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Sample records for infant piglets description

  1. The piglet as a model for studying dietary components in infant diets: effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal functions.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, A; Akbari, P; Difilippo, E; Schols, H A; Ulfman, L H; Schoterman, M H C; Garssen, J; Fink-Gremmels, J; Braber, S

    2016-02-28

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24-48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured. Dietary GOS was readily fermented in the colon, leading to a decreased pH, an increase in butyric acid in caecum digesta and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers at day 26. Histomorphological changes were observed in the intestines of piglets fed a GOS diet for 3 or 26 d. In turn, differences in the intestinal disaccharidase activity were observed between control and GOS-fed piglets. The mRNA expression of various tight junction proteins was up-regulated in the intestines of piglet fed a GOS diet and was not accompanied by an increase in protein expression. GOS also increased defensin porcine β-defensin-2 in the colon and secretory IgA levels in saliva. In conclusion, by applying a neonatal piglet model, it could be demonstrated that a GOS-supplemented milk replacer promotes the balance of the developing intestinal microbiota, improves the intestinal architecture and seems to stimulate the intestinal defence mechanism. PMID:26653138

  2. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocou; Xue, Qinghua; Yan, Fuxia; Liu, Jinping; Li, Shoujun; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF). This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6), the control group (Group C, n = 6), and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6), and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected. Results The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  3. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  4. QMR: Validation of an infant and children body composition instrument using piglets against chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet's body composition was ass...

  5. Gross and histological description of the epidermal membrane found on normal neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer M; Smith, Mary C; Schlafer, Donald H

    2015-11-01

    The structure and composition of fetal and placental tissues vary among different species of placental mammals. Some mammals, including camelids and pigs, possess an epidermal membrane during the fetal stage, called the epithelion, that is absent from other domestic mammals. Because neonatal piglets are a common animal model for many research techniques, it is important that researchers correctly identify this tissue and recognize its lack of pathological consequence when working with fetal and neonatal piglets. Here, the authors describe gross and histological examinations of the epithelion, comparing this tissue with other extra-fetal tissues and coatings. PMID:26484821

  6. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  7. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs. PMID:25592784

  8. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  9. Serotonin’s role in piglet mortality and thriftiness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a r...

  10. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  11. Baby Events: Assembling Descriptions of Infants in Family Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer; Stratigos, Tina; Elwick, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    The idea that research on infants should "voice" their "perspectives", their experiences, what they are "really saying," is a central feature of current moves toward participatory research. While embracing the ethos of participation, this article steps away from the binary logic of identity that implicitly underpins such approaches--self-other,…

  12. Infants' reactions to an approaching stranger: description, validation, and functional significance of wariness.

    PubMed

    Waters, E; Matas, L; Sroufe, L A

    1975-06-01

    Reliable descriptions of infants' behavioral responses to an approaching stranger were made from video records. Subtle negative responses (wariness) were validated against heart rate acceleration and responses to mother approach and showed significant age changes. Behavioral aspects of wariness appear to serve a "cutoff" (coping) function for the infant, preventing all-or-none responses (crying) and facilitating subsequent reengagement of the stranger. Attention to both positive and negative responses, especially in the milder forms, helps clarify inconsistencies in reported age of onset and frequency of "stranger fear." The role of data on infants' responses to strangers in formulating an integrated picture of development in the second half-year of life is discussed. PMID:1183268

  13. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and

  14. Total parenteral nutrition induces liver steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) induces a high rate of liver disease in infants, yet the pathogenesis remains elusive. We used neonatal piglets as an animal model to assess early events leading to TPN-mediated liver injury. Newborn piglets (n = 7) were nourished for 7 d on TPN or enteral nutrition ...

  15. Emerging Piglet Models of Neonatal Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, David W; Turner, Justine M; Wales, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a growing problem in the human neonatal population. In infants, SBS is the leading cause of intestinal failure, the state of being unable to absorb sufficient nutrients for growth and development. Neonates with SBS are dependent on long-term parenteral nutrition therapy, but many succumb to the complications of sepsis and liver disease. Research in neonatal SBS is challenged by the ethical limits of studying sick human neonates and the heterogeneous nature of the disease process. Outcomes in SBS vary depending on residual intestinal anatomy, intestinal length, patient age, and exposure to nutrition therapies. The neonatal piglet serves as an appropriate translational model of the human neonate because of similarities in gastrointestinal ontogeny, physiological maturity, and adaptive processes. Re-creating the disease process in a piglet model presents a unique opportunity for researchers to discover novel insights and therapies in SBS. Emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS now represent the entire spectrum of disease seen in human infants. This review aims to contextualize these emerging piglet models within the context of SBS as a heterogeneous disease. We first explore the factors that account for SBS heterogeneity and then explore the suitability of the neonatal piglet as an appropriate translational animal model. We then examine differences between the emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS and how these differences affect their translational potential to human neonates with SBS. PMID:25293943

  16. Endogenous angiotensins and catecholamines do not reduce skin blood flow or prevent hypotension in preterm piglets

    PubMed Central

    Eiby, Yvonne A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Staunton, Michael P.; Wright, Layne L.; Colditz, Paul B.; Wright, Ian M.R.; Lingwood, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine control of cardiovascular function is probably immature in the preterm infant; thus, it may contribute to the relative ineffectiveness of current adrenergic treatments for preterm cardiovascular compromise. This study aimed to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to stress in the preterm piglet. Piglets were delivered by cesarean section either preterm (97 of 115 days) or at term (113 days). An additional group of preterm piglets received maternal glucocorticoids as used clinically. Piglets were sedated and underwent hypoxia (4% FiO2 for 20 min) to stimulate a cardiovascular response. Arterial blood pressure, skin blood flow, heart rate and plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin‐(1–7) (Ang‐(1‐7)), and cortisol were measured. Term piglets responded to hypoxia with vasoconstriction; preterm piglets had a lesser response. Preterm piglets had lower blood pressures throughout, with a delayed blood pressure response to the hypoxic stress compared with term piglets. This immature response occurred despite similar high levels of circulating catecholamines, and higher levels of Ang II compared with term animals. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids increased the ratio of Ang‐(1‐7):Ang II. Preterm piglets, in contrast to term piglets, had no increase in cortisol levels in response to hypoxia. Preterm piglets have immature physiological responses to a hypoxic stress but no deficit of circulating catecholamines. Reduced vasoconstriction in preterm piglets could result from vasodilator actions of Ang II. In glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglets, further inhibition of vasoconstriction may occur because of an increased conversion of Ang II to Ang‐(1‐7). PMID:25538149

  17. Air Trapping and Airflow Obstruction in Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Bauer, Christian; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Gross, Thomas J.; Awadalla, Maged S.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Diwakar, Amit; Ochs, Matthias; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis. These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, inflammation, and mucus buildup. Objectives: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present before the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Methods: On the day they are born, piglets with cystic fibrosis lack airway infection and inflammation. Therefore, we used newborn wild-type piglets and piglets with cystic fibrosis to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory X-ray computed tomography scans. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes. Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator. Mean linear intercept and alveolar surface area were determined using stereologic methods. Measurements and Main Results: On the day they were born, piglets with cystic fibrosis exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type piglets (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively). Moreover, newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways. In contrast, mean linear intercept length, alveolar surface area, and lung volume were similar between both genotypes. Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis before the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development. Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be caused by congenital airway abnormalities. PMID:24168209

  18. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  19. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    PubMed

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  20. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Caitlyn M.; Dilger, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01) plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05) liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic

  1. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  2. A Categorical Description of Infant-Mother Relationships in the Home and Its Relations to Q-Sort Measures of Infant-Mother Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; Moran, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Assessed maternal sensitivity and infants' attachment behavior to test validity of a system of classifying attachment relationships at home. Subjects were 47 mothers of preterm and 42 mothers of full-term infants. Results reaffirm Ainsworth's conceptualization of distinct attachment relationships. (HTH)

  3. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection induces structural and neurochemical changes in the neonatal piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Larsen, Ryan; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-08-01

    Infections that cause inflammation during the postnatal period are common, yet little is known about their impact on brain development in gyrencephalic species. To address this issue, we investigated brain development in domestic piglets which have brain growth and morphology similar to human infants, after experimentally infecting them with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to induce an interstitial pneumonia Piglets were inoculated with PRRSV on postnatal day (PD) 7 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain macrostructure (voxel-based morphometry), microstructure (diffusion tensor imaging) and neurochemistry (MR-spectroscopy) at PD 29 or 30. PRRSV piglets exhibited signs of infection throughout the post-inoculation period and had elevated plasma levels of TNFα at the end of the study. PRRSV infection increased the volume of several components of the ventricular system including the cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and the lateral ventricles. Group comparisons between control and PRRSV piglets defined 8 areas where PRRSV piglets had less gray matter volume; 5 areas where PRRSV piglets had less white matter volume; and 4 relatively small areas where PRRSV piglets had more white matter. Of particular interest was a bilateral reduction in gray and white matter in the primary visual cortex. PRRSV piglets tended to have reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Additionally, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and myo-inositol were decreased in the hippocampus of PRRSV piglets suggesting disrupted neuronal and glial health and energy imbalances. These findings show in a gyrencephalic species that early-life infection can affect brain growth and development. PMID:25967923

  4. Studies on preweaning piglet diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Driesen, S J; Carland, P G; Fahy, V A

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cause and risk factors involved in preweaning piglet diarrhoea. Faecal samples from 2380 diarrhoeic piglets, 5 to 30 days of age, were examined for enteropathogens. Isospora suis oocysts were detected in 53.8% of samples, Escherichia coli in 18.2% and rotavirus in 16.9%. I suis had the widest distribution, being present on 70.9% of 151 piggeries. The onset of diarrhoea occurred mainly between 7 and 14 days (77.5%), peaking at 10 days. Records of 4086 litters from two intensive piggeries were analysed and showed no seasonal variation or effect of sow parity on the incidence of piglet diarrhoea. I suis was the most common enteropathogen associated with diarrhoea in piglets from 5 days of age until weaning. PMID:8368968

  5. Formula feeding and protein source alter hepatic gene expression, iron and lipid homeostasis in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although breast feeding is recommended, most US infants are formula-fed. In this study, neonatal piglets were breast-fed or were fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) from PND 2 until sacrifice at PND21. Commercial formulas were used with modifications to meet pig NRC recommendations. Serum chol...

  6. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  7. Iron Supplementation Attenuates the Inflammatory Status of Anemic Piglets by Regulating Hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yutian; Guo, Bingxiu; Liu, Dan; Xiong, Haitao; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency is common throughout the world and has been linked to immunity impairments. Using piglets to model human infants, we assessed the impact of systemic iron homeostasis on proinflammatory status. Artificially reared piglets were parenterally supplied with iron dextran by intramuscular administration at the age of 3 days. Relative to no iron supplementation (control), iron dextran-treated (FeDex) piglets increased hematological parameters as well as iron levels in serum and tissues from days 21 to 49. High expression of hepcidin was observed in FeDex-treated piglets, which correlated with suppressed expression of ferroportin in duodenum. Lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) transcripts were detected in ileum of FeDex-treated piglets, which indicated that iron supplementation could attenuate the increase of inflammatory cytokines caused by iron deficiency. Histopathological analysis of liver and duodenum proved the less inflammatory responses after iron supplementation. Hepcidin was highly stimulated by FeDex supplementation and attenuated the inflammation of anemia, which implied that hepcidin might had antiinflammatory function and is a candidate regulator of the cross-talk between iron regulation and inflammation. PMID:25774043

  8. Oligosaccharides in Urine, Blood, and Feces of Piglets Fed Milk Replacer Containing Galacto-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Bettonvil, Monique; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Jeurink, Prescilla V; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-12-23

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are absorbed into the blood (about 1% of the HMO intake) and subsequently excreted in urine, where they may protect the infant from pathogen infection. As dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have partial structural similarities with HMOs, this study investigated the presence of GOS and oligosaccharides originating from milk replacer in blood serum, urine, and cecal and fecal samples of piglets, as a model for human infants. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, oligosaccharides originating from piglet diet including 3'-sialyllactose and specific GOS ranging from degree of polymerization 3 to 6 were detected in blood serum and in urine of piglets. In blood serum, GOS levels ranged from 16 to 23 μg/mL, representing about 0.1% of the GOS daily intake. In urine, approximately 0.85 g of GOS/g of creatinine was found. Cecum digesta and feces contained low amounts of oligosaccharides, suggesting an extensive GOS intestinal fermentation in piglets. PMID:26621571

  9. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development. PMID:25176574

  10. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Schwartz, Kent J.; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Abby R.; Visek, Callie A.; Victoria, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  11. Description of an Automated Method for Urea Nitrogen Determination in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) of Neonates and Infants.

    PubMed

    Pocino, Krizia; Minucci, Angelo; Manieri, Rocco; Conti, Giorgio; De Luca, Daniele; Capoluongo, Ettore Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) partially recovers both the instilled saline and the alveolar fluid, so-called epithelial lining fluid (ELF), but a correction for the dilution due to the BAL technique itself is needed to know the amount of recovered ELF. In this regard, urea nitrogen may be useful and has been proposed to calculate ELF. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new method to measure urea nitrogen in BAL fluid (BALF). We used 19 BALF samples obtained from neonates and infants with different respiratory conditions. The urea nitrogen assay was carried out on Cobas c311 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). A validation study shows that the method is perfectly linear (R(2) = 0.999), sensitive (limit of detection = 0.055 mg/dL; limit of quantification = 0.16 mg/dL), repeatable (low = 0.15 ± 0.02, 13.3%; high = 1.80 ± 0.02, 1.1%), reproducible (low = 0.14 ± 0.02, 14.2 %; high = 1.76 ± 0.04, 2.2 %) with accuracy ranging between 93-96%. Our results support the robustness of validated procedure since the described method appears simple, precise, rapid, and suitable for routine analysis. Thus, it may be used to correct concentration of various noncellular BAL components and calculate their ELF amounts in neonates and infants. PMID:25586999

  12. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  13. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-01-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  14. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-07-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  15. Physiological and Pathological Responses to Head Rotations in Toddler Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Closed head injury is the leading cause of death in children less than 4 years of age, and is thought to be caused in part by rotational inertial motion of the brain. Injury patterns associated with inertial rotations are not well understood in the pediatric population. To characterize the physiological and pathological responses of the immature brain to inertial forces and their relationship to neurological development, toddler-age (4-week-old) piglets were subjected to a single non-impact head rotation at either low (31.6 ± 4.7 rad/sec2, n = 4) or moderate (61.0 ± 7.5 rad/sec2, n = 6) angular acceleration in the axial direction. Graded outcomes were observed for both physiological and histopathological responses such that increasing angular acceleration and velocity produced more severe responses. Unlike low-acceleration rotations, moderate-acceleration rotations produced marked EEG amplitude suppression immediately post-injury, which remained suppressed for the 6-h survival period. In addition, significantly more severe subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemia, and axonal injury by β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) were observed in moderate-acceleration animals than low-acceleration animals. When compared to infant-age (5-day-old) animals subjected to similar (54.1 ± 9.6 rad/sec2) acceleration rotations, 4-week-old moderate-acceleration animals sustained similar severities of subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal injury at 6 h post-injury, despite the larger, softer brain in the older piglets. We conclude that the traditional mechanical engineering approach of scaling by brain mass and stiffness cannot explain the vulnerability of the infant brain to acceleration-deceleration movements, compared with the toddler. PMID:20560753

  16. A 3-week dietary safety study of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch in neonatal farm piglets.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Brorby, Gregory P; Ferguson, Heather E

    2014-10-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch functions as both an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer in foods, and is intended for use in infant formula, follow-on formula, and formulae for special medical purposes. These formulae predominantly include extensively hydrolyzed protein or free amino acids, rather than intact protein, which otherwise would provide emulsifying functionality. The study objectives were to evaluate (1) the safety of OSA-modified starch after three weeks of administration to neonatal farm piglets, beginning 2 days after birth and (2) the impact of OSA-modified starch on piglet growth. OSA-modified starch was added to formula at concentrations of 2, 4, and 20 g/L. The vehicle control, low-dose, and mid-dose diets were supplemented with Amioca™ Powder to balance the nutritional profiles of all formulations. There were no test article-related effects of any diet containing OSA-modified starch on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, feed consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). Therefore, dietary exposure to OSA-modified starch at concentrations up to 20 g/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. PMID:25019245

  17. Experimental infection of piglets with cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Tzipori, S; McCartney, E; Lawson, G H; Rowland, A C; Campbell, I

    1981-11-01

    Piglets from five litters were doses orally with cryptosporidium originally derived from diarrhoeic calves. The piglets were either nursed by the sow, artificially reared after sucking colostrum, or weaned on to creep feed. Colostrum-fed, artificially reared piglets obtained from two litters and exposed in the first week of life developed clinical signs of inappetence, vomiting and diarrhoea and shed oocysts in the faeces. Histologically the parasite was observed throughout the small and large intestine attached to epithelial cell surfaces and its presence was associated with extensive mucosal damage, particularly in the posterior small intestine, stunting and fusion of villi, immaturity of villous epithelial cells and oedema with increased cellularity of the lamina propria. Piglets from two other litters, both sucking and colostrum-fed artificially reared, exhibited similar but milder clinical signs. Histological lesions were less severe and cryptosporidium infection less extensive. When weaned piglets were exposed they remained clinically healthy although histologically there was evidence of cryptosporidium attachment in the small intestine and minor mucosal damage. There appears to be a good correlation between the extent of intestinal infection, the degree of mucosal damage and the severity of clinical disease induced by cryptosporidium in piglets. PMID:7342229

  18. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony; Gookin, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa, and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16S rDNA qPCR.  Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp., and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  19. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  20. Supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin enhances systematic and intestinal immune responses in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Yaofeng; Meng, Qingyong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) plays an important role in the body's immune system. However, the immunomodulatory effects of supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human LF (rhLF) on the systemic and intestinal immune systems in infants remain unclear. Our laboratory has used genetic engineer to produce transgenic cow secreted rhLF. To assess the immune responses we took piglets as an animal model for infants. Eighteen piglets at 7 days of age were fed ordinary milk, 1:1 mix of ordinary and rhLF milk, or rhLF milk (LFM) for 30 days. The incidence of diarrhea in piglets in natural condition was observed. The protein abundances of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, IgE, histamine, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 interferon, tumor necrosis factor in the plasma, spleen or intestine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal structure was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin. The mRNA levels of immune and allergy-related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that LFM-fed significantly reduced incidence of diarrhea, enhanced humoral immunity, T helper (Th) 1, and Th2 cell responses, improved the structure of the intestinal mucosal and did not induce food allergy. LFM increased mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 and decreased that of FCεRI β. In conclusion, rhLF-enriched formula could improve systematic and intestinal immune responses and did not elicit food allergies in neonatal piglets. PMID:24420858

  1. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  2. Sow postural changes, responsiveness to piglet screams, and their impact on piglet mortality in pens and crates.

    PubMed

    Melišová, M; Illmann, G; Chaloupková, H; Bozděchová, B

    2014-07-01

    Free farrowing pens (pens) improve the welfare of sows but may increase sow activity and negatively influence piglet production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pens and crates on sow postural changes, piglet trapping, sow responses to piglet screams, piglet mortality, and piglet BW gain. It was predicted that provision of greater space (in pens) would increase not only the frequency of sow postural changes and the probability of trappisng but also sow responses to the screams of piglets; thus, the outcome would be no differences in fatal piglet crushing or overall mortality between the housing systems. Sows were randomly moved to either a farrowing pen (n = 20) or farrowing crate (n = 18). Sow behavior was recorded and analyzed for 72 h from the birth of the first piglet (BFP). Sow postural changes included rolling from a ventral to lateral position and vice versa and going from standing to sitting, standing to lying, and sitting to lying. Occurrences of piglet trapping and sow responsiveness to real crushing situations were analyzed. Sow responsiveness was assessed in response to audio playbacks (PB) of piglet screams on d 3 postpartum (48 to 72 h after BFP; PB crush calls) and real piglet crushing during the first 72 h after BFP (real crush calls). Piglet BW gain was estimated 24 h after BFP, piglet BW was recorded at weaning, and piglet crushing and piglet mortality were recorded during the 72 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC GENMOD of SAS. Sows in pens showed more postural changes (P = 0.04) and tended to have greater incidences of piglet trapping (P = 0.07) than those in crates. Sow response to PB crush calls was greater in pens (P = 0.04) but did not differ for real crush calls between pens and crates (P = 0.62). There was no effect on the probability of piglet crushing (P = 0.38) and mortality (P = 0.41) during the 72 h after BFP nor in piglet mortality at weaning (P = 0.81) between pens and crates. Piglet BW gain

  3. Validation of QMR body composition analysis for infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to validate the use of a quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) device for measuring the body composition of infants and neonates weighing less than 12 kg using the pig as a model. A total of 25 piglets weighing between 2 and 12 kg were studied. Body composition was assessed by ...

  4. Invited review: piglet mortality: management solutions.

    PubMed

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-07-01

    Preweaning mortality varies greatly among herds and this is partly attributed to differences in farrowing house management. In this review, we describe the various management strategies than can be adopted to decrease mortality and critically examine the evidence that exists to support their use. First, we consider which management procedures are effective against specific causes of death: intrapartum stillbirth, hypothermia, starvation, disease, crushing, and savaging. The most effective techniques include intervention to assist dystocic sows, measures to prevent and treat sow hypogalactia, good farrowing house hygiene, providing newborn piglets with a warm microenvironment, early fostering of supernumerary piglets, methods that assist small and weak piglets to breathe and obtain colostrum, and intervention to prevent deaths from crushing and savaging. The provision of nest-building material and modifications to the pen to assist the sow when lying down may also be beneficial, but the evidence is less clear. Because most deaths occur around the time of farrowing and during the first few days of life, the periparturient period is a particularly important time for management interventions intended to reduce piglet mortality. A number of procedures require a stockperson to be present during and immediately after farrowing. Second, we consider the benefits of farrowing supervision for preweaning mortality in general, focusing particularly on methods for the treatment of dystocia and programs of piglet care that combine multiple procedures. Third, we discuss the need for good stockmanship if farrowing supervision is to be effective. Stockmanship refers not only to technical skills but also to the manner in which sows are handled because this influences their fearfulness of humans. We conclude that piglet survival can be improved by a range of management procedures, many of which occur in the perinatal period and require the supervision of farrowing by trained staff

  5. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  6. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  7. Increasing efficiency in production of cloned piglets.

