis. PMID:3874538

  13. Multipoint NIR spectroscopy for gross composition analysis of powdered infant formula under various motion conditions.

    PubMed

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is a worldwide, industrially produced, human milk substitute. Manufacture of PIF faces strict quality controls in order to ensure that the product meets all compositional requirements. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive and well-qualified technique for food quality assessments. The use of fibre-optic NIR sensors allows measuring in-line and at real-time, and can record spectra from different stages of the process. The non-contact character of fibre-optic sensors can be enhanced by fitting collimators, which allow operation at various distances. The system, based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, records four spectra concurrently, rather than consecutively as in the "quasi-simultaneous" multipoint NIR systems. In the present study, a novel multipoint NIR spectroscopy system equipped with four fibre-optic probes with collimators was assessed to determine carbohydrate and protein contents of PIF samples under static and motion conditions (0.02, 0.15 and 0.30m/s) to simulate possible industrial scenarios. Best results were obtained under static conditions providing a R(2) of calibration of 0.95 and RMSEP values of 1.89%. Yet, considerably low values of RMSEP, for instance 2.70% at 0.15m/s, were provided with the in-motion predictions, demonstrating the system's potential for in/on-line applications at various levels of speed. The current work also evaluated the viability of using general off-line calibrations developed under static conditions for on/in-line applications subject to motion. To this end, calibrations in both modes were developed and compared. Best results were obtained with specific calibrations; however, reasonably accurate models were obtained with the general calibration. Furthermore, this work illustrated independency of the collimator-probe setup by characterizing PIF samples simultaneously recorded according to their carbohydrate content, even when measured under different conditions. Therefore

  14. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method. PMID:24053862

  15. Pharmacokinetics of isoflavones from soy infant formula in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Woodling, Kellie A; Churchwell, Mona I; Fleck, Stefanie C; Helferich, William G

    2016-06-01

    Consumption of soy infant formula represents a unique exposure scenario in which developing children ingest a mixture of endocrine-active isoflavones along with a substantial portion of daily nutrition. Genistein and daidzein were administered as glucoside conjugates to neonatal rhesus monkeys in a fortified commercial soy formula at 5, 35, and 70 days after birth. A single gavage dosing with 10 mg/kg bw genistein and 6 mg/kg bw daidzein was chosen to represent the upper range of typical daily consumption and to facilitate complete pharmacokinetic measurements for aglycone and total isoflavones and equol. Adult monkeys were also gavaged with the same formula solution at 2.8 and 1.6 mg/kg bw genistein and daidzein, respectively, and by IV injection with isoflavone aglycones (5.2 and 3.2 mg/kg bw, respectively) to determine absolute bioavailability. Significant differences in internal exposure were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys, with higher values for dose-adjusted AUC and Cmax of the active aglycone isoflavones in neonates. The magnitude and frequency of equol production by the gut microbiome were also significantly greater in adults. These findings are consistent with immaturity of metabolic and/or physiological systems in developing non-human primates that reduces total clearance of soy isoflavones from the body. PMID:27084109

  16. Partially hydrolyzed 100% whey protein infant formula and atopic dermatitis risk reduction: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Schmitt, Donald F; Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Cushing, Colleen A

    2010-04-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Clinical studies have observed reduced risks of AD among infants fed with 100% whey partially hydrolyzed infant formula (PHF-W) compared with intact protein cow's milk formula. To evaluate this potential relationship more comprehensively, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies (n = 18, representing 12 distinct study populations) that specified the protein source of the formula, evaluated healthy-term infants, compared the use of PHF-W with intact protein cow's milk formula, and reported results for AD were included. A critical assessment of the methodological quality of studies was conducted. In all studies, a reduced incidence of AD and/or atopic manifestations that included AD was observed. The cumulative incidence of AD was significantly lower among infants over at least 3 years of follow-up in the PHF-W group compared with the intact protein cow's milk group. Exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged as the primary means to prevent atopic risk. However, when infants are not exclusively breastfed, PHF-W may be considered an effective measure to potentially reduce the risk of developing AD. PMID:20416019

  17. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  18. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability. PMID:27320674

  19. A neutral sampling formula for multiple samples and an 'exact' test of neutrality.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S

    2007-07-01

    As the utility of the neutral theory of biodiversity is increasingly being recognized, there is also an increasing need for proper tools to evaluate the relative importance of neutral processes (dispersal limitation and stochasticity). One of the key features of neutral theory is its close link to data: sampling formulas, giving the probability of a data set conditional on a set of model parameters, have been developed for parameter estimation and model comparison. However, only single local samples can be handled with the currently available sampling formulas, whereas data are often available for many small spatially separated plots. Here, I present a sampling formula for multiple, spatially separated samples from the same metacommunity, which is a generalization of earlier sampling formulas. I also provide an algorithm to generate data sets with the model and I introduce a general test of neutrality that does not require an alternative model; this test compares the probability of the observed data (calculated using the new sampling formula) with the probability of model-generated data sets. I illustrate this with tree abundance data from three large Panamanian neotropical forest plots. When the test is performed with model parameters estimated from the three plots, the model cannot be rejected; however, when parameter estimates previously reported for BCI are used, the model is strongly rejected. This suggests that neutrality cannot explain the structure of the three Panamanian tree communities on the local (BCI) and regional (Panama Canal Zone) scale simultaneously. One should be aware, however, that aspects of the model other than neutrality may be responsible for its failure. I argue that the spatially implicit character of the model is a potential candidate. PMID:17542939

  20. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-02-01

    The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blends was enzymatically modified, and the blends were incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to human milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, resembling the composition of human milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blend containing a 2.5:1.1:0.8 ratio of coconut, safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme RM IM, was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio and reaction time on the incorporation of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. The fatty acid composition and sn-2 position of the experimental formulas were analyzed using gas chromatography. Results showed that the highest incorporation of palmitic acid was obtained at 12 h of incubation at 55 degrees C with a substrate molar ratio of 1:0.4 of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. However, the modified milk interesterified for 12 h at a 1:1 molar ratio had a greater resemblance to human milk compared with the other formulas. The level of oleic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position increased with the molar ratio of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. It was concluded that, unlike the original goat milk and other formulas, the formulated caprine milk with a molar ratio of 1:1 and a 12-h incubation was similar to the fatty acid composition of human milk. PMID:17235135

  1. Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meihong; Wang, Yibin; Dai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Yong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk–based formula (GMF) and cow milk–based formula (CMF). Methods The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0–3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD) was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF) and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF) at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF. PMID:26652603

  2. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  3. Determination of Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.19.

    PubMed

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.19: Chromium, Selenium, and Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products, was collaboratively studied. This method uses microwave digestion of samples with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and internal standard followed by simultaneous detection of the elements by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS instrument equipped with a collision/reaction cell. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from four different countries, using seven different models of ICP/MS instruments, analyzed blind duplicates of seven infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. One laboratory's set of data was rejected in its entirety. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for almost all of the matrixes analyzed. The Cr, Mo, and Se SPIFAN requirement for repeatability was ≤5% RSD. The SMPR called for a reproducibility of ≤15% RSD for products with ultratrace element concentrations above the targeted LOQ of 20 μg/kg Cr/Mo and 10 μg/kg Se (as ready-to-feed). During this collaborative study, RSDr ranged from 1.0 to 7.0% and RSDR ranged from 2.5 to 13.4% across all three ultratrace elements. PMID:26651583

  4. Leucine supplementation of an infant formula increases skeletal muscle and visceral tissue protein synthesis in a neonatal animal model by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low birth weight infants are often discharged weighing less than the tenth percentile for age and some remain small to adulthood with adverse long-term outcomes related to inadequate nutrition. Infant formula fortifiers had been used to improve the nutritional value of milk formulas. Leucine (Leu) a...

  5. Thermal resistance of Francisella tularensis in infant formula and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Trujillo, S; Hao, Y Y D; Whiting, R C

    2008-11-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal or oropharyngeal tularemia from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Despite the potential for accidental or intentional contamination of foods with F. tularensis, little information exists on the thermal stability of this organism in food matrices. In the present study, the thermal resistance of the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis in four food products (liquid infant formula, apple juice, mango juice, and orange juice) was investigated. D-values ranged from 12 s (57.5 degrees C) to 580 s (50 degrees C) in infant formula with a z-value of 4.37 degrees C. D-values in apple juice ranged from 8 s (57.5 degrees C) to 59 s (50 degrees C) with a z-value of 9.17 degrees C. The live vaccine strain did not survive at temperatures above 55 degrees C in mango juice and orange juice (>6-log inactivation). D-values at 55 to 47.5 degrees C were 15 to 59 s in mango juice and 16 to 105 s in orange juice with z-values of 9.28 and 12.30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that current pasteurization parameters used for destroying common foodborne bacterial pathogens are adequate for eliminating F. tularensis in the four foods tested. This study is the first to determine thermal inactivation of F. tularensis in specific foods and will permit comparisons with the thermal inactivation data of other more traditional foodborne pathogens. PMID:19044262

  6. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Gerda K; Main, Katharina M; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2005-06-01

    Daily exposure of humans to phthalates may be a health risk because animal experiments have shown these compounds can affect the differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Because milk is the main source of nutrition for infants, knowledge of phthalate levels is important for exposure and risk assessment. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative analytical procedure for determination of phthalate metabolites in human milk. The phthalate monoesters investigated were: monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP), monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP), and monoisononyl phthalate (mNP). The method is based on liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and cyclohexane (95:5) followed by two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE). Detection and quantification of the phthalate monoesters were accomplished by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a Betasil phenyl column (100 mmx2.1 mmx3 microm) and triple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Detection limits were in the range 0.01 to 0.5 microg L(-1) and method variation was from 5 to 15%. Analysis of 36 milk samples showed that all these phthalates were present, albeit at different concentrations. Median values (microg L(-1)) obtained were 0.11 (mMP), 0.95 (mEP), 3.5 (mBP), 0.8 (mBzP), 9.5 (mEHP), and 101 (mNP). We also analysed seven samples of consumer milk and ten samples of infant formula. Only mBP and mEHP were detected in these samples, in the ranges 0.6-3.9 microg L(-1) (mBP) and 5.6-9.9 microg L(-1) (mEHP). PMID:15933851

  7. Characterization and subtyping of Cronobacter spp. from imported powdered infant formulae in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Terragno, R; Salve, A; Pichel, M; Epszteyn, S; Brengi, S; Binsztein, N

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii), have been associated with severe foodborne infections in neonates and immunocompromised infants. In Argentina, we have isolated Cronobacter spp. from three different brands of imported powdered infant formulae (PIF). The objectives of this work were to characterize the recovered isolates phenotypically and to evaluate the use of a Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol for Cronobacter spp. subtyping. Out of 23 isolates studied from three brands of PIF (20 of brand A, 1 of brand B and 2 of brand C), 22 were identified as C. sakazakii and 1 as C. malonaticus. All isolates were susceptible to twelve antimicrobial agents assayed. The 19 C. sakazakii isolates of brand A showed five XbaI-PFGE patterns and the genetic clusters revealed by XbaI were confirmed with a second restriction enzyme, SpeI. The isolate from brand B showed the same XbaI and SpeI patterns as those of a group of isolates of brand A, suggesting a possible common source of contamination. The C. sakazakii isolates of brand C exhibited two unique XbaI-PFGE patterns, unrelated to the rest. Different genetic subtypes were found among isolates of a single batch of PIF from brand A and the single C. malonaticus strain also showed a distinct XbaI-PFGE pattern. PMID:19897269

  8. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  9. Effects of Preculturing Conditions on Lag Time and Specific Growth Rate of Enterobacter sakazakii in Reconstituted Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kandhai, M. C.; Reij, M. W.; Grognou, C.; van Schothorst, M.; Gorris, L. G. M.; Zwietering, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii can be present, although in low levels, in dry powdered infant formulae, and it has been linked to cases of meningitis in neonates, especially those born prematurely. In order to prevent illness, product contamination at manufacture and during preparation, as well as growth after reconstitution, must be minimized by appropriate control measures. In this publication, several determinants of the growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula are reported. The following key growth parameters were determined: lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density. Cells were harvested at different phases of growth and spiked into powdered infant formula. After reconstitution in sterile water, E. sakazakii was able to grow at temperatures between 8 and 47°C. The estimated optimal growth temperature was 39.4°C, whereas the optimal specific growth rate was 2.31 h−1. The effect of temperature on the specific growth rate was described with two secondary growth models. The resulting minimum and maximum temperatures estimated with the secondary Rosso equation were 3.6°C and 47.6°C, respectively. The estimated lag time varied from 83.3 ± 18.7 h at 10°C to 1.73 ± 0.43 h at 37°C and could be described with the hyperbolic model and reciprocal square root relation. Cells harvested at different phases of growth did not exhibit significant differences in either specific growth rate or lag time. Strains did not have different lag times, and lag times were short given that the cells had spent several (3 to 10) days in dry powdered infant formula. The growth rates and lag times at various temperatures obtained in this study may help in calculations of the period for which reconstituted infant formula can be stored at a specific temperature without detrimental impact on health. PMID:16597976

  10. Determination of Free and Total Choline and Carnitine in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.10.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David J; Shippar, Jeffrey J; Gilmore, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of both L-carnitine and choline are needed for reliable and accurate determination in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These compounds are different in how they are utilized by the human body, but are structurally similar. L-carnitine and choline are quaternary ammonium compounds, enabling both to be retained under acidic conditions with strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography. This method analyzes both compounds simultaneously as either the free forms or as a total amount that includes bound sources such as phosphatidylcholine or acetylcarnitine. The free analysis consists of water extraction and analysis by LC/MS/MS, while the total analysis consists of extraction by acid assisted microwave hydrolysis and analysis by LC/MS/MS. Calibration standards used for calculations are extracted with all samples in the batch. A single laboratory validation (SLV) was performed following the guidelines of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) utilizing the kit of materials provided. The results achieved meet the requirements of SMPR 2012.010 and 2012.013 for L-carnitine and total choline, respectively. PMID:26822979

  11. Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry A Performance Evaluation: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.06.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Pacquette, Lawrence; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of 12 minerals and trace elements (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) in infant formula and adult/ pediatric nutritional formula was developed and evaluated in a single-laboratory validation. Some additional reproducibility data were obtained from a small interlaboratory study. The method involves microwave digestion of the sample followed by inductively coupled plasma/MS and uses Ge and Te as internal standards. The method is an extension of Official Method(SM) 2011.19 and was compared to AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) 2011.009 and 2014.004 developed by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). Repeatability precision for the 12 elements in 11 SPIFAN matrixes and National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a was <5%, meeting the SMPR criterion for repeatability. Intermediate reproducibility (8 days, two analysts, two instruments) in the 11 SPIFAN matrixes was <5% for nine (Na, Mg, P, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) of the 12 elements in all 11 matrixes. The mean reproducibility across 6-7 laboratories and seven SPIFAN matrixes ranged from 2.5% for Cu to 7.1% for P. Recovery from spiked matrixes varied from 90.1 to 109%, and accuracy of determination using SRM 1849a ranged from 96.2 to 107.7%, meeting the requirement of 90-110% recovery/accuracy. PMID:26651584

  12. Molecular Ecological Analysis of Fecal Bacterial Populations from Term Infants Fed Formula Supplemented with Selected Blends of Prebiotics▿

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Gaskins, H. Rex; Collier, Chad T.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Rai, Deshanie; Petschow, Bryon; Russell, W. Michael; Harris, Cheryl; Mackie, Roderick I.; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Walker, D. Carey

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotic ingredients continues the effort to mimic functional properties of human milk. In this double-blind, controlled, 28-day study, healthy term infants received control formula (control group; n = 25) or control formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) (4 g/liter) (PG4 group; n = 27) or with PDX, GOS, and lactulose (LOS) (either 4 g/liter [PGL4 group; n = 27] or 8 g/liter [PGL8 group; n = 25]). A parallel breast-fed group (BF group) (n = 30) was included. Stool characteristics, formula tolerance, and adverse events were monitored. Fecal bacterial subpopulations were evaluated by culture-based selective enumeration (Enterobacteriaceae), quantitative real-time PCR (Clostridium clusters I, XI, and XIV, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Bifidobacterium). Fecal bacterial community profiles were examined by using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The daily stool consistency was significantly softer or looser in the BF group than in all of the groups that received formula. The formulas were well tolerated, and the incidences of adverse events did not differ among feeding groups. Few significant changes in bacterial subpopulations were observed at any time point. The bacterial communities were stable; individual profiles tended to cluster by subject rather than by group. Post hoc analysis, however, demonstrated that the bacterial community profiles for subjects in the BF, PG4, PGL4, and PGL8 groups that first received formula at a younger age were less stable than the profiles for subjects in the same groups that received formula at an older age, but there was no difference for the control group. These data indicate that formulas containing PDX, GOS, and LOS blends are more likely to influence gut microbes when administration is begun in early infancy and justify further investigation of the age-related effects of

  13. The influence of infant diet on early developmental changes in processing human voice speech stimuli: ERP variations in breast and milk formula-fed infants at three and six months after birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk...