    PubMed

    Callesen, Henrik; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne S; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette

    2014-12-01

    The low efficiency in obtaining piglets after production of cloned embryos was challenged in two steps-first by performing in vitro culture for 5-6 days after cloning to obtain later-stage embryos for more precise selection for transfer, and second by reducing the number of embryos transferred per recipient sow. The data set consisted of combined results from a 4-year period where cloning was performed to produce piglets that were transgenic for important human diseases. For this, different transgenes and cell types were used, and the cloning work was performed by several persons using oocytes from different pig breeds, but following a standardized and optimized protocol. Results showed that in vitro culture is possible with a relatively stable rate of transferable embryos around 41% and a pregnancy rate around 90%. Furthermore, a reduction from around 80 embryos to 40 embryos transferred per recipient was possible without changing the efficiency of around 14% (piglets born out of embryos transferred). It was concluded that this approach can increase the efficiency in obtaining piglets by means of in vitro culture and selection of high-quality embryos with subsequent transfer into more recipients. Such changes can also reduce the need for personnel, time, and material when working with this technology. PMID:25333333

  8. The first description of metyrapone use in severe Cushing Syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion in an infant with immature sacrococcygeal teratoma. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Malgorzata; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Luszawska-Kutrzeba, Teresa; Balwierz, Walentyna; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2015-12-01

    Cushing syndrome due to ectopic secretion of ACTH in infants is rare. The treatment of choice is radical resection of the tumour in combination with pre-operative chemotherapy using steroidogenesis inhibitors if necessary. If radical surgery is not possible, palliative treatment of hypercortisolemia is recommended. The most frequently used drug in infants is ketoconazole. Experience with the use of metyrapone is poor. We report an 8-month-old female infant with congenital immature sacrococcygeal teratoma secreting AFP, beta hCG and ACTH who had undergone non-radical resection of the tumour mass and was receiving standard risk chemotherapy (vinblastine, bleomycin, and cisplatin). The infant initially presented at the age of 6 months with ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome (cortisol and ACTH level 325 ng/mL, 112 pg/mL respectively). Treatment with ketoconazole was initiated with a dose of 600 mg/day. Due to its ineffectiveness metyrapne was added in increasing dosages, up to 1,500 mg/day. In addition the schema of chemotherapy was changed (adriamycin, bleomycin, carboplatin), which resulted in normalization of cortisol levels and blood pressure. There were no metyrapone side effects during the treatment period. We can conclude that treatment with metyrapone at a dose of 1500 mg/day might be effective and safe in infants with Cushing syndrome. PMID:26859587

  9. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  10. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Development and Response to Vaccination Are Unaffected by Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan Supplementation in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Comstock, Sarah S.; Thorum, Shannon C.; Monaco, Marcia H.; Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets. PMID:22815151

  11. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. PMID

  12. A Description of Title IV-A Infant and Toddler Day Care, 1974-1975: Adult-Child Interactions and Care Room Activities. Report No. 7641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbermann, David

    This report is concerned with the development and use of the Infant/Toddler Interaction and Activity Profile in 13 day care centers in Philadelphia. The Profile and its development are described and methods of data collection and analysis are explained briefly. Findings are reported in four major areas: (1) basic data characteristics, offering a…

  13. First malaria infections in a cohort of infants in Benin: biological, environmental and genetic determinants. Description of the study site, population methods and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Gilles; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Cot, Michel; Garcia, André

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Malaria infection of the placenta during pregnancy was found to be associated with infant susceptibility to malaria. Other factors such as the intensity of malaria transmission and the nutritional status of the child might also play a role, which has not been adequately taken into account in previous studies. The aim of this study was to assess precisely the parts played by environmental, nutritional and biological determinants in first malaria infections, with a special interest in the role of placental infection. The objective of this paper is not to present final results but to outline the rationale of the study, to describe the methods used and to report baseline data. Design A cohort of infants followed with a parasitological (symptomatic and asymptomatic parasitaemia) and nutritional follow-up from birth to 18 months. Ecological, entomological and behavioural data were collected along the duration of the study. Setting A rural area in Benin with two seasonal peaks in malaria transmission. Participants 656 infants of women willing to participate in the study, giving birth in one of the three maternity clinics and living in one of the nine villages of the study area. Primary Outcome Measures The time and frequency of first malaria parasitaemias in infants, according to Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta. Results 11% of mothers had a malaria-infected placenta at delivery. Mosquito catches made every 6 weeks in the area showed an average annual P falciparum entomological inoculation rate of 15.5, with important time and space variations depending on villages. Similarly, the distribution of rainfalls, maximal during the two rainy seasons, was heterogeneous over the area. Conclusions Considering the multidisciplinary approach of all factors potentially influencing the malaria status of newborn babies, this study should bring evidence on the implication of placental malaria in the occurrence of first malaria infections in infants. PMID

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats) into an infant's vein. TPN can be lifesaving for very small ...

  15. Piglet behavior as a measure of vitality and its influence on piglet survival and growth during lactation.

    PubMed

    Muns, R; Manzanilla, E G; Sol, C; Manteca, X; Gasa, J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a vitality scoring method, based on piglet behavior and relate it to piglet growth and survival. From 21 sows (Sus scrofa), 287 piglets were used. After farrowing (d 0), piglets were weighed and tested for 4 behavioral parameters in a circular enclosure (55 cm diam.): movement capacity (M), udder stimulation (U), number of completed circles around the enclosure (NCC), and screaming (Sc). Piglets were weighed again on d 1, 2, 3, and 17. Piglet rectal temperature (RT) was recorded on d 0, 1, 2, and 3. Farrowing information of the sow was also recorded. Multiple regression analyses for survival and BW gain at weaning as dependent variables were performed. Piglet BW gain at weaning was influenced by BW at birth (P < 0.001), sow parity (P = 0.024), total number of piglets born alive per sow (P < 0.001), and sum of U and NCC parameters (UN; P = 0.023). Piglet survival during lactation was influenced by BW at birth (P = 0.015), UNCC parameter (P = 0.026), and RT on d 3 (P = 0.085). The sum of U and NCC parameters, in combination with BW at birth and information of the sow, might be useful to predict piglet growth survival during lactation, thus becoming a useful tool to improve piglet management during the first days of lactation. In conclusion, UNCC parameter seems to be an easy and useful way to assess piglet vitality for both scientific and commercial purposes. PMID:23408816

  16. Piglets born after intrauterine laparoscopic embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, J; Koseniuk, J; Mandryk, I; Poniedziałek-Kempny, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the preliminary development of laparoscopic transfer of embryos to the uterus in the pig, which can become the alternative for more invasive surgical methods. We proposed the original method of embryo transfer. Donors (n = 40) and recipients (n = 15) of embryos were sows of age of 6-8 months. The estrus cycle of both recipients and donors was routinely synchronized. The experimental animals were divided into two groups. In the first group (10 donors and 3 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to the method described earlier and in the second group (30 donors and 12 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to our own proposed method. As the control group, we used 16 sows after insemination (AI). In animals from both experimental groups pregnancy was diagnosed between 28-31 day after transplantation and in the control group between 28-31 day after insemination. All animals were observed during pregnancy and weaning period in pig farm. Embryos at the development stage of 2-4 cell were obtained surgically and cultured in vitro for 4 days. Obtained blastocysts were transferred to donors. The original set of catheters for blastocysts transfer to pig uterus was constructed. Three trocars were placed in abdominal cavity for inserting endoscope and 2 grasps for uterus stabilization. After uterus stabilization, the slide was inserted into abdomen which was used for putting the needle to puncture uterus. Through this needle catheter with embryos was inserted into the uterus cavity. Embryos were placed by injection into lumen of the one uterine horn. From 12 recipients pregnancy was diagnosed in 6 recipients. From 6 litters, 57 piglets were born. We weaned 41 piglets (71.9%). In our study we obtained 50% efficacy, with the mean number of 9.5 alive piglets in litter and 6.8 weaned piglets. The efficacy of developed method of laparoscopic transfer of porcine embryos allows it to be used in routine practice. PMID:26172194

  17. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism. PMID:19636165

  18. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (<1.30 kg), medium (1.30-1.79 kg), and high (≥1.80 kg). Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P < 0.001), 8-10 (11.8 %, P < 0.001), and 11-12 (14.6 %, P < 0.001) littermate pigs. The litters with a low piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P < 0.001) and a high piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P < 0.001). In conclusion, to reduce piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg. PMID:26250150

  19. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  20. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets. PMID:26917333

  1. Infant Colic.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how to respond best to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine." PMID:27017027

  2. Field study of coccidial and rotaviral diarrhoea in unweaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L; Walker, E J

    1982-01-01

    A study of diarrhoea in unweaned piglets was carried out in nine herds, with special reference to the enteropathogenic agents which could be demonstrated. Coccidial (Isospora suis) and rotaviral infections were both identified, either singly or in combination. More extensive studies of I suis infection were undertaken in two of the herds and it was found that diarrhoea occurred most commonly in five- to 14-day-old piglets. Piglets with I suis infection were not necessarily diarrhoeic but grew poorly compared to uninfected piglets. I suis infection in litters correlated with oocyst excretion in sows. In herds with I suis infection, amprolium and monensin were used in the sow ration to achieve control, and in one herd oral dosing of piglets with amprolium in the first three or four days of life was carried out. PMID:6278696

  3. Regional blood flow redistribution in preterm piglets with hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dyess, D L; Powell, R W; Roberts, W S; Tacchi, E J; Swafford, A N; Ferrara, J J; Ardell, J L

    1995-07-01

    Acute hemorrhage in premature infants occurs as the result of obstetrical complications, birth trauma, or operative procedures. This study evaluates the response of the preterm piglet to acute hemorrhage and resuscitation. Piglets delivered by Caesarean section 7-14 days preterm underwent acute arterial/venous hemorrhage (20 cc/kg). At 0, 15, and 60 min after hemorrhage, hemodynamic parameters and regional blood flows (reference organ technique) were measured. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood (20 cc/kg), crystalloid (60 cc/kg), or colloid (dextran 40, 20 cc/kg) with study parameters obtained 30 min later (statistical analysis by ANOVA). Significant decreases in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) occurred after hemorrhage. BP and CO were reestablished to near control levels following resuscitation with blood and crystalloid. Dextran failed to return BP to baseline; however, it resulted in CO 1.7 x control. Heart and CNS blood flow were not significantly influenced by hemorrhage; however, dextran increased flows to these organs significantly above control levels. In the kidney and small bowel, flows decreased significantly following hemorrhage; blood and crystalloid restored flows to near baseline, while dextran resulted in flows significantly greater. In summary, the preterm piglet responds to hemorrhage with maintenance of blood flow to the heart and brain and significantly decreased flows to the kidney and small intestine. Flows following resuscitation with blood and crystalloid are comparable to those in control. Dextran resuscitation resulted in flows significantly greater than baseline; this response might be detrimental with ongoing hemorrhage and/or prolonged ischemia. PMID:7630133

  4. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  5. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants between ... Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not should not be fed ...

  6. Recruiting Latina Families in a Study of Infant Iron Deficiency: A Description of Barriers, Study Adjustments and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Alyssa K.; Fischer, Beth A.; Baxter, Ryan J.; Shafranski, Sue A.; Coe, Christopher L.; Kling, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal minority status is a risk factor for iron deficiency in infancy and pregnancy. Because language and cultural differences may limit research participation, a prospective study examining iron deficiency included maternal minority status as an inclusionary criterion. Cognizant of potential barriers to recruitment, goals were to quantify eligible Latina enrollees and refusals, examine participation barriers, and devise possible solutions. Methods Mothers and their full-term newborns were eligible if the women were anemic, diabetic during pregnancy, of minority and/or lower socioeconomic status, and/or delivered an infant outside the average weight range for gestational age. Self-reported ethnicity and reasons for participation refusal were documented. Results During the first 18 months, 255 mothers and their infants were enrolled. Based on inclusionary criteria and the percentage of minority women admitted to the birthing center in a year, we anticipated 25% minority enrollees, with 16.3% Latina. Although 27% minority enrollment was obtained, only 8% were Latina (P < 0.01). System barriers, researcher perception barriers, and participant perception barriers were encountered. Over the next 8 months, addressing these recruitment barriers improved Latina enrollment. Conclusion Enrollment barriers are significant hurdles to overcome, but with increased understanding and effort, more successful inclusion of Latina families can be achieved. PMID:21473510

  7. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  8. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  10. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  11. The development and validation of methods for evaluating the immune system in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Brandon M; Cameron, Mark; Nelson, Keith; Bailey, Kristi; Weiner, Myra L; Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn

    2015-10-01

    The preweaning piglet has been found to be a valuable research model for testing ingredients used in infant formula. As part of the safety assessment, the neonates' immune system is an important component that has to be evaluated. In this study three concurrent strategies were developed to assess immune system status. The methods included (1) immunophenotying to assess circulating innate immune cell populations, (2) monitoring of circulating cytokines, particularly in response to a positive control agent, and (3) monitoring of localized gastrointestinal tissue cytokines using immunohistochemistry (IHC), particularly in response to a positive control agent. All assays were validated using white papers and regulatory guidance within a GLP environment. To validate the assays precision, accuracy and sample stability were evaluated as needed using a fit for purpose approach. In addition animals were treated with proinflammtory substances to detect a positive versus negative signal. In conclusion, these three methods were confirmed to be robust assays to evaluate the immune system and GIT-specific immune responses of preweaning piglets. PMID:26341191

  12. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  13. [Seizures in newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Eskola, Vesa; Jäntti, Ville; Eriksson, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Seizures in newborn infants are common. The may constitute a neurologic emergency or a nonepileptic, harmless symptom. Diagnostics is becoming more specific with current methodologies. Detailed description of seizures and their connection with EEG abnormalities are the diagnostic cornerstones. The treatment has made slow progress, but newer antiepileptic drugs may aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures in newborn infants in the future. For the time being, evidence-based research results for them are lacking, as well as data on long-term effects. Differential diagnosis of seizures has become increasingly important. PMID:21188877

  14. Nutritional interventions to prevent and rear low-birthweight piglets.

    PubMed

    De Vos, M; Che, L; Huygelen, V; Willemen, S; Michiels, J; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    Selection for hyperprolific sows, as a means of increasing litter size and profit, has resulted in an increased number of low-birthweight (LBW) piglets. These LBW piglets might suffer from increased morbidity and mortality during the early neonatal period. In addition, they show reduced growth performance, meat and carcass quality, which leads to an important economic loss for the farmer in the post-natal period. Therefore, nutritional interventions can be undertaken to prevent and rear LBW piglets. In the first part of this review, the preventive strategies at the sow level will be discussed. Approaches in preventing LBW piglets are to optimize the intrauterine environment via supplementing the sow during gestation. In the second part of this review, the interventions at the piglet level will be described. To increase the survival and growth rates of LBW piglets, one must focus on ensuring adequate colostrum and milk intake. Interventions include supplementing piglets, split nursing, split weaning and cross-fostering. Additional interventions increasing the probability of optimal post-natal food intake will be discussed. PMID:24118084

  15. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them. PMID:26244335

  16. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them. PMID:26244335

  17. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  18. Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations. PMID:25167218

  19. A 3-week dietary bioequivalence study in preweaning farm piglets of two sources of docosahexaenoic acid produced from two different organisms.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, Irina; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Bailey, Eileen; Salem, Norman

    2014-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are components of human breast milk and commonly added to infant formula. The first DHA-containing algal oil for infant formulas was DHASCO® produced from the microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii. Recently, new DHA-rich oil was obtained from the microalgae Schizochytrium sp., herein named DHASCO-B. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bioequivalence of DHASCO-B to DHASCO when administered in a blend with ARA oil and the potential effects after 3weeks' administration in milk replacer formula to preweaning farm piglets. DHASCO-B and DHASCO were added to formula at concentrations 0.32% and 0.96% DHA (% of total fatty acids). There were no test article-related effects of any diet on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, food consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation and urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). DHA content in plasma, RBC, heart, liver and brain showed dose-related accumulation and confirmed no differences between corresponding DHASCO-B and DHASCO groups. Therefore, dietary exposure to DHASCO-B and DHASCO was well tolerated by the preweaning piglets during the 3-week dosing period right after birth and DHASCO-B and DHASCO were bioequivalent. PMID:24333867

  20. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

  1. Dietary Glutamate Is Almost Entirely Removed in Its First Pass Through the Splanchnic Bed in Premature Infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk glutamate is a potential gluconeogenic substrate. However, in piglets, most dietary glutamate undergoes first-pass extraction by the gut, limiting its contribution to glucose formation. The objectives of the study were to determine in preterm infants whether dietary glutamate increases p...

  2. Intestinal apolipoprotein synthesis in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Black, D D; Rohwer-Nutter, P L

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary and biliary lipid absorption on intestinal apo B-48 and apo A-I synthesis in the newborn piglet, 2-d-old female piglets were prepared with a duodenal infusion catheter. After recovery, animals were given either low triglyceride (Vivonex; VIV group) or high triglyceride (Intralipid; FAT group) diets by continuous intraduodenal infusion for 24 h. A bile-diverted group was also studied. Segments of proximal jejunum and distal ileum were then pulse-radiolabeled in vivo with 3H-leucine. Mucosal apo B-48 and apo A-I were immunoprecipitated, and apoprotein synthesis was expressed as percentage of total protein synthesis. Mucosal apoprotein content (ng apoprotein/microgram total protein) was measured by competitive ELISA assays. In jejunum and ileum, apo B-48 synthesis was not different in the three groups. However, apo B content increased 2.4-fold in jejunum and 1.7-fold in ileum in the FAT group compared with the VIV group. Immunoblotting revealed the majority of jejunal apo B to be apo B-48, not apo B-100 from contaminating plasma lipoproteins, in all three experimental groups. Bile-diverted animals had decreased jejunal apo B content compared with the VIV group. Jejunal apo A-I synthesis and content were approximately 2-fold higher in FAT animals compared with the VIV group. Although ileal apo A-I synthesis was also 2-fold higher in the FAT group, apo A-I content was not different from the VIV group. Neither jejunal nor ileal apo A-I synthesis was significantly affected by bile diversion, even though jejunal apo A-I content was decreased by over two thirds compared with the VIV animals. In the newborn piglet, intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 and apo A-I is differentially regulated by luminal lipid absorption. Although fat feeding and bile diversion regulate mucosal apo B-48 content, synthesis is unchanged, indicating a posttranslational regulatory mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1900361

  3. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  4. Infant psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Margarete I

    2013-02-01

    Infant mental health problems include difficulties to regulate emotions or attention, crying, sleeping or feeding problems as well as aggressive behavior. Early identifications of these problems help to change developmental trajectories and improve developmental outcomes. Psychiatric assessment and classification have to take into account the rapid processes of development as well as the inseparable linkage between symptoms of the infant, psychosocial risks in the family environment, and parent-child relations. The proposed DSM-5 classification system presents a systematic description of mental health disorders which are relevant for infant psychiatry. However, the proposal has provided rather limited attention to developmental differences and parent-infant relations. Therefore, additional classification systems, like the Zero-to-Three (DC: 0-3R), are strongly recommended. In terms of assessment and in accordance with the guidelines of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, infant psychiatrists have to consider the close relation between somatic and mental health and the interplay between behaviors of the caregiver and the infant. Therefore, the assessment has to be multidisciplinary and relationship based. A standard assessment in infancy includes a clinical interview, behavior observations, caregiver questionnaires, and a pediatric screening. All assessments should pay attention to motor, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Because infant development is embedded in the family context, socio-economic factors, parents' mental problems, including drug abuse, domestic violence, and trauma history should be assessed. The treatment has to be oriented toward symptoms and development and has to address underlying medical conditions. The focus should be on parent-child interactions. Evidence-based interventions are based on attachment theory, use social-learning perspectives, and behavioral approaches. PMID:23229140

  5. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  6. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  7. Infant Care and Infant Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings, Conferences & Events Partnering & Donating to the NICHD Staff ... Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Since the NICHD's founding in 1962, infant death ...

  8. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting.

    PubMed

    Zonderland, J J; Kemp, B; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Spoolder, H A M

    2011-02-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and individually marked weaned piglets were used to observe tail-biting incidents (TBIs; piglet biting a penmate's tail). When visible tail damage was first observed in a pen (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0), the video recordings of the previous 6 (till D-6) and the following 6 days (till D6) were analysed every other day for TBIs and the identities of the biter and bitten piglet were recorded. The average TBIs per individual piglet (within each pen) per observation day were analysed to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour and to identify pronounced biters and/or bitten piglets. The (absence of) coherence for TBIs in a pen was used to test whether biters preferred a specific penmate. There was an exponential increase in the intensity (linear on log scale) of the TBIs from an average of 0.7 bites/h at D-6 to 2.3 bites/h at D6. An additional negative quadratic component suggests that a plateau for tail-biting behaviour was reached by the end of the observation period. Before any visible tail damage was observed (i.e. before D0), 82% of the piglets performed and 96% of them received tail bites. After D0, the figures were 99% and 100%, respectively. One or a few pronounced biters could be identified in almost all pens. These biters already showed more tail biting at D-6 than their penmates. Furthermore, these biters showed a greater increase in tail-biting behaviour during the observation period than the average scores of their penmates. In contrast, there was no apparent increase in the receipt of bites among the piglets that had already been bitten more

  9. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  10. The use of toltrazuril for the prevention of coccidiosis in piglets before weaning.

    PubMed

    Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Carland, P G

    1995-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of toltrazuril as a prophylactic treatment for coccidiosis in piglets caused by Isospora suis (I suis), a single 1.0 mL dose of toltrazuril was administered orally to 1056 piglets between 3 and 6 days of age, in 5 piggeries. Prophylactic treatment of piglets reduced the occurrence of coccidiosis in litters from 71% to 22%. The number of antibacterial treatments given and the number of piglets affected per litter were also significantly reduced, resulting in some improvement in growth rates to weaning. The severity of diarrhoea was significantly reduced, as was the amount of oocyst excretion. The number of days that piglets excreted oocysts in the faeces was reduced from 4.9 days to 2.5 days. The detection of I suis in piglets with diarrhoea was reduced from 84% in the untreated piglets to 6% in the piglets given the prophylactic treatment. PMID:7646378

  11. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT /=1:25) were...

  12. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  13. Determination of piglet location in farrowing crates based on depth and digital images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and properly managing behavioral responses of prewean piglets to the farrowing environment can improve well-being and pre-weaning performance of the piglets. This paper aims to quantify piglet location in the farrowing crate as affected by the lactating sow’s lying posture. Each farrow...

  14. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  15. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIII: fetal piglets infected with a vaccine strain of PRRS virus display the same immune dysregulation seen in isolator piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ig levels and antibody repertoire diversification in fetal piglets infected with an attenuated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) were measured. Serum Ig levels were greatly elevated in PRRSV-infected fetuses; IgG was elevated >10-fold, IgM > 8-fold and IgA >2-fold comp...

  16. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing

    PubMed Central

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (P<0.05) when piglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: P<0.05) and at two weeks post-farrowing (r = 0.62: P<0.05) but not for piglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved. PMID:27258149

  17. CPR - infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... small or loose parts, sharp edges, points, loose batteries, and other hazards. Create a safe environment. Watch ... infants and small children cannot reach buttons, watch batteries, popcorn, coins, grapes, or nuts. Sit with an ...

  18. Neutropenia - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  19. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or her hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. Grasp reflex . This reflex occurs if you ... reflex occurs in slightly older infants when the child is held upright and the baby’s body is ...

  20. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly older infants ...

  1. Characterization of the Intestinal Lactobacilli Community following Galactooligosaccharides and Polydextrose Supplementation in the Neonatal Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Kashtanov, Dimitri O.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Jouni, Zeina E.; Donovan, Sharon M.; Miller, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, prebiotic supplementation of infant formula has become common practice; however the impact on the intestinal microbiota has not been completely elucidated. In this study, neonatal piglets were randomized to: formula (FORM, n = 8), formula supplemented with 2 g/L each galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX, F+GP, n = 9) or a sow-reared (SOW, n = 12) reference group for 19 days. The ileal (IL) and ascending colon (AC) microbiota were characterized using culture-dependent and -independent methods. 16S amplicon sequencing identified no differences at the genera level in the IL. Interestingly, six genera in the AC were significantly different between FORM and F+GP (P<0.05): Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium and Catabacter. In particular, the relative abundance of AC Lactobacillus was higher (P = 0.04) in F+GP as compared to FORM. Culture-dependent analysis of the IL and AC lactobacilli communities of FORM and F+GP revealed a Lactobacillus spp. composition similar to 16S amplicon sequencing. Additional analysis demonstrated individual Lactobacillus isolates were unable to ferment PDX. Conversely, a majority of lactobacilli isolates could ferment GOS, regardless of piglet diet. In addition, the ability of lactobacilli isolates to ferment the longer chain GOS fragments (DP 3 or greater), which are expected to be present in the distal intestine, was not different between FORM and F+GP. In conclusion, prebiotic supplementation of formula impacted the AC microbiota; however, direct utilization of GOS or PDX does not lead to an increase in Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26275147

  2. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A.; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R.; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M.; Dodge, Carter P.; Harris, Brent T.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    % of neuroblasts in the white matter were born in the 2 days following injury. These data show that the SVZ in the piglet shares many anatomical similarities with the SVZ in the human infant, and that TBI had only modest effects on the SVZ and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Piglets at an equivalent developmental stage to human infants were equipped with the largest SVZ and a tremendous number of neuroblasts in the white matter, which may be sufficient in lesion repair without dramatic stimulation of neurogenic machinery. It has yet to be determined if neurogenesis and migrating neuroblasts play a role in repair after TBI and/or if alteration of normal migration during active postnatal population of brain regions is beneficial in species with gyrencephalic brains. PMID:25678047

  3. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    , less than 1% of neuroblasts in the white matter were born in the 2 days following injury. These data show that the SVZ in the piglet shares many anatomical similarities with the SVZ in the human infant, and that TBI had only modest effects on the SVZ and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Piglets at an equivalent developmental stage to human infants were equipped with the largest SVZ and a tremendous number of neuroblasts in the white matter, which may be sufficient in lesion repair without the dramatic stimulation of neurogenic machinery. It has yet to be determined whether neurogenesis and migrating neuroblasts play a role in repair after TBI and/or whether an alteration of normal migration during active postnatal population of brain regions is beneficial in species with gyrencephalic brains. PMID:25678047

  4. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  5. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection Induced the Unbalance of Gut Microbiota in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Ding, Jinmei; Dai, Ronghua; Sun, Tao; Meng, He

    2015-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a devastating disease in livestock industry. Most of the previous studies related to the PED were focused on the pathology and etiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). A little was known regarding the status of gut microbiota after piglets infected by PEDV. In this study, aided by metagenome sequencing technology, gut microbiota profiles in feces of viral diarrhea (VD) and viral control (VC) piglets were investigated. The results showed that the abundance of four dominant phyla (Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria) in feces was affected greatly by porcine epidemic diarrhea. Especially, the abundance of Fusobacteria was higher in VD piglets (36%) than in VC piglets (5%). On the contrary, the Verrucomicrobia was detected in lower distribution proportion in VD piglets (around 0%) than in VC piglets (20%). Furthermore, 25 genera were significantly different between VC and VD piglets at the genus level. Among the 25 genera, Leptotrichia belonging to Fusobacteria was remarkably lower in VC piglets than in VD piglets. Akkermansia belonging to Verrucomicrobia was higher in VC piglets than in VD piglets. Our findings implicated that the gut microbiota associated with PED significantly provided an insight into the pathology and physiology of PED. PMID:26319658

  6. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma. PMID:27604727

  7. Genetic aspects regarding piglet losses and the maternal behaviour of sows. Part 2. Genetic relationship between maternal behaviour in sows and piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Hellbrügge, B; Tölle, K-H; Bennewitz, J; Henze, C; Presuhn, U; Krieter, J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the genetic background of different traits to characterise the maternal behaviour of sows and to evaluate the relationship to different causes of piglet losses - increasing piglet survival due to higher maternal abilities of the sow. A total of 1538 purebred litters from 943 German Landrace sows in the year 2004 were available for data analysis. Around 13 971 individually earmarked piglets were included in the analyses. Maternal abilities were characterised through the sow's reaction to the separation from her litter during the first 24 h after farrowing, and on day 21 of lactation, the reaction towards the playback of a piglet's distress call and the reaction towards an unknown noise (music). In 1220 of these litters, the sows were also scored for aggressiveness in the group when regrouped before entering the farrowing crates. To describe fertility, the number of piglets born alive, stillborn piglets, number of piglets born in total and the individual birth weight were utilised. Different causes of piglet losses were evaluated as binary traits of the dam with survival rate, different definitions for crushing by the sow, being underweight and runts. The heritability for being aggressive in the group was h2 = 0.32 and for the behaviour traits during lactation, the heritabilities ranged from h2 = 0.06 to 0.14. The genetic correlations showed that more-reactive sows had fewer piglet losses. PMID:22443816

  8. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 1: Inhalation anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were a description of the practical implementation of the painless castration under inhalational anaesthesia with an objective assessment of animal welfare, workplace safety and time exposure. 600 questionnaires were sent to farmers all over Switzerland and 100 farms were visited during castration under inhalation anaesthesia. 44 % of the visited farmers administered analgetics during anaesthesia or less than 10 minutes before castration. 14 % of the piglets were insufficiently anaesthetised (moving or vocalising) and 18 % showed stronger bleeding tendency after castration. The mortality rate was less than 0.1 %. 22 % of the swine farmers reported headache or dizziness during or after castration work. The Isoflurane level on 2 farms was above the Swiss safety limits. The time needed for castration was with 4.3 minutes clearly above the time necessary without anaesthesia. The additional financial costs and time are at the moment not adequately compensated to the farmers. PMID:24297839

  9. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  10. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  11. Occurrence of Isospora suis in larger piglet production units and on specialized piglet rearing farms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

    1999-05-01

    Mixed fecal samples of 264 litters from five piglet production farms (155-238 sows/farm) were investigated three times during the suckling period for the occurrence of Isospora suis over the period of 1 year. On all five farms Isopora suis was found to be a common endoparasite with infection rates being highest in litters of 3-4 weeks of age. By the end of the third investigation period the cumulative infection rate was 53.8% of the litters ranging from 20.0% to 81.5% for the single farms. During the suckling period the infection rate increased from 18.6% to 32.6% and then to 37.7%. Diarrhea was present in 66.3% of the sampled litters with the highest rates at the end of the suckling period. 63.4% of the litters which showed diarrhea and 34.8% of those without diarrhea excreted I. suis within the study period. Diarrhea was recorded for 78.2% of the I. suis-positive litters and for 52.5% of the Isospora-negative litters. In summer and fall the occurrence of I. suis was higher (66.3% and 61.0%, respectively) than in spring and winter (47.7% and 37.9%, respectively). In litters with diarrhea and pathogenic E. coli I. suis often occurred simultaneously. Above-average hygiene measures and mainly perforated pen floors seemed to lower the risk of isosporosis. With the exception of Strongyloides ransomi other parasites were not found in the fecal samples of suckling piglets. Two specialized piglet rearing farms, a conventional large-scale rearing unit and a farm managed according to the segregated early weaning (SEW) system were examined three times during the 6-7 week rearing period. In both units I. suis was common, but was not correlated with diarrhea. In the SEW unit the infection rates decreased from 37.5% to 20.2% and to 4.1%, while the infection rate in the conventional unit slightly increased from the first (17.2%) to the second (21.9%) investigation and stayed at this level at the third sampling. PMID:10384903

  12. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  13. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  14. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  15. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  16. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  17. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  18. Slow growing pre weaning piglets have altered adipokine gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs were selected from seven litters were monitored for growth rate from day 1 to 21. Samples of subcutaneous (SQ) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues were collected at day 21 of age from the fastest and slowest growing piglets within the litter. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription a...

  19. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  20. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  1. Changes in body composition of neonatal piglets during growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of neonatal piglet growth it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) provides precise and accurate measurements of total body fat mass, lean mass and total body water in non...

  2. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  3. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address the public’s concern that current methods are not acceptable. Scientific evidence support that blunt force trauma is humane when carried out correctly, but most people find it visually difficult to accept. The use of carb...

  4. Genetic aspects regarding piglet losses and the maternal behaviour of sows. Part 1. Genetic analysis of piglet mortality and fertility traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hellbrügge, B; Tölle, K-H; Bennewitz, J; Henze, C; Presuhn, U; Krieter, J

    2008-09-01

    In spite of the improvement in management and the breeding goal of increasing the number of piglets born alive, piglet mortality is still a substantial problem in pig breeding. The objective of the first part of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for different causes of piglet losses and to investigate the relationship to litter-size traits. Data were collected on a nucleus herd from January till December 2004. Records from 943 German Landrace sows with 1538 pure-bred litters and 13 971 individually weighted piglets were included. Four different causes of piglet losses (LOSS) were evaluated. Additional analysed traits were underweight and runting. Furthermore, the fertility traits number of piglets born alive, born in total and stillborn piglets as well as the individual birth and weaning weights were analysed. The different LOSS were treated as a binary trait and subsequently the heritabilities were estimated using a threshold model. The most important LOSS was crushing under the sow (12.4%). The survival rate and crushing had a heritability of h2 = 0.03. The fertility traits piglets born alive, born in total and stillborn piglets were analysed with a linear model and heritabilities rank from h2 = 0.05 (stillborn) to h2 = 0.10 (born alive). The estimated heritabilities for birth- and weaning weight were both h2 = 0.10. The genetic correlations between number of piglets born alive and each LOSS trait were analysed bivariately. Of all piglets born alive 84.3% survive the lactation period. Survival decreased with increasing litter size (rg = -0.54 up to -0.78) and the probability of being crushed under the sow increased. PMID:22443815

  5. Pulmonary microRNA expression profiling in an immature piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlei; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Xu; Li, Shoujun

    2015-04-01

    After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6 ± 0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2 h, followed by 2 h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs. PMID:25347932

  6. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Simon-Grifé, M; Sibila, M; Dubey, J P; Cabezón, O; Martín, G; Almería, S

    2010-05-28

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy-three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT >or=1:25) were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 22 and 25 weeks of age. Twenty-six of the 73 piglets analyzed (35.6%; CI 95%: 25.5-45.7) were seropositive at some point during the study. Seroprevalence in piglets at 1 and 3 weeks of age was significantly higher in animals born from seropositive sows (P<0.001 and P=0.02, respectively) as an indication of maternally derived antibodies. The longest persistence (up to 6 weeks of age) was observed in piglets whose dam had high T. gondii antibody level (MAT >or=1:500), while persistence of maternally derived antibodies in the piglets born from sows with low antibody titers (maximum 1:50) was shorter and lasted only up to 3 weeks of age, when the piglets were weaned. The risk of horizontal transmission in piglets increased with age and was higher in piglets during the finishing period. The present results indicate that the decline of T. gondii maternally derived antibodies in naturally infected piglets is associated with the titers of their dams. PMID:20189311

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects against TPN-induced intestinal hexose malabsorption in enterally refed piglets.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, J J; Stoll, B; Buddington, R K; Stephens, J E; Cui, L; Chang, X; Burrin, D G

    2006-02-01

    Premature infants receiving chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) due to feeding intolerance develop intestinal atrophy and reduced nutrient absorption. Although providing the intestinal trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) during chronic TPN improves intestinal growth and morphology, it is uncertain whether GLP-2 enhances absorptive function. We placed catheters in the carotid artery, jugular and portal veins, duodenum, and a portal vein flow probe in piglets before providing either enteral formula (ENT), TPN or a coinfusion of TPN plus GLP-2 for 6 days. On postoperative day 7, all piglets were fed enterally and digestive functions were evaluated in vivo using dual infusion of enteral ((13)C) and intravenous ((2)H) glucose, in vitro by measuring mucosal lactase activity and rates of apical glucose transport, and by assessing the abundances of sodium glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2). Both ENT and GLP-2 pigs had larger intestine weights, longer villi, and higher lactose digestive capacity and in vivo net glucose and galactose absorption compared with TPN alone. These endpoints were similar in ENT and GLP-2 pigs except for a lower intestinal weight and net glucose absorption in GLP-2 compared with ENT pigs. The enhanced hexose absorption in GLP-2 compared with TPN pigs corresponded with higher lactose digestive and apical glucose transport capacities, increased abundance of SGLT-1, but not GLUT-2, and lower intestinal metabolism of [(13)C]glucose to [(13)C]lactate. Our findings indicate that GLP-2 treatment during chronic TPN maintains intestinal structure and lactose digestive and hexose absorptive capacities, reduces intestinal hexose metabolism, and may facilitate the transition to enteral feeding in TPN-fed infants. PMID:16166344

  8. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  9. CPR: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  10. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: I. Development of neonatal piglets after reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial pigs, the greatest susceptibility for preweaning mortality occurs in low birth weight piglets. However, despite their overall decreased birth weight, Meishan (MS) piglets have lower preweaning mortality rates compared with contemporary Western breeds. The objective of the current stu...

  11. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  12. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Russell, Benjamin; Du, Man K; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that orexin expression in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants was reduced by 21% in the hypothalamus and by 40-50% in the pons as compared with controls. Orexin maintains wakefulness/sleeping states, arousal, and rapid eye movement sleep, abnormalities of which have been reported in SIDS. This study examined the effects of two prominent risk factors for SIDS, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) (prone-sleeping) and chronic nicotine exposure (cigarette-smoking), on orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) expression in piglets. Piglets were randomly assigned to five groups: saline control (n = 7), air control (n = 7), nicotine [2 mg/kg per day (14 days)] (n = 7), IHH (6 min of 7% O2 /8% CO2 alternating with 6-min periods of breathing air, for four cycles) (n = 7), and the combination of nicotine and IHH (N + IHH) (n = 7). OxA/OxB expression was quantified in the central tuberal hypothalamus [dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), perifornical area (PeF), and lateral hypothalamus], and the dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus of the pons. Nicotine and N + IHH exposures significantly increased: (i) orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons; and (ii) the total number of neurons in the DMH and PeF. IHH decreased orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons without changing neuronal numbers. Linear relationships existed between the percentage of orexin-positive neurons and the area of pontine orexin immunoreactivity of control and exposure piglets. These results demonstrate that postnatal nicotine exposure increases the proportion of orexin-positive neurons in the hypothalamus and fibre expression in the pons, and that IHH exposure does not prevent the nicotine-induced increase. Thus, although both nicotine and IHH are risk factors for SIDS, it appears they have opposing effects on OxA and OxB expression, with the IHH exposure closely mimicking what we recently found in SIDS. PMID:27038133

  13. An analysis of the causes of piglet mortality in a breeding herd kept outdoors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A; Smith, W J; Fordyce, C; MacMenemy, F

    1994-10-01

    The 229 piglets which died on an outdoor unit during a period of eight months were examined post mortem to determine the cause of death. The majority of the deaths (72 per cent) had occurred by the time that the litter was first inspected and of these 27 per cent had uninflated lungs and 53 per cent of the piglets born alive had no food in the stomach. Seventeen per cent of the stillborn pigs were of type I and 83 per cent were of type II. It was impossible to identify stillborn piglets reliably from their external appearance alone. At all ages, crushing was the most common cause of death (72 per cent of liveborn piglets). Six per cent of the corpses of the piglets had been damaged by birds, and attacks on live piglets occurred in the later stages of the study. PMID:7825270

  14. Adaptation of Piglets Using Different Methods of Stress Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bekenev, Vitaly; Garcia, Arlene; Hasnulin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Stressful events play a major negative role in the modern technology of weaned piglets. These events include but are not limited to weaning itself, lack of maternal milk, loss of maternal bonding, mixing of different litters, transportation to growing-finishing farms, and housing conditions. Various additives (phenazepam, aminazine, vitamins E and C, the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus, and ultraviolet irradiation) at different doses and combinations with or without ultraviolet irradiation were used to evaluate their effect on the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning. Content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly decreased or increased with the use of the additives. Feeding a mixture of additives increased survival rate, average daily gain, and live weight at the end of the experiment. Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning, the content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when various additives are used in feed. The experiments were performed on two crosses of piglets obtained from Large White breed sows and Landrace breed boars. Twenty to 28 animals were randomly assigned per group. The following additives were tested: the benzodiazepine phenazepam, the neuroleptic aminazine, vitamins E and C, and the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). Different doses and combinations of the additives against ultraviolet irradiation were used. The addition of these substances improved the growth rate and viability of piglets. AOA increased under the influence of all factors studied, especially with the addition of extract of Eleutherococcus in feed in combination with aminazine and UV-irradiation (p < 0.01). However, the addition of Eleutherococcus extract and aminazine intensified LPO (p < 0.01), but use of UV irradiation helped to decrease LPO values

  15. Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Ralston, Jill; Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Margulies, Susan S.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-05-01

    We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R=0.89, p<0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.

  16. Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, A; Resink, J W; van Hees, H M J; Ruuls, L; Klaassen, G J; Rouwers, S M G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N

    2016-03-01

    Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer-fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets ( < 0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts ( < 0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts ( < 0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF-1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets ( = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic

  17. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  18. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    PubMed

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    Colostrum provides newborn piglets with energy and passive immunity and is essential for survival of the piglets. The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in piglets is dependent on several factors, most importantly the concentration of IgG in sow colostrum (colostrum IgG). The main aims of this study were to investigate the variation in concentration of colostrum IgG between herds and the individual sows within herd and to investigate factors associated with plasma IgG concentrations in piglets (piglet IgG). From 4 herds (A to D), 876 piglets from 62 sows were included in the study. Colostrum was sampled from sows immediately after expulsion of the first piglet and before the first suckling (t1), midway through farrowing (just after the sixth piglet was born; t2), and after the last piglet was born (t3). At d 1, 0.5 mL blood from piglets was collected in tubes containing EDTA, and IgG concentrations were analyzed. Mean colostrum IgG concentration across all herds was 53.9 g/L. Herd A had mean colostrum IgG of 38.3 g/L, whereas the other 3 herds (B,C, and D) had mean colostrum IgG of 47.4, 60.4, and 67.8 g/L, respectively. Colostrum IgG at t1, t2, and t3 across all herds was 56.2, 53.7, and 42.5 g/L, respectively. Mean concentration of piglet IgG across all samplings was 21.7 g/L. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed with piglet IgG (g/L) as outcome. In this model, the herd effect accounted for 9% of the total variance and 34% of the variance resided at sow level. Piglet IgG was associated with herd, birth order (), body mass index (BMI) > 17 (kg/m), and colostrum IgG at t1 (g/L) with an overall -value < 0.01. Herd D had the highest predicted mean level of piglet IgG. The main model predicted that piglet IgG decreased linearly by 0.4 g/L with each piglet born ( < 0.01). The model also predicted an increase by 0.1 g/L for each gram per liter extra colostrum IgG in colostrum ( = 0.03). Piglets with a BMI above 17 kg/m had a greater piglet Ig

  19. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  20. The Dynamic Still-Face Effect: Do Infants Decrease Bidding over Time when Parents Are Not Responsive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Haltigan, John D.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease…

  1. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula. PMID:12077809

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  4. Adaptation of Piglets Using Different Methods of Stress Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bekenev, Vitaly; Garcia, Arlene; Hasnulin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning, the content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when various additives are used in feed. The experiments were performed on two crosses of piglets obtained from Large White breed sows and Landrace breed boars. Twenty to 28 animals were randomly assigned per group. The following additives were tested: the benzodiazepine phenazepam, the neuroleptic aminazine, vitamins E and C, and the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). Different doses and combinations of the additives against ultraviolet irradiation were used. The addition of these substances improved the growth rate and viability of piglets. AOA increased under the influence of all factors studied, especially with the addition of extract of Eleutherococcus in feed in combination with aminazine and UV-irradiation (p < 0.01). However, the addition of Eleutherococcus extract and aminazine intensified LPO (p < 0.01), but use of UV irradiation helped to decrease LPO values (p < 0.01). Feeding a mixture of additives per pig per day of 3 mL of Eleutherococcus extract, 80 mg of 25% tocopherol, and 500 mg of ascorbic acid increased survival rate, average daily gain, and live weight at the end of the experiment. Thus, the use of prophylactic antistress and sedative drugs during weaning helps AOA normalize LPO of red blood cells; enhance post weaning growth of the pigs by 4.8% to 24.6% and increases piglet survival rate by 5% to 5.1%. PMID:26479239

  5. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P < 0.001) ADFI and G:F during days 0 to 14 after weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet. PMID:23365366

  6. Enteral leptin administration affects intestinal autophagy in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, M; Woliński, J; Gajewska, M; Pierzynowski, S G

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has been shown to play an integral role in the endocrine regulation of metabolism. Moreover, a substantial amount of this peptide has been found in colostrum and milk. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exogenous leptin, administered intragastrically, on the process of autophagy and the changes in cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the small intestine mucosa. Three groups (n = 6) of neonatal piglets were used in the study. The pigs were fed either by their sows (sow-reared piglets) or with only milk formula, or with milk formula together with leptin administered via a stomach tube (10 μg/kg BW) every 8 h for 6 d. We have shown that pure milk formula feeding significantly elevates (P < 0.05) autophagy compared with that observed in sow-reared piglets. Compared with the control group, feeding milk formula supplemented with leptin resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in immunodetection of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, as well as significantly accelerated epithelial cell renewal (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the remodeling of the small intestine mucosa and that leptin, when administered enterally, may be an important factor for its regulation. PMID:24135555

  7. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  8. The Intestinal Eukaryotic Virome in Healthy and Diarrhoeic Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hayer, Juliette; Berg, Mikael; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of European countries. The aim of the present study was to use viral metagenomics to examine a potential viral involvement in this diarrhoea and to describe the intestinal virome with focus on eukaryotic viruses. Samples from the distal jejunum of 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected herds were analysed. The viral fraction of the samples was isolated and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA fractions) were subjected to sequence independent amplification. Samples from diarrhoeic piglets from the same herds were pooled whereas samples from healthy piglets were analysed individually. In total, 29 clinical samples, plus two negative controls and one positive control consisting of a mock metagenome were sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The resulting sequence data was subjected to taxonomic classification using Kraken, Diamond and HMMER. In the healthy specimens, eight different mammalian virus families were detected (Adenoviridae, Anelloviridae, Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae) compared to four in the pooled diarrhoeic samples (Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae). It was not possible to associate a particular virus family with the investigated diarrhoea. In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the investigated diarrhoea was caused by known mammalian viruses. The results do, however, indicate that known mammalian viruses were present in the intestine as early as 24–48 hours after birth, indicating immediate infection post-partum or possibly transplacental infection. PMID:26982708

  9. Plasma metabolomics indicates metabolic perturbations in low birth weight piglets supplemented with arginine.

    PubMed

    Getty, C M; Almeida, F N; Baratta, A A; Dilger, R N

    2015-12-01

    Large profit losses in the swine industry can be attributed to morbidity and mortality of piglets before weaning, especially in the low birth weight (LBW) piglet. Recent evidence suggests sow's milk contains insufficient concentrations of Arg to support optimal growth and health of piglets. Therefore, our objective was to assess global metabolomic profiles and the potential for Arg supplementation to promote growth of LBW (≤0.9 kg BW) and average birth weight (ABW; 1.3 to 1.5 kg BW) piglets. Piglets were selected in littermate pairs at processing to receive either Arg or an isonitrogenous control (Ala) and weighed daily to assess growth rate, and blood was collected at approximately 16 d of age for metabolomics analysis. In terms of growth, LBW and ABW piglets supplemented with Arg weighed 22.3 and 12.7% less, respectively, at d 16 compared with Ala-supplemented piglets of the same birth weight group. Overall, differences ( < 0.05) were observed among treatments for metabolic pathways involving energy (i.e., tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), AA, nucleotides, and fatty acids. Increased nucleotide turnover, indicative of an increase in DNA damage and cell death, was particularly noted in the LBW piglet. However, Arg supplementation reduced these effects to levels comparable to those observed in ABW piglets. Moreover, changes in glucose metabolism suggested a compromised ability to extract energy from dietary sources may have occurred in the LBW piglet, but these effects were partially recovered by Arg supplementation. We conclude that a reduction in the growth potential of LBW piglets may be associated with alterations in multiple metabolic pathways, and further reduction due to Arg supplementation may have resulted from perturbations in multiple metabolic pathways. PMID:26641185

  10. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  11. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description. 572.25 Section 572.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Month-Old Infant § 572.25 General description. (a) The...

  12. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General description. 572.91 Section 572.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The...

  13. Laboratory Detection of Clostridium difficile in Piglets in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. PMID:25122859

  14. Piglet growth and blood components during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfer between Meishan and White crossbred gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow productivity has a significant economic impact on the swine industry and is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. In Western breeds, low birth weight piglets exhibit the greatest susceptibility to preweaning mortality. In contrast, Meishan (MS) piglets have dec...

  15. Maternal immunity enhances Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination induced cell-mediated immune responses in piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Passively acquired maternal derived immunity (MDI) is a double-edged sword. Maternal derived antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are critical immediate defenses for the neonate; however, MDI may interfere with the induction of active immunity in the neonate, i.e. passive interference. The effect of antigen-specific MDI on vaccine-induced AMI and CMI responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) was assessed in neonatal piglets. To determine whether CMI and AMI responses could be induced in piglets with MDI, piglets with high and low levels of maternal M. hyopneumoniae-specific immunity were vaccinated against M. hyopneumoniae at 7 d of age. Piglet M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured 7 d and 14 d post vaccination. Results Piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI failed to show vaccine-induced AMI responses; there was no rise in M. hyopneumoniae antibody levels following vaccination of piglets in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI. However, piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI had primary (antigen-specific lymphoproliferation) and secondary (DTH) M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses following vaccination. Conclusions In this study neonatal M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI was not subject to passive interference by MDI. Further, it appears that both maternal derived and endogenous CMI contribute to M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses in piglets vaccinated in the face of MDI. PMID:24903770

  16. Development of Neonatal Piglets Following Reciprocal Embryo Transfers Between Meishan and White Crossbred Gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow productivity has a significant economic impact on the swine industry and is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. The greatest susceptibility for preweaning mortality occurs in low birth weight piglets. However, despite their overall decreased weights, Meish...