  14. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF. PMID:26432620

  15. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  16. Growth of Cronobacter spp. under dynamic temperature conditions occurring during cooling of reconstituted powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Breeuwer, P; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H; Reij, M W

    2009-12-01

    Reconstituted infant formulae are excellent growth media for Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) and other microorganisms that may be present in such products. Immediate consumption or rapid cooling and storage at a low temperature are therefore recommended as control measures to prevent microbial growth. Placing a container filled with reconstituted liquid formula in the refrigerator, however, does not mean that the temperature of the liquid is directly the same as the set-point of the refrigerator. This study describes the temperature profiles and methods to predict lag time and possible growth of Cronobacter spp. during the cooling process in three types of containers. The overall heat transfer coefficients (alpha) were determined and were shown to have a very large variability in both household refrigerators and an air-ventilated refrigerator equipped with a fan. A mathematical model was built to predict the growth of Cronobacter spp. under dynamic temperature conditions using three models for the lag time. The various estimations for the lag time had a remarkably strong impact on the predicted growth. The assumption of a constant k-value (k = lag time x specific growth rate = lambda x micro = 2.88) fitted the experimental data best. Predictions taking into account the large variability in heat transfer showed that proliferation of Cronobacter spp. during cooling may be prevented by limiting the volume to be cooled to portion size only, or by reconstituting at temperatures of 25 degrees C or lower. The model may also be used to predict growth in other situations where dynamic temperature conditions exist. PMID:20003730

  17. Determination of Myo-Inositol in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometric Detection with Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.18.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.18, Myo-Inositol (Free and Bound as Phosphatidylinositol) in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. With this method free myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol are extracted using two different sample preparation procedures, separated by ion chromatography using a combination of Dionex Carbo Pac PA1 and MA1 columns with column switching, and detected with pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. Free myo-inositol is extracted from samples with dilute hydrochloric acid and water. Phosphatidylinositol is extracted from samples with chloroform and separated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges. Myo-inositol is then released from the glycerol backbone with concentrated acetic and hydrochloric acids at 120°C. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from five different countries analyzed blind duplicates of nine infant and pediatric nutritional formulas for both free and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol, and one additional laboratory only completed the free myo-inositol analyses. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol for all the matrixes analyzed. SMPRs for repeatability were ≤5% RSD at myo-inositol concentrations of 2-68 mg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤8% RSD in products with myo-inositol concentrations ranging from 2 to 68 mg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, repeatability RSDs ranged from 0.51 to 3.22%, and RSDs ranged from 2.66 to 7.55% for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol. PMID:26651580

  18. Determination of mycotoxins in milk-based products and infant formula using stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Hayward, Douglas G; Vaclavikova, Marta; Liao, Chia-Ding; Trucksess, Mary W

    2013-07-01

    A stable isotope dilution assay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 12 mycotoxins, aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, and M₁, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, in milk-based infant formula and foods. Samples were fortified with 12 ¹³C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ([¹³C]-mycotoxins) that correspond to the 12 target mycotoxins and prepared by dilution and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Quantitation was achieved using the relative response factors of [¹³C]-mycotoxins and target mycotoxins. The average recoveries in fortified milk, milk-based infant formula, milk powder, and baby yogurt of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ (2, 10, and 50 μg/kg), aflatoxin M₁ (0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 μg/kg), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃ (40, 200, and 1000 μg/kg), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (20, 100, and 500 μg/kg), range from 89 to 126% with RSDs of <20%. The individual recoveries in the four fortified matrices range from 72% (fumonisin B₃, 20 μg/kg, milk-based infant formula) to 136% (T-2 toxin, 20 μg/kg, milk powder), with RSDs ranging from 2 to 25%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 0.01 μg/kg (aflatoxin M₁) to 2 (fumonisin B₁) μg/kg. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in two European Reference materials at 0.127 ± 0.013 μg/kg (certified value = 0.111 ± 0.018 μg/kg) and 0.46 ± 0.04 μg/kg (certified value = 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/kg), respectively. In 60 local market samples, aflatoxins B₁ (1.14 ± 0.10 μg/kg) and B₂ (0.20 ± 0.03 μg/kg) were detected in one milk powder sample. Aflatoxin M₁ was detected in three imported samples (condensed milk, milk-based infant formula, and table cream), ranging from 0.10 to 0.40 μg/kg. The validated method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxin M₁ at nanograms per

  19. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061959

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin Using Scavenged Samples from Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Ross, Ashley; James, Laura P.; Sullivan, Janice E.; Walsh, Michele C.; Zadell, Arlene; Newman, Nancy; White, Nicole R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Ouellet, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Piperacillin is often used in preterm infants for intra-abdominal infections; however, dosing has been derived from small single-center studies excluding extremely preterm infants at highest risk for these infections. We evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of piperacillin using targeted sparse sampling and scavenged samples obtained from preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestational age at birth and <120 postnatal days. Materials and Methods A 5-center study was performed. A population PK model using nonlinear mixed effect modeling was developed. Covariate effects were evaluated based on estimated precision and clinical significance. Results Fifty-six preterm infants were evaluated and had a median (range) gestational age at birth of 25 (22–32) weeks, a postnatal age of 17 (1–77) days, a postmenstrual age of 29 (23–40) weeks, and a weight of 867 (400–2580) grams. The final PK data set contained 211 samples; 202/211 (96%) were scavenged from discarded clinical specimens. Piperacillin population PK was best described by a 1-compartment model. The population mean clearance (CL) was derived by the equation CL (liter/h)=0.479 x (weight)0.75 x 0.5/serum creatinine and using a volume of distribution (V) (liter) of 2.91 x (weight). The relative standard errors around parameter estimates ranged from 13.7–32.2%. A trend towards increased CL was observed with increasing gestational age at birth; infants with serum creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL had a 60% reduction in piperacillin CL. The majority (>70%) of infants did not meet pre-defined pharmacodynamic efficacy targets. Conclusions Scavenged PK sampling is a minimal-risk approach that can provide meaningful information related to development of PK models but not dosing recommendations for piperacillin. The utility of scavenged sampling in providing definitive dosing recommendations may be drug-dependent and needs to be further explored. PMID:22569355

  2. HIV, infant feeding and more perils for poor people: new WHO guidelines encourage review of formula milk policies.

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, Anna; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Wilfert, Catherine M

    2008-03-01

    The release of the new WHO guidelines on HIV and infant feeding, in a global context of widespread impoverishment, requires countries to re-examine their infant-feeding policies in relation to broader socioeconomic issues. This widening scope is necessitated by compelling new reports on the scale of global underdevelopment in developing countries. This paper explores these issues by addressing feeding choices made by HIV-infected mothers and programmes supplying free formula milks within a global environment of persistent poverty. Accumulating evidence on the increase in malnutrition, morbidity and mortality associated with the avoidance or early cessation of breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers, and the unanticipated hazards of formula feeding, demand a deeper assessment of the measures necessary for optimum policies on infant and child nutrition and for the amelioration of poverty. Piecemeal interventions that increase resources directed at only a fraction of a family's impoverishment, such as basic materials for preparation of hygienic formula feeds and making flawed decisions on choice of infant feeding, are bound to fail. These are not alternatives to taking fundamental steps to alleviate poverty. The economic opportunity costs of such programmes, the equity costs of providing resources to some and not others, and the leakages due to temptation to sell capital goods require careful evaluation. Providing formula to poor populations with high HIV prevalence cannot be justified by the evidence, by humanitarian considerations, by respect for local traditions or by economic outcomes. Exclusive breastfeeding, which is threatened by the HIV epidemic, remains an unfailing anchor of child survival. PMID:18368208

  3. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

  4. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2010-01-01

    Reche M, Pascual C, Fiandor A, Polanco I, Rivero-Urgell M, Chifre R, Johnston S, Martín-Esteban M. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 577–585. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow’s milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1–10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow’s milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with

  5. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 103 to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 105 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (108 CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  6. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 10(3) to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (10(8) CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  7. Why do mothers of young infants choose to formula feed in China? Perceptions of mothers and hospital staff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-05-01

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers' and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers' decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of "insufficient breast milk" was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers' confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law's and "confinement ladies" misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908

  8. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Li-Qian; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908

  9. Determination of selenium in infant formula and enteral formula by dry ash graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction.

    PubMed

    Cook, K K

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed to determine selenium in infant formula using a graphite furnace equipped with deuterium background correction after dry ashing. The method circumvents the use of perchloric acid, 2,3-diaminonapthalene (DAN) and hydride generation without the use of Zeeman background correction. Twelve commercial infant and enteral formulas and corresponding spiked products (30-500 ng) were analyzed in triplicate for Se to evaluate this method. All test portions were digested on a hot plate after addition of magnesium nitrate-nitric acid. Following heating, digests were evaporated to dryness and placed in a 500 degrees C muffle furnace for 30 min to complete ashing. All Se was converted to Se+4 by dissolving the ash in HCl (5 + 1) and holding the solution for 20 min in a 60 degrees C water bath. Se+4 was subsequently reduced to Se(zero) with ascorbic acid and collected on a membrane filter. The membrane filters were digested in a small volume of nitric acid in a microwave oven. Following digestion, contents of the vessels were diluted and analyzed for Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Selenium standards in starch or in unfortified formula containing trace levels of Se were carried through the entire process. The recovery range for Se was 85-127%, and analyzed reference materials fell within their certified range for Se. This method is as sensitive (detection limit 0.44 ng Se/g) as methods reported in the literature and may be applicable to other foods. PMID:8823924

  10. Mineral and vitamin D adequacy in infants fed human milk or formula between 6 and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S

    1990-08-01

    During the latter half of an infant's first year, adequate mineral and vitamin D intakes may be important not only for the prevention of rickets but also for the attainment of optimal adult peak bone mass. Ingestion of 400 IU vitamin D per day, either as a supplement or contained in formula or table milk, will result in normal serum concentrations of vitamin D,25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Human milk from a vitamin D-sufficient mother provides a marginal amount, less than 100 IU/L/day of total vitamin D activity from the vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Infants exclusively fed human milk of vitamin D-deficient mothers, who do not receive additional vitamin D or adequate exposure to sunlight, are at significant risk for vitamin D-deficiency rickets. The low concentration of phosphorus in human milk is adequate for most term infants but probably compounds any vitamin D deficiency. Intake of phosphorus from formula or table milk is more than adequate, and the addition of baby foods increases this mineral's intake to generous levels. Calcium is well absorbed and adequate in human milk if vitamin D is sufficient, but concern exists about calcium intake from infant formulas for this older group. My colleagues and I have conducted studies of bone mineral content and mineral homeostasis in term infants fed human milk (300 mg/L calcium), standard cow milk formula (440/mg/L calcium), or a soybean formula (600 mg/L calcium); our findings suggest that all three types of feedings provided comparable bone mineralization and normal indicators of mineral homeostasis. Mean calcium retentions at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months in all three groups were between 138 and 205 mg/day, substantially more than the 130 mg/day estimated to be needed from body composition data. Estimates for phosphorus were similarly generous. The questions of whether higher calcium intakes will result in further increases in bone mineral content and of the effect of beikost on calcium

  11. Evaluation of the maillard reaction in infant formulas by means of front-face fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Birlouez-Aragon, I; Locquet, N; de St Louvent, E; Bouveresse, D Jouan-Rimbaud; Stahl, P

    2005-06-01

    Foods are complex mixtures of macro- and micronutrients, which interact, leading to oxidation, glycation, and hydrolysis upon heating (e.g., sterilization, cooking) and storage. Their nutritional quality and safety are consequently affected, justifying the need for accurate monitoring of the evolution of the food composition during processing and shelf life. Classical chromatographic analysis as well as newly proposed rapid methods based on fluorescence spectrometry analyses were applied on whey powder-based models and commercial samples (in powdered form and ultrahigh temperature [UHT] sterilized), some of which had been previously submitted to protein hydrolysis. These samples were incubated for 48 h at 60 degrees C to mimic accelerated storage. Fluorescence fingerprints addressing modifications in the product composition during processing were recorded and analyzed by chemometric methods. Carboxymethyllysine (Nepsilon-[carboxymethyl]lysine; CML) was measured using an ELISA method. Fluorescence, recorded in a front-face mode on intact samples, is very sensitive to pertinent physicochemical changes induced by heat treatment, formulation (the moisture level in powders, presence of vitamin C and iron), and storage. Similar trends were observed between powders' fluorescence and CML-for example, a strong effect of protein hydrolysis and increasing water content. Addition of vitamin C was associated with an antioxidant effect despite the presence of iron. Good calibration models were obtained for predicting CML from fluorescence spectra both in food models and in commercial samples, although more work is needed to obtain accurate and robust calibration models. Results show the potential of nondestructively applied fluorescence spectrometry for measuring CML in formulas, a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method to monitor formula quality. PMID:16037253

  12. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  13. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  14. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS): double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN) (n = 142) or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio) of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139) or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138). Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools) for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P < 0.05). The overall incidence of medically-confirmed adverse events was

  15. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phytoestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect nor...

  16. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  17. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Menéndez, Sonia; Fernández-Sánchez, María L; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins). PMID:26381570

  18. Flow Cytometric and 16S Sequencing Methodologies for Monitoring the Physiological Status of the Microbiome in Powdered Infant Formula Production

    PubMed Central

    Anvarian, Amir H. P.; Cao, Yu; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fanning, Séamus; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop appropriate protocols for flow cytometric (FCM) and 16S rDNA sequencing investigation of the microbiome in a powdered infant formula (PIF) production facility. Twenty swabs were collected from each of the three care zones of a PIF production facility and used for preparing composite samples. For FCM studies, the swabs were washed in 200 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were harvested by three-step centrifugation followed by a single stage filtration. Cells were dispersed in fresh PBS and analyzed with a flow cytometer for membrane integrity, metabolic activity, respiratory activity and Gram characteristics of the microbiome using various fluorophores. The samples were also plated on agar plates to determine the number of culturable cells. For 16S rDNA sequencing studies, the cells were harvested by centrifugation only. Genomic DNA was extracted using a chloroform-based method and used for 16S rDNA sequencing studies. Compared to the dry low and high care zones, the wet medium care zone contained a greater number of viable, culturable, and metabolically active cells. Viable but non-culturable cells were also detected in dry-care zones. In total, 243 genera were detected in the facility of which 42 were found in all three care zones. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was observed in low care. The genera present in low, medium and high care were mostly associated with soil, water, and humans, respectively. The most prevalent genera in low, medium and high care were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Streptococcus, respectively. The integration of FCM and metagenomic data provided further information on the density of different species in the facility. PMID:27446009

  19. Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Infant Formula on Cognition and Behaviour at 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attention was paid to the potentially modifying effect…

  20. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was <15%. The limits of detection (LOD) in canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively

  1. Identification of bioactive peptides in hypoallergenic infant milk formulas by CE-TOF-MS assisted by semiempirical model of electromigration behavior.

    PubMed

    Català-Clariana, Sergio; Benavente, Fernando; Giménez, Estela; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2013-07-01

    Biologically active peptides derived from complex bovine milk protein hydrolysates are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play different physiological roles, providing benefits in human health. In this study, we used CE-TOF-MS for separation and identification of bioactive peptides in three hypoallergenic infant milk formulas. An appropriate sample cleanup using a citrate buffer with DTT and urea followed by SPE with Sep-Pack® C18 and StrataX™ cartridges allowed the detection of a large number of low molecular mass bioactive peptides. This preliminary identification was solely based on the measured experimental monoisotopic molecular mass values (M(exp)). Later, we evaluated the classical semiempirical relationships between electrophoretic mobility and charge-to-mass ratio (m(e) vs. q/M(α), α = 1/2 for the classical polymer model) to describe their migration behavior. The assistance of migration prediction proved to be useful to improve reliability of the identification, avoiding misinterpretations and solving some identity conflicts. After revision, the identity of 24, 30, and 38 bioactive peptides was confirmed in each of the three infant milk formulas. A significant number of these peptides were reported as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, however, the presence of sequences with other biological activities such as antihypertensive, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic, immunomodulation, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antigenic, or opioid was also confirmed. PMID:23564639

  2. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  3. A fermented formula in pre-term infants: clinical tolerance, gut microbiota, down-regulation of faecal calprotectin and up-regulation of faecal secretory IgA.

    PubMed

    Campeotto, Florence; Suau, Antonia; Kapel, Nathalie; Magne, Fabien; Viallon, Vivian; Ferraris, Laurent; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Soulaines, Pascale; Leroux, Bernard; Kalach, Nicolas; Dupont, Christophe; Butel, Marie-José

    2011-06-28

    Intestinal bacterial colonisation in pre-term infants is delayed compared with full-term infants, leading to an increased risk of gastrointestinal disease. Modulation of colonisation through dietary supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics could decrease such a risk. The present study evaluated clinical tolerance, the effects on gut microbiota, and inflammatory and immunological mucosal responses to an infant formula adapted for pre-term infants that included in its manufacturing process a fermentation step with two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065, inactivated by heat at the end of the process. A total of fifty-eight infants (gestational age: 30-35 weeks), fed either the fermented pre-term formula or a standard pre-term formula, were followed up during their hospital stay. Clinical tolerance, faecal microbiota using a culture and a culture-independent method (temporal temperature gel electrophoresis), faecal calprotectin and secretory IgA were analysed weekly. No difference was observed regarding anthropometric data and digestive tolerance, except for abdominal distension, the incidence of which was lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks. Bacterial colonisation was not modified by the type of feeding, particularly for bifidobacteria. Faecal calprotectin was significantly lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks, and secretory IgA increased with both mother's milk and the fermented formula. The fermented formula was well tolerated and did not significantly modulate the bacterial colonisation but had benefits on inflammatory and immune markers, which might be related to some features of gastrointestinal tolerance. PMID:21426607

  4. Multipoint near-infrared spectrometry for real-time monitoring of protein conformational stability in powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Togashi, Denisio; Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; El Arnaout, Toufic; Rifai, Hicham; Cruise, Paul; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) can be the sole source of nutrition for babies and infants. Monitoring conformational changes in protein during manufacture of PIF is critical in order to maintain its nutritional value. This study presents the development of a calibration model for monitoring conformational changes in PIF protein by applying a novel multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. NIR spectra were collected for PIF and PIF proteins, casein and whey protein isolate, before and after heat treatment. Results show that principal component analysis showed discrimination between native protein at room temperature and protein conformational changes caused at elevated temperature. Partial least squares regression analysis showed good calibration models with correlation coefficients ranging between 87% and 99% for the prediction of protein quality. This novel multipoint NIR spectrometry could serve as a simple in-line tool to rapidly monitor protein quality during processing stages, contributing to product nutritional value. PMID:26176650

  5. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  6. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted. PMID:19427820

  7. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals. PMID:27053467

  8. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Tatumella ptyseos Strains Isolated From Powdered Infant Formula Milk Consumed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: First Report From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Taheripoor, Mehrnaz; Rajabi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tatumella ptyseos is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria categorized in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is a rare food-borne opportunistic pathogen which causes neonatal sepsis, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. T. ptyseos has been also cultured from various food sources around the world. Objectives: It is difficult to determine the source of the infection in the patients (especially newborns) due to low information about the epidemiology of T. ptyseos. The current study aimed to investigate the isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of T. ptyseos strains from the consumed powdered infant formula milk (PIF) in hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Materials and Methods: A total of 125 powdered infant formula milk (PIF) samples were purchased from drug stores from June 2011 to March 2012. T. ptyseos was isolated according to food and drug administration (FDA) method. For final confirmation, biochemical testes embedded in API-20E system were used. Drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method, according to clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: Results of the study showed that, out of 125 samples, T. ptyseos was isolated from four (3/2%) PIF samples. All isolated strains (100%) were resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin. Conclusions: The present study was the first report on the isolation and identification of T. ptyseos from PIF in Iran. T. ptyseos are frequently present in various kinds of foods; therefore, further investigation on these samples is required. It is necessary to track the T. ptyseos in a wide variety of foods and individuals especially in immunocompromised people such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients to reveal the possible routes of transmission of this pathogen to humans. In addition, molecular studies are required to determine the genetic

  9. Analytical Determination of Vitamin B12 Content in Infant and Toddler Milk Formulas by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    The development of a sample preparation method and optimization of the analytical instrumentation conditions were performed for the determination of the vitamin B12 content in emulsified baby foods sold on the Korea market. After removal of the milk protein and fats by chloroform extraction and centrifugation, the vitamin B12 was water extracted from the sample. Following filtration of the solution through a nylon filter, the water-soluble extract was purified by solid-phase extraction using a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The solution eluted from the cartridge was dried under a stream of nitrogen gas and reconstituted with 1 mL of water. The sample solution was injected into an LC-MS/MS system after optimizing the mobile phase for vitamin B12 detection. The calibration curve showed good linearity with the coefficient of correlation (r2) value of 0.9999. The limit of detection was 0.03 µg/L and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 µg/L. The method of detection limit was 0.02 µg/kg. The vitamin B12 recovery from a spiking test was 99.62% for infant formula and 99.46% for cereal-based baby food. The sample preparation method developed in this study would be appropriate for the rapid determination of the vitamin B12 content in infant formula and baby foods with emulsified milk characteristics. The ability to obtain stable results more quickly and efficiently would also allow governments to exercise a more extensive quality control inspection and monitoring of products expected to contain vitamin B12. This method could be implemented in laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26877636

  10. An investigation into the fatty acid content of selected fish-based commercial infant foods in the UK and the impact of commonly practiced re-heating treatments used by parents for the preparation of infant formula milks.