  17. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  18. ORAL N-CARBAMYLGLUTAMATE (NCG) SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES GROWTH RATE IN SOW-REARED PIGLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral supplementation of NCG, an analogue of N-acetylglutamate, increases plasma arginine concentrations and growth rate in sow-reared piglets. To investigate the mechanism involved in this growth response, nursing piglets (n = 18; BW = 3.19 kg) were orally administered 0 or 50 mg/kg BW of NCG twice...

  19. Oral "N"-Carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of “N”-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous “N“-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender...

  20. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  1. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  2. Calling by domestic piglets during simulated crushing and isolation: a signal of need?

    PubMed

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Spinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow's reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced "squeezing" on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  3. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets. PMID:24718833

  4. Development of the Prosodic Features of Infants' Vocalizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Sheppard, William

    Traditional research methods of recording infant verbal behavior, namely, descriptions by a single observer transcribing the utterances of a single infant in a naturalistic setting, have been inadequate to provide data necessary for modern linguistic analyses. The Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior has undertaken to correct this…

  5. Social Approaches to Infant Feeding in Urban African Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children in the Tropics, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This case study examines solutions to infant malnutrition in Africa from an interdisciplinary perspective, identifying factors that directly or indirectly influence practices involved in feeding infants from birth to age 3 in Maradi, Niger. The study begins by providing a conceptual framework and description of the approach used in the analysis,…

  6. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    PubMed

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (P<0.05) compared to normal skin piglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 days after birth, respectively. Higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 or 7 days were associated with later birth order (>9), low BW (<1275g), low (24-30 mg/dl) and high (45-162 mg/dl) blood glucose concentrations, or low RT24 h (<38.1°C). Piglets with BW<1545 g, low RT24 h (<38.6°C) and female piglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (P<0.05). Among the factors studied, cyanotic skin, delay for standing, broken umbilical cord, high birth order, low BW, low RT24 h, and

  7. Beta-lactoglobulin as a potential modulator of intestinal activity and morphology in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leonard F; Alston-Mills, Brenda

    2006-06-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of the whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (blg) on the intestinal development and intestinal morphology in neonatal piglets. Two trials (5 and 28 days) were conducted on piglets in three separate groups. One group served as a control group while the remaining two were experimental groups based on diets. The two experimental diets were a bovine colostrum powder, one with supplementation with blg and the other without. The control group remained suckling on a sow. All groups were weaned on day 20 and placed onto a solid commercial piglet diet. Enzymatic activity, total DNA synthesis, crypt depth, and villus height were all parameters used to evaluate the effect of blg. Piglets fed a diet supplement with blg had the greatest total DNA after 5 days. Sow-reared piglets had the greatest intestinal morphology development with regards to villus height. No significant differences were found in enzymatic activity between treatments. PMID:16673423

  8. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  9. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  10. Validation of a new body composition method for infant and children using piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet’s body composition was ass...

  11. Infant distress.

    PubMed

    Keating, Brad

    2014-05-01

    This case was one that would put many EMS personnel out of their comfort zones. The presentation of an unstable child is enough to have some providers put on their blinders and focus solely on the respiratory causes and overlook the cardiac. This child had been unstable most of the evening and by the time EMS was summoned was in severe need of treatment. The diagnosis of WPW in the field is almost impossible, especially when there is no history with the patient. Quick recognition of the infant's symptoms and analysis of the ECG allowed the paramedics to deliver the correct treatment for the arrhythmia while ensuring the respiratory issues weren't overlooked. The rapid treatment and transport were a significant part PMID:24984434

  12. Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-D-glucan decreases transforming growth factor β expression in the lung of the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Thorum, Shannon C; Hester, Shelly N; Comstock, Sarah S; Monaco, Marcia H; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Donovan, Sharon M

    2013-04-01

    Identification and characterization of compounds that enhance the growth, development, and health of infants who are not breastfed continues to be a goal for nutritional science. This study explored the effects of one dietary component, (1,3/1,6)-β-D-glucan (Wellmune WGP), on lung immune development in the neonatal piglet. The hypothesis was that supplementation with WGP, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, would enhance pathogen-responsive elements of the immune system, for instance, by increasing the size of the cytotoxic T-cell population or the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Piglets were fed a control formula or formula plus WGP at 1.8, 18, or 90 mg/kg body weight per day. Serum, thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs), mediastinal lymph nodes, and lung were collected at days 7 or 21. Immune parameters including tissue messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and T-cell phenotypes were analyzed. Normal developmental changes were observed, with a decrease in T-helper cells and an increase in cytotoxic T cells in both TLN and mediastinal lymph node, but there was no effect of WGP. Dietary WGP reduced the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 and tended to reduce the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in lung tissue. With the exception of reducing TGF-β mRNA in the lung and tending to decrease the ratio of T helper to cytotoxic T cell in the TLN, dietary WGP did not affect lung-associated adaptive immunity in piglets. PMID:23602250

  13. Humoral antibody response and oocyst shedding after experimental infection of histocompatible newborn and weaned piglets with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Arnault, I; Répérant, J M; Naciri, M

    1994-01-01

    Experimental inoculations (mono- and multi-inoculations) with C parvum isolated from a diarrheic child and maintained on calves, were performed on 2 histocompatible miniature (d/d haplotype) weaned 4-week-old piglets and 2 newborn piglets. In each group, 1 piglet received water at the moment of inoculation and served as a negative control. Our results showed that the piglet strain used was resistant to cryptosporidiosis. No clinical sign or oocyst shedding were observed in newborn piglets. A very weak shedding was noticed on day 6 (D6) post-inoculation in inoculated weaned piglets. Using ELISA, inoculated weaned piglets showed a peak of G, M and total antibodies on D10. Specific IgA antibody production peaked on D20. During the experiment on newborn piglets, no peak of specific IgA production was detected. Using immunoblotting, sera of both inoculated weaned piglets and one inoculated newborn piglet were shown to recognize a 14.5-16.5 kDa protein. A 23 kDa antigen was recognized by all 3 uninoculated and inoculated weaned piglets. A difference between mono and multi-inoculations was not clearly demonstrated. Age did not play any role. This pig strain does not seem to be a good model to induce acute cryptosporidiosis. PMID:8087146

  14. Finite Element Model Predictions of Intracranial Hemorrhage from Non-Impact, Rapid Head Rotations in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Brittany; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Sullivan, Sarah; Margulies, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians are charged with the significant task of distinguishing between accidental and inflicted head trauma. Oftentimes this distinction is straightforward, but many times probabilities of injuries from accidental scenarios are unknown making the differential diagnosis difficult. For example, it is unknown whether intracranial hemorrhage (IH) can occur at a location other than a focal contact site following a low height fall. To create a foundation for predicting regional IH in infants, we sought to identify the biomechanical response and injury threshold best able to predict IH in 3–5 day old piglets. First, finite element (FE) model simulations of in situ animal studies were performed to ascertain the optimal representation of the pia-arachnoid complex, cerebrospinal fluid and cortical vasculature (PCC) for predicting brain strain and brain/skull displacement. Second, rapid head rotations resulting in various degrees of IH were simulated (n=24) to determine the biomechanical predictor and injury threshold most closely correlated with IH. FE models representing the PCC with either spring connectors or solid elements between the brain and skull resulted in peak brain strain and brain/skull displacement similar to measured values in situ. However, when predicting IH, the spring connector representation of the PCC had the best predictive capability for IH with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 85% when ≥ 1% of all spring connectors had at least a peak strain of 0.31 mm/mm. These findings and reported methodology will be used in the development of a human infant FE model to simulate real-world falls and identify injury thresholds for predicting IH in infants. PMID:22239917

  15. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Glutamic Acid in Piglets Challenged with Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition. PMID:24984001

  17. Climatic effects on sow fertility and piglet survival under influence of a moderate climate.

    PubMed

    Wegner, K; Lambertz, C; Daş, G; Reiner, G; Gauly, M

    2014-09-01

    Although the climate in Germany is moderate, heat stress conditions may occur during summer months. However, it is unknown to what extent sow fertility and piglet survival are affected under moderate climatic conditions in indoor systems. Therefore, this study estimated effects of temperature and temperature-humidity index (THI) on sow fertility and piglet survival under practical husbandry conditions. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in six piglet-producing farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, from July 2011 to August 2012. Based on that, the THI was calculated. In one farrowing, waiting and servicing unit of each farm two data loggers were installed. Reproductive parameters of 8279 successful inseminations and 10 369 litters including total number of piglets born, liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets as well as pre-weaning mortality were evaluated. The effects of temperature and THI on reproductive parameters were estimated for varying periods after breeding and before and after farrowing, respectively. Average daily temperature across all units ranged from 15.6°C to 29.0°C, and average THI from 62.4 to 75.1. Season and parity significantly affected total number of piglets born, number of liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets (P<0.001). The number of piglets born increased with rising temperature and THI in the 1st week post breeding. Higher temperatures and THI values before farrowing resulted in a reduced number of liveborn piglets. Elevated temperature and THI values after farrowing were associated with a greater number of weaned piglets. The pre-weaning mortality significantly decreased with increasing temperature and THI values after farrowing (P<0.05). In conclusion, temperature and THI affected the reproductive performance of the sows and the survival of the piglets in different ways. While increased climatic values at the time of breeding positively affected the total number of piglets born, increased values at the time of farrowing had

  18. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Short- and long-term effects of small bowel resection: a unique histological study in a piglet model of short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Thomas, Sarah L; Wilson, Guineva; Taylor, Russell G; Sourial, Magdy; Bines, Julie E

    2011-02-01

    If we are to develop successful interventions to improve clinical outcomes for short bowel syndrome patients we require (1) knowledge of changes within the epithelial population following small bowel resection (SBR) and (2) an idea of when these changes occur to inform on the timing of potential interventions aimed at enhancing the adaptive response. The aim of this study was to produce a temporal map of epithelial changes within the crypt and villus at early and late adaptation phases. Four-week-old piglets underwent a 75% SBR or sham operation and were studied at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-operation to allow analysis of early and late adaptation responses. Piglets received polymeric infant formula (PIF). Immunohistochemistry with specific cell markers was used to quantitate intestinal cell types and the total cell numbers. Changes within the crypt were temporally dependent on an early significant increase in enterocytes and proliferative cells not sustained at 6 weeks. Goblet cell numbers were increased at all time points. Despite a significant increase in total villus cell numbers at 6 weeks there was no change in specific cell types. We observed two distinct phases of cellular change following SBR. An early increase in enterocytes and proliferative cells was not reflected in increased weight gain indicating the early increase represents immature enterocytes. Interventions aimed at increasing differentiation of the rapidly changing crypt population would allow for an earlier increase in absorption. PMID:21249379

  20. Behavioral indexes of piglet welfare: comparison of indoor and outdoor housing systems.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kouzo; Tanaka, Toshio; Nishida, Kouji; Uetake, Katsuji

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to establish behavioral indexes of piglet welfare. Forty-eight piglets were allocated to either four indoor pens or four outdoor pens (six piglets per pen). The indoor system was a commercial pen that consisted of a concrete floor and a slat floor. The outdoor system had a dirt paddock with a wooden hutch. Growth performance, salivary cortisol levels, skin lesions and behaviors of the piglets were monitored for 4 weeks. Sixteen types of behaviors were recorded by using 2-min instantaneous scan sampling for 8 h/day. Growth performance and salivary cortisol levels did not significantly differ between the two housing systems. On the other hand, skin lesions and behaviors were significantly affected by the housing system. The number of skin lesions was higher in the indoor system. In addition, piglets in the outdoor system showed more investigative and social-play behaviors than those in the indoor system. Piglets in the indoor system showed more resting, drinking, moving, fighting, and conflict behaviors than those in the outdoor system. We conclude that investigative, social-play and conflict behaviors may be effective indexes of the welfare level of piglets, especially investigative and conflict behaviors. PMID:21269375

  1. Reduced neonatal mortality in Meishan piglets: a role for hepatic fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Fainberg, Hernan P; Bodley, Katherine; Bacardit, Jaume; Li, Dongfang; Wessely, Frank; Mongan, Nigel P; Symonds, Michael E; Clarke, Lynne; Mostyn, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ability. We therefore hypothesized that variation in hepatic development and lipid metabolism could contribute to the differences in neonatal mortality between breeds. Liver samples were obtained from piglets of each breed on days 0, 7, and 21 of postnatal age and subjected to molecular and biochemical analysis. At birth, both breeds exhibited similar hepatic glycogen contents, despite Meishan piglets having significantly lower body weight. The livers from newborn Meishan piglets exhibited increased C18∶1n9C and C20∶1n9 but lower C18∶0, C20∶4n6, and C22∶6n3 fatty acid content. Furthermore, by using an unsupervised machine learning approach, we detected an interaction between C18∶1n9C and glycogen content in newborn Meishan piglets. Bioinformatic analysis could identify unique age-based clusters from the lipid profiles in Meishan piglets that were not apparent in the commercial offspring. Examination of the fatty acid signature during the neonatal period provides novel insights into the body composition of Meishan piglets that may facilitate liver responses that prevent hypoglycaemia and reduce offspring mortality. PMID:23155453

  2. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  3. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  4. Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Poonsuk, Korakrit; Giménez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Arruda, Paolo; Chen, Qi; Correa da Silva Carrion, Lucas; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Pineyro, Pablo; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Madson, Darin; Johnson, John; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Main, Rodger

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of circulating antibody to the protection of naïve piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated using a passive antibody transfer model. Piglets (n = 62) derived from 6 sows were assigned to one of 6 different treatments using a randomized block design which provided for allocation of all treatments to all sows' litters. Each treatment was designed to achieve a different level of circulating anti-PEDV antibody via intraperitoneally administration of concentrated serum antibody. Piglets were orally inoculated with PEDV (USA/IN/2013/19338E, 1 x 103 TCID50 per piglet) 24 hours later and then monitored for 14 days. Piglets remained with their dam throughout the experiment. Sow milk samples, piglet fecal samples, and data on piglet clinical signs, body weight, and body temperature were collected daily. Fecal samples were tested by PEDV real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Serum, colostrum, and milk were tested for PEDV IgG, IgA, and virus-neutralizing antibody. The data were evaluated for the effects of systemic PEDV antibody levels on growth, body temperature, fecal shedding, survival, and antibody response. The analysis showed that circulating antibody partially ameliorated the effect of PEDV infection. Specifically, antibody-positive groups returned to normal body temperature faster and demonstrated a higher rate of survivability than piglets without PEDV antibody. When combined with previous literature on PEDV, it can be concluded that both systemic antibodies and maternal secretory IgA in milk contribute to the protection of the neonatal pig against PEDV infections. Overall, the results of this experiment suggested that passively administered circulating antibodies contributed to the protection of neonatal piglets against PEDV infection. PMID:27050556

  5. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities. PMID:26495119

  6. Impaired translation initiation activation and reduced protein synthesis in weaned piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dun; Yao, Kang; Chu, Wuying; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruiling; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-07-01

    Weanling mammals (including infants) often experience intestinal dysfunction when fed a high-protein diet. Recent work with the piglet (an animal model for studying human infant nutrition) shows that reducing protein intake can improve gut function during weaning but compromises the provision of essential amino acids (EAA) for muscle growth. The present study was conducted with weaned pigs to test the hypothesis that supplementing deficient EAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Leu, Ile and Val) to a low-protein diet may maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and adequate protein synthesis in tissues. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age and fed diets containing 20.7, 16.7 or 12.7% crude protein (CP), with the low-CP diets supplemented with EAA to achieve the levels in the high-CP diet. On Day 14 of the trial, tissue protein synthesis was determined using the phenylalanine flooding dose method. Reducing dietary CP levels decreased protein synthesis in pancreas, liver, kidney and longissimus muscle. A low-CP diet reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) in skeletal muscle and liver while increasing the formation of an inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex in muscle. Dietary protein deficiency also decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the formation of an active eIF4E.eIF4G complex in liver. These results demonstrate for the first time that chronic feeding of a low-CP diet suppresses protein synthesis in animals partly by inhibiting mTOR signaling. Additionally, our findings indicate that supplementing deficient EAA to low-protein diets is not highly effective in restoring protein synthesis or whole-body growth in piglets. We suggest that conditionally essential amino acids (e.g., glutamine and arginine) may be required to maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and optimal protein synthesis in neonates. PMID:18789668

  7. Chimerism in piglets developed from aggregated cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Li, Zhanjun; Wang, Anfeng; Han, Xiaolei; Song, Yuning; Yuan, Lin; Li, Tianye; Wang, Bing; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine chimeras are valuable in the study of pluripotency, embryogenesis and development. It would be meaningful to generate chimeric piglets from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. In this study, two cell lines expressing the fluorescent markers enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and tdTomato were used as donor cells to produce reconstructed embryos. Chimeric embryos were generated by aggregating two EGFP-cell derived embryos with two tdTomato-cell derived embryos at the 4-cell stage, and embryo transfer was performed when the aggregated embryos developed into blastocysts. Live porcine chimeras were successfully born and chimerism was observed by their skin color, gene integration, microsatellite loci composition and fluorescent protein expression. The chimeric piglets were largely composed of EGFP-expressing cells, and this phenomenon was possibly due to the hyper-methylation of the promoter of the tdTomato gene. In addition, the expression levels of tumorigenicity-related genes were altered after tdTomato transfection in bladder cancer cells. The results show that chimeric pigs can be produced by aggregating cloned embryos and that the developmental capability of the cloned embryo in the subsequent chimeric development could be affected by the growth characteristics of its donor cell. PMID:27239442

  8. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F.; Alborali, Giovanni L.; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets. PMID:26441914

  9. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  10. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Larsen, M L V; Malmkvist, J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7 different combinations of flooring (solid vs. slatted) and treatments: control, with no additional thermal aids on a solid floor ( = 26) or a slatted floor ( = 26); built-in floor heating ( = 31) or floor heating as a radiant floor plate on solid floor (FloorPlate; = 19); radiant heater above a solid floor (RadiantC; = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; = 8). Piglets' rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets. The rectal temperature curve was analyzed for differences in the slope of the drop in rectal temperature and the deflection tangent of the curve. Furthermore, differences in average rectal temperature, minimum rectal temperature, rectal temperature 2 h after birth, and time with rectal temperature below 35°C were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time with rectal temperature below 35°C. The most efficient thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in newborn piglets were Straw and RadiantC. Furthermore, Straw, RadiantC, and FloorPlate also eliminated the effect of birth weight on some of these indicators of thermoregulatory success. Otherwise, FloorPlate and RadiantSlat showed an intermediate outcome for most measures. With no heating, piglets on a solid floor experienced more severe hypothermia than piglets on a slatted floor. In conclusion

  11. Amprolium and Furazolidone as Preventive Treatment for Intestinal Coccidiosis of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Christiane; Morin, Michel

    1987-01-01

    Two coccidiostats, amprolium and furazolidone, were used as preventive treatments for intestinal coccidiosis in three-day-old piglets experimentally infected with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. All infected piglets, treated or not, displayed clinical signs compatible with coccidiosis. Diarrhea and anorexia appeared around five days postinoculation in the non-treated and in the amprolium-treated groups; these signs were delayed to days 7 and 8 postinoculation in the furazolidone-treated group. The treatments did not prevent growth retardation. Amprolium seemed to reduce oocyst shedding whereas furazolidone had no effect. Villous atrophy was present in all infected piglets. PMID:17422910

  12. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  13. Drying and warming immediately after birth may reduce piglet mortality in loose-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Andersen, I L; Haukvik, I A; Bøe, K E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of placing newborn piglets under the heat lamp or both drying and placing them under the heat lamp on piglet mortality. Sixty-seven healthy (Landrace × Yorkshire) sows were divided equally into three different experimental groups: a control group where the farrowings occurred without supervision from the farmer (C; n = 23 litters), another group where the piglets were placed under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (HL; n = 22 litters) and a third group where the piglets were dried with straw and paper towels followed by placing them under the heat lamp in the creep area immediately after birth (DHL; n = 22 litters). The sows were individually loose-housed in farrowing pens during farrowing and lactation. The piglets were not closed inside the creep area, but were free to move around in the pen. The routines in the experimental groups required the stock person to attend the farrowings from the onset of birth of the first piglet until the last piglet was born. All the dead piglets were weighed and subjected to a post mortem examination at the farm to ascertain the causes of death. Postnatal mortality (% of live born) was significantly lower in the HL and DHL groups than in the control group (P < 0.0001). This was significant concerning all causes of mortality. Compared to the control group, crushing occurred in significantly fewer litters when the piglets were both dried and placed under the heat lamp (P < 0.05). In the DHL treatment, crushing of one or more piglets by the sow occurred in only 13.6% of the litters, whereas this was increased to 34.8% in the HL and to 47.9% in the control group, respectively. All causes of death, except the proportion of stillborn piglets, increased significantly with increasing litter size. Because of the relatively large potential that these rather simple routines may have to improve piglet survival, different types of management or human

  14. Interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 enhance thermal prolongation of the LCR in decerebrate piglets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Luxi; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stress and prior upper respiratory tract infection are risk factors for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The adverse effects of prior infection are likely mediated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Therefore, we examined the single and combined effects of IL-1β and elevated body temperature on the duration of the Laryngeal Chemoreflex (LCR) in decerebrate neonatal piglets ranging in age from post-natal day (P) 3 to P7. We examined the effects of intraperitoneal (I.P.) injections of 0.3mg/Kg IL-1β with or without I.P. 10mg/Kg indomethacin pretreatment on the duration of the LCR, and in the same animals we also examined the duration of the LCR when body temperature was elevated approximately 2°C. We found that IL-1β significantly increased the duration of the LCR even when body temperature was held constant. There was a significant multiplicative effect when elevated body temperature was combined with IL-1β treatment: prolongation of the LCR was significantly greater than the sum of independent thermal and IL-1β-induced prolongations of the LCR. The effects of IL-1β, but not elevated body temperature, were blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin alone. We also tested the interaction between IL-6 given directly into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) bilaterally in 100ngm microinjections of 50μL and pretreatment with indomethacin. Here again, there was a multiplicative effect of IL-6 treatment and elevated body temperature, which significantly prolonged the LCR. The effect of IL-6 on the LCR, but not elevated body temperature, was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. We conclude that cytokines interact with elevated body temperature, probably through direct thermal effects on TRPV1 receptors expressed pre-synaptically in the NTS and through cytokine-dependent sensitization of the TRPV1 receptor. This sensitization is likely initiated by cyclo-oxygenase-2 dependent synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is stimulated by elevated levels of IL-1

  15. Sow-reared piglets show increased mitogen and costimulation induced lymphocutes proliferation compared to formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast-fed infants are less susceptible to infections and allergic reactions than those given formula, suggesting that diet may influence development of the neonatal immune system. Breast milk may stimulate immune system development, but many infants are fed at least some formula within the first s...

  16. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( < 0.01) for open sows compared with closed and control sows (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively) and was largely explained by an increase in the incidence of piglets overlain ( < 0.01) in the open compared to closed and control sows (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Overlay mortality between d 3 and 7 of lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( < 0.01), and openLAC3 was also greater than openLAC7, closedLAC3, and closedLAC7 ( < 0.01). The

  17. Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Lane E.; Ball, Helen L.; McKenna, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help

  18. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  19. Effects of epidermal growth factor on atrophic enteritis in piglets induced by experimental porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Shin, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes gastrointestinal mucosal recovery by stimulating the mitogenic activity of intestinal crypt epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EGF on atrophic enteritis induced in piglets by experimental infection with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strain Dr13. Two groups of 12 conventional, colostrum-deprived, 1-day-old, large White-Duroc cross breed piglets were inoculated orally with PEDV (3 x 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses), with or without EGF (10 microg/kg/day, intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days after infection) and compared to 12 uninfected, untreated control piglets. PEDV+EGF piglets had less severe clinical signs than PEDV only piglets at 48 and 60 h post-infection (hpi). Histologically, the ratio of villous height:crypt depth of PEDV+EGF piglets was significantly higher than PEDV only piglets at 36 and 48 hpi. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67 demonstrated increased proliferation in intestinal crypt epithelial cells of PEDV+EGF piglets compared to PEDV only piglets at 36, 48 and 60 hpi. EGF stimulates proliferation of intestinal crypt epithelial cells and promotes recovery from atrophic enteritis in PEDV-infected piglets. PMID:17574457

  20. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  1. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  2. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  3. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

  4. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call SIDS "crib death" because many babies who die of SIDS are found in their ...

  6. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  7. Parenting Your Infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. This can lead to choking! Infants Have Personalities Even very tiny infants act in very individual ... a parent, you already know your baby’s unique personality. Think about this personality when you are caring ...

  8. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and ...

  9. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  10. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infections in weaned piglets and fattening porkers in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumiyama, S; Furukawa, I; Kuroki, T; Yamai, S; Sugiyama, H; Yagita, K; Endo, T

    2001-02-01

    Fecal samples from 232 weaned piglets (1 and 3 months old) and 252 fattening porkers (6 months old) in 8 stock-raising farms located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from June 1998 to June 2000 were examined to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Detection of oocysts was performed using the ethyl acetate fecal concentration method and immunofluorescent staining. C. parvum oocysts were identified in 77 (33.2%) 1-3 months old weaned piglets from four farms. The odds of excreting among 1-3 months old piglets were more than 100 times greater than among 6 months old porkers (95% confidence interval: 17-902). This strongly suggests that weaned piglets are important reservoirs of pathogenic microbes whose potential contamination of drinking water has epidemiological implications for human health. PMID:11326125

  11. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J; Jacobi, S; Liu, Y; Robertson, K Hard; Drayton, J; Medina, I; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J; Odle, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability. This study was designed to evaluate orally fed colostrum supplements with different energy sources and IgG from porcine plasma on piglet serum IgG content and absorption of IgG compared to pooled sow colostrum. Ninety-six newborn piglets from 12 sows with an average birth weight of 1,288 g were used. Eight piglets were removed from each sow immediately at birth, prior to suckling, and randomly allotted to receive either pooled sow colostrum or 1 of 3 colostrum supplements (A, B, and C) fed at 2 dosing schemes. Piglets received their allotted treatment as either one 30-mL dose at 0 h or three 10-mL doses at 0, 2, and 4 h. Piglets received ad libitum access to water at 2-h intervals after receiving their last treatment dose. Twelve hours after the first dose, piglets were weighed and 4 mL of blood was collected. Plasma IgG content, apparent efficiency of absorption, hematocrit, protein, and glucose were determined. Birth weight and final BW did not differ between treatments; however, pigs fed sow colostrum lost more weight (-72 g) than pigs fed colostrum supplements (-40 g; P < 0.001). Differences in hematocrit or serum glucose were not detected. Serum protein was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed colostrum supplements than in pigs fed sow colostrum. Serum IgG content did not differ among treatments. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was greatest for sow colostrum followed by colostrum supplements B, A, and C (28.5, 27.6, 25.5, and 24.7%, respectively). The single and multiple dose regimes delivered comparable serum IgG whereas the single dose yielded better piglet hydration as noted by less weight loss. In conclusion, all colostrum supplements were comparable in delivering absorbable IgG to the neonatal piglet. PMID:23365360

  12. Metabolomic determinants of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in premature infants and animals show that carbohydrate malabsorption and gut microbiota colonisation are key elements for triggering necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to determine how dietary carbohydrate composition affects the metabolomic profile and whether unique metabolite s...

  13. Effects of β-conglycinin on growth performance, immunoglobulins and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xichun; Geng, Fangfang; Wu, Jinjie; Kou, Yanan; Xu, Shuliang; Sun, Zhikuo; Feng, Shibin; Ma, Liangyou; Luo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    One of the main causes of allergic reactions in young animals is β-conglycinin, an antigenic glycoprotein found in soya beans. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a prior immunisation with β-conglycinin on growth performance, serum immunoglobulin levels and intestinal histology in piglets. Forty piglets (7 d of age) were randomly divided into four groups of ten piglets each. Piglets of Groups Im and Im+S were immunised twice by hypodermic injection with β-conglycinin at 500 μg/kg body weight (BW) at day 7 and 21 of age. At day 23, Groups Im+S and S were intramuscularly injected with 5000 μg β-conglycinin per kg BW. The piglets of Group C received a physiological saline solution by hypodermic injection. All piglets were weaned at the age of 23 d and blood samples were taken on days 7, 21 and 35. At the end of the trial, five piglets per group were slaughtered and the intestine was collected for evaluating mucosal histology. Compared to Group C, in Group S the average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and gain:feed ratio were decreased (p < 0.01), and serum levels of IgG and IgE were increased (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in this group the structure of duodenal and jejunal mucosa was severely damaged. But in Groups Im and Im+S the ADG was increased (p < 0.05), serum IgE levels were decreased (p < 0.01) and the intestinal mucosa was not damaged. The results suggest that prior immunisation with β-conglycinin can increase ADG and serum IgG levels and decrease serum IgE levels. Therefore, this method is also potentially able to protect the structural integrity of the intestinal mucosal epithelia and alleviate allergic reactions in piglets. PMID:24870267

  14. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  15. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Roura, Eugeni; Kemp, Bas

    2010-04-19

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period of anorexia, reduced health, and stress-induced behaviors. We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Sows were offered anise-flavored (F) or control (C) food during late gestation. Piglets were cross-fostered after birth, with each sow fostering 5 piglets from an F sow and 5 from a C sow. During lactation, sows were offered F or C food, resulting in FF, CF, FC and CC piglets. Piglets were weaned on day 25 and were given both control and flavored food for two weeks using a double food choice approach. The flavored food was not preferred. Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. Prenatal exposure also increased the latency to fight, and reduced oral manipulation of pen mates and mounting during the first two weeks after weaning. Prenatal exposure, but not postnatal exposure alone, to anisic flavor through the maternal diet reduced weaning-associated problems in piglets and enhanced their health and welfare in the period after weaning. PMID:20138069

  16. Timing and causes of piglet mortality in alternative and conventional farrowing systems.

    PubMed

    Marchant, J N; Rudd, A R; Mendl, M T; Broom, D M; Meredith, M J; Corning, S; Simmins, P H

    2000-08-19

    The causes and timing of piglet mortality were studied in different farrowing systems. In the first experiment 198 litters were recorded in three systems, two of which allowed the sows to move freely, and the third restricted them in conventional crates. More piglets were weaned from the conventional crates than from the open systems and they grew more quickly. More than half the liveborn mortality occurred during the first four days after parturition. In the open systems, 17 per cent and 14 per cent of the piglets born alive were crushed, compared with only 8 per cent in the crates. In the second experiment, 29 sows and litters were studied in detail in a communal pen system during the first seven days of lactation. Three-quarters of the liveborn mortality was due to crushing. The total number of piglets dying per litter, including stillbirths, was significantly associated with the total litter size and the sow's parity. The percentage liveborn mortality was significantly associated with the parity and body length of the sows and with the within-litter variation in the birth weight of the piglets. Individual birth weight was closely associated with percentage survival. Only 28 per cent of piglets weighing less than 1.1 kg at birth survived to seven days. PMID:10994922

  17. [Practical experiences in the therapy of postweaning edema disease in piglets].

    PubMed

    Papp, I; Waller, C; Biro, O

    1996-10-01

    In a field trial 23 weeks old weaned piglets were orally inoculated with E. coli O139 K12 H1. The piglets received the same food and were kept under the same management regime. They were selected randomly into four groups and treated after the first clinical signs of CNS involvement of edema disease as follows during three days: Group 1: received a single daily i.m. application of 4 mg/kg body weight Melperone. Group 2: received a single daily i.m. application of 2 mg/kg body weight Amperozide. Group 3: was treated orally (intranasally) with 2 mg/kg body weight Amphetamin in a single daily application. Group 4: untreated control. The following parameters were evaluated before the begin of the therapy (day 0-4). A: Occurrence of diarrhea in a group B: Food consumption per piglet per day C: Death of piglets per group After the begin of the therapy (day 5-32) D: Death of piglets per group E: Average daily feed intake per piglet The results showed that the Melperone and Amphetamin treatment was superior regarding all examined parameters when compared to Amperozide treatment and to the control group. PMID:8999770

  18. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator. PMID:24297840

  19. Efficacy of a novel virulence gene-deleted Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine for protection against Salmonella infections in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Song, Suck Oh; Lim, Jae Sam; Chung, In Kie; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-02-15

    We have previously developed a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) ΔcpxR Δlon vaccine. This study was carried out to examine whether this vaccine could effectively protect growing piglets against Salmonella infection. Attenuated S. Typhimurium secreting the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin was also used as a mucosal adjuvant. Pregnant sows in groups A and B were primed and boosted with the vaccine and mucosal adjuvant, whereas sows in groups C, D and E received PBS. Piglets in groups A and C were intramuscularly primed with formalin-inactivated vaccine and orally boosted with live vaccine, while piglets in groups B, D and E received PBS. Piglets in groups A, B, C, and D were challenged with a wild type virulent S. Typhimurium at the 11th weeks of age. Colostrum sIgA and IgG titers in vaccinated groups A and B sows were approximately 50 and 40 times higher than those of non-vaccinated groups C, D and E sows (P<0.001). Serum IgG titers of group A piglets were also significantly higher than those of groups D and E piglets during the study (P<0.001). Furthermore, no clinical signs were observed in group A piglets during the entire experimental period after the challenge, while diarrhea was observed in many of the piglets in groups B, C, and D. No Salmonella was isolated from fecal samples of the groups A and C piglets on day 14 after challenge, whereas the challenge strain was isolated from several piglets in groups B and D. These results indicate that vaccination of the piglets with the vaccine and mucosal adjuvant in addition to vaccination of their sows induced effective protection against Salmonella infections in the growing piglets. PMID:20869776

  20. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

  1. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors. PMID:27462071

  2. Selected physiologic measures and behavior during paternal skin contact with Colombian preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, S M; Hashemi, M S; Argote, L A; Medellin, G; Rey, H

    1992-11-01

    A descriptive study of eleven healthy preterm infants was conducted in which cardiorespiratory (heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation), thermal (abdominal, toe and tympanic temperatures) and state behavior responses to two hours of paternal skin-to-skin contact within the first 17 hours of birth in Colombia, South America were evaluated. Infant physiologic and behavioral state measures were recorded each minute as was paternal skin temperature and behavior. Infant heart and respiratory rates increased during paternal contact as did abdominal and core temperatures. Fathers were able to keep their infants sufficiently warm, and five infants became hyperthermic (tympanic temperature greater than 37.5 degrees C) despite cooling measures while being held in this climate. Infants slept most of the time while being held and fathers seldom gazed at, spoke to, or touched their infants while holding them. When mothers are unavailable, fathers may be an alternate source of warmth and comfort to infants. PMID:1307097

  3. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

  4. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  5. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters. PMID:25792335

  6. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General description. 572.151 Section 572.151 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151...

  7. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    PubMed

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  8. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning…

  9. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (P<0.05) faecal Enterobacteriaceae microorganisms and coliforms and had more (P<0,05) faecal Lactobacillus than in pigs from other groups. Increase by 2% of Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli levels were seen only in control piglets (T1 group). E. coli O157 was found at the closing stage in the piglets fed basal diet with only Jerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs. PMID:24724471

  10. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms. PMID:24693654

  11. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: Behavior and electroencephalography (EEG).

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Kells, Nikki; Johnson, Craig; Dennis, Rachel; Sutherland, Mhairi; Lay, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but esthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the aversiveness of inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O; 'laughing gas') using an approach-avoidance test relying on the piglet's perspective, and 2) validate its humaneness to induce loss of consciousness by electroencephalography (EEG). The gas mixtures tested were N2O and air (90%:10%; '90 N'); N2O, oxygen and air (60%:30%:10%; '60 N'); and CO2 and air (90%:10%; '90 C'). Experiment 1 allowed piglets to walk freely between one chamber filled with air and another prefilled with 60 N or 90 N. All piglets exposed to 60 N lasted for the 10 min test duration whereas all piglets exposed to 90 N had to be removed within 5 min because they fell recumbent and unresponsive and then started to flail. Experiment 2 performed the same test except the gas chamber held N2O prefilled at 25%, 50%, or 75% or CO2 prefilled at 7%, 14%, or 21%. The test was terminated more quickly at higher concentrations due to the piglets' responses. Time spent ataxic was greater in the middle concentration gradients. Flailing behavior tended to correlate with increasing concentrations of CO2 but not N2O. Experiment 3, using the minimal anesthesia model, showed that both 90 N and 90 C induced isoelectric EEG, in 71 and 59 s respectively, but not 60 N within 15 min. The EEG results together with the observed behavioral changes reflect differences in the animal's perceptive experience. The implications for animal welfare are that N2O is much less aversive than CO2, and 90% N2O can euthanize piglets. PMID:26129686

  12. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin AD on performance and intestinal health in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shudan; Zhang, Fengrui; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Jiang; Thacker, Philip A; Qiao, Shiyan

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin on performance and intestinal health in piglets. Newly weaned barrows were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n=8), including a corn-soybean basal diet or similar diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 mg/kg kitasamycin plus 800 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or 400 mg/kg cecropin AD. On day 13, all piglets were orally challenged with 10(9)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli K88. On day 19, all piglets were euthanized and sampled. Before challenge, piglets fed antibiotics had greater weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy retention than the control (P<0.05). E. coli challenge decreased weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency for the control piglets (P<0.05) but not for the antibiotic or cecropin AD treated piglets. The incidence of diarrhea post-challenge in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments decreased compared with the control piglets. The total viable counts of cecal E. coli were lower while the Lactobacilli counts were higher in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments compared with the control (P<0.05). Cecropin AD treatment decreased total aerobes while increasing total anaerobes in the ileum (P<0.05). A higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum as well as a deeper crypt depth in the jejunum and higher villus height in the ileum were observed in piglets fed antibiotics or cecropin AD compared with control piglets (P<0.05). Piglets fed the control diet had lower levels of secretory IgA in their jejunum and lower serum IgA, IgG, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Overall, these data suggest that cecropin AD enhances pig performance through increasing immune status and nitrogen and energy retention as well as reducing intestinal pathogens in weaned piglets. PMID:22490448

  13. Validating hyperbilirubinemia and gut mucosal atrophy with a novel ultramobile ambulatory total parenteral nutrition piglet model.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ajay K; Wen, Joy X; Arora, Sumit; Blomenkamp, Keith S; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Blaufuss, Timothy A; Liou, Victor; Burrin, Douglas G; Long, John P; Teckman, Jeffery H

    2015-02-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We hypothesize that using ultramobile infusion pumps, TPN can be delivered cost-effectively, resulting in classical gut and hepatic injury, and we thus aim to establish a new model system. Neonatal pigs (n=8) were implanted with jugular vein and duodenal catheters. Animals were fitted in dual-pocket jackets. An ultramobile ambulatory pump was placed in one pocket and connected to the jugular vein or duodenal catheter. Isocaloric TPN or swine formula was placed in the other pocket. Rigorous Wifi-based video and scheduled monitoring was performed. After 14days, the animals were euthanized. The mean (±SD) daily weight gain (in grams) for enteral-fed control (EN) vs TPN animals was 102.4±10.8 and 91.03±12.1 respectively (P<.05). Total parenteral nutrition resulted in significant conjugated bilirubin elevation and hepatomegaly. Mean (±SD) serum conjugated bilirubin (in μmol/L) was 1.5±0.7 for EN and 6.3±2.8 for TPN (P<.05). Marked gut atrophy was noted with TPN. The mean (±SD) gut weight as a percent of body weight was 4.30±0.26 for EN and 2.62±0.48 for TPN (P<.05). Surgical sites healed well. All animals remained completely mobile. We thus established that TPN can be successfully delivered using ultramobile pumps and believe that this remains the first such description of an ambulatory piglet TPN model system. In addition to cholestasis and gut atrophy, classical TPN-induced injury was documented. PMID:25649660

  14. Growth and reproductive development of male piglets are more vulnerable to mid-gestation maternal stress than that of female piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many mammalian species, prenatal stress masculinizes female and feminizes male offspring impairing their reproductive capacity. Regrouping gestating sows is a common, stressful production practice, but its impact on the sow’s developing piglets is not fully known. This study examined the effects ...

  15. Effects of dietary lysozyme levels on growth performance, intestinal morphology, non-specific immunity and mRNA expression in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Long, Yanrong; Lin, Sen; Zhu, Jiatao; Pang, Xiaoxue; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Yiming; Su, Xiang; Wu, De

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary lysozyme levels on growth performance, gut health and non-specific immunity of weanling piglets. A total of 150 weanling piglets were allocated to six treatments. The piglets were fed the same basel diet supplemented with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/kg lysozyme as well as antibiotics for 28 days. From day 14 to day 28 of dietary treatment, piglets fed 90 mg/kg lysozyme had greater average daily gain than piglets fed control diet. During the whole experimental period, piglets fed 120 mg/kg lysozyme tended to have greater average daily gain than piglets fed control diet. Compared with piglets fed control diet, piglets fed diets containing antibiotics and 90 mg/kg lysozyme had greater villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum. Additionally, dietary supplementation of 60 and 90 mg/kg lysozyme as well as antibiotics enhanced the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages in piglets. In conclusion, dietary lysozyme can accelerate the growth of weanling piglets by improving gut health and non-specific immunity and supplementing 90 mg/kg lysozyme is as effective as antibiotics (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate + 50 mg/kg kitasamycin) in improving the growth performance of weanling piglets. PMID:26419503

  16. Increasing the frequency of co-mingling piglets during the lactation period alters the development of social behavior before and after weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the frequency of co-mingling affected piglets' behavior development before and after weaning. Co-mingling once (CM1), piglets interacted with 1 unfamiliar litter Days 10-18 after birth, co-mingling twice (CM2), piglets interacted with 1 unfam...

  17. Infants in cocktail parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  18. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders D; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength. Bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the FO compared to the SO-group (p=0.03). Despite similar weight gain in HMFS- and CONT-groups, body fat accumulation was higher with HMFS (p<0.001), and BMC, bone area (BA) and cortical BA in femur were lower (p=0.002, p=0.005, and p=0.02, respectively), indicating importance of both n-3LCPUFA and 16:0 TAG-positioning in infant formulas. PMID:23867727

  19. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Kretzschmar, Moritz; Baumgardner, James E; Schreiber, Jens; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Hachenberg, Thomas; Schilling, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The data of a corresponding animal experiment demonstrates that nebulized methacholine (MCh) induced severe bronchoconstriction and significant inhomogeneous ventilation and pulmonary perfusion (V̇A/Q̇) distribution in pigs, which is similar to findings in human asthma. The inhalation of MCh induced bronchoconstriction and delayed both uptake and elimination of desflurane (Kretzschmar et al., 2015) [1]. The objective of the present data is to determine V̇A/Q̇ matching by Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) in piglets before and during methacholine- (MCh-) induced bronchoconstriction, induced by MCh infusion, and to assess the blood concentration profiles for desflurane (DES) by Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MMIMS). Healthy piglets (n=4) under general anesthesia were instrumented with arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery lines. The airway was secured via median tracheostomy with an endotracheal tube, and animals were mechanically ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with a FiO2 of 0.4, tidal volume (V T)=10 ml/kg and PEEP of 5cmH2O using an open system. The determination of V.A/Q. was done by MIGET: before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during MCh infusion. Arterial blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min during wash-in and washout, respectively. Bronchoconstriction was established by MCH infusion aiming at doubling the peak airway pressure, after which wash-in and washout of the anesthetic gas was repeated. Anesthesia gas concentrations were measured by MMIMS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and by nonparametric Friedman׳s test and Wilcoxon׳s matched pairs test. We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and

  20. Influence of the protein status of piglets on their ability to select and prefer protein sources.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Pérez, José F

    2014-04-22

    Pigs may have retained the capacity to choose feeds based on their nutritional requirements, even after decades in which they are not allowed to select their diet composition due to the common feeding systems of the intensive pig industry. We used 480 early-weaned piglets in two experiments to assess their ability to select and prefer protein-related sources, depending on their protein status. Piglets were fed after weaning with two isoenergetic diets formulated to contain an optimal or sub-optimal crude-protein (CP) content, a high-protein (HP, 204g CP/kg as-fed) or a low-protein diet (LP, 142g CP/kg), respectively. In Experiment 1, the preference of piglets was assessed by using a choice test between protein (porcine digestible peptides [PDP] 40g/L) and carbohydrate (sucrose 40g/L) water-based solutions for a period of 3min. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for the sucrose 40g/L than for the PDP 40g/L solution, independently of the dietary CP content (9.8mL/kg body weight [BW] vs. 3.7mL/kg BW and 10.4mL/kg BW vs. 4.3mL/kg BW in HP and LP pigs, respectively). In Experiment 2, piglets were given eight training sessions in which two equally preferred flavors were mixed with protein (porcine animal plasma 60g/L, CSp) or carbohydrate (maltodextrin 60g/L, CSc) solutions. In the subsequent choice test, piglets fed the HP diet showed a tendency to a higher intake of CSc than of CSp (6.5mL/kg BW vs. 5.4mL/kg BW). On the other hand, piglets fed the LP diet showed a higher intake and preference for CSp than for CSc (15.5mL/kg BW vs. 10.2mL/kg BW), differences being higher for medium and low BW piglets than for heavy ones. The results show that piglets are unable to express a specific appetite for protein to correct previous underfeeding with it; however, they may show an appropriate dietary selection pattern in order to overcome protein deficiency through associative learning. PMID:24582664

  1. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  2. Genetic characterization of porcine kobuvirus variants identified from healthy piglets in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhen-Peng; Wang, Wan-Yi; Yang, Juan; Qin, Ai-Jian; Yang, Han-Chun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two porcine kobuvirus strains, JS-01-CHN and JS-02a-CHN were detected from piglets with diarrhea and asymptomatic, respectively. The sequences of the two strains were analyzed using a bioinformatics software package. The full-length genome of JS-02a-CHN, was detected in healthy piglets was 8121 nucleotides (nt) long excluding the poly(A) tail. There was a 30 amino acid deletion in the 2B-coding region of JS-02a-CHN. We are the first to report a 30 amino acid deletion in porcine kobuvirus from asymptomatic piglets, indicating that porcine kobuvirus may have evolved differently based on geography and host differences. Fecal samples were obtained from pigs with diarrhea (n=91) and healthy (n=126) pigs and analyzed using RT-PCR. Of these, 64.8% (59/91) of diarrheic piglets and 19.8% (25/126) of healthy piglets were positive for PKV using VP1 specific primers. Twenty-eight (28) virus positive samples were randomly selected and the VP1 gene was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 15 strains isolated from pigs with diarrhea clustered into different branches, while the VP1 sequences from clinically healthy pigs clustered into a single large group. These results indicate that the VP1 gene is diverse in pigs with diarrhea but conserved in healthy pigs in the Jiangsu Province. PMID:26238210

  3. Pre-natal stress amplifies the immediate behavioural responses to acute pain in piglets.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Robson, Sheena K; Donald, Ramona D; Jarvis, Susan; Sandercock, Dale A; Scott, E Marian; Nolan, Andrea M; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2009-08-23

    Pre-natal stress (PNS) or undernutrition can have numerous effects on an individual's biology throughout their lifetime. Some of these effects may be adaptive by allowing individuals to tailor their phenotype to environmental conditions. Here we investigated, in the domestic pig Sus scrofa, whether one possible consequence of a predicted adverse environment could be altered pain perception. The behavioural response of piglets to the surgical amputation ('docking') of their tail or a sham procedure was measured for 1 min in piglets born to mothers who either experienced mid-gestation social stress or were left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. A behavioural pain score was found to predict the docked status of piglets with high discriminant accuracy. Piglets exposed to PNS had a significantly higher pain score than controls, and for each litter of tail-docked piglets, the average pain score was correlated with mid-gestation maternal cortisol levels. The data presented here provide evidence that the experience of stress in utero can result in a heightened acute response to injury in early life. Speculatively, this may represent an adaptive alteration occurring as a consequence of a pre-natal 'early warning' of environmental adversity. PMID:19411272