    PubMed

    Loughrill, Emma; Zand, Nazanin

    2016-04-15

    The importance of dietary lipids during infancy is paramount for rapid growth and development. Linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were quantified using RP-HPLC with charged aerosol detection in a range of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intake of fatty acids for infants aged 6-9 months was calculated based on the consumption of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intakes of ALA, AA and DHA were below, whereas LA was above the recommended intake. This provides scope for product optimisation, to improve the nutritive value of commercial infant food products. The impact of re-heating treatments by parents on fatty acid content of formula milk was investigated and statistically significant changes were observed. Furthermore, the transparency of the labelling information declared by the manufacturers was within recommendations despite a degree of significant variation. PMID:26617017

  11. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vlieger, Arine M; Robroch, Afke; van Buuren, Stef; Kiers, Jeroen; Rijkers, Ger; Benninga, Marc A; te Biesebeke, Rob

    2009-09-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a combination of two probiotic strains in early infancy. A group of 126 newborns were randomised to receive a prebiotic-containing starter formula supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis or the same formula without probiotics for the first 3 months of life. A total of eighty infants continued the study until they were aged 6 months. Growth measurements were taken monthly at healthy baby clinics. Diaries were used to monitor behaviour, infections, use of antibiotics, as well as stool characteristics. Normal growth occurred in all infants and no statistically significant differences were detected between the probiotics group and the control group for gain in weight, length and head circumference. Infants in the probiotics group produced softer and more frequent stools during the first 3 months of life. No differences were found in crying and sleeping hours, number of parent-diagnosed infections, antibiotic use, visits to the general practitioner and number of adverse events. The use of a prebiotic-containing starter formula supplemented with L. paracasei ssp. paracasei and B. animalis ssp. lactis in early infancy is safe, well tolerated and has no adverse effects on growth and infant behaviour. PMID:19331702

  12. Partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula and the prevention of atopic dermatitis: comparative pharmacoeconomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg; Belli, Dominique; Dupont, Christophe; Haschke, Ferdinand; Iskedjian, Michael; Nevot Falcó, Santiago; Szajewska, Hania; von Berg, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that the risk of developing atopic dermatitis is reduced when using hydrolysed formulas to feed infants with a documented risk of atopy (i.e. an affected parent and/or sibling)when breastfeeding is not practised. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of using hydrolysed formulas. Consequently, economic analyses in 5 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Spain and Switzerland) have evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of a specific brand of 100% whey-based partially hydrolysed infant formula, NAN-HA® (PHF-W) compared with a cow's milk standard formula (SF) in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in at-risk children. This review synthesises the findings of these studies. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) used a decision-analytic model to determine treatment pathways, resource utilisation and costs associated with the management of atopic dermatitis in healthy at-risk newborns who were not exclusively breastfed. The model had a 12-month horizon and applied reimbursement rates of 60-100% depending on the country. Outcomes were considered from the perspective of the public healthcare system (e.g. the Ministry of Health; MOH), family and society. The final outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per avoided case of atopic dermatitis (ICER) for PHF-W versus SF. A cost-minimisation analysis was also performed to compare PHF-W with extensively hydrolysed formulas (EHF). The base-case CEA produced ICERs per avoided case for PHF-W versus SF of EUR 982-1,343 (MOH perspective), EUR -2,202 to -624 (family perspective) indicating savings, and EUR -1,220 to 719 from the societal perspective. The main costs related to formula (MOH and society) and time loss (family). In the cost-minimisation analysis, PHF-W yielded savings of between EUR 4.3 and 120 million compared with EHF-whey when the latter was used in prevention. In conclusion, PHF-W was cost-effective versus SF in the prevention of atopic dermatitis

  13. Immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula in combination with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles separation and 16S rRNA probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ming, Xing; Chen, XingXing; Gan, Min; Wang, BaoGui; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2014-11-15

    Here we developed a sensitive, specific, and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of Cronobacter. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used to separate nucleic acid from Cronobacter lysate and eliminate the interference of food matrices successfully. A couple of 5'-end labeled probes, which was complementary to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Cronobacter, was used to hybridize with the nucleic acid. The hybrid product, labeled with digoxigenin on one side and biotin on the other side, was directly submitted to the immunochromatographic strip test and the anti-digoxigenin monoclonal antibody was immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane in the test line. The visualization was achieved by gold nanoparticles conjugated to streptavidin, and double red bands appearing in both test and control line indicated a positive result of the presence of Cronobacter in testing sample. The detection limit was 10(7) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture. After silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles treatment, the detection limit was 10(5) and 10(6) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture and powdered infant formula, respectively, and maintained stable even under the interference of 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, 100 positive powdered infant formula samples spiked 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Cronobacter and 20 negative samples with none bacteria were tested by the strip, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were both as high as 100%. This approach showed promise for microbial detection concerning food safety or clinical diagnosis. PMID:24907538

  14. Efficacy of organic acids, bacteriocins, and the lactoperoxidase system in inhibiting the growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant formula.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoru; Rea, Mary C; Lothe, Sheba; Morgan, Sheila; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzsimmons, Aidan; Kamikado, Hideaki; Walton, Richard; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-three antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides (nisin, lacticin 3147, isracidin), organic acids, emulsifiers (organic acid esters), glycine, lysozyme, tocopherol, EDTA, milk fat globule membrane, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) were screened for anti-Cronobacter sakazakii activity. The compounds were initially screened individually in parallel in synthetic media. Those showing antimicrobial activity were then tested in reconstituted whole milk and finally in reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), using mild temperatures of reconstitution and prolonged storage at room temperature. Propionic acid and monocaprylin (as POEM M-100) in combination showed inhibitory activity at sufficiently low concentrations (0.1 to 0.2%) in milk to be considered as potential antimicrobial additives for the inhibition of C. sakazakii in reconstituted PIF. More interestingly, LPOS, when combined with the broad-spectrum bacteriocins nisin or lacticin 3147, inhibited outgrowth of C. sakazakii at 37°C for 8 h. The combined effects of POEM M-100 and either acetate or propionate and LPOS with lacticin 3147 or nisin were evaluated under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-World Health Organization high-risk scenario for PIF, i.e., low temperature of reconstitution and long storage or feeding times at ambient temperature. In the presence of LPOS and lacticin 3147, growth of Cronobacter spp. was inhibited for up to 12 h when the PIF was rehydrated at 40 or 50°C. These results highlight the potential of combinatory approaches to improving the safety of infant milk formula. PMID:23043820

  15. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD −3.15 days (95% CI −5.25/−1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management. PMID:27483319

  16. Simultaneous Determination of 10 Ultratrace Elements in Infant Formula, Adult Nutritionals, and Milk Products by ICP/MS After Pressure Digestion: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Dubascoux, Stephane; Nicolas, Marine; Rime, Celine Fragniere; Payot, Janique Richoz; Poitevin, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) is presented for the simultaneous determination of 10 ultratrace elements (UTEs) including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn) in infant formulas, adult nutritionals, and milk based products by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)/MS after acidic pressure digestion. This robust and routine multielemental method is based on several official methods with modifications of sample preparation using either microwave digestion or high pressure ashing and of analytical conditions using ICP/MS with collision cell technology. This SLV fulfills AOAC method performance criteria in terms of linearity, specificity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy and fully answers most international regulation limits for trace contaminants and/or recommended nutrient levels established for 10 UTEs in targeted matrixes. PMID:26268978

  17. Influences of timing and duration of formula feeding on infant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All national and international groups responsible for making nutritional recommendations for infants endorse exclusive breastfeeding for the first several months of life continued with breastfeeding for as long as 2 years or more and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods. However, ...

  18. 78 FR 28854 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of July 9, 1996 (61 FR 36154), we proposed changes in our infant... Register of April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22341) (the 2003 reopening), FDA reopened the comment period for the..., 2003 (68 FR 38247, June 27, 2003). FDA again reopened the comment period on August 1, 2006 (71 FR...

  19. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Panca, Monica; Ovcinnikova, Olga; Nocerino, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as first-line management for cow’s milk allergy (CMA) compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF), hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF), and amino acid formulae (AAF) in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents’ perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26089692

  20. Determination of Vitamin E and Vitamin A in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Normal-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.10.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) project is to establish international consensus methods for infant formula and adult nutritionals, which will benefit intermarket supply and dispute resolution. A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.10 Simultaneous Determination of 13-cis and All-trans Vitamin A Palmitate (Retinyl Palmitate), Vitamin A Acetate (Retinyl Acetate), and Total Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol and D-α-tocopherol acetate) in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Normal-Phase HPLC. Fifteen laboratories from 11 countries participated in an interlaboratory study to determine 13-cis and all-trans vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate), vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate), and total vitamin E (α-tocopherol and D-α-tocopherol acetate) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by normal-phase HPLC and all laboratories returned valid data. Eighteen test portions of nine blind duplicates of a variety of infant formula and adult nutritional products were used in the study. The matrixes included milk-based and soy-based hydrolyzed protein as well as a low fat product. Each of the samples was prepared fresh and analyzed in singlicate. As the number of samples exceeded the recommended number to be prepared in a single day, analysis took place over 2 days running 12 samples on day one and 10 samples on day two. The reference standard stock was prepared once and the six-point curve diluted freshly on each day. Results obtained from all 15 laboratories are reported. The RSDR for total vitamin A (palmitate or acetate) ranged from 6.51 to 22.61% and HorRat values ranged from 0.33 to 1.25. The RSDR for total vitamin E (as tocopherol equivalents) ranged from 3.84 to 10.78% and HorRat values ranged from 0.27 to 1.04. Except for an adult low fat matrix which generated reproducibility RSD >40% for some isomers, most SPIFAN matrixes gave results within the acceptance criteria of <16

  1. Minimally Invasive Sampling Method Identifies Differences in Taxonomic Richness of Nasal Microbiomes in Young Infants Associated with Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shilts, Meghan H; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Larkin, Emma K; Torralba, Manolito; Akopov, Asmik; Halpin, Rebecca; Peebles, R Stokes; Moore, Martin L; Anderson, Larry J; Nelson, Karen E; Hartert, Tina V; Das, Suman R

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a limited understanding of the role of the airway microbiome in the early life development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, partly due to a lack of simple and minimally invasive sample collection methods. In order to characterize the baseline microbiome of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in infants, a comparatively non-invasive method for sampling the URT microbiome suitable for use in infants was developed. Microbiome samples were collected by placing filter paper in the nostrils of 33 healthy, term infants enrolled as part of the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure (INSPIRE) study. After bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the filters, amplicons were generated with universal primers targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. This method was capable of capturing a wide variety of taxa expected to inhabit the nasal cavity. Analyses stratifying subjects by demographic and environmental factors previously observed or predicted to influence microbial communities were performed. Microbial community richness was found to be higher in infants who had been delivered via Cesarean section and in those who had been formula-fed; an association was observed between diet and delivery, which confounds this analysis. We have established a baseline URT microbiome using a non-invasive filter paper nasal sampling for this population, and future studies will be performed in this large observational cohort of infants to investigate the relationship between viral infections, the URT microbiota, and the development of childhood wheezing illnesses. PMID:26370110

  2. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza Cristina Medrado; de Mattos, Angela Peixoto; Pontes, Mariana; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; de Carvalho Norton, Rocksane; Steenhout, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal) infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). METHODS Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers were randomized to a test (n = 65) or control (n = 63) formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed (n = 79) or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65). Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. RESULTS Data from all infants (N = 272) were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP) analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.705 to inf, P < 0.001) in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the −3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well. PMID:25788839

  3. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages. PMID:26874435

  4. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  5. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  6. A longitudinal study of differences in electroencephalographic activity among breastfed, milk formula-fed, and soy formula-fed infants during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which adequate nutrition from infant diets ddifferentially influences developmental outcomes in healthy infants has not been determined. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of the major infant diets on development of brain electrical activity during infancy. The study design con...

  7. Time for the 70°C water precautionary option in the home dilution of powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Silano, Marco; Paganin, Paola; Davanzo, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Powdered infant formulas (PIF) are usually not sterile and may frequently be contaminated by several bacteria strains. Among them, Cronobacter species, previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is one of the most harmful, since it might be the causative agent of sepsis and meningitis in newborns and preterm infants during the first weeks of life. The mortality rate of these infections is up to 80 %. Therefore, some precautions are required in the home handling and dilution of PIF. Whereas there is wide consensus about the need that a PIF should be used immediately after being diluted or, if not, stored at < "5 °C", still recently the optimal temperature of the water used to dilute PIF is controversial among scientific societies and health agencies. The current knowledge is reviewed in this paper and provides sufficient evidence to cautiously advise the use of hot water at a temperature of "70 °C" in the dilution of PIF in order to prevent the Cronobacter sp. contamination and growth. PMID:26895705

  8. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. PMID:25475329

  9. Development of Multiplex Real-time PCR with Internal Amplification Control for Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella and Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) by the bacteria Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica was deemed a matter of great concern by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2004. Therefore, we developed a rapid and sensitive m...

  10. Evaluation of bacterial contamination in raw milk, ultra-high temperature milk and infant formula using single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiangchuan; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Xi, Xiaoxia; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Biosciences (Menlo Park, CA) single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was reported to have some advantages in analyzing the bacterial profile of environmental samples. In this study, the presence of bacterial contaminants in raw milk, UHT milk, and infant formula was determined by SMRT sequencing of the full length 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial profiles obtained at different taxonomic levels revealed clear differences in bacterial community structure across the 16 analyzed dairy samples. No indicative pathogenic bacteria were found in any of these tested samples. However, some of the detected bacterial species (e.g., Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterococcus gallinarum) might potentially relate with product quality defects and bacterial antibiotic gene transfer. Although only a limited number of dairy samples were analyzed here, our data have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using the SMRT sequencing platform in detecting bacterial contamination. Our paper also provides interesting reference information for future development of new precautionary strategies for controlling the dairy safety in large-scale industrialized production lines. PMID:26476945

  11. Early Life Predictors of Socio-Emotional Development in a Sample of Egyptian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ammal M.; Salah El- Din, Ebtissam M.; Shehata, Manal A.; Shaalan, Ashraf; El Etreby, Lobna A.; Kandeel, Wafaa A.; Shaaban, Sanaa Y.; Rabah, Thanaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emotional problems are amongst the most critical concerns to be intentionally handled to enhance the wellbeing and development of children. Objective To determine the predictors of socio-emotional development of Egyptian infants related to infant feeding practices, aspects of infant and maternal health and socioeconomic status. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study included 322 breast fed, 240 bottle fed and 93 mixed fed infants, from 6–24 months of age, who were enrolled in the Well–Baby Clinic of the National Research Centre and from pediatric outpatient facilities in urban Cairo. Assessment of socio-emotional development was performed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Detailed maternal and infant history was recorded. Levels of serum zinc, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and complete blood count (CBC) were assessed in a subsample of 193 infants. Results The risk of having below average socio-emotional composite score was nearly two and half times among formula-fed infants than among breast-fed infants. By binary logistical regression analysis, predictors of below average socio-emotional score were a lower serum zinc value, being formula fed during the first half-year and introduction of complementary food before the age of six months (p< 0.05). Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding and to a lesser extent mixed feeding during the first half year is correlated with above average socio-emotional development. Maternal education and zinc status were also determinants of better infant mental health. Our endeavors ought to be directed towards integrated interventions addressing multiple risks to children’s development. PMID:27379907

  12. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow’s milk. PMID:27418845

  13. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  14. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products. PMID:27282191

  15. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding. PMID:27181767

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon Molecular Formulas in Daily Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Samburova, V.; Hallar, A. G.; Zielinska, B.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Kohl, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is a highly complex mixture with thousands of compounds that can be identified using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. In this study, molecular formula characterization of aerosol WSOC was done on individual daily aerosol samples (N = 34) collected consecutively from June 25 to July 28 in 2010 at the Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Spring, Colorado (3220m a.s.l.). The aerosol samples were analyzed using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry after a reverse phase solid phase extraction procedure. 2000-5000 monoisotopic molecular formulas were identified in each of the daily samples with a majority of the molecular formulas present in multiple samples. Relative abundance weighted oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O/Cw) and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios (H/Cw) were calculated for each of the daily aerosol samples based on the identified molecular formulas. The overall O/Cw values for each of the daily samples are very similar ranging between 0.47 and 0.55. Similarly, the overall H/Cw values were mostly around 1.55. Relative abundance double bond equivalents (DBEw) were also calculated for each of the samples. DBEw values were approximately 5 for most of the samples with a few exceptions of DBEw > 5.4. Daily aerosol WSOC samples were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the identified monoisotopic molecular formulas and their relative abundance for all of the aerosol samples. Eight of the samples were analyzed twice and all of the eight replicates were closely paired in the cluster analysis dendrogram which partially validates the results. The cluster analysis indicates that the aerosols have similar composition when the air masses have similar origins. For example, aerosol samples collected from July 14th to July 18th are located in the same branch of the dendrogram and their back trajectory analysis indicates the air

  17. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life soy phytoestrogen exposure has been shown in Eker rats to increase uterine fibroid incidence in adulthood. Two large epidemiologic cohorts have provided some support for increased fibroid risk with infant soy formula feeding in women, but both cohorts relied on self-report of clinically diagnosed fibroids. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between infant soy formula feeding and ultrasound-detected fibroids. Methods: The Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) is an ongoing cohort study of 1,696 African-American women ages 23–34 years with baseline ultrasound screening to detect and measure fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding during infancy was ascertained for 1,553 participants (89% based on mother’s report), of whom 345 were found to have fibroids. We estimated the association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence and tumor number using log-binomial regression. Among those with fibroids, we compared fibroid size between soy formula-exposed and unexposed women using multivariable linear regression. Results: We did not observe an association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3]. Nor were exposed women with fibroids more likely to have ≥ 2 tumors than unexposed women with fibroids (aPR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.6). However, exposed women with fibroids had significantly larger fibroids than unexposed women with fibroids. On average, soy formula feeding was associated with a 32% increase in the diameter of the largest fibroid (95% CI: 6%, 65%) and a 127% increase in total tumor volume (95% CI: 12%, 358%). Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. Citation: Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. 2016. Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound

  18. An extensively hydrolysed rice protein-based formula in the management of infants with cow's milk protein allergy: preliminary results after 1 month

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend extensively hydrolysed cow's milk protein formulas (eHF) in the treatment of infants diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Extensively hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas (eRHFs) have recently become available, and could offer a valid alternative. Methods A prospective trial was performed to evaluate the clinical tolerance of a new eRHF in infants with a confirmed CMPA. Patients were followed for 1 month. Clinical tolerance of the eRHF was evaluated with a symptom-based score (SBS) and growth (weight and length) was monitored. Results Thirty-nine infants (mean age 3.4 months, range 0.5–6 months) diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled. All infants tolerated the eRHF and experienced a normal growth. Conclusions In accordance with current guidelines, this eRHF is tolerated by more than 90% of children with proven CMPA with a 95% CI, and is an adequate alternative to cow's milk-based eHF. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01998074. PMID:24914098

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  1. New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Kim, S A; Lee, N Y; Rhee, M S

    2013-09-16

    The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and CTA (15 and 30 mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and VNL (15 and 30 mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40 °C and 45 °C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30 min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P > 0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20 mM CA or 30 mM CTA for 5 min at 40 °C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction > 7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5 min at 40 °C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 10³ CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10 mM+CTA 30 mM for 5 min at 45 °C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15 mM for 10 min at 45 °C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria. PMID:24042002

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Refined Olive Oil-Based Structured Lipid Containing Omega -3 and -6 Fatty Acids for Potential Application in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoyu; Sabir, Jamal S M; Baeshen, Nabih A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-11-01

    Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), and gamma-linolenic (GLA) acids were produced using refined olive oil, tripalmitin, and ethyl esters of DHA single cell oil and GLA ethyl esters. Immobilized Lipozyme TL IM lipase was used as the biocatalyst. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, solid fat content, oxidative stability index, and melting and crystallization profiles and compared to physical blend of substrates, extracted fat from commercial infant formula (IFF), and milk fat. 49.28 mol% of palmitic acid was found at the sn-2 position of SL TAG and total DHA and GLA composition were 0.73 and 5.00 mol%, respectively. The total oleic acid content was 36.13 mol% which was very close to the 30.49% present in commercial IFF. Comparable solid fat content profiles were also found between SLs and IFF. The SLs produced have potential for use in infant formulas. PMID:26408984

  3. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914402

  4. Iron absorption from experimental infant formulas based on pea (Pisum sativum)-protein isolate: the effect of phytic acid and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, L; Dimitriou, T; Walczyk, T; Hurrell, R F

    2001-01-01

    Infant formula based on pea (Pisum sativum)-protein isolate has been suggested as an alternative to soybean formula in countries where soybean is not a native crop, or when soybean protein cannot be used due to allergic reactions or intolerances. In the present study, Fe absorption from experimental infant formulas based on pea-protein isolate was measured in healthy non-anaemic young women. The influence of phytic acid and ascorbic acid on Fe absorption was evaluated, using a stable-isotope technique based on incorporation of Fe stable-isotope labels into erythrocytes 14 d after administration. Geometric mean Fe absorption increased from 20.7 (+1 SD 41.6, -1 SD 10.3) % to 33.1 (+1 SD 58.6, -1 SD 18.7) %; (P < 0.0001; n 10) after enzymic degradation of virtually all phytic acid. Doubling the molar ratio Fe:ascorbic acid from 1:2.1 to 1:4.2 in the infant formula with native phytic acid content also increased Fe absorption significantly (P < 0.0001; n 10); geometric mean Fe absorption increased from 14.8 (+1 SD 32.1, -1 SD 6.8) % to 22.1 (+1 SD 47.2, -1 SD 10.4) %. These results confirm the inhibitory and enhancing effects of phytic acid and ascorbic acid respectively on Fe absorption, but also indicate relatively high fractional Fe absorption from the pea-protein-based formulas. After adjusting for differences in Fe status, our data indicate that Fe absorption from dephytinised pea protein might be less inhibitory than dephytinised soybean protein as measured in a previous study (Hurrell et al. 1998). PMID:11227034

  5. Challenges to the Programmatic Implementation of Ready to Use Infant Formula in the Post-Earthquake Response, Haiti, 2010: A Program Review

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Leisel E.; Boyd, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, infant and young child feeding was identified as a priority nutrition intervention. A new approach to support breastfeeding mothers and distribute ready-to-use infant formula (RUIF) to infants unable to breastfeed was established. The objective of the evaluation was to assess the implementation of infant feeding programs using RUIF in displaced persons camps in Port-au-Prince, Haiti during the humanitarian response. Methods A retrospective record review was conducted from April–July, 2010 to obtain data on infants receiving RUIF in 30 baby tents. A standardized data collection form was created based on data collected across baby tents and included: basic demographics, admission criteria, primary caretaker, feeding practices, and admission and follow-up anthropometrics. Main Findings Orphans and abandoned infants were the most frequent enrollees (41%) in the program. While the program targeted these groups, it is unlikely that this is a true reflection of population demographics. Despite programmatic guidance, admission criteria were not consistently applied across programs. Thirty-four percent of infants were undernourished (weight for age Z score <−2) at the time of admission. Defaulting accounted for 50% of all program exits and there was no follow-up of these children. Low data quality was a significant barrier. Conclusions The design, implementation and magnitude of the ‘baby tents’ using RUIF was novel in response to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in emergencies and presented multiple challenges that should not be overlooked, including adherence to protocols and the adaption of emergency programs to existing programs. The implementation of IYCF programs should be closely monitored to ensure that they achieve the objectives set by the humanitarian community and national government. IYCF is an often overlooked component of emergency preparedness; however to improve response, generic

  6. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant, Adult, and Pediatric Formulas by HPLC-UV and Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.10.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.10, Vitamin B12 in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. This method uses a pH 4.5 sodium acetate buffer and potassium cyanide at 105°C to extract and convert all biologically active forms of vitamin B12 present to cyanocobalamin; octylsilyl (C8) or C18 SPE cartridges to purify and concentrate cyanocobalamin; a combination of size-exclusion and RPLC to isolate cyanocobalamin; and visible absorbance at 550 nm to detect and quantitate cyanocobalamin in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals with vitamin B12 concentrations greater than 0.025 μg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. During this collaborative study, nine to 11 laboratories from eight different countries analyzed blind duplicates of 12 infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. Per the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Nutrient Methods the method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for the majority of product matrixes analyzed. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for repeatability were ≤15% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.01 μg/100 g RTF liquid and ≤7% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.2-5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤11% RSD in products with vitamin B12 concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, the RSDr ranged from 2.98 to 9.77%, and the RSDR ranged from 3.54 to 19.5%. During previous single-laboratory validation studies, the method LOQ was estimated to be 0.025 μg/100 g RTF liquid. PMID:26651579

  7. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  8. Short-term effect of partially hydrolyzed formula on the prevention of development of atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Shin; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Kang-Mo; Lee, Ju-Seok; Choi, Hay-Mie; Lee, Sang-Il

    2003-01-01

    This short-term, prospective study was aimed to assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) on the prevention of the development of atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk. The infants of parents with allergy symptoms and serum total IgE over 200 kU/L were divided into 3 groups by their feeding patterns: PHF group (n=15), standard formula (SF) group (n=32), and breast milk (BM) group (n=22). No allergenic food was given during the study period of 6 months, and breastfeeding mothers avoided egg ingestion. Their atopic symptoms were monitored every 2 months. The cumulative incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis at the age of 6 months were significantly less in the PHF group than in the SF group (47% vs. 78%, p<0.05; 20% vs. 59%, p<0.05). Those rates of the PHF group were also less than those of the BM group, but they were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the onset age and disease severity. These results suggest that early feeding of PHF to infants at high risk has a short-term preventive effect on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 6 months of life. Long-term preventive effects should be evaluated. PMID:12923332

  9. Characterisation and optimisation of physical and oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effects of emulsifiers and biopolymer thickeners.

    PubMed

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2013-12-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of lecithin (0-0.4 g/100 ml), monoacylglycerol (0-0.4 g/100 ml), locust bean gum (LBG; 0-0.1 g/100 ml), and carrageenan (0-0.02 g/100 ml) on the physical and oxidative properties of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion containing dairy proteins, lactose, vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients. Particle size, optical stability, viscosity, relative content of docosahexaenoic acid, stearidonic acid and total oxidation value were assessed during 28-day storage. ANOVA results showed that the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted to second-order polynomial models by multiple linear regression. The contour plots illustrated that lecithin and monoacylglycerol played a dominant role in controlling the emulsion stability compared to LBG and carrageenan. Lecithin content significantly affected all the responses measured, particularly lipid oxidation. Increasing monoacylglycerol concentration led to an increase in particle size and emulsion viscosity. The optimal condition to achieve the highest stability was predicted to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.045, and 0.015 g/100 ml lecithin, monoacylglycerol, LBG and carrageenan, respectively. The verification data further demonstrated the suitability of the models explored by RSM. Overall, the findings obtained in this study have important implications for the successful incorporation of structured lipid into infant formula emulsion for better infant nutrition and health. PMID:23870985

  10. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-Dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437145

  11. Influence of desiccation on the sensitivity of Cronobacter spp. to lactoferrin or nisin in broth and powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Holy, Murad A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2009-12-31

    Although outbreaks caused by Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) are rare, infections by this organism have a case-fatality rate which may reach 80%. Powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) is considered a major source for human infection with Cronobacter spp. The organism has the capability to survive in dry environments for long periods (approximately 2 years). Current interest in the use of natural antimicrobials including lactoferrin (LF) and nisin has developed because of the desire for preservative-free food products. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine LF or nisin against undesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter spp. cells in 0.2% peptone water (PW) and reconstituted PIMF at different temperatures. In 0.2% PW, 2.5 mg/ml LF was able to inactivate 4 log(10) CFU/ml of undesiccated cells of Cronobacter spp. in 4 h at 37 degrees C but at lower temperatures, higher concentrations of LF as well as longer exposure were needed to achieve the same effect as at 37 degrees C. Similarly, the effect of nisin against undesiccated cells of Cronobacter spp. was concentration and temperature dependent in 0.2% PW. It was found that 1500 IU/ml caused a 4 log(10) CFU/ml reduction of undesiccated cells of Cronobacter spp. at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Desiccated Cronobacter spp. cells in 0.2% PW were more sensitive to LF action than were undesiccated cells. A 4 log(10) CFU/ml reduction was obtained with 2.5 mg/ml LF after 1 h at 21 and 37 degrees C or 8 h at 10 degrees C. In contrast, desiccated cells of Cronobacter spp. were more resistant to nisin. Furthermore, neither LF nor nisin had detectable antimicrobial activity against desiccated or undesiccated Cronobacter spp. in reconstituted PIFM. Heating at 55 degrees C for 5 min with nisin in reconstituted PIFM did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of nisin. Unexpectedly, nisin appeared to protect Cronobacter spp. from the damaging effects of heat treatment. The reduced

  12. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  13. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs. PMID:25592784

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. C Appendix C to Part 110—Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  19. Quantitative analysis of spatial sampling error in the infant and adult electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Grieve, Philip G; Emerson, Ronald G; Isler, Joseph R; Stark, Raymond I

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine the required number of electrodes to record the infant and adult electroencephalogram (EEG) with a specified amount of spatial sampling error. We first developed mathematical theory that governs the spatial sampling of EEG data distributed on a spherical approximation to the scalp. We then used a concentric sphere model of current flow in the head to simulate realistic EEG data. Quantitative spatial sampling error was calculated for the simulated EEG, with additive measurement noise, for 64, 128, and 256 electrodes equally spaced over the surface of the sphere corresponding to the coverage of the human scalp by commercially available "geodesic" electrode arrays. We found the sampling error for the infant to be larger than that for the adult. For example, a sampling error of less than 10% for the adult was obtained with a 64-electrode array but a 256-electrode array was needed for the infant to achieve the same level of error. With the addition of measurement noise, with power 10 times less than that of the EEG, the sampling error increased to 25% for both the infant and adult, for these numbers of electrodes. These results show that accurate measurement of the spatial properties of the infant EEG requires more electrodes than for the adult. PMID:15050554

  20. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™) on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleddermann, M.; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A.; Demmelmair, H.; Holdt, L.; Teupser, D.; Koletzko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™)/100mL) or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF) providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60min after start of feeding (primary outcome) was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60min after start of feeding was 122(105,140) mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range) and 111(100,123) in CF (p = 0.01). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0) vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129),p = 0.43). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045), protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006) and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01) but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16). Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015 PMID:26987056

  1. Maternal mental health and infant dietary patterns in a statewide sample of Maryland WIC participants.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M; Merry, Brian C; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-04-01

    The study's objective was to examine the relation between maternal mental health and infant dietary intake. A cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey was employed within a statewide sample of Maryland Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children participants. A 24-h diet recall was performed using the United States Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Analyses presented were based on 689 mother-infant pairs. Overall, 36.5% of mothers reported introducing solids to their infants early (<4 months of age), and 40% reported adding cereal to their infant's bottle. Among 0-6-month-old infants, higher infant energy intake was associated with symptoms of maternal stress [β=0.02; confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.04], depression (β=0.04; CI: 0.01, 0.06) and overall maternal psychological distress (β=0.02; CI: 0.003, 0.03). With early introduction of solids in the model, the significant associations between infant energy intake and maternal stress and maternal psychological distress became marginal (P's=0.06-0.10). The association between infant energy intake and maternal depression remained significant (β=0.03; CI: 0.01, 0.06). Among 4-6-month-old infants, intakes of breads and cereals were higher among mothers who reported more symptoms of stress (β=0.12; CI: 0.04, 0.23), depression (β=0.19; CI: 0.03, 0.34), anxiety (β=0.15; CI: 0.02, 0.27) and overall psychological distress (β=0.04; CI: 0.01, 0.07). Among 7-12-month-old infants, dietary intake was not related to mental health symptoms. Findings suggest poorer infant feeding practices and higher infant dietary intake during the first 6 months of age in the context of maternal mental health symptoms. Further research is needed to evaluate these effects on child dietary habits and growth patterns over time. PMID:23167622

  2. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion. PMID:23902955

  3. Determination of vitamin A and vitamin E esters in infant formulae and fortified milk powders by HPLC: Use of internal standardisation.

    PubMed

    Woollard, David C; Bensch, Anja; Indyk, Harvey; McMahon, Adrienne

    2016-04-15

    An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and β-carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for β-carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, α-tocopheryl propionate and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters. PMID:26616975

  4. Multi-class method for determination of veterinary drug residues and other contaminants in infant formula by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jia; Zhong, Ying-ying; Yu, Xue-jun; Peng, Jin-feng; Chen, Shubing; Yin, Ju-yi; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Zhu, Yan

    2013-06-01

    A rapid, simple and generic analytical method which was able to simultaneously determine 220 undesirable chemical residues in infant formula had been developed. The method comprised of extraction with acetonitrile, clean-up by low temperature and water precipitation, and analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Most fat materials in acetonitrile extract were eliminated by low temperature clean-up. The water precipitation, providing a necessary and supplementary cleanup, could avoid losses of hydrophobic analytes (avermectins, ionophores). Average recoveries for spiked infant formula were in the range from 57% to 147% with associated RSD values between 1% and 28%. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 70% and 120% with RSD values in the range of 1-15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.01 to 5 μg/kg, which were usually sufficient to verify the compliance of products with legal tolerances. Application of this method in routine monitoring programs would imply a drastic reduction of both effort and time. PMID:23411184

  5. A Study of Infant Developmental Outcome with a Sample of Korean Working Mothers of Infants in Poverty: Implications for Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, So-Jung

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 42 Korean mothers whose infants are cared for by someone at non-maternal child care facilities, this study first examined both main effects and interaction effects between maternal knowledge of infant development and maternal self-efficacy on parenting behavior. Second, the combined effects of variables of interest in this study…

  6. Screening for symptoms of postpartum traumatic stress in a sample of mothers with preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Richard J; Lilo, Emily A; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Ball, M Bethany; Proud, Melinda S; Vierhaus, Nancy S; Huntsberry, Audrey; Mitchell, Kelley; Adams, Marian M; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-03-01

    There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who are at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred, thirty-five mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity, age, maternal pregnancy history, and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant's medical severity. PMID:24597585

  7. Analysis of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 in Fortified Milk Powders and Infant and Nutritional Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.05.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Abernethy, Grant A; Green, Rebecca J; Indyk, Harvey E

    2016-09-01

    A method for the determination of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and adult nutritional formulas is described. Samples are saponified at high temperature and lipid-soluble components are extracted into isooctane. A portion of the isooctane layer is transferred and washed, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione is added to derivatize the vitamin D to form a high-molecular-mass, easily ionizable adduct. The vitamin D adduct is then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analyzed by RPLC. Detection is by tandem MS, using multiple reaction monitoring. Stable isotope-labeled vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 internal standards are used for quantitation to correct for losses in extraction and any variation in derivatization and ionization efficiencies. A single-laboratory validation of the method using AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) kit samples was performed and compared with parameters defined according to the vitamin D Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®)). Linearity was demonstrated over the range specified in the SMPR, with the LOD being estimated at below that required. Method spike recovery (vitamin D2, 97.0-99.2%; and vitamin D3, 96.0-101.0%) and RSDr (vitamin D3, 1.5-5.2%) were evaluated and compared favorably with limits in the vitamin D SMPR. Acceptable bias for vitamin D3 was demonstrated against both the certified value for National Institute of Standards and Technology 1849a Standard Reference material (P(α = 0.05) = 0.25) and AOAC INTERNATIONAL reference method 2002.05 (P(α = 0.05) = 0.09). The method was demonstrated to meet the requirements of the vitamin D SMPR as defined by SPIFAN, and was recently approved for Official First Action status by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on SPIFAN Nutrient Methods. PMID:27461755

  8. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  9. CORTICAL EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS TO SPEECH SOUNDS IN 3- MONTH OLD BREAST AND FORMULA-FED INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies showing that infants can differentially process and discriminate speech stimuli have not considered the influence of diet as an experimental variable. To investigate this relationship, cortical auditory evoked potentials (ERPs) to syllables were recorded (128 electrodes) from 3 month old inf...

  10. Statistical Inference and Sensitivity to Sampling in 11-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Denison, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Research on initial conceptual knowledge and research on early statistical learning mechanisms have been, for the most part, two separate enterprises. We report a study with 11-month-old infants investigating whether they are sensitive to sampling conditions and whether they can integrate intentional information in a statistical inference task.…

  11. Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry sponsored trials, with regards to supplementation of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify published and unpublished randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Cochrane methodology was used to assess the risk of bias of included RCTs in the following domains: 1) sequence generation; 2) allocation concealment; 3) blinding; 4) incomplete outcome data; 5) selective outcome reporting; and 6) other bias. Clinical outcomes and authors’ conclusions were reported in frequencies and percentages. The association between source of funding, risk of bias, clinical outcomes and conclusions were assessed using Pearson’s Chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results Sixty seven completed and 3 on-going RCTs were included. Forty (59.7%) were funded by food industry, 11 (16.4%) by non-industry entities and 16 (23.9%) did not specify source of funding. Several risk of bias domains, especially sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, were not adequately reported. There was no significant association between the source of funding and sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting, majority of reported clinical outcomes or authors’ conclusions. On the other hand, source of funding was significantly associated with the domains of incomplete outcome data, free of other bias domains as well as reported antibiotic use and conclusions on weight gain. Conclusion In RCTs on infants fed infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics, the source of funding did not

  12. FEEDING AN ELEMENTAL DIET VS A MILK-BASED FORMULA DOES NOT DECREASE INTESTINAL MUCOSAL GROWTH IN INFANT PIGS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the level of enteral nutrient intake determines the rate of intestinal growth in piglets. Our objective was to determine whether providing enteral nutrition in the form of elemental nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipid [ED]) rather than cow's milk formula (lac...