  4. Increasing pulmonary artery pulsatile flow improves hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in piglets.

    PubMed

    Courboulin, Audrey; Kang, Chantal; Baillard, Olivier; Bonnet, Sebastien; Bonnet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease affecting distal pulmonary arteries (PA). These arteries are deformed, leading to right ventricular failure. Current treatments are limited. Physiologically, pulsatile blood flow is detrimental to the vasculature. In response to sustained pulsatile stress, vessels release nitric oxide (NO) to induce vasodilation for self-protection. Based on this observation, this study developed a protocol to assess whether an artificial pulmonary pulsatile blood flow could induce an NO-dependent decrease in pulmonary artery pressure. One group of piglets was exposed to chronic hypoxia for 3 weeks and compared to a control group of piglets. Once a week, the piglets underwent echocardiography to assess PAH severity. At the end of hypoxia exposure, the piglets were subjected to a pulsatile protocol using a pulsatile catheter. After being anesthetized and prepared for surgery, the jugular vein of the piglet was isolated and the catheter was introduced through the right atrium, the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, under radioscopic control. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was measured before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 30 min after (T2) the pulsatile protocol. It was demonstrated that this pulsatile protocol is a safe and efficient method of inducing a significant reduction in mean PAP via an NO-dependent mechanism. These data open up new avenues for the clinical management of PAH. PMID:25993379

  5. Effect of L-arginine on HSP70 expression in liver in weanling piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-arginine (Arg) on photomicrographs and HSP70 expression in the liver of weanling piglets. Twelve healthy Landrace × Yorkshire piglets that had been weaned at 21 d (average body weight 5.56 ± 0.51 kg) were randomly divided into a control group and an Arg group (6 g/kg feed). At age 28 d, all of the piglets were slaughtered to obtain liver samples to determine HSP70 expression by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results The results showed that, compared to control piglets, treatment with Arg decreased inflammatory reactions caused by weaning. The immunohistochemical localization of HSP70 in liver revealed strong expression in the Arg group. Arg increased HSP70 mRNA and HSP70 expression in the liver (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with Arg could maintain liver health by inducing HSP70 expression in weanling piglets. PMID:23557067

  6. Pathogenicity and protective effect of rough mutants of Salmonella species in germ-free piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Dlabac, V; Trebichavský, I; Reháková, Z; Hofmanová, B; Splíchal, I; Cukrowska, B

    1997-01-01

    In this study, two stable, rough, streptomycin-sensitive Salmonella mutants with different types of genetic defects were used to colonize groups of germ-free (GF) piglets. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium SF 1591 was of the Ra chemotype (complete core), whereas the LPS of the S. minnesota mR 595 deep-rough mutant contained only lipid A and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid (Re chemotype). Both strains readily colonized the intestinal tracts of GF piglets and were stable during the whole experiment. All animals survived, and only transient fever was observed in some piglets colonized with the SF 1591 strain. Finally, streptomycin and virulent, smooth, streptomycin-resistant S. typhimurium LT2 were administered perorally 1 week later. All piglets colonized previously with the deep-rough mutant mR 595 died of sepsis, in contrast to piglets infected with the LT2 strain and colonized with the SF 1591 mutant, all of which survived. This difference is explained by the penetration of the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver by great numbers of live bacteria in the latter case, resulting in prominent systemic and local immune responses. On the other hand, live bacteria were found only rarely in the mesenteric lymph nodes of animals colonized with the mR 595 strain and a negligible antibody response was observed. PMID:9393821

  7. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  8. A simple novel measure of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin is predictive of preweaning mortality in piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preweaning mortality of piglets represents a significant loss to swine producers. Two factors that contribute to this loss are the timely initiation of lactation by the sow, and the ability of individual piglets to nurse successfully within hours of birth. However, the contribution of these factors ...

  9. Measurement of changes in body composition of piglets from birth to 4 kg using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of the growth of neonatal piglets it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that QMR provides accurate measurements of total body fat, lean, and water in non-anesthetized piglets. The purpose of this study was to us...

  10. THE EFFECT OF CO-MINGLING LITTERS ON PIGLETS' GROWTH, SUCKLING BEHAVIOR AND RESPONSES TO BEHAVIORAL TESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-mingling litters prior to weaning alters piglet development and ability to cope with post-stress. The purpose of this study was to determine how co-mingling litters affected piglet growth, suckling behavior and responses to behavioral tests used to measure coping abilities before weaning. Thirty ...

  11. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    PubMed

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  12. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    PubMed

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  13. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  14. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  15. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  16. Positive human contact on the first day of life alters the piglet's behavioural response to humans and husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Muns, Ramon; Rault, Jean-Loup; Hemsworth, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This experiment examined the effects of positive human contact at suckling on the first day of life on the behavioural and physiological responses of piglets to both humans and routine husbandry procedures. Forty litters from multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: Control (CC, minimal human interaction with day-old piglets) or Positive Contact (PC, human talking and caressing piglets during 6 suckling bouts on their first day of life, day 1). In each litter, 2 males and 2 females were randomly selected and their behavioural responses to tail docking (day 2), and to an experimenter (day 35) were studied. Escape behaviour at tail docking was assessed according to intensity (on a scale from 0 to 4 representing no movement to high intensity movement) and duration (on a scale from 0 to 3 representing no movement to continuous movement). At day 15 of age, a human approach and avoidance test was performed on focal piglets and at day 15, escape behaviour to capture before and after testing was recorded again. Blood samples for cortisol analysis were obtained from the focal piglets 30 min after tail docking and 1 h after weaning. Escape behaviour to tail docking of the PC piglets was of shorter duration than that of the CC piglets (P = 0.05). There was a tendency for the escape behaviour both before and after testing at day 15 to be of a lower intensity (P = 0.11 and P = 0.06, respectively) and a shorter duration (P = 0.06 and P = 0.08, respectively) in the PC piglets. There was a tendency for PC piglets to have higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking than the CC piglets (P = 0.07). Male piglets had higher cortisol concentrations after tail docking and after weaning than female piglets (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). The results indicate that Positive Contact treatment reduced the duration of escape behaviour of piglets to tail docking. The role of classical conditioning, habituation and developmental changes in the observed effects of the

  17. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  18. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  19. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R.; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  20. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  1. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  2. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  3. Infant neurologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, E

    2001-08-01

    Infant neurologic assessment reflects the ongoing maturation of the central nervous system. Traditional approaches to assessment cannot be used. Key factors are accurate observation and flexibility in obtaining the data. A case example using a 4-month-old infant illustrates specific approaches to assessment. PMID:11497071

  4. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of ...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  6. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log₁₀ 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log₁₀ 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

  7. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  8. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  9. Effects of toltrazuril on the growth of piglets in herds without clinical isosporosis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Dominiek; Vyt, Philip; Rabaeys, Patrick; Gevaert, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Isospora suis is a widely prevalent and economically important parasite. The antiprotozoal compound, toltrazuril, was given as a single treatment to piglets without clinical signs in 10 herds. The daily weight gain (DWG) and mortality between the treatment date and weaning was compared on each herd in 10 treated and 10 control litters. The faeces of control litters were examined for oocyst excretion. In six herds, no oocysts were detected and treatment had no effect on DWG or mortality. In four pig herds, oocysts were detected and toltrazuril treatment significantly improved DWG by 25 g (P=0.003). Mortality rate was not affected. The partial economic benefit of toltrazuril treatment in positive herds was 0.20 euros per piglet. A single toltrazuril treatment of piglets in herds without clinical signs of isosporosis but with oocysts detected significantly improved DWG and was considered economically justified on each farm. PMID:16122955

  10. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  11. [Resuscitation of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Kilian; Leonhardt, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Successful resuscitation of newborn infants depends on adequate preparation, exact evaluation and prompt initiation of support according to the recently updated recommendations by trained personnel. The key step in postnatal adaptation is the initiation of breathing with a subsequent increase in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary gas exchange. Therefore, in compromised newborn infants, adequate ventilation is the most important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ventilation should be initiated with room air in term infants and with low concentrations of supplemental oxygen in preterm infants. Subsequently, oxygen supplementation should always be guided by pulse oximetry. Chest compressions are only effective if adequate ventilation has been ensured. The compression ventilation ratio remains 3:1. The prevention of heat loss and maintaining a normal body temperature by adequate measures is an essential part of the care for healthy as well as asphyxiated infants. Therapeutic hypothermia should only be initiated after successful resuscitation and consultation with the regional neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:21815119

  12. Description Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  13. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  14. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 μm ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion. PMID

  15. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  16. Early social isolation alters behavioral and physiological responses to an endotoxin challenge in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Margret; Kanitz, Ellen; Puppe, Birger; Tuchscherer, Armin

    2006-12-01

    Psychosocial stress in the form of maternal deprivation and social isolation during early postnatal life induces persistent alterations in behavioral and physiological mechanisms of adaptation. One consequence may be an increased susceptibility to diseases in later life. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in domestic piglets the effects of a repeated social isolation (2 h daily from day 3 to day 11 of age) on behavioral, endocrine and immune responses to an endotoxin challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 day or 45 days after the isolation period. Peripheral LPS administration caused serious sickness behavior (somnolence, shivering, vomiting) and provoked profound increases in circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), ACTH and cortisol concentrations. The prior social isolation treatment enhanced signs of sickness and impaired suckling behavior. Early isolated piglets responded to LPS by an increase of shivering on day 12 and by increased vomiting on day 56 compared to controls. Further, there were considerable delays and reductions of time isolated piglets spent suckling on day 12. The repeated isolation stressor diminished TNF-alpha increases after LPS, whereas stress hormone levels were not significantly affected by isolation treatment. Finally, stronger relationships between signs of sickness and physiological measures were revealed in early isolated piglets. The duration of somnolence in isolated piglets was related to changes of cortisol and TNF-alpha concentrations, and the highest impact on duration of shivering was found for changes in cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin levels. The present results suggest a sustained adaptive sensitization of coping with infection by social stress experience during early development in piglets. PMID:16899245

  17. Cyclosporin A Preserves Mitochondrial Function after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Rat and Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Bhandare, Sunita; Lorom, David H.; Saraswati, Manda; Robertson, Courtney L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to be neuroprotective in mature animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its effects on immature animal models of TBI are unknown. In mature animal models, CsA inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), thereby maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis following injury by inhibiting calcium influx and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CsA's ability to preserve mitochondrial bioenergetic function following TBI (as measured by mitochondrial respiration and cerebral microdialysis), in two immature models (focal and diffuse), and in two different species (rat and piglet). Three groups were studied: injured+CsA, injured+saline vehicle, and uninjured shams. In addition, we evaluated CsA's effects on cerebral hemodynamics as measured by a novel thermal diffusion probe. The results demonstrate that post-injury administration of CsA ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction, preserves cerebral blood flow (CBF), and limits neuropathology in immature animals 24 h post-TBI. Mitochondria were isolated 24 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats and rapid non-impact rotational injury (RNR) in piglets, and CsA ameliorated cerebral bioenergetic crisis with preservation of the respiratory control ratio (RCR) to sham levels. Results were more dramatic in RNR piglets than in CCI rats. In piglets, CsA also preserved lactate pyruvate ratios (LPR), as measured by cerebral microdialysis and CBF at sham levels 24 h after injury, in contrast to the significant alterations seen in injured piglets compared to shams (p<0.01). The administration of CsA to piglets following RNR promoted a 42% decrease in injured brain volume (p<0.01). We conclude that CsA exhibits significant neuroprotective activity in immature models of focal and diffuse TBI, and has exciting translational potential as a therapeutic agent for neuroprotection in children. PMID

  18. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    PubMed

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain. PMID:25061745

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Facilitates Early Identification of Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Antoine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Barc, Celine; Berri, Mustapha; Adriaensen, Hans; Lecompte, François; Villemagne, Thierry; Pezant, Jérémy; Delaunay, Rémi; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Berthon, Patricia; Bähr, Andrea; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Attucci, Sylvie; Ramphal, Reuben; Sarradin, Pierre; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Caballero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout (CFTR-/-) pig that displays most of the features of the human CF disease has been recently developed. However, CFTR-/- pigs presents a 100% prevalence of meconium ileus that leads to death in the first hours after birth, requiring a rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention to relieve intestinal obstruction. Identification of CFTR-/- piglets is usually performed by PCR genotyping, a procedure that lasts between 4 to 6 h. Here, we aimed to develop a procedure for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets that will allow placing them under intensive care soon after birth and immediately proceeding with the surgical correction. Methods and Principal Findings Male and female CFTR+/- pigs were crossed and the progeny was examined by computed tomography (CT) scan to detect the presence of meconium ileus and facilitate a rapid post-natal surgical intervention. Genotype was confirmed by PCR. CT scan presented a 94.4% sensitivity to diagnose CFTR-/- piglets. Diagnosis by CT scan reduced the birth-to-surgery time from a minimum of 10 h down to a minimum of 2.5 h and increased the survival of CFTR-/- piglets to a maximum of 13 days post-surgery as opposed to just 66 h after later surgery. Conclusion CT scan imaging of meconium ileus is an accurate method for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets. Early CT detection of meconium ileus may help to extend the lifespan of CFTR-/- piglets and, thus, improve experimental research on CF, still an incurable disease. PMID:26600426

  20. Large quantities of straw at farrowing prevents bruising and increases weight gain in piglets.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Two major welfare issues in current pig production are the lack of nesting material for farrowing sows and poor claw health in suckling piglets. Therefore, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objective of this cohort study was to estimate the effect of a large quantity of straw (15-20 kg) supplied before farrowing compared to limited daily amounts (0.5-1 kg) on bruising and growth performance in pre-weaning piglets. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in south-west Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the second lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to expected farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus 2 kg for nest building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. Piglets were individually weighed within 36 h after birth, at 3-7 days after birth and at weaning. On day 3-7, limbs and feet were clinically examined for the presence and location of lesions. In conclusion, the provision of 15-20 kg of straw 2 days prior to farrowing effectively prevents the piglets from developing skin abrasions (IRR=0.38) and soft heel/sole erosions (IRR=0.08-0.35). We also conclude that the strategic use of large quantities of straw has a positive effect on weight gain, increasing the expected mean body weight at weaning by 0.33 kg. PMID:24834805

  1. [The effect of stress on blood levels of vitamin A and E in piglets].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M

    1987-03-01

    In five trials with 99 suckling or weaned piglets, the effects of the increased adrenocortical function, caused by cold, weaning from the sow or fasting or by stimulation with exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were studied as exerted on vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations in the blood serum. Three hours after an exposure of three-day and four-day piglets to the temperature of 8-12 degrees C, a small drop of the concentrations of both vitamins occurred. In four-week weanling piglets a decrease in vitamin E concentration was observed in two days, the trend being slight in vitamin A concentration. At the same time some sibs were left fasting, which considerably reduced the concentrations of both vitamins. The situation was similar in two hours after ACTH administration to suckling piglets, however the difference was insignificant in vitamin E concentrations. In seventeen hours elapsing from two administrations of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) when the increased secretion of corticosteroids was fading out, only the vitamin A concentration in suckling piglets was found to drop. The response in weanling piglets was negligible. The suppressive effects of stress on vitamin A concentrations were usually observed when the levels of circulating corticosteroids were high or in the period immediately following this status. The changes in nutrition after early weaning exert large negative effects on vitamin E concentrations in the blood serum. The differences in the response of the organism to the two vitamins may be due to various types of transport mechanisms in the blood circulation. The specific effects of stress factors are mentioned. PMID:3033868

  2. Impact of dietary manganese concentration on status criteria to determine manganese requirement in piglets.

    PubMed

    Pallauf, J; Kauer, C; Most, E; Habicht, S D; Moch, J

    2012-12-01

    The Mn requirement for pigs is not well established. This study aimed to find criteria for assessing growing piglet supply status for Mn and to determine whether the current Mn recommendations meet the requirements for piglets. Thirty-six weaned male castrated 27-day-old piglets (7.24 ± 0.69 kg) were randomized into six groups of six piglets each and housed individually in stainless steel metabolic cages for 42 days. The piglets were fed a diet based on skimmed milk powder and corn starch with increasing Mn concentrations (0.24; 2; 4; 8; 16; or 32 mg Mn/kg diet as-fed). In week 6, Mn0.24 led to reduced feed intake (p < 0.05). Manganese concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, lung, heart, phalanx proximalis, pancreas and skeletal muscle were influenced by the dietary Mn supply (p < 0.05). The activity of the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase in the heart as well as relative arginase activity in the liver were lower in groups Mn0.24, Mn2 and Mn4 compared with the higher supplemented groups (p < 0.05). The relative arginase activity increased clearly with enhanced dietary Mn up to 16 mg/kg and correlated with Mn concentration in the liver. Manganese concentrations in the liver, kidney and phalanx proximalis seem to be suitable biomarkers for Mn status. A 4 mg/kg dietary Mn concentration recommended by NRC (1998, Nutrient Requirements of Swine. National Academy Press, Washington DC.) did not fulfil piglet requirements. Under the conditions investigated, 16 mg Mn/kg diet were necessary to reach a plateau in specific enzyme activity and Mn concentration in organs. PMID:21883497

  3. Facilitating a Positive Interaction Between Parent and Infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia; And Others

    This article contains a review of recent research on the: (1) effects of immediate post partum mother infant contact; (2) effects of early separation of parents and babies in neonatal intensive care; and (3) facilitation of reciprocal interaction between mothers and their infants in neonatal intensive care. A brief description of a study that…

  4. Analysis of factors to predict piglet body weight at the end of the nursery phase.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; Awati, A; Buist, W; den Hartog, L A; Van Hees, H M J; Quiniou, N; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-09-01

    In pig (Sus Scrofa) production, within-batch variation in bw gain of piglets during the nursery period (up to 10 wk of age) can be high and is of high economic importance. Homogeneity of BW within batches of animals is important as it influences the efficiency of use of the grower and finisher facilities, and provides an extra value for the fattening farms. In the current study, factors for a light BW at the end of the nursery period of pigs were determined by analyzing datasets from 3 different swine research centers in the Netherlands and France. The entire dataset contained information on 77,868 individual piglets born between 2005 and 2010. Body weight was determined at different time points over the pre- and post-weaning phase, and sex, season of birth, litter information (litter size at day of birth and after cross-fostering, number of piglets born alive per litter, number of total born littermates, sow parity number), cross-fostered animals (yes or no), and pen group size over the post-weaning period were recorded. A risk factor analysis approach was used to analyze the datasets to determine factors that predict piglet bw at the end of the nursery period. Body weight at the end of the nursery period corrected for age was mainly determined by season (P < 0.001), birth weight (BiW, P < 0.001), weaning weight (WW, P < 0.001), and BW at 6 wk of age (P < 0.001). These variables were consistent among datasets and explained approximately 70% of the overall variation in BW at the end of the nursery period. Litter information did not significantly (P > 0.05) contribute to explaining the BW at the end of the nursery period. To discard the possibility of intrauterine growth retarded piglets (IUGR) being the reason for the influence of BiW as an explanatory factor in the regression model, a further analysis was performed on the effect of this category of piglets on the results of the regression analysis. Overall, it was concluded that the bw of piglets at the end of the

  5. Influence of some sow characteristics on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Brossard, L; Valancogne, A; Quiniou, N

    2008-12-01

    Within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0) is associated with an increased piglet mortality and a high variability in pig weight at weaning and weight or age at slaughter. Data collected in two experimental herds were used to quantify within-litter variability in BW0 and to assess the influence of factors mainly related to the sow. Within 24 h after birth, piglets born alive were individually weighed and stillborn piglets were collectively (first data set) or individually (second data set) weighed. The first data set was restricted to litters with no or only one stillborn piglet (3338 litters). It was used to assess the influence of genetic selection on BW0 variation by comparing litter characteristics before (1994 to 1996) and after (2001 to 2004) the development of hyperprolific sows in this herd. The second data set included all litters (n = 1596) from sows born between 2000 and 2004. For each litter, mean BW0 (mBW0) and its coefficient of variation (CVBW0) were calculated. Then, variance analyses were performed to test the influence of litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception. Prolificacy improvement was associated with an increased CVBW0 in litters from pure Large White (LW) and Landrace × Large White (LR × LW) crossbred sows. The CVBW0 averaged 21% and was significantly influenced by litter size and parity. It increased from 15% to 24% when litter size varied from less than 10 piglets to more than 15 piglets. The proportion of small piglets (i.e. weighing less than 1 kg) increased concomitantly. The CVBW0 was not repeatable from a parity to the following. It was lowest for first and second parities (20%) and thereafter increased progressively. The CVBW0 was positively related to sow's backfat thickness gain during gestation. Taking into account litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception explained 20% of BW0 variation. Thus, major part of heterogeneity is due to other factors, presumably including embryo

  6. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli in piglets: Clinical, pathological and microbiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Claude; Drolet, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study (1980-1989) was conducted to describe the clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in 55 cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) caused by Escherichia coli in piglets. The condition occurred in weaned and suckling piglets and was associated with several serogroups of E. coli. Most of the isolates of E. coli possessed the adhesin F4 (K88) and were hemolytic. Only a few of the isolates of E. coli tested produced verotoxins. Clinical signs and pathological findings noted in these cases were compatible with shock. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423984

  7. Efficacy of activated diatomaceous clay in reducing the toxicity of zearalenone in rats and piglets.

    PubMed

    Denli, M; Blandon, J C; Guynot, M E; Salado, S; Pérez, J F

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an activated diatomaceous clay (ADC) in reducing the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEA) in the diet of rats and piglets. In the rat experiment, 90 Sprague-Dawley female weanling rats with an initial BW of 45 ± 1.0 g were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments for 28 d in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (0 or 6 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). In the piglet experiment, 64 female piglets ([Large White × Landrace] × Pietrain with an initial BW of 14.9 ± 1.65 kg) were fed 1 of 8 experimental diets for 26 d in a CRD design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 0.8 mg ZEA/kg feed and 0, 1, 2, and 5 g ADC/kg feed). The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined at the end of each experiment. At the conclusion of studies, serum samples were collected and rats and piglets were euthanized to determine visceral organ weights. The diet contaminated with ZEA did not alter the growth of rats and the relative weight of liver and kidneys. However, ZEA increased ( < 0.05) the relative weight of uterus, ovaries, and spleen and decreased ( < 0.05) the serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the control group. Supplementation of ADC in the rat diets counteracted ( < 0.05) the observed toxic effects of ZEA on the uterus and ovaries weight. The diet contaminated with ZEA (0.8 mg/kg feed) increased ( < 0.05) the weight of the uterus and ovaries in piglets but did not modify the serum biochemical variables or the relative weight of other visceral organs. The addition of 5 g ADC/kg to the contaminated feed reduced the toxic effects of ZEA on uterus and ovary weights to that of the control group. Zearalenone (10.5 μg/kg bile) and α-zearalenol (5.6 μg/kg bile) residues were detected in the bile of piglets fed the ZEA treatment. Supplementation of ADC to diets contaminated with ZEA reduced ( = 0.001) ZEA content in bile compared to the

  8. Dietary bovine lactoferrin alters mucosal and systemic immune cell responses in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional immune protein found at high concentrations in human milk. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine LF (bLF) on mucosal and systemic immune development was investigated. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 130 [control (Ctrl)], 367 (LF1), or 1300 (LF3) mg of bLF/(kg body weight · d). To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and ascending colon (Asc) contents were collected on day 7 (n = 10-14/group) and day 14 (n = 10-12/group). Immune cell populations were quantified by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA. Additionally, immune cells were isolated from spleen and MLNs (n = 7/group) on day 7 and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± LF for 72 h. Secreted cytokine concentrations were quantified by multiplex assay. Lymphocyte populations [cluster determinant (CD)4, CD8, and natural killer cells] developed normally and were unaffected by dietary bLF. LF3 piglets tended to have 1.4 to 2 times more serum IgG than Ctrl piglets (P = 0.07) or LF1 piglets (P = 0.03), but IgA in Asc contents was unaffected by bLF. Asc IgA was 4 times higher on day 14 than day 7. Spleen cells from LF3 piglets produced 2 times more interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α ex vivo than those from Ctrl or LF1 piglets. MLN cells from LF1 and LF3 piglets produced 40% more IL-10 and tended to produce 40% more IL-6 (P = 0.05) than those from Ctrl piglets. However, ex vivo bLF did not affect the cytokine response of spleen or MLN cells to LPS. In summary, dietary bLF alters the capacity of MLN and spleen immune cells to respond to stimulation, supporting a role for LF in the initiation of protective immune responses in these immunologically challenged neonates. PMID:24553692

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  10. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care. PMID:24142318

  11. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  12. Infant feeding practices of the Igbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kazimi, L J; Kazimi, H R

    1979-01-01

    A survey of infant feeding practices and infant morbidity and mortality was conducted in 1975 among the Igbo women of Owerri, Nigeria. The random sample 508 persons consisted of mothers who attended the Infant Welfare Clinic, the Prenatal Clinic, or the general hospital clinic and of mothers who were selected in a household survey. Major finding in regard to infant feeding practices were 1) 94% of the mothers breast-fed their babies for at least 6 months and the average duration was 10.8 months; 2) breast feeding duration decreased with the education level of the mother; 3) 82-87% of the mothers believed that breast-feeding was preferable to bottle feeding; 4) Igbo women considered breast-feeding a natural activity and were opposed to artificial feeding; 5) supplementary feeding was initiated by 85% of the mothers between the 3-7 month and supplementary foods were frequently prepared and given to the child under unsanitary conditions; 6) after weaning the child was expected to eat the same foods as the rest of the family; and 7) the diet provided for children after weaning was in general deficient in proteins and was prepared in unsanitary surroundings. By the time the infants were 6 months old, 20% of the children had at least 1 episode of diarrhea, 1 out of every 11 were hospitalized at least once, and 5% had bronchitis. The high morbidity rates were attributed to some extent to the unsanitary methods involved in providing infants with supplementary foods. The deficient diet after weaning also contributor toward a high rate of diarrhea, gastro-entritis, and bronchitis among children living in the areas. Major findings were presented in descriptive tables. PMID:12309614

  13. Multivariate Model of Infant Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierscht, Marcia Selland; Vietze, Peter M.

    This paper describes a multivariate model of early infant competence formulated from variables representing infant-environment transaction including: birthweight, habituation index, personality ratings of infant social orientation and task orientation, ratings of maternal responsiveness to infant distress and social signals, and observational…

  14. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  15. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rene L; Pontoppidan, Peter E L; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping; Hansen, Carl Frederik; Buddington, Randal K; Heegaard, Peter M H; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per T

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We used preweaned piglets as models to test our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory and GI trophic effects of bovine colostrum would reduce the severity of GI complications associated with doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Five-day-old pigs were administered DOX (1 × 100 mg/m(2)) or an equivalent volume of saline (SAL) and either fed formula (DOX-Form, n = 9, or SAL-Form, n = 7) or bovine colostrum (DOX-Colos, n = 9, or SAL-Colos, n = 7). Pigs were euthanized 5 days after initiation of chemotherapy to assess markers of small intestinal function and inflammation. All DOX-treated animals developed diarrhea, growth deficits, and leukopenia. However, the intestines of DOX-Colos pigs had lower intestinal permeability, longer intestinal villi with higher activities of brush border enzymes, and lower tissue IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P < 0.05). DOX-Form pigs, but not DOX-Colos pigs, had significantly higher plasma C-reactive protein, compared with SAL-Form. Plasma citrulline was not affected by DOX treatment or diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected to chemotherapy and subsequent intestinal toxicity. PMID:27445347

  16. Management and Housing Factors Associated with Piglet Preweaning Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, Robert M.; Wilson, Michael R.; McMillan, Ian

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish piglet preweaning mortality rates on representative Ontario pig farms and to examine possible relationships between preweaning mortality and various management and environmental factors. Thirty randomly sampled farrow-to-finish herds were surveyed over a two year period. Mean preweaning mortality in liveborn pigs of 18.5±5.8 and 18.7±5.4 was recorded in the first and second years of the survey, respectively. Preweaning mortality was correlated positively with still-birth rate (r1=0.31, p1<0.1 (Year 1), and (r2=0.37, p2<0.05 (Year 2)) and with weaner pig mortality in the second year (r2=0.37, p2<0.05). Preweaning mortality was negatively correlated with herd size (r1=−0.30, p1<0.1 and (r2=−0.31, p2<0.1), crate utilization (r1=−0.52, p1<0.01 and (r2=−0.53, p2<0.01), and positively correlated with the number of farrowing crates per room (r1 and r2=0.52, p<0.05). There was no relationship observed between preweaning mortality and housing and management characteristics such as the use of bedding or no bedding, batch farrowing versus continuous farrowing and single-use compared to multi-use farrowing rooms. It was felt that stockmanship was an important modifier of environmental effects. PMID:17422684

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from Calves and Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Santos, Thiago M. A.; Teixeira, Andre G. V.; Pereira, Richard V. V.; Dias, Juliana M.; Gaeta, Natália; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%). Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future probiotic candidates

  18. [The infant with leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kamps, W A; Sjamsoedin-Visser, E J; van Wering, E R

    1988-04-01

    Infant leukemia is rare and especially in newborn leukemoid reactions should be excluded by careful cytogenetic analysis before starting cytotoxic therapy. Infants have either acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia or acute undifferentiated leukemia. At present they have a bad outlook due to many coinciding unfavorable initial disease characteristics: high leukocyte count, liver and spleen enlargement, meningeal involvement, no expression of common ALL antigen, and a high frequency of pseudodiploid cells, that is with a translocation 4;II. The immaturity of organs and systems makes it difficult to treat these infants, and requires optimal supportive care. Therapeutic protocols for prospective clinical trials for leukemia in this age group are urgently needed. PMID:3287687

  19. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  20. [Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets after oral administration of lactobacillus amylovorus S1 as a probiotic strain].

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2006-12-01

    Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets from 7 to 35 days of age (two weeks after weaning) were studied after oral administration of L. amylovorus S1, using molecular techniques based on 16S rDNA gene. Six litters of neonatal piglets were divided randomly into control group and treatment group. At 7, 9, 11 days of age, piglets in treatment group received 1, 2 and 3mL preparation of S1 (5 x 10(9) CFU/mL) through oral administration, respectively. On D 7, 14, 21, 24 and 35, one piglet from each litter was slaughtered and samples of hindguts were collected for analysis. The results showed that high G + C mol% bacteria in hindguts of piglets disappeared after weaning and restored gradually two weeks later. Sequencing analysis indicated that most of these high G + C mol% bacteria blonged to Lactobacillus spp. . Statistical analysis showed that treatment with S1 had no marked effect on diversity index of predominant bacteria from hindguts in piglets. By comparing the bands in DGGE profiles between two groups, a specific band in treatment group was found in profiles from piglets at 14 days of age, sequence matched with that showed 95 % similarity to Clostridium disporicum. At 35 days of age, another specific band appeared in control group, which was identified to be Streptococcus suis (99% ). PMID:17302162

  1. Development of a novel live vaccine delivering enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigens to prevent post-weaning diarrhea in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-05-15

    The efficacy of a novel, live delivery vaccine was examined for protection against post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. An expression/secretion plasmid harboring genes encoding enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA and FedF fimbriae was constructed and harbored in an attenuated Salmonella, which was used as the vaccine candidate. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) sows were orally immunized with the candidate vaccine and PBS as a control, respectively, at 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. All group piglets were challenged with two challenge strains at 5-week-old. All immunized sows had significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in both serum and colostrum to individual adhesins compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05). Immune response in Group A piglets were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, no clinical signs were observed in Group A piglets after the challenge and no challenge strains were detected in rectal swabs, while diarrhea was observed in 47.8% control piglets and challenge strains were isolated from all the diarrheic piglets. These results show that immune response of sucking piglets can maintain at higher levels through the milk of the immunized sows and vaccination of sows with the candidate may protect colibacillosis in weaned piglets. PMID:22417986

  2. Evaluation of the anaesthetic depth during piglet castration under an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia at farm level.

    PubMed

    Schwennen, Cornelia; Kolbaum, Nina; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Höltig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Piglet castration under isoflurane-anaesthesia could represent an alternative to the practice of castration without anaesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate practicality and effectiveness of an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia for castration. A field study on three different farms in Germany (farm A, B: 200 sows; C: 540 sows) was performed. In total, 1429 (1166 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated) male piglets (age: 1-8 days; bodyweight: 0.7-3.7 kg) were monitored. All piglets were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs directly before castration. Castration and anaesthesia were performed by the farm-manager in presence of a veterinarian. All farmers used the PIGNAP Pro® (Agrosystems GmbH, CH) anaesthetic device (5 vol.% isoflurane, 30% oxygen; flow rate: 2 l/min). Vocalisation and defensive movements of 1166 anaesthetised piglets was rated using a scoring system. Presence or absence of the palpebral- and flexor-reflex was noted. Approximately every second piglet was weighed and oxygen-saturation and pulse- frequency of 231 animals were measured during treatment. Rectal temperatures before and after castration of 264 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated piglets were compared. Only 77% of the anaesthetised piglets showed a sufficient anaesthetic depth based on the assessment of reflexes as well as vocalisations and defensive movements. It was found that the probability for a sufficient depth of anaesthesia decreases with increasing age and weight. The measurements of the pulse-frequency and oxygen-saturation showed an average oxygen-saturation of 98% and an average heart rate of 270/min during anaesthesia. The conventionally castrated piglets had significantly higher rectal temperatures in comparison to the anaesthetised (p < 0.0001). The result of 77% sufficiently anaesthetised piglets is not adequate for commercial application of this technology. PMID:26904895

  3. Impact of porcine group A rotavirus co-infection on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus pathogenicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine group A rotavirus (PGAR) are the main causative agents of acute diarrhea in piglets. In South Korea, PGAR is prevalent in piglets naturally infected with PEDV. Piglets naturally co-infected with PEDV and PGAR appeared to have severe and prolonged diarrhea that was distinct from that commonly observed. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PGAR co-infection on PEDV pathogenicity in piglets. Thirty-six colostrum-deprived, one-day old, Large White-Duroc crossbred pigs were randomly divided into four equal groups: PEDV, PEDV/PGAR, PGAR, and control groups. The piglets were euthanized at 1, 2, or 3 days post-inoculation (DPI) to measure the villous height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio and to collect fecal samples for RT-PCR and virus isolation. No significant differences in mean VH:CD ratio and clinical symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and anorexia) were observed between the PEDV/PGAR-infected and PEDV-infected groups of piglets at 1, 2 and 3 DPI; however, at 2 and 3 DPI, PGAR was detected in all fecal samples by RT-PCR and virus isolation. These findings failed to detect any interaction between PEDV and porcine rotavirus in the small intestines of piglets, suggesting that concurrent infection of PGAR may not synergistically enhance intestinal villous atrophy of piglets with PEDV disease. We propose that the severe diarrhea exhibited in PEDV and PGAR co-infected piglets may be more associated with the immunity level of the host rather than to any synergistic effect of PGAR on PEDV enteritis. PMID:17727905

  4. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying-ping; Wu, Tian-xing; Hong, Qi-hua; Sun, Jiang-ming; Chen, An-guo; Yang, Cai-mei; Li, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups. One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group), whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine, respectively, representing Gln group or control group. Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment. Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones. These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism, aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism, galactose metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Dietary Gln supplementation increased the levels of creatinine,D-xylose, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, palmitelaidic acid, and α-L-galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets, and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. A leave-one-out cross-validation of random forest analysis indicated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups. Notably, the concentration of creatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets, and increased (P=0.0003) in Gln-supplemented piglets. A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that early weaning changed the metabolic pathways, leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which could be partially improved by dietary Gln supplementation. These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early

  5. The Level of Protein in Milk Formula Modifies Ileal Sensitivity to LPS Later in Life in a Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    Background Milk formulas have higher protein contents than human milk. This high protein level could modify the development of intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune functions and have long-term consequences. Methodology/Principal findings We investigated the effect of a high protein formula on ileal microbiota and physiology during the neonatal period and later in life. Piglets were fed from 2 to 28 days of age either a normoprotein (NP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high protein formula (HP, +40% protein). Then, they received the same solid diet until 160 days. During the formula feeding period ileal microbiota implantation was accelerated in HP piglets with greater concentrations of ileal bacteria at d7 in HP than NP piglets. Epithelial barrier function was altered with a higher permeability to small and large probes in Ussing chambers in HP compared to NP piglets without difference in bacterial translocation. Infiltration of T cells was increased in HP piglets at d28. IL-1β and NF-κB sub-units mRNA levels were reduced in HP piglets at d7 and d28 respectively; plasma haptoglobin also tended to be reduced at d7. Later in life, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in response to high doses of LPS in explants culture was reduced in HP compared to NP piglets. Levels of mRNA coding the NF-κB pathway sub-units were increased by the challenge with LPS in NP piglets, but not HP ones. Conclusions/Significance A high protein level in formula affects the postnatal development of ileal microbiota, epithelial barrier and immune function in piglets and alters ileal response to inflammatory mediators later in life. PMID:21573022

  6. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  7. Infant deaths in slings.

    PubMed

    Madre, Chrystèle; Rambaud, Caroline; Avran, David; Michot, Charlotte; Sachs, Philippe; Dauger, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings about slings used to carry infants. However, few reports of infant deaths in slings have been published in medical journals. Our paediatric intensive care unit has admitted two infants who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest while carried in a sling. Diagnostic investigations including a post-mortem examination established asphyxia as the mechanism of death. In conclusion, baby slings may carry a risk of SUDI, either by compression of the baby into a forward-flexed position or by direct suffocation. European recommendations for the cautious use of baby slings should be disseminated to families and professionals involved in caring for infants, as done recently in Australia, Canada, and the USA. PMID:24343674

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001134.htm Gastroesophageal reflux in infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when stomach contents leak backward from the ...

  9. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  10. [Salmonellosis in young infants].

    PubMed

    Köhler, H

    2009-01-01

    In Germany Salmonella belong to the most frequently detected pathogens in bacterial enteritis, Remarkably infants show a higher incidence than adults. In addition to the intestinal symptoms extraintestinal complications, such as bacteremia, infections of the central nervous system and osteomyelitis, are responsible for the disease severity. An age specific source of infection is the often hardly detectable contamination of powdered infant formula. Also infants seem very susceptible to disease transmission through reptiles held in the family's home. Immunologic functions, which are partly age dependent, might be responsible for a high susceptibility and severe salmonella infection in individuals. Due to the reported problems infected infants under 6 months should receive antibiotic therapy. The use of probiotics is not (yet) established in this setting. PMID:19263322

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  12. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  13. CPR - infant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  14. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  15. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing, begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, and smell, mature at birth; ...

  16. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... cause botulism in infants are everywhere in the environment. They're in dust and dirt, and even ...

  17. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  18. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye-muscle control allows the infant to track objects Begins to control hand and feet actions, but ... unable to coordinate the grasp, but swipes at objects to bring them closer Increased vision allows the ...

  19. Informing the ‘early years’ agenda in Scotland: understanding infant feeding patterns using linked datasets

    PubMed Central

    Ajetunmobi, Omotomilola; Whyte, Bruce; Chalmers, James; Fleming, Michael; Stockton, Diane; Wood, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing infants with the ‘best possible start in life’ is a priority for the Scottish Government. This is reflected in policy and health promotion strategies to increase breast feeding, which gives the best source of nutrients for healthy infant growth and development. However, the rate of breast feeding in Scotland remains one of the lowest in Europe. Information is needed to provide a better understanding of infant feeding and its impact on child health. This paper describes the development of a unique population-wide resource created to explore infant feeding and child health in Scotland. Methods Descriptive and multivariate analyses of linked routine/administrative maternal and infant health records for 731 595 infants born in Scotland between 1997 and 2009. Results A linked dataset was created containing a wide range of background, parental, maternal, birth and health service characteristics for a representative sample of infants born in Scotland over the study period. There was high coverage and completeness of infant feeding and other demographic, maternal and infant records. The results confirmed the importance of an enabling environment—cultural, family, health service and other maternal and infant health-related factors—in increasing the likelihood to breast feed. Conclusions Using the linked dataset, it was possible to investigate the determinants of breast feeding for a representative sample of Scottish infants born between 1997 and 2009. The linked dataset is an important resource that has potential uses in research, policy design and targeting intervention programmes. PMID:24129609

  20. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  1. The Effects of Tail Docking Method on Piglets' Behavioral Responses to a Formalin Pain Test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine piglet production procedures, for example teeth clipping, tail docking and castration, most likely cause pain and are under increasing scrutiny from the animal rights lobby. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of 2 alternative methods of tail-docking on subsequent response...

  2. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population. PMID:27473989

  3. First report of molecular identification of Cystoisospora suis in piglets with lethal diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Takayama, Hideko; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Murata, Misato; Uchiyama, Yuka; Kaji, Masaya; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    Cystoisospora suis is a pathogen that causes diarrhea in pigs and can lead to serious disease. Species identification, especially by histopathological examination, is often difficult because of morphologically similar parasites such as Eimeria species. In this study, we used histopathological, bacteriological, virological, and parasitological methods to identify the cause of the disease in two piglets with severe diarrhea. Villous atrophy, diffuse necrosis, and flattening of mucosal epithelial cells were found in the ilea of examined piglets, and coccidian parasites were found in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. In some merozoites in the meronts, the presence of two nuclei indicated type 1 merozoites, characteristic of C. suis. According to Cystoisospora-specific PCR targeting the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene, the sequences of the products were 98.5% similar to those of C. suis. Escherichia coli (O149 serogroup) exhibiting a virulence factor profile (LT, STb, and EAST1 as toxins and F4 as a colonization factor) was detected in one piglet. No other bacteria or significant enteric viruses were found. Co-infection with C. suis and E. coli could imply aggravation of the disease, although further study is needed to assess the pathogenicity of this interaction. This study is the first to clarify by molecular analysis the sequences of C. suis detected in piglets in Japan. PMID:27078667

  4. Group B streptococcus has no effect on piglet diaphragmatic force generation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T D; Mayock, D E; Standaert, T A; Gibson, R L; Woodrum, D E

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that diaphragmatic contractility is adversely affected by bacterial infection. Using transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) with phrenic nerve stimulation, the effect of continuous Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infusion on diaphragmatic force output was studied in seven anesthetized, spontaneously breathing 1-month old piglets. Pdi was measured under baseline condition (50% O2/50% N2) and at 1, 2, and 4 h of GBS infusion. The GBS was infused at a level that caused a doubling of the pulmonary artery pressure and a 32% decrease in cardiac output but which avoided hypotension or acidosis--both of which can decrease diaphragmatic contractility. In addition, the piglets were kept hyperoxic (PaO2 greater than 100) and no piglet with hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 65) was studied, as hypoxia and hypercapnia also can cause respiratory muscle dysfunction. Pdi in response to phrenic nerve stimulation did not change during GBS infusion. We conclude that GBS infusion, in the absence of hypotension, hypercapnia, hypoxia, or acidosis, has no effect on diaphragmatic force generation in the piglet. PMID:1736760

  5. Effect of toltrazuril treatment in nursing piglets naturally infected with Isospora suis.

    PubMed

    Skampardonis, Vasilis; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2010-08-27

    Isospora suis is an important parasitic infection in intensive pig production worldwide, responsible for significant economic losses. In this study the efficacy of toltrazuril treatment against isosporosis was evaluated, under field conditions and throughout the nursing period, in reducing (i) the mean time to onset of diarrhoea and oocyst excretion, (ii) the odds of diarrhoea and, (iii) the odds and level of oocyst excretion, adjusting for the heterogeneity of I. suis infection among litters and across time. In a 300-sow farrow-to-finish commercial operation, twenty-five litters were randomly allocated to receive toltrazuril (thirteen litters) or no treatment (twelve litters). The course of infection was followed in all piglets by coprological examination from day 6 after farrowing until weaning. Parametric shared frailty models, generalised linear mixed models and a two-part random effects model were used in the analyses. Treated piglets had longer mean time to onset of oocyst excretion, lower odds of excreting oocysts and lower mean amount of excreted oocysts on any day during the nursing period. Diarrhoea was less likely to occur in treated piglets. Variance partition coefficients revealed that almost half of the variation in the odds of oocyst excretion and diarrhoea was ascribed to unknown or unmeasured factors that operate at higher than the piglet levels of aggregation. Thus, beyond toltrazuril treatment, control of isosporosis in commercial pig farms can be improved by identification and quantification of these factors. PMID:20471754

  6. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  7. DIET REGULATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE IN NEONATAL PIGLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the immediate postnatal period tissue growth in the pig gastrointestinal tract increases by up to 80%. Controversy exists concerning diet-induced changes to the gut epithelial and immunocytes that occur during weaning. Comparisons of bovine milk protein digestion in 3-week-old piglets and 3-...

  8. Transcriptome profiling of the small intestinal epithelium in germfree versus conventional piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into host-microbe interactions in a piglet model, a functional genomics approach was used to address the working hypothesis that transcriptionally regulated genes associated with promoting epithelial barrier function are activated as a defensive response to the intestinal microbiota....

  9. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  10. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  11. The piglet as a model for B cell and immune system development

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J.E.; Lager, K.M.; Splichal, I.; Francis, D.; Kacskovics, I.; Sinkora, M.; Wertz, N.; Sun, J.; Zhao, Y.; Brown, W.R.; DeWald, R.; Dierks, S.; Muyldermans, S.; Lunney, J.K.; McCray, P.B.; Rogers, C.S.; Welsh, M.J.; Navarro, P.; Klobasa, F.; Habe, F.; Ramsoondar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify factors responsible for disease in all species depends on the ability to separate those factors which are environmental from those that are intrinsic. This is particularly important for studies on the development of the adaptive immune response of neonates. Studies on laboratory rodents or primates have been ambiguous because neither the effect of environmental nor maternal factors on the newborn can be controlled in mammals that: (i) transmit potential maternal immunoregulatory factors in utero and (ii) are altricial and cannot be reared after birth without their mothers. Employing the newborn piglet model can address each of these concerns. However, it comes at the price of having first to characterize the immune system of swine and its development. This review focuses on the porcine B cell system, especially on the methods used for its characterization in fetal studies and neonatal piglets. Understanding these procedures is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. Studies on neonatal piglets have (a) provided valuable information on the development of the adaptive immune system, (b) lead to important advances in evolutionary biology, (c) aided our understanding of passive immunity and (d) provided opportunities to use swine to address specific issues in veterinary and biomedical research and immunotherapy. This review summarizes the history of the development of the piglet as a model for antibody repertoire development, thus providing a framework to guide future investigators. PMID:19056129

  12. Classical swine fever virus (C strain) distribution in organ samples of inoculated piglets.

    PubMed

    Lorena, J; Barlic-Maganja, D; Lojkić, M; Madić, J; Grom, J; Cac, Z; Roić, B; Terzić, S; Lojkić, I; Polancec, D; Cajavec, S

    2001-07-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a nested polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription (RT-PCR) were used for the detection of the Chinese strain (C strain) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in blood and tissue samples of experimentally inoculated piglets. One group of 10 piglets was inoculated with C strain material from rabbits and a second one with material from infected minipig kidney (MPK) cell culture. Tested blood samples were taken on the day of inoculation as well as on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16. Samples of spleen, tonsil and brain tissue were collected from piglets on days 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16 and tested for glycoprotein E(RNS) and protein NS2-3 using commercially available ELISA kits. E(RNS) and NS2-3 were detected earlier in blood samples of piglets inoculated with the C strain propagated in a cell culture. Regardless of propagation the presence of the viral E(RNS) and NS2-3 was detected in spleen and tonsil samples simultaneously. The C strain propagated in a cell culture was found in only one brain sample, whereas, the virus propagated in rabbits was detected in 70% of the brain samples. For the detection of the CSFV RNA in blood samples, a part within the 5' non-coding region was amplified. The differences in the results gained by antigen detection in blood samples decreased when nested RT-PCR was used. PMID:11356313

  13. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  14. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered separately

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soon after birth, piglets undergo procedures that are a likely source of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress responses evoked by 2 combinations of alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) – clip vs. grind; 2) identification (ID)...