  13. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will digest breast ...

  14. A convenient formula for sample size calculations in clinical trials with multiple co-primary continuous endpoints.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of a new treatment may often be better evaluated by two or more co-primary endpoints. Recently, in pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increasing discussion regarding establishing statistically significant favorable results on more than one endpoint in comparisons between treatments, which is referred to as a problem of multiple co-primary endpoints. Several methods have been proposed for calculating the sample size required to design a trial with multiple co-primary correlated endpoints. However, because these methods require users to have considerable mathematical sophistication and knowledge of programming techniques, their application and spread may be restricted in practice. To improve the convenience of these methods, in this paper, we provide a useful formula with accompanying numerical tables for sample size calculations to design clinical trials with two treatments, where the efficacy of a new treatment is demonstrated on continuous co-primary endpoints. In addition, we provide some examples to illustrate the sample size calculations made using the formula. Using the formula and the tables, which can be read according to the patterns of correlations and effect size ratios expected in multiple co-primary endpoints, makes it convenient to evaluate the required sample size promptly. PMID:22415870

  15. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania): targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Smit, Ella N; van der Meulen, Jan; Boersma, E Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2005-04-01

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the proximity of East-African freshwater lakes and rivers and early homo sapiens had higher intakes of AA and DHA from a predominantly lacustrine-based diet. In search of milk AA and DHA contents of our African ancestors, we investigated the milk of 29 lactating women living in Doromoni near lake Kitangiri (Tanzania). They consumed sunflower oil-fried local fish as only animal lipid sources, maize and local vegetables. AA and DHA contents of Doromoni milk may be close to that of early homo sapiens, because of the similarity of their life-long consumption of East-African lacustrine-based foods. Human milk fatty acid relationships from our historical worldwide database and the literature revealed that disparities between the Doromoni diet and the presumed ancient diet (i.e. higher carbohydrate and linoleic acid intakes) are unlikely to affect milk AA and DHA contents. Doromoni milk had high contents of AA (median 0.70 mol%), DHA (0.75) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.17), and low AA/DHA ratios (median 0.91; 0.55-2.61). This tracks down to consumption of fish with high AA and DHA contents, and AA/EPA ratios. We conclude that the milk AA, DHA and EPA contents of Doromoni women might provide us with clues to optimize infant formulae and perhaps the milk of Western women. PMID:15763440

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in matched breast milk and infant faeces samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqin; Wang, Xianyu; Li, Yan; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Gallen, Michael; Hearn, Laurence; Aylward, Lesa L; McLachlan, Michael S; Sly, Peter D; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-01-01

    Assessing blood concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in infants is difficult due to the ethical and practical difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of blood. To determine whether measuring POPs in faeces might reflect blood concentration during infancy, we measured the concentrations of a range of POPs (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in a pilot study using matched breast milk and infant faecal samples obtained from ten mother–child pairs. All infants were breast fed, with 8 of them also receiving solid food at the time of faecal sampling. In this small dataset faecal concentrations (range 0.01–41 ng g(−1) lipid) are strongly associated with milk concentrations (range 0.02–230 ng g(−1) lipid). Associations with other factors generally could not be detected in this dataset, with the exception of a small effect of age or growth. Different sources (external or internal) of exposure appeared to directly influence faecal concentrations of different chemicals based on different inter-individual variability in the faeces-to-milk concentration ratio Rfm. Overall, the matrix of faeces as an external measure of internal exposure in infants looks promising for some chemicals and is worth assessing further in larger datasets. PMID:25463255

  17. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  18. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine O; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V; Rudloff, Silvia; Li, Yanqi; Roggenbuck, Michael; Bering, Stine B; Sangild, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm birth. Preterm pigs were fed gradually advancing doses of BC, DM, or IF (3-15 ml·kg(-1)·3 h(-1), n = 14-18) before measurements of gut structure, function, microbiology, and immunology. The BC pigs showed higher body growth, intestinal hexose uptake, and transit time and reduced diarrhea and gut permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P < 0.05). Relative to IF pigs, BC pigs also had lower density of mucosa-associated bacteria and of some putative pathogens in colon, together with higher intestinal villi, mucosal mass, brush-border enzyme activities, colonic short chain fatty acid levels, and bacterial diversity and an altered expression of immune-related genes (higher TNFα, IL17; lower IL8, TLR2, TFF, MUC1, MUC2) (all P < 0.05). Values in DM pigs were intermediate. Severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was observed in >50% of IF pigs, while only subclinical intestinal lesions were evident from DM and BC pigs. BC, and to some degree DM, are superior to preterm IF in stimulating gut maturation and body growth, using a gradual advancement of enteral feeding volume over the first 11 days after preterm birth in piglets. Whether the same is true in preterm infants remains to be tested. PMID:27445345

  19. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system. PMID:24520333

  20. Effect of short-term room temperature storage on the microbial community in infant fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Li, Sheng-Hui; Kuang, Ya-Shu; He, Jian-Rong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Luo, Bei-Jun; Jiang, Feng-Ju; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Papasian, Christopher J.; Xia, Hui-Min; Deng, Hong-Wen; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Sample storage conditions are important for unbiased analysis of microbial communities in metagenomic studies. Specifically, for infant gut microbiota studies, stool specimens are often exposed to room temperature (RT) conditions prior to analysis. This could lead to variations in structural and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities. To estimate such effects of RT storage, we collected feces from 29 healthy infants (0–3 months) and partitioned each sample into 5 portions to be stored for different lengths of time at RT before freezing at −80 °C. Alpha diversity did not differ between samples with storage time from 0 to 2 hours. The UniFrac distances and microbial composition analysis showed significant differences by testing among individuals, but not by testing between different time points at RT. Changes in the relative abundance of some specific (less common, minor) taxa were still found during storage at room temperature. Our results support previous studies in children and adults, and provided useful information for accurate characterization of infant gut microbiomes. In particular, our study furnished a solid foundation and justification for using fecal samples exposed to RT for less than 2 hours for comparative analyses between various medical conditions. PMID:27226242

  1. Effect of short-term room temperature storage on the microbial community in infant fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Sheng-Hui; Kuang, Ya-Shu; He, Jian-Rong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Luo, Bei-Jun; Jiang, Feng-Ju; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Papasian, Christopher J; Xia, Hui-Min; Deng, Hong-Wen; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Sample storage conditions are important for unbiased analysis of microbial communities in metagenomic studies. Specifically, for infant gut microbiota studies, stool specimens are often exposed to room temperature (RT) conditions prior to analysis. This could lead to variations in structural and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities. To estimate such effects of RT storage, we collected feces from 29 healthy infants (0-3 months) and partitioned each sample into 5 portions to be stored for different lengths of time at RT before freezing at -80 °C. Alpha diversity did not differ between samples with storage time from 0 to 2 hours. The UniFrac distances and microbial composition analysis showed significant differences by testing among individuals, but not by testing between different time points at RT. Changes in the relative abundance of some specific (less common, minor) taxa were still found during storage at room temperature. Our results support previous studies in children and adults, and provided useful information for accurate characterization of infant gut microbiomes. In particular, our study furnished a solid foundation and justification for using fecal samples exposed to RT for less than 2 hours for comparative analyses between various medical conditions. PMID:27226242

  2. Two single group, prospective, baseline-controlled feeding studies in infants and children with chronic diarrhea fed a hypoallergenic free amino acid-based formula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants and children with chronic diarrhea (CD) often require specialized foods or parenteral nutrition (PN) to achieve adequate nutrient intakes to support growth and development. We assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) in supporting growth and improving symptoms in infants and children with CD from multiple etiologies. Methods Two studies were conducted: CD study in children (CD-C) and CD study in infants (CD-I). Each was a single group, baseline-controlled study in which each subject served as his/her own control. At enrollment, all subjects had CD lasting > 2 weeks and had ≥ 4 stools/day. Subjects were fed an AAF for 80 days starting at SD5, and were assessed at SD 28 and 84. Results CD-C: 18 of 19 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 5.6 ± 0.7 years, the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome (SBS) (n = 13), and 5 subjects with SBS were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.026). Over 50% of subjects achieved improvements in clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Of the five subjects on PN at enrollment, four had substantial weight gain and four had their PN requirements decreased. CD-I: 22 of 27 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 3.3 ± 0.3 months, the most common diagnosis was food allergy (n = 20), and no subjects were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.0023), significant decreases in the number of stools/day (p = 0.0012), and improvements in stool consistency (p = 0.0024). Over 80% of subjects achieved improvements in the clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Conclusions Infants and children with CD fed an AAF for three months displayed significant improvements in weight-for-age z-scores and clinical symptoms. Children dependent on PN also grew well and four of five decreased their

  3. Cloning and Sequencing of the ompA Gene of Enterobacter sakazakii and Development of an ompA-Targeted PCR for Rapid Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Mohan Nair, Manoj Kumar; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar S.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging, infant formula-borne pathogen that causes severe meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants, with a high fatality rate. Traditional detection methods take up to 7 days to identify E. sakazakii. The outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), along with its flanking sequences from E. sakazakii (ATCC 51329), was cloned in the pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the ompA gene with other sequences available in the GenBank database revealed a high degree of homology with ompA genes of other gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. Based on regions of the ompA gene unique to E. sakazakii, two primers were synthesized to develop and optimize an E. sakazakii-specific PCR. The PCR amplified a 469-bp DNA product from all E. sakazakii strains tested but not from other bacteria. Experiments to determine the sensitivity of the PCR indicated that it could detect as few as 103 CFU/ml of E. sakazakii bacteria in infant formula directly and 10−1 CFU/ml after an 8-h enrichment step. We conclude that this PCR, combined with enrichment culturing, has the potential to be used as a rapid tool for detecting the presence of E. sakazakii in infant formula. PMID:16597955

  4. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  5. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday. PMID:26076141

  6. Effect of Infant Formula Containing a Low Dose of the Probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-3446 on Immune and Gut Functions in C-Section Delivered Babies: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Baglatzi, L.; Gavrili, S.; Stamouli, K.; Zachaki, S.; Favre, L.; Pecquet, S.; Benyacoub, J.; Costalos, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the absence of breast-feeding and its immunomodulatory factors, supplementation of starter infant formula (IF) with probiotics is currently used to support immune functions and gut development. AIM To assess whether immune-related beneficial effects of regular dose (107 CFU/g of powder) of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-3446 (hereafter named B. lactis) in starter IF supplementation can be maintained with starter IF containing a low dose (104 CFU/g of powder) of B. lactis. METHOD This trial was designed as a pilot, prospective, double-blind, randomized, single-center clinical trial of two parallel groups (n = 77 infants/group) of C-section delivered infants receiving a starter IF containing either low dose or regular dose of the probiotic B. lactis from birth to six months of age. In addition, a reference group of infants breast-fed for a minimum of four months (n = 44 infants), also born by C-section, were included. All groups were then provided follow-up formula without B. lactis up to 12 months of age. Occurrence of diarrhea, immune and gut maturation, responses to vaccinations, and growth were assessed from birth to 12 months. The effect of low-dose B. lactis formula was compared to regular-dose B. lactis formula, considered as reference for IF with probiotics, and both were further compared to breast-feeding as a physiological reference. RESULTS Data showed that feeding low-dose B. lactis IF provides similar effects as feeding regular-dose B. lactis IF or breast milk. No consistent statistical differences regarding early life protection against gastrointestinal infections, immune and gut maturation, microbiota establishment, and growth were observed between randomized formula-fed groups as well as with the breast-fed reference group. CONCLUSION This pilot study suggests that supplementing C-section born neonates with low-dose B. lactis-containing starter formula may impact immune as well as gut maturation similarly to regular-dose B

  7. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  8. Comparative Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Cronobacter Species Cultured from Four Powdered Infant Formula Production Facilities: Indication of Pathoadaptation along the Food Chain

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Wang, Juan; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Cao, Yu; Martins, Marta; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Stephan, Roger; Lampel, Keith; Tall, Ben D.

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment. Among the seven Cronobacter species, Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST-4) is predominantly associated with recorded cases of infantile meningitis. This study reports on a 26-month powdered infant formula (PIF) surveillance program in four production facilities located in distinct geographic regions. The objective was to identify the ST(s) in PIF production environments and to investigate the phenotypic features that support their survival. Of all 168 Cronobacter isolates, 133 were recovered from a PIF production environment, 31 were of clinical origin, and 4 were laboratory type strains. Sequence type 1 (n = 84 isolates; 63.9%) was the dominant type in PIF production environments. The majority of these isolates clustered with an indistinguishable pulsotype and persisted for at least an 18-month period. Moreover, DNA microarray results identified two phylogenetic lineages among ST-4 strains tested. Thereafter, the ST-1 and -4 isolates were phenotypically compared. Differences were noted based on the phenotypes expressed by these isolates. The ST-1 PIF isolates produced stronger biofilms at both 28°C and 37°C, while the ST-4 clinical isolates exhibited greater swimming activity and increased binding to Congo red dye. Given the fact that PIF is a low-moisture environment and that the clinical environment provides for an interaction between the pathogen and its host, these differences may be consistent with a form of pathoadaptation. These findings help to extend our current understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of Cronobacter species in PIF production environments. PMID:25911470

  9. Comparative Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Cronobacter Species Cultured from Four Powdered Infant Formula Production Facilities: Indication of Pathoadaptation along the Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Wang, Juan; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Cao, Yu; Martins, Marta; Gopinath, Gopal R; Stephan, Roger; Lampel, Keith; Tall, Ben D; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-07-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment. Among the seven Cronobacter species, Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST-4) is predominantly associated with recorded cases of infantile meningitis. This study reports on a 26-month powdered infant formula (PIF) surveillance program in four production facilities located in distinct geographic regions. The objective was to identify the ST(s) in PIF production environments and to investigate the phenotypic features that support their survival. Of all 168 Cronobacter isolates, 133 were recovered from a PIF production environment, 31 were of clinical origin, and 4 were laboratory type strains. Sequence type 1 (n = 84 isolates; 63.9%) was the dominant type in PIF production environments. The majority of these isolates clustered with an indistinguishable pulsotype and persisted for at least an 18-month period. Moreover, DNA microarray results identified two phylogenetic lineages among ST-4 strains tested. Thereafter, the ST-1 and -4 isolates were phenotypically compared. Differences were noted based on the phenotypes expressed by these isolates. The ST-1 PIF isolates produced stronger biofilms at both 28°C and 37°C, while the ST-4 clinical isolates exhibited greater swimming activity and increased binding to Congo red dye. Given the fact that PIF is a low-moisture environment and that the clinical environment provides for an interaction between the pathogen and its host, these differences may be consistent with a form of pathoadaptation. These findings help to extend our current understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of Cronobacter species in PIF production environments. PMID:25911470

  10. Complete genome sequence and phenotype microarray analysis of Cronobacter sakazakii SP291: a persistent isolate cultured from a powdered infant formula production facility

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Power, Karen A.; Cooney, Shane; Fox, Edward; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Grim, Christopher J.; Tall, Ben D.; McCusker, Matthew P.; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of human infection linked to the powdered infant formula (PIF) food chain and associated with the bacterium Cronobacter, are of concern to public health. These bacteria are regarded as opportunistic pathogens linked to life-threatening infections predominantly in neonates, with an under developed immune system. Monitoring the microbiological ecology of PIF production sites is an important step in attempting to limit the risk of contamination in the finished food product. Cronobacter species, like other microorganisms can adapt to the production environment. These organisms are known for their desiccation tolerance, a phenotype that can aid their survival in the production site and PIF itself. In evaluating the genome data currently available for Cronobacter species, no sequence information has been published describing a Cronobacter sakazakii isolate found to persist in a PIF production facility. Here we report on the complete genome sequence of one such isolate, Cronobacter sakazakii SP291 along with its phenotypic characteristics. The genome of C. sakazakii SP291 consists of a 4.3-Mb chromosome (56.9% GC) and three plasmids, denoted as pSP291-1, [118.1-kb (57.2% GC)], pSP291-2, [52.1-kb (49.2% GC)], and pSP291-3, [4.4-kb (54.0% GC)]. When C. sakazakii SP291 was compared to the reference C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894, which is also of PIF origin, the annotated genome data identified two interesting functional categories, comprising of genes related to the bacterial stress response and resistance to antimicrobial and toxic compounds. Using a phenotypic microarray (PM), we provided a full metabolic profile comparing C. sakazakii SP291 and the previously sequenced C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894. These data extend our understanding of the genome of this important neonatal pathogen and provides further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the PIF environment. PMID:24032028

  11. A formula for evaluating colour differences for thread sewn into fabric samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steder, Thorsten

    In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  12. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

  13. Detection of PCV-2 DNA in stool samples from infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®

    PubMed Central

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; LaRussa, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in rotavirus disease worldwide. However, the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) and 2 (PCV-2) DNA in these vaccines raised some safety concerns. Studies examining shedding of rotavirus in stool from rotavirus vaccine recipients have been performed but no published data exist regarding the shedding of PCV virus in stools of vaccinees. The goal of this study was to determine if PCV-1 and/or PCV-2 is shed in the feces of infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Using multiple PCR assays for detection of PCV DNA, we tested for PCV-1 and PCV-2 in 826 stool swab samples collected serially during the first 9 d after vaccination from 102 children vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Since the vaccine is recommended and uptake is high, we did not have samples from unvaccinated infants. A total of 235 (28.5%) samples from 59 vaccine recipients were positive for PCV-2 DNA by one or more assays used in this study. PCV-1 DNA was not detected in RotaTeq® or any of the stool swab extracts. Twenty-two of the 102 vaccine recipients (21.6%) shed RotaTeq® vaccine strain and 10 of these vaccinees (9.8%) were shedding both PCV DNA and rotavirus vaccine RNA. PCV DNA was detected up to 9 d post vaccination and was most frequently detected in the first 5 d after vaccination. This study demonstrated shedding of PCV-2 DNA by RotaTeq® vaccinees but we did not find evidence that this DNA was associated with viable PCV. Findings from this study support the continued use of current rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24104203

  14. Detection of PCV-2 DNA in stool samples from infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®.

    PubMed

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; LaRussa, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in rotavirus disease worldwide. However, the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) and 2 (PCV-2) DNA in these vaccines raised some safety concerns. Studies examining shedding of rotavirus in stool from rotavirus vaccine recipients have been performed but no published data exist regarding the shedding of PCV virus in stools of vaccinees. The goal of this study was to determine if PCV-1 and/or PCV-2 is shed in the feces of infants vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Using multiple PCR assays for detection of PCV DNA, we tested for PCV-1 and PCV-2 in 826 stool swab samples collected serially during the first 9 d after vaccination from 102 children vaccinated with RotaTeq®. Since the vaccine is recommended and uptake is high, we did not have samples from unvaccinated infants. A total of 235 (28.5%) samples from 59 vaccine recipients were positive for PCV-2 DNA by one or more assays used in this study. PCV-1 DNA was not detected in RotaTeq® or any of the stool swab extracts. Twenty-two of the 102 vaccine recipients (21.6%) shed RotaTeq® vaccine strain and 10 of these vaccinees (9.8%) were shedding both PCV DNA and rotavirus vaccine RNA. PCV DNA was detected up to 9 d post vaccination and was most frequently detected in the first 5 d after vaccination. This study demonstrated shedding of PCV-2 DNA by RotaTeq® vaccinees but we did not find evidence that this DNA was associated with viable PCV. Findings from this study support the continued use of current rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24104203

  15. A note on "an erroneous formula in use for estimating radon exhalation rates from samples using sealed can technique".

    PubMed

    Mayya, Y S; Sahoo, B K

    2016-05-01

    In this note, we point out a serious fallacy in a formula that has appeared in literature for calculating the (222)Rn exhalation rates using the Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based sealed can technique. It is shown that this formula underestimates true exhalation rates by a factor of more than 10(6). Several publications have used this formula instead of the well-known Abu-Jarad formula and have reported unrealistically low (µBq/m(2)/d) surface exhalation rates for normal materials. PMID:26896680

  16. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheets for Water Fluoridation Fact Sheets for Engineering FAQs for Community Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for ... Fact Sheets for Water Fluoridation Fact Sheets for Engineering FAQs for Community Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for ...

  17. Gut microbiota analysis reveals a marked shift to bifidobacteria by a starter infant formula containing a synbiotic of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-3446.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Umberto; Berger, Bernard; Junick, Jana; Blaut, Michael; Pecquet, Sophie; Rezzonico, Enea; Grathwohl, Dominik; Sprenger, Norbert; Brüssow, Harald; Szajewska, Hania; Bartoli, J-M; Brevaut-Malaty, V; Borszewska-Kornacka, M; Feleszko, W; François, P; Gire, C; Leclaire, M; Maurin, J-M; Schmidt, S; Skórka, A; Squizzaro, C; Verdot, J-J

    2016-07-01

    Non-digestible milk oligosaccharides were proposed as receptor decoys for pathogens and as nutrients for beneficial gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Bovine milk contains oligosaccharides, some of which are structurally identical or similar to those found in human milk. In a controlled, randomized double-blinded clinical trial we tested the effect of feeding a formula supplemented with a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides (BMOS) generated from whey permeate, containing galacto-oligosaccharides and 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose, and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain CNCM I-3446. Breastfed infants served as reference group. Compared with a non-supplemented control formula, the test formula showed a similar tolerability and supported a similar growth in healthy newborns followed for 12 weeks. The control, but not the test group, differed from the breast-fed reference group by a higher faecal pH and a significantly higher diversity of the faecal microbiota. In the test group the probiotic B. lactis increased by 100-fold in the stool and was detected in all supplemented infants. BMOS stimulated a marked shift to a bifidobacterium-dominated faecal microbiota via increases in endogenous bifidobacteria (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. pseudocatenulatum). PMID:26626365

  18. Evaluation of the antigenicity of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formulas using the mouse basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Takeshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are widely used for infants with cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the mouse basophil activation test (BAT) in the evaluation of residual antigenicity in these formulas. Whole blood samples derived from β-lactoglobulin- or casein-immunized mice were incubated with one of the following formulas: conventional, partially hydrolyzed, or extensively hydrolyzed. Basophilic activation was analyzed by flow cytometry using an IgE-dependent activation marker CD200R1 and an IgG-dependent activation marker CD200R3. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by i.v. injection of milk formula and results were compared. Conventional formula induced pronounced changes in CD200R1 and CD200R3 expression on basophils, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not elicit any changes in these markers. Similarly, challenge with conventional formula induced anaphylaxis, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not induce anaphylaxis. Although the partially hydrolyzed formula also induced basophilic activation and systemic anaphylaxis, the magnitude of these effects was smaller than that observed with the conventional formula. Compared to CD200R1, the observed trend in CD200R3 expression resembled the results obtained from systemic anaphylaxis test more closely. These findings show that mouse BAT, in particular using CD200R3, is highly useful for the evaluation of antigenicity of milk formulas. PMID:26626100

  19. Quality of attachment in St Petersburg (Russian Federation): A sample of family-reared infants.

    PubMed

    Pleshkova, Natalia L; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to describe the quality of attachment in the sample of children living in St Petersburg (Russian Federation). Up to the present there were no studies on quality of attachment relationship among infants living in families in the Russian Federation (RF), including families living in St Petersburg. The study results have an important value for understanding of development of attachment patterns in a changing society with a previous history of being a totalitarian state. The St Petersburg sample consisted of 130 children, living in families, aged 11-16 months old (mean = 13.3 months). Children were living in largely normative low-risk families. The Strange Situation Procedure was used (Ainsworth Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). The attachment categories were classified according to the criteria of the DMM model (Crittenden, 2002). Results presented show that 50% of children showed the complex strategies (pre-A3-4 compulsive caregiving and compliant, pre-C3-4 aggressive and feigned helpless, A/C). It was found that among a St Petersburg sample of families there was small number of children with secure attachment pattern and many children with complex attachment strategies. PMID:20603423

  20. Determination of free and total myo-inositol in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by high- performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, including a novel total extraction using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment: first action 2012.12.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David; Pritchard, Ted; Foy, Pamela; King, Kathryn; Mitchell, Barbara; Austad, John; Winters, Doug; Sullivan, Darryl; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    After an assessment of data generated from a single-laboratory validation study published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1469-1478 (2012), a method for determining total myo-inositol in infant formula and adult/ pediatric nutritional formula by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), including extraction by using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment was presented for consideration by AOAC during the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV, from September 30 to October 3, 2012. The Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals concluded that the method met the criteria set by the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for the determination of free myo-inositol and approved the method as AOAC Official First Action. The method also determines total myo-inositol, but includes bound sources that the SMPRs exclude. The method involves using HPAEC-PAD for free myo-inositol and a total myo-inositol determination by two different techniques. The first technique uses the conventional acid hydrolysis with 6 h incubation in an autoclave. The second uses a microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis with enzymatic treatment that decreases the extraction time. PMID:24282949

  1. Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in fecal samples from breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with and without iron supplement.

    PubMed Central

    Mevissen-Verhage, E A; Marcelis, J H; de Vos, M N; Harmsen-van Amerongen, W C; Verhoef, J

    1987-01-01

    Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. isolated from the feces of 23 neonates during the first 3 months of life were identified. Of the 23 neonates, 10 were breast fed, 6 received an infant formula with iron supplement (5 mg/liter), and 7 received the formula without iron supplement (iron concentration, less than 0.5 mg/liter). The Bifidobacterium spp. most frequently isolated from the three groups of infants were B. longum, B. breve, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum. The bacteroides spp. most frequently isolated were B. fragilis and B. vulgatus. The most common Clostridium sp. in the three groups of infants was C. perfringens. The type of milk did not select for species of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, or Clostridium, except for Clostridium butyricum, which was isolated significantly more often from bottle-fed infants with iron supplement than from the other groups, and Clostridium tertium, which was more often isolated from breast-fed infants. The species of the three anaerobic genera did not persist for a long period of time in the three groups of infants. PMID:3818925

  2. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues.

    One...

  3. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  4. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  5. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  6. The Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised: Factor structure in a culturally and sociodemographically diverse sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; White, Matthew T; Hails, Katherine; Cabrera, Ivan; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-05-01

    The recommended factor structure for the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament, has limited empirical support. Moreover, the recommended factors were developed using homogenous samples not representative of current United States (U.S.) sociodemographics. The objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of the IBQ-R in a culturally and sociodemographically diverse U.S. cohort (N=380 mother-infant dyads). Mothers were assessed during pregnancy on a range of cultural and sociodemographic characteristics and completed the IBQ-R when their infants were 6 months of age. The sample was diverse on maternal marital status, educational attainment, household income, race/ethnicity, primary language spoken, and country of birth. Initial confirmatory factor analysis for the recommended three-factor model yielded a poor fit. Modifications employed in other studies failed to improve model fit. An exploratory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model fit for a three-factor solution that showed similarities to as well as differences from the originally proposed factor structure. Additional analyses suggested lack of invariance on several factor and scale scores by maternal country of birth, race/ethnicity, and household income. The findings suggest that the commonly used IBQ-R factor structure may need to be adjusted for diverse samples and deserves further study. PMID:27088863

  7. Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants.

    PubMed

    Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-05-01

    Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however, little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1-377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this sample of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this sample of infants was 0.160 μg/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 μg/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 μg/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 μg/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

  8. 454 Pyrosequencing Analysis on Faecal Samples from a Randomized DBPC Trial of Colicky Infants Treated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Stefan; Dicksved, Johan; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Ricceri, Fulvio; Grandin, Ulf; Savino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the global microbial composition, using large-scale DNA sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes, in faecal samples from colicky infants given L. reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo. Methods Twenty-nine colicky infants (age 10–60 days) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri (108 cfu) or a placebo once daily for 21 days. Responders were defined as subjects with a decrease of 50% in daily crying time at day 21 compared with the starting point. The microbiota of faecal samples from day 1 and 21 were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. The primers: Bakt_341F and Bakt_805R, complemented with 454 adapters and sample specific barcodes were used for PCR amplification of the 16 S rRNA genes. The structure of the data was explored by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and effects of different variables were visualized with ordination analysis. Results The infants’ faecal microbiota were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla. The composition of the microbiota in infants with colic had very high inter-individual variability with Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios varying from 4000 to 0.025. On an individual basis, the microbiota was, however, relatively stable over time. Treatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not change the global composition of the microbiota, but when comparing responders with non-responders the group responders had an increased relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides at day 21 compared with day 0. Furthermore, the phyla composition of the infants at day 21 could be divided into three enterotype groups, dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, respectively. Conclusion L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not affect the global composition of the microbiota. However, the increase of Bacteroidetes in the responder infants indicated that a decrease in colicky symptoms was linked to changes of the microbiota

  9. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  10. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards. PMID:23584928

  11. Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Otero-Santos, Samaret; Cao, Yang; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1–377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this population of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this population of infants was 0.160 μg/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 μg/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 μg/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 μg/kg/day, p<0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 μg/kg/day, p<0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 μg/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects. PMID:21449579

  12. Characterization and in vitro properties of oral lactobacilli in breastfed infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species can contribute positively to general and oral health and are frequently acquired by breastfeeding in infancy. The present study aimed to identify oral lactobacilli in breast and formula-fed 4 month-old infants and to evaluate potential probiotic properties of the dominant Lactobacillus species detected. Saliva and oral swab samples were collected from 133 infants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study (n=240) examining the effect of a new infant formula on child growth and development. Saliva was cultured and Lactobacillus isolates were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Five L. gasseri isolates that differed in 16S rRNA sequence were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of selected oral bacteria and for adhesion to oral tissues. Oral swab samples were analyzed by qPCR for Lactobacillus gasseri. Results 43 (32.3%) infants were breastfed and 90 (67.7%) were formula-fed with either a standard formula (43 out of 90) or formula supplemented with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction (47 out of 90). Lactobacilli were cultured from saliva of 34.1% breastfed infants, but only in 4.7% of the standard and 9.3% of the MFGM supplemented formula-fed infants. L. gasseri was the most prevalent (88% of Lactobacillus positive infants) of six Lactobacillus species detected. L. gasseri isolates inhibited Streptococcus mutans binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, and inhibited growth of S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a concentration dependent fashion. L. gasseri isolates bound to parotid and submandibular saliva, salivary gp340 and MUC7, and purified MFGM, and adhered to epithelial cells. L. gasseri was detected by qPCR in 29.7% of the oral swabs. Breastfed infants had significantly higher mean DNA levels of L. gasseri (2.14 pg/uL) than infants fed the standard (0.363 pg/uL) or MFGM (0.697 pg/uL) formula. Conclusions Lactobacilli

  13. The effect of preterm birth on infant negative affect and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: A preliminary examination in an underrepresented minority sample

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole; Hartley, Chelsey M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of preterm birth on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect in an underrepresented minority sample. Method Participants were 102 mothers and their 3- to 10-month-old infants. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Results Relative to normative samples, the current underrepresented minority sample of mostly Hispanics and Blacks displayed high rates of preterm birth (30%) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (17%). Preterm birth had a significant direct effect on postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect. Additionally, there was an indirect effect of postpartum depressive symptoms on the relation between preterm birth and infant negative affect. Specifically, lower birth weight and gestational age predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, in turn, predicted higher levels of infant negative affect. Conclusion Findings emphasize the importance of screening for postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect among mothers and their preterm infants, especially among families from underrepresented minority backgrounds. PMID:25879520

  14. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  15. Factors Affecting Infant Mortality in Rural Bangladesh: Results from a Retrospective Sample Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Bimal Kanti

    1990-01-01

    Data from interviews with 1,787 women in rural Bangladesh revealed that infant mortality was highly correlated with smaller birth interval and absence of contraceptive use, followed by younger age of mother, prior pregnancy loss, smaller family landholdings, and birth of less preferred sex. Contains 49 references. (Author/SV)

  16. History of infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Barness, L A

    1987-07-01

    Human milk was the one successful infant food until the advent of scientific pediatrics, the invention of electric refrigeration, and the development of formulas containing the major nutrients in concentrations similar to human milk. Infants apparently thrive on artificial formulas but the current formulas represent only a stage in the journey to optimal nutrition for infants. Better analyses of the composition of human milk are likely to lead to an improved understanding of the infant's nutritional requirements and thus to better feeding practices. PMID:3300255

  17. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of ...

  18. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  19. Formula Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the mathematical formula devised by George O. Weber on budgeting for physical plants of colleges and universities. Uses four functions of administration, maintenance (operational), housekeeping/custodial, and grounds as a base. (Author/MLF)

  20. Preliminary Efficacy of Adapted Responsive Teaching for Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Baranek, Grace T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Field, Samuel H.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Wakeford, Linn; Little, Lauren M.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the (a) feasibility of enrolling 12-month-olds at risk of ASD from a community sample into a randomized controlled trial, (b) subsequent utilization of community services, and (c) potential of a novel parent-mediated intervention to improve outcomes. The First Year Inventory was used to screen and recruit 12-month-old infants at risk of ASD to compare the effects of 6–9 months of Adapted Responsive Teaching (ART) versus referral to early intervention and monitoring (REIM). Eighteen families were followed for ~20 months. Assessments were conducted before randomization, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Utilization of community services was highest for the REIM group. ART significantly outperformed REIM on parent-reported and observed measures of child receptive language with good linear model fit. Multiphase growth models had better fit for more variables, showing the greatest effects in the active treatment phase, where ART outperformed REIM on parental interactive style (less directive), child sensory responsiveness (less hyporesponsive), and adaptive behavior (increased communication and socialization). This study demonstrates the promise of a parent-mediated intervention for improving developmental outcomes for infants at risk of ASD in a community sample and highlights the utility of earlier identification for access to community services earlier than standard practice. PMID:25648749

  1. Dried blood spots and sparse sampling: a practical approach to estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Parul; Mulla, Hussain; Kairamkonda, Venkatesh; Spooner, Neil; Gade, Sonya; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Field, David J.; Pandya, Hitesh C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Dried blood spots (DBS) alongside micro‐analytical techniques are a potential solution to the challenges of performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in children. However, DBS methods have received little formal evaluation in clinical settings relevant to children. The aim of the present study was to determine a PK model for caffeine using a ‘DBS/microvolume platform’ in preterm infants. Methods DBS samples were collected prospectively from premature babies receiving caffeine for treatment of apnoea of prematurity. A non‐linear mixed effects approach was used to develop a population PK model from measured DBS caffeine concentrations. Caffeine PK parameter estimates based on DBS data were then compared with plasma estimates for agreement. Results Three hundred and thirty‐eight DBS cards for caffeine measurement were collected from 67 preterm infants (birth weight 0.6–2.11 kg). 88% of cards obtained were of acceptable quality and no child had more than 10 DBS samples or more than 0.5 ml of blood taken over the study period. There was good agreement between PK parameters estimated using caffeine concentrations from DBS samples (CL = 7.3 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 593 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 57 h) and historical caffeine PK parameter estimates based on plasma samples (CL = 4.9–7.9 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 640–970 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 101–144 h). We also found that changes in blood haematocrit may significantly confound estimates of caffeine PK parameters based on DBS data. Conclusions This study demonstrates that DBS methods can be applied to PK studies in a vulnerable population group and are a practical alternative to wet matrix sampling techniques. PMID:22822712

  2. Approximate Sample Size Formulas for Testing Group Mean Differences when Variances Are Unequal in One-Way ANOVA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes an approach for determining appropriate sample size for Welch's F test when unequal variances are expected. Given a certain maximum deviation in population means and using the quantile of F and t distributions, there is no need to specify a noncentrality parameter and it is easy to estimate the approximate sample size needed…

  3. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby bottles might help prevent early obesity in formula-fed infants, study suggests To use the sharing ... TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at ...

  4. A quantitative and comprehensive method to analyze human milk oligosaccharide structures in the urine and feces of infants

    PubMed Central

    De Leoz, Maria Lorna A.; Wu, Shuai; Strum, John S.; Niñonuevo, Milady R.; Gaerlan, Stephanie C.; Mirmiran, Majid; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Underwood, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), though non-nutritive to the infant, shape the intestinal microbiota and protect against pathogens during early growth and development. Infant formulas with added galacto-oligosaccharides have been developed to mimic the beneficial effects of HMOs. Premature infants have an immature immune system and a leaky gut and are thus highly susceptible to opportunistic infections. A method employing nanoflow liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) is presented to simultaneously identify and quantify HMOs in the feces and urine of infants, of which 75 HMOs have previously been fully structurally elucidated. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS was employed for high-resolution and rapid compositional profiling. To demonstrate this novel method, samples from mother-infant dyads as well as samples from infants receiving infant formula fortified with dietary galacto-oligosaccharides or probiotic bifidobacteria were analyzed. Ingested oligosaccharides are demonstrated in high abundance in the infant feces and urine. While the method was developed to examine specimens from preterm infants, it is of general utility and can be used to monitor oligosaccharide consumption and utilization in term infants, children and adults. This method may therefore provide diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities. PMID:23468138

  5. EFFECTS OF BREAST MILK, MILK FORMULA AND SOY FORMULA ON GLOBAL FIELD POWER OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS TO SPEECH SOUNDS AT 6, 9, AND 12 MONTHS OF AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have indicated that milk formula fed (MF) infants have different brain reactions to auditory stimuli than breast fed (BF) infants, e.g., auditory evoked responses with prolonged latency are elicited from infants fed regular milk formula. Whether a similar effect is present in infant...

  6. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  7. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fakanya, Wellington M.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL−1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. PMID:25587427

  8. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...

  9. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  10. Vitamins A and E content of commercial infant foods in the UK: A cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Loughrill, Emma; Govinden, Pesila; Zand, Nazanin

    2016-11-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority, currently, there are no reliable data or robust guidelines available in relation to the micronutrient composition of infant foods. This study evaluated the intake of vitamins A and E of infants from 'ready-to-feed' foods and formulas. Normal phase high performance liquid chromatography was employed for simultaneous quantification of retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of β-carotene, and UV spectrophotometry for the quantification of carotenoids from selected infant food samples. Based on the results of this study, the estimated total daily intake of vitamin A (retinol equivalents) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol equivalents) from both infant food and formula milk exceed recommendations set by the UK Department of Health. This requires further analysis of risk of exposure, whilst a cause for concern over deficiency might arise when the intake of milk is compromised. PMID:27211620

  11. The Other-Race Effect in a Longitudinal Sample of 3-, 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants: Evidence of a Training Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Freitag, Claudia; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Knopf, Monika; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the development of the other-race effect "ORE" in a longitudinal sample of 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Caucasian infants. Previous research using cross-sectional samples has shown an unstable ORE at 3 months, an increase at 6 months and full development at 9 months. In Experiment 1, we tested whether 9-month-olds showed the…

  12. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles, the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children’s eating behavior, are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls and anthropometry collected from 3-18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet and weight–for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids while restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. PMID:23592664

  13. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  14. Formula feeding and protein source alter hepatic gene expression, iron and lipid homeostasis in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although breast feeding is recommended, most US infants are formula-fed. In this study, neonatal piglets were breast-fed or were fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) from PND 2 until sacrifice at PND21. Commercial formulas were used with modifications to meet pig NRC recommendations. Serum chol...

  15. Image free-viewing as intrinsically-motivated exploration: estimating the learnability of center-of-gaze image samples in infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Matthew; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    We propose that free viewing of natural images in human infants can be understood and analyzed as the product of intrinsically-motivated visual exploration. We examined this idea by first generating five sets of center-of-gaze (COG) image samples, which were derived by presenting a series of natural images to groups of both real observers (i.e., 9-month-olds and adults) and artificial observers (i.e., an image-saliency model, an image-entropy model, and a random-gaze model). In order to assess the sequential learnability of the COG samples, we paired each group of samples with a simple recurrent network, which was trained to reproduce the corresponding sequence of COG samples. We then asked whether an intrinsically-motivated artificial agent would learn to identify the most successful network. In Simulation 1, the agent was rewarded for selecting the observer group and network with the lowest prediction errors, while in Simulation 2 the agent was rewarded for selecting the observer group and network with the largest rate of improvement. Our prediction was that if visual exploration in infants is intrinsically-motivated—and more specifically, the goal of exploration is to learn to produce sequentially-predictable gaze patterns—then the agent would show a preference for the COG samples produced by the infants over the other four observer groups. The results from both simulations supported our prediction. We conclude by highlighting the implications of our approach for understanding visual development in infants, and discussing how the model can be elaborated and improved. PMID:24198801

  16. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  17. Anemia caused by low iron - infants and toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... is absorbed better when it is in breast milk. Formula with iron added (iron fortified) also provides ... Infants younger than 12 months who drink cow's milk rather than breast milk or iron-fortified formula ...

  18. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas disapproved for... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for drawback. A formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients...

  19. 27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.122 Amended or revised formulas. Except as provided in this section, amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...

  20. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zachery T.; Davis, Jasmine C.C.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2016-01-01

    Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides). No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status). However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis. PMID:26819854

  1. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  2. Longitudinal investigation of the faecal microbiota of healthy full-term infants using fluorescence in situ hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Roger, Laure C; McCartney, Anne L

    2010-11-01

    From birth onwards, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of infants progressively acquires a complex range of micro-organisms. It is thought that by 2 years of age the GI microbial population has stabilized. Within the developmental period of the infant GI microbiota, weaning is considered to be most critical, as the infant switches from a milk-based diet (breast and/or formula) to a variety of food components. Longitudinal analysis of the biological succession of the infant GI/faecal microbiota is lacking. In this study, faecal samples were obtained regularly from 14 infants from 1 month to 18 months of age. Seven of the infants (including a set of twins) were exclusively breast-fed and seven were exclusively formula-fed prior to weaning, with 175 and 154 faecal samples, respectively, obtained from each group. Diversity and dynamics of the infant faecal microbiota were analysed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Overall, the data demonstrated large inter- and intra-individual differences in the faecal microbiological profiles during the study period. However, the infant faecal microbiota merged with time towards a climax community within and between feeding groups. Data from the twins showed the highest degree of similarity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Inter-individual variation was evident within the infant faecal microbiota and its development, even within exclusively formula-fed infants receiving the same diet. These data can be of help to future clinical trials (e.g. targeted weaning products) to organize protocols and obtain a more accurate outline of the changes and dynamics of the infant GI microbiota. PMID:20829292

  3. [Salmonellosis in young infants].

    PubMed

    Köhler, H

    2009-01-01

    In Germany Salmonella belong to the most frequently detected pathogens in bacterial enteritis, Remarkably infants show a higher incidence than adults. In addition to the intestinal symptoms extraintestinal complications, such as bacteremia, infections of the central nervous system and osteomyelitis, are responsible for the disease severity. An age specific source of infection is the often hardly detectable contamination of powdered infant formula. Also infants seem very susceptible to disease transmission through reptiles held in the family's home. Immunologic functions, which are partly age dependent, might be responsible for a high susceptibility and severe salmonella infection in individuals. Due to the reported problems infected infants under 6 months should receive antibiotic therapy. The use of probiotics is not (yet) established in this setting. PMID:19263322

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Grandparent Childcare in Ireland: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Sinead; Share, Michelle; Murray, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that grandparents provide a substantial amount of childcare support to parents of infants in Ireland yet there has been little attention to the provision of grandparent childcare at policy level. Using nationally representative data on childcare provision in the Republic of Ireland, this study examined the prevalence of…

  5. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Strain PV8-2, Isolated from a Stool Sample of an Anemic Kenyan Infant

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; Chassard, Christophe; Klumpp, Jochen; Stevens, Marc J. A.; Jans, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2, isolated from feces of an anemic Kenyan infant, was determined using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. The genome consists of a 2-Mbp chromosome and a 4-kb plasmid. PMID:25614573

  6. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Strain PV8-2, Isolated from a Stool Sample of an Anemic Kenyan Infant.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; Lacroix, Christophe; Chassard, Christophe; Klumpp, Jochen; Stevens, Marc J A; Jans, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2, isolated from feces of an anemic Kenyan infant, was determined using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. The genome consists of a 2-Mbp chromosome and a 4-kb plasmid. PMID:25614573

  7. Attachment between Infants and Mothers in China: Strange Situation Procedure Findings to Date and a New Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Marc; Steele, Miriam; Lan, Jijun; Jin, Xiaochun; Herreros, Francisca; Steele, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The first distribution of Chinese infant-mother (n = 61) attachment classifications categorised by trained and reliability-tested coders is reported with statistical comparisons to US norms and previous Chinese distributions. Three-way distribution was 15% insecure-avoidant, 62% secure, 13% insecure-resistant, and 4-way distribution was 13%…

  8. Anemia and feeding practices among infants in rural Shaanxi Province in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  9. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  10. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  11. Application of prebiotics in infant foods.

    PubMed

    Veereman-Wauters, Gigi

    2005-04-01

    The rationale for supplementing an infant formula with prebiotics is to obtain a bifidogenic effect and the implied advantages of a 'breast-fed-like' flora. So far, the bifidogenic effect of oligofructose and inulin has been demonstrated in animals and in adults, of oligofructose in infants and toddlers and of a long-chain inulin (10 %) and galactooligosaccharide (90 %) mixture in term and preterm infants. The addition of prebiotics to infant formula softens stools but other putative effects remain to be demonstrated. Studies published post marketing show that infants fed a long-chain inulin/galactooligosaccharide mixture (0.8 g/dl) in formula grow normally and have no side-effects. The addition of the same mixture at a concentration of 0.8 g/dl to infant formula was therefore recognized as safe by the European Commission in 2001 but follow-up studies were recommended. It is thought that a bifidogenic effect is beneficial for the infant host. The rising incidence in allergy during the first year of life may justify the attempts to modulate the infant's flora. Comfort issues should not be confused with morbidity and are likely to be multifactorial. The functional effects of prebiotics on infant health need further study in controlled intervention trials. PMID:15877896

  12. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  13. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159241.html Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues? Smaller baby bottles ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at higher risk for ...

  14. Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Greer, F R; Apple, R D

    1991-03-01

    The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings. PMID:1781817

  15. Japanese mothers' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes assessed by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Madoka; Binns, Colin W; Katsuki, Yoko; Ouchi, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    This study describes Japanese mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale (IIFAS). A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 mothers was conducted in Japan in 2007. The participants were recruited at the free health checks conducted for infants at 18 months of age. The survey was self-administered using the Japanese version of the IIFAS. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise sample characteristics and IIFAS score followed by multiple logistic regression to identify association between total IIFAS score and breastfeeding duration. While the IIFAS showed that the majority recognized some benefits of breastfeeding, their overall knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding were neutral and more positive towards the use of infant formula. It is important to provide accurate prenatal education that focuses on methods and long-term benefits of infant feeding to mothers, family and health professionals. PMID:23635371

  16. Molecular formula assignment for dissolved organic matter (DOM) using high-field FT-ICR-MS: chemical perspective and validation of sulphur-rich organic components (CHOS) in pit lake samples.

    PubMed

    Herzsprung, Peter; Hertkorn, Norbert; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Friese, Kurt; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Molecular formula assignment is one of the key challenges in processing high-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric (FT-ICR-MS) datasets. The number of potential solutions for an elemental formula increases exponentially with increasing molecular mass, especially when non-oxygen heteroatoms like N, S or P are included. A method was developed from the chemical perspective and validated using a Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) dataset which is dominated by components consisting exclusively of C, H and O (78 % CHO). In order to get information on the application range and robustness of this method, we investigated a FT-ICR-MS dataset which was merged from 18 mine pit lake pore waters and 3 river floodplain soil waters. This dataset contained 50 % CHO and 18 % CHOS on average, whereas the former SRFA dataset contained only 1.5 % CHOS. The mass calculator was configured to allow up to five nitrogen atoms and up to one sulphur atom in assigning formulas to mass peaks. More than 50 % multiple-formula assignments were found for peaks with masses > 650 Da. Based on DBE - O frequency diagrams, many CHO, CHOS1, CHON1 and CHON1S1 molecular series were ultimately assigned to many m/z and considered to be reliable solutions. The unequivocal data pool could thus be enlarged by 523 (6.8 %) CHOS1 components. In contrast to the method validation with CHO-rich SRFA, validation with sulphur-rich pit lake samples showed that formulas with a higher number of non-oxygen heteroatoms can be more reliable assignments in many cases. As an example: CHOS molecular series were reliable and the CHO classes were unreliable amongst other molecular classes in many multiple-formula assignments from the sulphur-rich pit lake samples. Graphical abstract An exemplary frequency versus DBE - O diagram. CHOS components but not CHO (and not CHON2 or CHON2S) components were considered here reliable. PMID:26883969

  17. The influence of infant feeding patterns on growth of children in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Bindon, J R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in infant feeding practices in American Samoa and analyzes the relationship between infant feeding and growth among children born in American Samoa from 1976 to 1982. The study population is composed of the Polynesian inhabitants of the islands comprising the Territory of American Samoa. The sample is drawn from the records of the Well Baby Clinic in American Samoa. Feeding habit information and health of the infant was solicited by the nurses and doctor during clinic visits. The mothers were questioned about the child's diet. About 40% of the infants were exclusively breastfed; 13% had bottle supplements; 6% were classified as milk drinkers; and 40% were formula-fed. Frequently more than 1 feeding pattern was noted for a given child. Feeding influences were found to be significant on weight up to age 4, and height up to age 3. The timing of the introduction of solids was found to have a significant relationship with length through age 2. There appears to be a complex set of interactions between socioeconomic, growth and health factors. Mothers wean children early to return of work. This results from the availability of infant formula in Samoan stores, more jobs for women and the desire to improve socioeconomic status. Bottlefed infants of working mothers are more likely to have gastrointestinal problems than other infants. As a group, however, bottlefed infants are likely to have higher weights. The most significant contributing factor to morbidity and mortality among adults in American Samoa is the high prevalence of obesity. Extended breastfeeding of the infant can promote health in infancy and in later years. PMID:3836322

  18. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  19. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1 for each self-manufactured ingredient made with...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  1. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  2. Early diet impacts infant rhesus gut microbiome, immunity, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aifric; He, Xuan; McNiven, Elizabeth M S; Haggarty, Neill W; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological research has indicated a relationship between infant formula feeding and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study used an infant rhesus monkey model to compare the comprehensive metabolic implications of formula- and breast-feeding practices using NMR spectroscopy to characterize metabolite fingerprints from urine and serum, in combination with anthropometric measurements, fecal microbial profiling, and cytokine measurements. Here we show that formula-fed infants are larger than their breast-fed counterparts and have a different gut microbiome that includes higher levels of bacteria from the Ruminococcus genus and lower levels of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus. In addition, formula-fed infants have higher serum insulin coupled with higher amino acid levels, while amino acid degradation products were higher in breast-fed infants. Increases in serum and urine galactose and urine galactitol were observed in the second month of life in formula-fed infants, along with higher levels of TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and other cytokines and growth factors at week 4. These results demonstrate that metabolic and gut microbiome development of formula-fed infants is different from breast-fed infants and that the choice of infant feeding may hold future health consequences. PMID:23651394

  3. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  4. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  5. Implementation and performance evaluation of a database of chemical formulas for the screening of pharmaco/toxicologically relevant compounds in biological samples using electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Polettini, Aldo; Gottardo, Rossella; Pascali, Jennifer Paola; Tagliaro, Franco

    2008-04-15

    Electrospray ionization (ESI)-time-of-flight (TOF) MS enables searching a wide number of pharmaco/toxicologically relevant compounds (PTRC) in biosamples. However, the number of identifiable PTRC depends on extension of reference database of chemical formulas/compound names. Previous approaches proposed in-house or commercial databases with limitations either in PTRC number or content (e.g., few metabolites, presence of non-PTRC). In the frame of development of a ESI-TOF PTRC screening procedure, a subset of PubChem Compound as reference database is proposed. Features of this database (approximately 50,500 compounds) are illustrated, and its performance evaluated through analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-ESI-TOF of hair/blood/urine collected from subjects under treatment with known drugs or by comparison with reference standards. The database is rich in parent compounds of pharmaceutical and illicit drugs, pesticides, and poisons and contains many metabolites (including about 6000 phase I metabolites and 180 glucuronides) and related substances (e.g., impurities, esters). The average number of hits with identical chemical formula is 1.82 +/- 2.27 (median = 1, range 1-39). Minor deficiencies, redundancies, and errors have been detected that do not limit the potential of the database in identifying unknown PTRC. The database allows a much broader search for PTRC than other commercial/in-house databases of chemical formulas/compound names previously proposed. However, the probability that a search retrieves different PTRC having identical chemical formula is higher than with smaller databases, and additional information (anamnestic/circumstantial data, concomitant presence of parent drug and metabolite, selective sample preparation, liquid chromatographic retention, and CE migration behavior) must be used in order to focus the search more tightly. PMID:18336013

  6. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  7. Metabolic fate of milk glycosaminoglycans in breastfed and formula fed newborns.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Gabrielli, Orazio; Carlucci, Antonio; Zampini, Lucia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Galeotti, Fabio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Volpi, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the content, structure and residual percentages of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the feces of seven breastfed newborns after ingesting a known amount of milk were studied. A comparison was made with five newborns fed with formula milk. Characterization of GAGs from milk and feces samples was performed according to previous methodology. Compared to the ingested GAGs present in milk, residual feces GAGs of breastfed newborns were <0.4 %, contrary to formula milk fed children, where the residues were ~4 %. As a consequence, >99 % of human milk GAGs are utilized as opposed to ~96 % of formula milk. Hyaluronic acid utilization was found to be fairly similar contrary to chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, which were found to be ~10-18 times lower in formula milk fed children. Our new results further demonstrate that the elevated content of human milk GAGs passes undigested through the entire digestive system of newborns, possibly protecting the infant from infections. In the distal gastrointestinal tract, these complex macromolecules are catabolized by a cohort of bacterial enzymes and constituent monosaccharides/oligosaccharides utilized for further metabolic purposes potentially useful for bacteria metabolism or internalized by intestinal cells. Thanks to their elevated structural heterogeneity, milk GAGs are used differently depending on their distinct primary structure. Finally, a different utilization and availability was observed for human milk GAGs compared to formula milk due to their various composition and structural heterogeneity. PMID:26873820

  8. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  9. The Texas Formula System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

    Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

  10. Infant Colic.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how to respond best to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine." PMID:27017027

  11. Sow-reared piglets show increased mitogen and costimulation induced lymphocutes proliferation compared to formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast-fed infants are less susceptible to infections and allergic reactions than those given formula, suggesting that diet may influence development of the neonatal immune system. Breast milk may stimulate immune system development, but many infants are fed at least some formula within the first s...

  12. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

  13. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  14. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not should not be fed ...

  15. Detection of milk oligosaccharides in plasma of infants

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Stroble, Carol; Underwood, Mark A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2014-01-01

    Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) are one of the major components of human milk. HMO are non-digestible by the human gut, where they are known to play important functions as prebiotics and decoys for binding pathogens. Moreover, it has been proposed that HMO may provide sialic acids to the infant that are important in brain development, however this would require absorption of HMO into the bloodstream. HMO have consistently been found in the urine of humans and other mammals, suggesting systemic absorption. Here we present a procedure for the profiling of milk oligosaccharides (MO) in plasma samples obtained from 13 term infants hospitalized for surgery for congenital heart disease. The method comprises protein denaturation, oligosaccharide reduction and porous graphitized carbon solid phase extraction for purification followed by analysis using nHPLC-PGC-chip-TOF-MS. Approximately 15 free MO were typically observed in the plasma of human infants, including LNT, LDFP, LNFT, 3’SL, 6’SL, 3’SLN and 6’SLN, of which the presence was confirmed using fragmentation studies. A novel third isomer of SLN, not found in human or bovine milk was also consistently detected. Differences in the free MO profiles were observed between infants that were totally formula-fed and infants that received at least some part breast milk. Our results indicate that free MO similar in structure to those found in human milk and urine are present in the blood of infants. The method and results presented here will facilitate further research toward the possible roles of free MO in the development of the infant. PMID:25059723

  16. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  17. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  18. Increased protein intake augments kidney volume and function in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Joaquin; Luque, Veronica; Ferre, Natalia; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr; Dain, Elena; Van Hees, Jean-Noel; Verduci, Elvira; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Protein intake has been directly associated with kidney growth and function in animal and human observational studies. Protein supply can vary widely during the first months of life, thus promoting different kidney growth patterns and possibly affecting kidney and cardiovascular health in the long term. To explore this further, we examined 601 healthy 6-month-old formula-fed infants who had been randomly assigned within the first 8 weeks of life to a 1-year program of formula with low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) contents and compared them with 204 breastfed (BF) infants. At 6 months, infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher kidney volume (determined by ultrasonography) and ratios of kidney volume to body length and kidney volume to body surface area than did infants receiving the LP formula. BF infants did not differ from those receiving the LP formula in any of these parameters. Infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher serum urea and urea to creatinine ratios than did LP formula and BF infants. Hence, in this European multicenter clinical trial, we found that a higher protein content of the infant formula increases kidney size at 6 months of life, whereas a lower protein supply achieves kidney size indistinguishable from that of healthy BF infants. The potential long-term effects of a higher early protein intake on long-term kidney function needs to be determined. PMID:21191362

  19. Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

  20. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Karleen D; Berry, Nina J

    2011-01-01

    Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the event of an emergency. Exclusive

  1. Promoting growth for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J A; Young, L; McCormick, F M; McGuire, W

    2012-07-01

    Preterm infants, especially very preterm infants, are usually growth-restricted at the time of hospital discharge. Proposed interventions to promote catch-up growth following hospital discharge include multinutrient fortification of expressed breast milk for breastfed infants and nutrient-enriched formula milk for formula-fed infants. The current evidence to support these strategies is limited. Fortification of expressed breast milk may increase weight gain and skeletal and head growth during infancy, but more research is needed to define which nutrients confer most benefit, and which population of infants is likely to receive most benefit. Trials that have assessed feeding preterm infants with commercially available nutrient-enriched formula milk ('preterm' or 'postdischarge' formulae) compared with standard formula milk have not found consistent evidence of an effect on growth parameters or development, probably because ad libitum fed infants reduce their intake relative to the calorie-density of the milk. Future studies should focus on the effect of formulae enriched with protein and minerals rather than energy and assess the effect on lean mass and skeletal growth. PMID:21406452

  2. Common questions about outpatient care of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Robert L; Burket, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Eric

    2014-08-15

    Preterm births (deliveries before 37 weeks' gestation) comprise 12% of all U.S. births and are responsible for onethird of all infant deaths. Neonatal medical advances have increased survival, and primary care physicians often care for infants who were in the neonatal intensive care unit after birth. Functions of the primary care physician include coordination of medical and social services, nutritional surveillance, and managing conditions associated with prematurity. Parental guidance and encouragement are often necessary to ensure appropriate feeding and infant weight gain. Enriched formula and nutrient fortifiers are used for infants with extrauterine growth restriction. Iron supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, and iron-fortified formula for formula-fed infants. Screening for iron deficiency anemia in preterm infants should occur at four months of age and at nine to 12 months of age. Gastroesophageal reflux is best treated with nonpharmacologic options because medications provide no long-term benefits. Neurodevelopmental delay occurs in up to 50% of preterm infants. Developmental screening should be performed at every well-child visit. If developmental delay is suspected, more formalized testing may be required with appropriate referral. To prevent complications from respiratory syncytial virus infection, palivizumab is recommended in the first year of life during the respiratory syncytial virus season for all infants born before 29 weeks' gestation and for infants born between 29 and 32 weeks' gestation who have chronic lung disease. Most preterm infants have minimal longterm sequelae. PMID:25250998

  3. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  4. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  5. Environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Suaini, Noor H A; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ellis, Justine A; Peters, Rachel L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie C; Wake, Melissa; Panjari, Mary; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Martin, Pamela E; Pezic, Angela; Lowe, Adrian J; Martino, David; Gurrin, Lyle C; Vuillermin, Peter J; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic and environmental exposure and vitamin D status at age one, stratified by ethnicity. This study included 563 12-month-old infants in the HealthNuts population-based study. DNA from participants' blood samples was genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system on 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between environmental exposure and SNPs in vitamin D pathway and filaggrin genes and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). VDI, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25(OH)D3) level ≤50nmol/L, was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Infants were stratified by ethnicity determined by parent's country of birth. Infants formula fed at 12 months were associated with reduced odds of VDI compared to infants with no current formula use at 12 months. This association differed by ethnicity (Pinteraction=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of VDI was 0.29 for Caucasian infants (95% CI, 0.18-0.47) and 0.04 for Asian infants (95% CI, 0.006-0.23). Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding were associated with increased odds of infants being VDI (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.11-5.18 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.20-5.24 respectively). Presence of a minor allele for any GC SNP (rs17467825, rs1155563, rs2282679, rs3755967, rs4588, rs7041) was associated with increased odds of VDI. Caucasian infants homozygous (AA) for rs4588 had an OR of 2.49 of being associated with VDI (95% CI, 1.19-5.18). In a country without routine infant vitamin D supplementation or food chain fortification, formula use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of VDI regardless of ethnicity. There was borderline significance for an association between filaggrin mutations and VDI. However, polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway related genes were associated with increased likelihood of being VDI in infancy. PMID:25174667

  6. FORMULA-FEEDING REDUCES LACTOSE DIGESTIVE CAPACITY IN NEONATAL PIGS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intestine of newborn pigs develops rapidly during the first days postpartum. We investigated if feeding milk replacer (infant formula) as an alternative to colostrum has compromising effects on nutrient digestive function in the neonatal period. Nineteen piglets born at term were assigned to one...

  7. Total mercury in infant food, occurrence and exposure assessment in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Vasco, Elsa; Paixão, Eleonora; Alvito, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Commercial infant food labelled as from organic and conventional origin (n = 87) was analysed for total mercury content using a direct mercury analyser (DMA). Median contents of mercury were 0.50, 0.50 and 0.40 μg kg⁻¹ for processed cereal-based food, infant formulae and baby foods, respectively, with a maximum value of 19.56 μg kg⁻¹ in a baby food containing fish. Processed cereal-based food samples showed statistically significant differences for mercury content between organic and conventional analysed products. Consumption of commercial infant food analysed did not pose a risk to infants when the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for food other than fish and shellfish was considered. By the contrary, a risk to some infants could not be excluded when using the PTWI for fish and shellfish. This is the first study reporting contents of total mercury in commercial infant food from both farming systems and the first on exposure assessment of children to mercury in Portugal. PMID:24779897

  8. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  9. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  10. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  11. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  12. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  13. Sow-reared neonatal pigs exhibit increased innate immune response than formula-fed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk with its varied immune modulating components helps develop stronger resistance against infections in infants than formula feeding. The increased resistance to infection in breast-fed infants could be due to augmentation of innate immune response, a first line of defense against pathogen...

  14. Determination of 50% endpoint titer using a simple formula.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar

    2016-05-12

    Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar results as those of the Spearman-Karber method. The formula has been rigorously evaluated with several samples. PMID:27175354

  15. Determination of 50% endpoint titer using a simple formula

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar

    2016-01-01

    Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar results as those of the Spearman-Karber method. The formula has been rigorously evaluated with several samples. PMID:27175354

  16. Infant diet differentially affects human electroencephalographic activities in the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of infant diet (milk-based formula [MF], soy-based formula [SF], and breast milk [BF]) on brain EEG activities was studied in infants (20 males and 20 females per group) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Power spectra were calculated in five frequency bands for scalp EEG signals record...

  17. A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0-2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren T K; Lui, Susan S H; Chan, Veronica; Wong, Eric; Lau, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding for the first 6 months in infants has been low in Hong Kong since the 1970s. In order to develop effective breastfeeding policies and promotion programs, an appraisal of feeding practices and factors related to initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding is necessary. A survey with a population-based representative sample was conducted to determine social-demographic, personal and cultural factors that influenced decision, duration and practice of infant feeding among infants 0-24 months old. This paper focuses on infants below 6 months old to study factors related to decision, duration and practice of breastfeeding. In 1993, 7,298 healthy infants were recruited from 46 Maternal-and-Child-Health-Clinics (MCHC) throughout Hong Kong, of whom 3161 were below 6 months old. The mother reported her feeding decision, duration and practice in a questionnaire. Breastfeeding rate was found to be very low (8.4%) for infants below 6 months old. Only 50.9% infants were breastfed. Infant formulae were widely given among partially breastfed infants. 45% mothers were full-time employed. Most mothers were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding to the infants and themselves. Husbands (43.3%) were regarded the most influential on initiation and duration on breastfeeding. Restricted food varieties (54%), sore nipple and breast engorgement (67%), perceived home confinement (41.5%) and perceived inadequate milk supply (31.7%) were major concerns upon breastfeeding. Furthermore, 76.9% mothers turned to MCHC staff for advice when they encountered difficulties during breastfeeding. In conclusion, the survey collected population-based representative data on factors determining initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding in Hong Kong in 1993. The findings will serve as a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of breastfeeding practice in Hong Kong. It merits further study to investigate how the confounders interplay to modulate initiation, duration

  18. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  19. An Empirical Comparison of Formulas Evaluating Early Intervention Program Impact on Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated developmental progress in three groups of infants (9-30 months) presenting Down syndrome (n=28), mild disability (n=16), or moderate/severe disabilities (n=16). To evaluate intervention impact, formulas that measure rate of development and change in rate of development were computed. Findings indicated rate change formulas were…

  20. Formula Manufacturers' Web Sites: Are They Really Non-Compliant Advertisements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger; Matthews, Julian; Cole, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the UK, advertising of infant formula products direct to consumers is not permitted. These products must be used on the recommendation of suitably qualified health or medical professionals. The aim of this study is to examine formula manufacturers' web sites to ascertain whether these are used as alternative forms of advertising that…

  1. Soy-Based Formula Does Not Adversely Affect Immune System Development in Neonatal Piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast-fed infants are less susceptible to infections and allergic reactions than those fed formula, suggesting that diet may influence neonatal immune system development. The goal of the present study was two fold: 1. to determine the effect of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on neonata...

  2. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff ... Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death ...

  3. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  4. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development. PMID:27103229

  5. Clinical utility of serum samples for human parechovirus type 3 infection in neonates and young infants: The 2014 epidemic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yuta; Suzuki, Yuko; Watanabe, Kanako; Oishi, Tomohiro; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    During the 2014 human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) epidemic in Niigata, Japan, this prospective observational study identified HPeV3 from 43/85 (51%) febrile young infants <4 months using PCR analysis of serum (n = 42) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 32) and genetic sequencing of the VP1 region of HPeV3. HPeV3-infected patients (median age, 32 days; range, 4-113 days) were diagnosed as having sepsis (79%), sepsis-like syndrome (19%), or encephalitis with septic shock (2%). Other than fever, mottled skin (67%) was significantly more frequent in HPeV3-infected patients than other virus-infected patients (P = 0.005). The rate of HPeV3 RNA detection in CSF without pleocytosis was high (88%; 28/32). Among the 32 patients whose serum and CSF samples were available, all patients were positive for serum PCR; however, 4 (12%) patients were negative for CSF PCR. Serum HPeV3 RNA level on admission was associated with younger age (P = 0.002), bad temper (P = 0.041), and grunting (P = 0.008). Among 6 patients with sequential data on serum HPeV3 RNA level, levels decreased rapidly without specific therapy. In conclusion, serum samples at disease onset are the most useful compared to CSF in detection of HPeV RNA and serum HPeV3 RNA level on admission was associated with important clinical manifestations in HPeV3-infected patients. PMID:26550926

  6. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  7. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope L.; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality. PMID:25647663

  8. Dietary PUFA for preterm and term infants: review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fleith, M; Clandinin, M T

    2005-01-01

    Human milk contains n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), which are absent from many infant formulas. During neonatal life, there is a rapid accretion of AA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in infant brain, DHA in retina and of AA in the whole body. The DHA status of breast-fed infants is higher than that of formula-fed infants when formulas do not contain LCPUFA. Studies report that visual acuity of breast-fed infants is better than that of formula-fed infants, but other studies do not find a difference. Cognitive development of breast-fed infants is generally better, but many sociocultural confounding factors may also contribute to these differences. The effect of dietary LCPUFA on FA status, immune function, visual, cognitive, and motor functions has been evaluated in preterm and term infants. Plasma and RBC FA status of infants fed formulas supplemented with both n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA was closer to the status of breast-fed infants than to that of infants fed formulas containing no LCPUFA. Adding n-3 LCPUFA to preterm-infant formulas led to initial beneficial effects on visual acuity. Few data are available on cognitive function, but it seems that in preterm infants, feeding n-3 LCPUFA improved visual attention and cognitive development compared with infants receiving no LCPUFA. Term infants need an exogenous supply of AA and DHA to achieve similar accretion of fatty acid in plasma and RBC (red blood cell) in comparison to breast-fed infants. Fewer than half of all studies have found beneficial effects of LCPUFA on visual, mental, or psychomotor functions. Improved developmental scores at 18 mo of age have been reported for infants fed both AA and DHA. Growth, body weight, and anthropometrics of preterm and term infants fed formulas providing both n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA fatty acids is similar in most studies to that of infants fed formulas containing no LCPUFA. A larger double-blind multicenter randomized study has recently

  9. [The prevention of allergic diseases with a hypoallergenic formula: a follow-up at 24 months. The preliminary results].

    PubMed

    de Seta, L; Siani, P; Cirillo, G; Di Gruttola, M; Cimaduomo, L; Coletta, S

    1994-01-01

    One hundred-eight infants from atopic families were admitted to the study. Each had at least one first-degree relative affected by asthma or rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, cow's milk protein intolerance. All infants not breast fed were hypoallergenic formula. 46 infants were breast fed, 39 were bottle fed by the ordinary formula and 23 received the hypoallergenic one. No other food was introduced up to 6 months. Cow's milk proteins, egg, poultry and fish were introduced after 6 months. All infants were followed up to 24 months. Incidence of allergic diseases up to 24 months was not significantly different among the 3 groups. PMID:7971447

  10. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  11. [Current aspects of infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Baerlocher, K

    1991-01-01

    It is still an important duty for pediatricians to inform parents about infant nutrition. An effort to insure successful breastfeeding in newborns is particularly necessary in order to avoid the introduction of foreign proteins, especially in high risk children. Allergy prevention is thus instigated early on. If necessary, a hypoallergenic milk may be used. Recently, there has been great concern that a high content of dioxine in breast milk exists, higher than in infant formulas. However, no evidence of toxicity has been noticed to date in breast fed children due to dioxine. Therefore, because of the many advantages, breast feeding should still be recommended for the first 4-6 months. In the last few years infant formulas have been adapted to simulate breastmilk by supplementation with taurine, carnitine and nucleotides. Most recently, Omega-3-fatty acids, which are important constituents of membrane phospholipids in the nervous system and the retina, have been added. In infant nutrition there is a trend nowadays toward unconventional forms of nutrition. An exclusive "lactoovo-vegetable" diet is able to meet all the requirements of a growing child. The critical components of a vegetarian diet are iron, calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. These few examples demonstrate how important a nutrition-committee could be in elaborating basic information for the pediatrician, which would be useful in his daily work. PMID:2057211

  12. Effects of carob-bean gum thickened formulas on infants’ reflux and tolerance indices

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Miglena; Manios, Yannis; Rasheva, Niya; Pancheva, Ruzha; Dimitrova, Elena; Schaafsma, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of carob-bean gum (CBG) thickened-formulas on reflux and tolerance indices in infants with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). METHODS: Fifty-six eligible infants (1-6 mo old) were randomly allocated to receive for two weeks a formula with either 0.33 g/100 mL (Formula A) or 0.45 g/100 mL (Formula B) of cold soluble CBG galactomannans respectively, or a formula with 0.45 g/100 mL of hot soluble CBG galactomannans (Formula C). No control group receiving standard formula was included in the study. Data on the following indices were obtained both at baseline and follow-up from all study participants: 24 h esophageal pH monitoring indices, anthropometrical indices (i.e., body weight and length) and tolerance indices (i.e., frequency of colics; type and frequency of defecations). From the eligible infants, forty seven were included in an intention-to-treat analysis to examine the effects of the two-week trial on esophageal 24 h pH monitoring, growth and tolerance indices. Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to examine the research hypothesis. RESULTS: Regarding changes in 24 h pH monitoring indices, significant decreases from baseline to follow-up were observed in the “Boix Ochoa Score” (i.e., an index of esophageal acid exposure), in the total number of visible refluxes and in all symptoms related indices due to acid reflux only for infants provided with Formula A, while no significant changes were observed for infants provided with Formulas B and C. In addition, the significant decreases observed in two symptoms related pH monitoring indices (i.e., “Symptom index for reflux” and “Percentage of all reflux”) for infants provided with Formula A were also found to differentiate significantly compared to the changes observed in the other two groups (P = 0.048 and P = 0.014 respectively). Concerning changes in anthropometric indices, body weight significantly increased among infants provided with Formulas A and C, but not for infants provided

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in a Predominately Hispanic, Low-Income Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hungerford, Gabriela M.; Garcia, Dainelys

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) with 12- to 15-month-old infants from predominately Hispanic, low-income families. Mothers of 144 infants were screened at a pediatric clinic as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants at-risk for behavior problems. Reliability was good for the BITSEA problem scale in all analyses and acceptable for the BITSEA competence scale in most analyses. Discriminative validity was supported by scores on the BITSEA competence scale significantly predicting delayed status on all ASQ-3 subscales. BITSEA problem scale scores significantly predicted scores on the total problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist, supporting predictive validity. Analyses revealed a main effect of group on BITSEA problem scale scores, providing preliminary support for sensitivity to change for the BITSEA problem scale. Results support the BITSEA as an effective screening tool for use with young infants, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. PMID:26379368

  14. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. PMID:24827474

  15. Comparative Analysis of Fecal Microbiota in Infants with and without Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Lee, Bee Wah; Aw, Marion; Shek, Lynette Pei Chi; Yap, Gaik Chin; Chua, Kaw Yan; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic form of childhood disorder that is gaining in prevalence in affluent societies. Previous studies hypothesized that the development of eczema is correlated with changes in microbial profile and composition of early life endemic microbiota, but contradictory conclusions were obtained, possibly due to the lack of minimization of apparent non-health related confounders (e.g., age, antibiotic consumption, diet and mode of delivery). In this study, we recruited seven caesarean-delivered and total formula-fed infants, and comparatively examined the early-life endemic microbiota in these infants with and without eczema. Using 16S pyrosequencing, infants' fecal microbiota were observed to comprise Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla, and the presence and absence of specific populations within these four phyla are primarily mediated by ageing. Quantitative analysis of bacterial targets on a larger sample size (n = 36 at 1, 3, and 12 months of age) revealed that the abundances of Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were different among caesarean-delivered infants with and without eczema, and the bacterial targets may be potential biomarkers that can correlate to the health status of these infants. Our overall findings suggest that the minimization of possible confounders is essential prior to comparative evaluation and correlation of fecal microbiota to health status, and that stool samples collected from caesarean-delivered infants at less than 1 year of age may represent a good cohort to study for potential biomarkers that can distinguish infants with eczema from those without. These findings would greatly facilitate future efforts in understanding the possible pathogenesis behind certain bacterial targets, and may lead to a timely intervention that reduces the occurrence of early life eczema and possibly allergic disorders in later life. PMID:20376357

  16. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

  17. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  18. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or her hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. Grasp reflex . This reflex occurs if you ... reflex occurs in slightly older infants when the child is held upright and the baby’s body is ...

  19. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  20. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471