  15. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered separately.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soon after birth, piglets undergo procedures that are a likely source of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact on stress responses of two alternative methods for performing the following processing procedures: 1) teeth resection (TR) - clip vs. grind; 2) tail-docking (TD)...

  16. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: The effects of alternative techniques delivered in combination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within a few days post-partum, piglets are usually subjected to a number of procedures given together that are a likely source of pain and distress. Alternative methods are available for all common processing procedures, but their relative impact when delivered together has not been quantified. The ...

  17. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  18. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor.

    PubMed

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  19. Effects of oral supplementation with bovine colostrum on the immune system of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Boudry, C; Buldgen, A; Portetelle, D; Collard, A; Théwis, A; Dehoux, J-P

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban of in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance, haematological parameters, and serum and local anti-colostrum immunoglobulin levels were examined. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid were analysed for phenotype as well as for their ability to produce cytokines. The stimulation index (SI) of mononuclear cells from different organs was obtained after colostral or mitogenic stimulation. Feed intake, growth, and haematological parameters were not significantly affected by colostrum. Total serum IgA levels were increased after colostrum supplementation, with a transient decrease in total IgG. Local anti-colostrum immunization was observed in colostrum-fed piglets. The CD21+/CD3+ cells populations of the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP) were markedly affected. The SI of lymphocyte populations changed significantly whereas, naive blood lymphocytes were not stimulated in vitro in the presence of bovine colostrum, suggesting local anti-colostrum immunization and an absence of direct mitogenic effects of the colostrum. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was present in the different organs of colostrum-fed piglets. Bovine colostrum especially stimulated iPP cells. PMID:17187836

  20. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Escherichia coli strains positive for EAST1 and AIDA.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Faldyna, Martin; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel

    2013-03-15

    The virulence factors EAST1 and AIDA are often detected in ETEC/VTEC strains isolated from pigs and their role in diarrhoeal infections is discussed. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDA, the colonisation patterns of F4 positive and AIDA positive strains were investigated. Two wild-type Escherichia coli strains AIDA/EAST1 and F4/EAST1 isolated from diarrhoeal piglets were used for animal experiment to evaluate the ability of the EAST1 toxin to be involved in induction of diarrhoea. Gnotobiotic piglets were supplemented with normal porcine serum and orally inoculated with the strains. Faecal bacterial shedding of the challenge strains was observed during the experiment. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to detect the colonisation pattern of both challenge strains. Although bacterial isolation demonstrated shedding of the challenge strains until the end of the experiment, diarrhoea did not develop in any piglet. Based on histological examination, piglets were more heavily colonised in the case of infection with E. coli O149/F4/EAST1 strain. Scanning electron microscopy showed bacterial cells of F4/EAST1 E. coli adhering to enterocytes, in contrast to AIDA/EAST1 which were poorly present on the intestinal surface. The EAST1 toxin alone was not able to induce diarrhoea in animals. Therefore our results demonstrate that the function/role of EAST1 and AIDA in colibacillosis of pigs remains to be elucidated. PMID:23068274

  1. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  2. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: behavior and electroencephalography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but aesthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the av...

  3. Urolithiasis in infants.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jallouli; Riadh, Mhiri; Abdellatif, Nouri

    2007-04-01

    There are few publications about urolithiasis of the new born baby and infant (UNI). The UNI represents 20% of the pediatric urolithiasis. The etiologies in this age group are chiefly dominated by the urinary-tract infections and metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infant urolithiasis and to define the various treatment modalities adapted to this age group. PMID:17287940

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended. PMID:26034855

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Carl E.; Hauck, Fern R.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be the most common cause of postneonatal infant death. SIDS is a complex, multifactorial disorder, the cause of which is still not fully understood. However, much is known now about environmental risk factors, some of which are modifiable. These include maternal and antenatal risk factors such as smoking during pregnancy, as well as infant-related risk factors such as non-supine sleeping position and soft bedding. Emerging evidence also substantiates an expanding number of genetic risk factors. Interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors may be of critical importance in determining an infant's actual risk of SIDS. Although no practical way exists to identify which infants will die of SIDS, nor is there a safe and proven prevention strategy even if identification were feasible, reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors has helped to lower the incidence of SIDS. Current challenges include wider dissemination of guidelines to all people who care for infants, dissemination of guidelines in culturally appropriate ways, and surveillance of SIDS trends and other outcomes associated with implementation of these guidelines. PMID:16785462

  6. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of body weight within litters.

    PubMed

    Canario, L; Lundgren, H; Haandlykken, M; Rydhmer, L

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the genetic basis of homogeneity in piglets and the genetic correlations with litter size and growth during lactation. Genetic parameters for variation in piglet BW within litters at birth and at 3 wk of age, and in the BW of individual piglets at 3 wk (BW3) were estimated from the Norwegian Landrace nucleus population. Data on BW3 were collected from 146,572 piglets from 14,045 litters in 58 herds. Body weight at birth and at 3 wk of age was recorded for 13,318 piglets from 5 nucleus herds. Litter data were evaluated using multivariate trait models. The heritability estimates for the SD of BW at birth and at 3 wk (SDBW3) were in agreement with the literature (0.10 and 0.08, respectively). The genetic correlation for the number of piglets born alive and the mean BW at 3 wk was negative (-0.40 +/- 0.07), and the correlation of number of piglets born alive with SDBW3 was close to zero (-0.03 +/- 0.11). The genetic correlation between the SD of BW at birth and SDBW3 was moderate (0.51 +/- 0.31). The mean BW at birth was genetically correlated with mean BW at 3 wk (0.59 +/- 0.16) but was independent of SDBW3 (0.08 +/- 0.27). The estimates of direct and maternal heritability for BW3 were 0.03 and 0.07, respectively, and the genetic correlation between the 2 components was negative (-0.43 +/- 0.10). The genetic correlation of SDBW3 with the maternal effect on BW3 was positive and strong (0.66 +/- 0.08), whereas a negative correlation was found with the direct effect on BW3 (-0.18 +/- 0.14). These results suggest that it is possible to select for mean BW at birth without an increase in within-litter heterogeneity at 3 wk of age. A more efficient strategy would be to consider both the direct and the maternal effects on BW3 in the genetic evaluation, together with SDBW3. Thus, it is possible to avoid the increase in within-litter heterogeneity that would occur as a result of selection performed at 3 wk on a litter trait such as

  7. Determination of the extent of Clostridium difficile colonisation and toxin accumulation in sows and neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important spore-forming, opportunistic pathogen in animal husbandry and health care. In pig farming, only neonatal piglets are affected, and diarrhoea and necrotising lesions are common symptoms leading to dehydration and in some cases death. This study aimed at the assessment of the quantitative development of C. difficile colonisation in neonatal piglets by determining the shedding of spores and C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) concentrations in sow (n = 5-6) and piglet pen faeces (n = 5-6) at different time points. Spores were quantified on selective agar plates and toxins using ELISA method. C. difficile was not detected in the faeces of all but one sow during the perinatal period. Faeces of 2- and 4-day-old piglets contained 0.65 log cells/g and 5.88 log cells/g of C. difficile, respectively. Toxins were detected on day 4 at a concentration of 2.13 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.06 log ng/g (TcdB). On day 6, concentration of C. difficile reached 6.14 log CFU/g and toxins 2.02 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.20 log ng/g (TcdB). Two-week-old piglets showed 4.72 log CFU/g of C. difficile but toxins could not be detected. At 21 days of age, both C. difficile and toxins were undetectable. The concentration and the prevalence of C. difficile were positively associated with the prevalence of toxins in piglets. A very short time window for colonisation by C. difficile, including toxin-producing strains can be observed in neonatal piglets. The significance for animal health and the risk of a carrier status need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:27108595

  8. Zinc oxide at low supplementation level improves productive performance and health status of piglets.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Cordero, G; Piñeiro, C; Durosoy, S

    2012-12-01

    Use of ZnO at high doses (3000 ppm) for diarrhea prophylaxis in piglets is widely extended in postweaning Spanish diets, in compliance with the national veterinary regulation. However, European feed legislation limits total dietary Zn to a maximum of 150 mg/kg of complete feed. The objective of this study was to compare a new potentiated form of ZnO, HiZox (Animine), at nutritional level (150 ppm) with pharmacological dosage (3000 ppm) of regular ZnO in starter diets on the productive performance and health status of piglets in a medium-low health status farm. A total of 144 pigs at weaning (28 d of age) were distributed in 6 piglets/pen and 12 pens/treatment. In the prestarter phase (28 to 42 d of age), all pigs received the same commercial feed, including 3000 ppm ZnO. In the starter phase (42 to 63 d of age) (T1) included 3000 ppm of regular ZnO (2500 ppm Zn), and (T2) was supplemented with 110 ppm Zn from potentiated ZnO (HiZox). Average daily feed intake, ADG, G:F, and pig-MAP serum concentration, an acute phase protein commonly used as unspecific biomarker of disease or other acute phase reactions, were measured at 42 and 63 d of life. Pen of 6 piglets was the experimental unit and data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS version 9.0. Piglets fed with T2-HiZox had improved ADG and G:F (P < 0.001) compared to piglets fed with T1-ZnO. In addition, at 63 d of age, the T2 group had a lower pig-MAP serum concentration than T1 group (1.71 vs. 0.95 μg/mL; P < 0.05) indicating higher health status in the T2 group. In conclusion, in low-medium sanitary conditions and in compliance with European regulation, HiZox significantly increased piglet growth compared to pharmacological dosage of regular ZnO in the starter phase. This can be explained by a better health of pigs expressed by a lower level of inflammatory protein pig-MAP. PMID:23365402

  9. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P < 0.0001), after a long interbirth interval (F(1,1061) = 19.2, P < 0.0001), and with a lighter birth weight (F(1,1061) = 9.2, P = 0.003). The lighter the birth weight of the piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001) and dying of starvation (F(1,1050) = 19, P < 0.0001). The lower the rectal temperature 2 h after birth, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 4.6, P = 0.03), starving (F(1,1050) = 16.6, P < 0.0001), or dying of diseases (F(1,1050) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Increased cordal plasma lactate increased the odds of dying from starvation (F(1

  10. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows' and/or Weaned Piglets' Diets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24078926

  11. Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) impair piglets' humoral and cellular immune responses to vaccination against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS).

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Renson, P; Eono, F; Mahé, S; Eveno, E; Le Dimna, M; Normand, V; Lebret, A; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2016-08-30

    The influence of maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) on the post-vaccination humoral and cellular immune responses in piglets vaccinated against PRRS was studied. The piglets came from a vaccinated breeding herd. Thirty piglets with a low (A-) or high level (A+) of PRRSV-neutralizing MDAs were vaccinated (V+) with a modified live vaccine at 3 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and then at 2, 4, 8 and 14 weeks post-vaccination (WPV). The samples were analysed to detect the vaccine viraemia (RT-PCR) and quantify the post-vaccination humoral (ELISA and virus neutralisation test) and cellular (ELISPOT IFNγ) immune responses. PRRSV vaccine strain was detected in 60%, 64%, 36% and 0% of A-V+ piglets 2, 4, 8 and 14 WPV respectively. No virus was detected in A+V+ piglets during the first four WPV but 32% and 6% of A+V+ piglets were PCR-positive at 8 and 14 WPV. Eighty-five percent of A-V+ piglets and 0% of A+V+ piglets seroconverted (ELISA) between 2 and 4 WPV. Neutralising antibodies appeared 4 WPV in the A-V+ piglets and 14 WPV in the A+V+ piglets. The number of PRRSV-specific IFNγ-secreting cells was significantly higher in A-V+ piglets at 2 and 4 WPV than in A+V+ piglets. These results show that MDAs can affect both post-vaccination humoral and cellular immune responses in piglets. Further studies are required to assess the impact of MDAs on vaccine efficacy following a PRRSV challenge and its ability to reduce viral transmission. PMID:27527780

  12. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46–54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition. PMID:25774127

  13. Welfare implications of invasive piglet husbandry procedures, methods of alleviation and alternatives: a review.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A

    2015-01-01

    Iron administration, teeth clipping, tail docking and castration are common invasive husbandry procedures performed on piglets on commercial farms, generally within the first week of life. These procedures are performed to prevent potential health and welfare problems of piglets and/or the sow, or, with respect to castration, to enhance meat quality. The objectives of this review were firstly, to provide the rationale and scientific evidence for performing these procedures, secondly, to describe the welfare implications of these procedures, and lastly, to describe mitigation strategies or alternatives that can be used to eliminate or reduce the pain caused by these procedures. Administering supplementary iron is necessary to prevent anaemia in piglets and the procedure has a low welfare impact. The stated benefits of teeth clipping to prevent udder lesions do not appear to outweigh the risk from injury and infection in piglets following the procedure. Tail docking reduces the prevalence of tail biting, but does not eliminate this behaviour and the practice of tail docking can cause acute pain. Castration is primarily performed to reduce the occurrence of boar taint, but alternatives are now available that negate the need to perform this procedure. Teeth clipping, tail docking and castration all cause behavioural and physiological changes indicative of acute pain and can have potentially long-term negative consequences such as causing abscesses, lesions and the formation of neuromas. Therefore effective pain mitigation strategies (e.g. analgesia, local or general anaesthesia) that markedly alleviate the pain caused by these procedures are necessary to improve the welfare of piglets. Alternatively, if management practices are available that eliminate the need for performing these procedures altogether, then they should be adopted. PMID:25204203

  14. Preweaning mortality in the pig. Pathological findings in piglets dying between birth and weaning.

    PubMed

    Glastonbury, J R

    1977-07-01

    During a survey of preweaning mortality 538 piglets which died between birth and weaning were autopsied. The results of laboratory examinations permitted a division of the findings into a number of syndromes which were considered to be associated with the immediate cause of death. The non-infectious conditions such as trauma, starvation and suffocation were the most common. Seventy-eight piglets were included in the trauma group because of depressed cranial bone fractures or visceral rupture leading to haemorrhage into the serous cavities. An absence of alimentary tract contents was detected in each of the 92 cases of starvation, fatty metamorphosis of the liver was found in 28 while the hepatocyte cytoplasm of the remainder stained uniformally. Cyanosis and visceral congestion and haemorrhage were the main features observed in the 159 deaths ascribed to suffocation. Bacterial septicaemias and infections with enterotoxic strains of E. coli were the most prevalent infectious conditions. E. coli and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common causes of septicaemia, being isolated from 36 and 25 cases, respectively. The post-mortem findings in these cases were non-specific except for fibrinous polyserositis which was observed in 11 of the carcasses from which E. coli was recovered. Twenty-six piglets yielded E. coli in heavy pure culture from the upper small intestine and the most common serogroup involved was 08. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection was associated with the deaths of 19 piglets. Pathologically, it was characterised by myocardial degeneration and a variable influx of mononuclear inflammatory cells. No significant lesions were found in 41 piglets. PMID:200212

  15. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the γδ T-cell population (TCR1+CD8α-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

  16. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P < 0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P < 0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma. PMID:24624922

  17. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account. PMID:26051843

  18. Maternal Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharide Supplementation Influences Intestinal Immune System Maturation in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourgot, Cindy; Ferret-Bernard, Stéphanie; Le Normand, Laurence; Savary, Gérard; Menendez-Aparicio, Enrique; Blat, Sophie; Appert-Bossard, Emmanuelle; Respondek, Frédérique; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum nutrition is crucial for developing the immune system of neonates. We hypothesized that maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) supplementation could accelerate the development of intestinal immunity in offspring. Thirty-four sows received a standard or a scFOS supplemented diet (10 g scFOS/d) for the last 4 weeks of gestation and the 4 weeks of lactation. Colostrum and milk immunoglobulins (Ig) and TGFβ1 concentrations were evaluated on the day of delivery and at d 6 and d 21 postpartum. Piglet intestinal structure, the immunologic features of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node cells were analysed at postnatal d 21. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured over time in the intestinal contents of suckling and weaned piglets. Colostral IgA (P<0.05) significantly increased because of scFOS and TGFβ1 concentrations tended to improve (P<0.1). IFNγ secretion by stimulated Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node cells, and secretory IgA production by unstimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased (P<0.05) in postnatal d 21 scFOS piglets. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of activated CD25+CD4α+ T cells among the CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (P<0.05) as assessed by flow cytometry. IFNγ secretion was positively correlated with the population of activated T lymphocytes (P<0.05). Total short-chain fatty acids were unchanged between groups during lactation but were higher in caecal contents of d 90 scFOS piglets (P<0.05); specifically propionate, butyrate and valerate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal scFOS supplementation modified the intestinal immune functions in piglets in association with increased colostral immunity. Such results underline the key role of maternal nutrition in supporting the postnatal development of mucosal immunity. PMID:25238157

  19. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey Jr, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l−1 HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l−1) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l−1) (PRE) (n=19–21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7–8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection. PMID:24522264

  20. Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0–0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects. PMID:22272087

  1. Exogenous genistein in late gestation: effects on fetal development and sow and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C; Robertson, P; Xiao, C W; Rehfeldt, C; Kalbe, C

    2016-09-01

    Due to their functional similarity to estradiol, phytoestrogens could prove to be beneficial in late gestating sows. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of providing the phytoestrogen genistein during late pregnancy on the performance of sows and their litters. In total, 56 gilts were equally divided into the two following groups on day 90 of gestation: (1) controls (CTL); and (2) two daily i.m. injections of 220 mg of genistein (GEN). Treatments were carried out until farrowing. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 gilts/treatment on days 89 and 110 of gestation, and on days 3 and 21 of lactation. Milk samples were also obtained from those sows on day 3 of lactation. A male piglet from 16 CTL and 15 GEN litters was slaughtered at 24 h postpartum and a blood sample was obtained. The liver, heart and visceral organs were weighed and the semitendinosus (ST) muscle was collected and carcass composition was determined. The treatment increased (P0.1) on weight or backfat loss of sows during lactation, milk composition or weights of piglets. The pre-weaning mortality rate of piglets was very low (0.1). However, carcasses from GEN litters contained more fat than those from CTL litters (9.63% v. 8.34%, P0.1). In conclusion, injecting gilts with 440 mg/day of genistein in late gestation increased IGF1 concentrations in gilts and carcass fat in neonatal piglets, but had minimal effect on muscle development of piglets at birth and on the performance of lactating sows and their litters. PMID:26971408

  2. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  3. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  4. A cohort study of preweaning piglet mortality and farrowing accommodation on 112 commercial pig farms in England.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, A L; Mendl, M; Statham, P; Held, S; Harris, M; Cooper, S; Green, L E

    2012-05-01

    A cohort study was carried out on 112 breeding pig farms in England to investigate the impact of type of farrowing accommodation on preweaning mortality in piglets. Four types of farrowing accommodation were studied; farrowing crates, indoor loose pens, crate/loose systems (where the sow was restrained in a crate during birth and the first days of lactation before being moved to a loose pen) and outdoor farrowing in arcs in paddocks. Four estimates of preweaning mortality were collected: an oral estimate from the farmer before the visit, an estimate from the 6-month rolling average from computer records, records from 20 litters observed when the farm was visited and prospective records collected from 20 farrowings after the visit. These four estimates were significantly correlated. The prospective records also included a farmer reported date and cause of death. From the prospective data there were 25,031 piglets from 2143 litters from 112 farms, 6.5% of piglets were stillborn while live born preweaning mortality was 12%. Mixed effect discrete time survival, binomial and competing risk, models were used to investigate the association between preweaning mortality and farrowing accommodation, controlling for sow parity, litter size and number of piglets stillborn and fostered. There was a reduced risk of stillbirths in outdoor farrowing systems compared with crated systems. Farmers reported that crushing of healthy piglets was the most frequent cause of death accounting for 55% of live born preweaning mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality in live born piglets by farrowing system. There was a significantly higher risk of farmer reported crushing of healthy live born piglets in outdoor arcs compared with piglets reared with sows in farrowing crates and a significantly reduced risk of death from causes other than crushing in piglets reared outdoors or in crate/loose systems compared with piglets reared in crated systems. We conclude that, in the

  5. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  6. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  7. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport is a routine practice in the modern swine industry. Loading the pigs into trailers can be a novel and stressful experience for the animals. This study compared behaviors and physiological variables during and after loading using a ramp or elevator to determine which method is the least stressful to the pigs. Loading pigs by ramp appears to cause more stress than loading by elevator. Abstract Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  8. Enterococcus faecium EK13--an enterocin a-producing strain with probiotic character and its effect in piglets.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Marcináková, Miroslava; Simonová, Monika; Gancarcíková, Sona; Jonecová, Zuzana; Sciranková, Luboslava; Koscová, Jana; Buleca, Viktor; Cobanová, Klaudia; Lauková, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the inoculation of the probiotic and enterocin A-producing strain Enterococcus faecium EK13 on selected parameters of metabolic profile, gut microflora, growth, and health in newborn piglets of Slovak White Improved. Piglets for study were divided into two groups: one group (EK13 group, n=8) received strain EK13 per os once daily for 7 days (2ml per piglet, 10(9)CFU/mL of saline buffer). The control group of piglets (n=7) was given placebo-saline buffer. The experiment lasted 14 days. After 7 days, strain EK13 reached 9.8 log(10) CFU/g in faeces of E. faecium EK13 treated piglets while counts of Escherichia coli were significantly lower (P<0.01) than in piglets of the control group. The concentrations of total serum protein, calcium, haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count and index of phagocytic activity of leukocytes were significantly higher after application of strain EK13. On the other hand, cholesterol was significantly lower in the EK13 group of animals. On day 14, piglets were killed and samples of intestinal contents were taken. Total counts of bacteria in the intestinal contents (jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon) were not significantly influenced. The pH value was significantly lower (P<0.05) only in duodenum of piglets receiving E. faecium EK13. There was a significant higher concentration of lactic acid (P<0.01) and propionic acid in the colon (P<0.001) of the EK13 group. Application of E. faecium EK13 did not influence the daily body weight gain significantly. PMID:17071114

  9. Morphological changes of the cartilage and bone in newborn piglets evoked by experimentally induced glucocorticoid excess during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Puzio, I

    2013-08-01

    The study examined articular and growth plate cartilages as well as bone tissues in the offspring of sows treated with glucocorticoid during the last 45 days of pregnancy (dexamethasone at the dose of 0.03 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, every second day). The offspring were tested at the birth and basal morphology for both articular and growth plate cartilages, and the histomorphometry of trabeculae of the epiphysis and metaphysis of femur and tibia were established. The concentration of selected cytokines and the activity of bone alkaline phosphatase were determined in blood serum. Maternal dexamethasone (DEX) administration reduced the thickness of proliferative, resting and hypertrophic zones of growth plate of femur and tibia of male piglets when compared with the control. DEX significantly reduced the thickness of the resting zone in both bones. It also elongated proliferative and hypertrophic zones of the growth plate in the femur as well as the hypertrophic zone in the tibia of female piglets when compared with the control group. Moreover, DEX decreased the articular cartilage thickness of the tibia in female piglets and enhanced the articular cartilage thickness of the femur in male piglets. Articular cartilage was highly cellular, and chondrocytes were separated by thin septa of matrix. An analysis of the trabecular bone architecture in male piglets showed a loss of the trabecular bone by thinning and DEX-related increase in trabecular porosity. Moreover, the cortical bone looked similar to the trabeculae because of trabecularization of the cortex. There was a DEX that reduced serum osteocalcin and BAP concentrations in both female and male newborn piglets, whereas the serum IL-1 and Il-6 was reduced only in male piglets. The obtained results demonstrated that DEX administration to sows during the last 45 days of pregnancy might cause the growth to slow and eventually to stop, especially in male piglets. It might lead to an alteration within the

  10. Folate Deficiency during Early-Mid Pregnancy Affects the Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome of Piglets from a Reciprocal Cross

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Yanxiao; Feng, Qiang; Li, Guanglei; Wang, Meng; Cui, Xinxing; Kang, Li; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency (FD) during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR) and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW) pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying myogenesis and

  11. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  12. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  13. Infant-Directed Speech Is Modulated by Infant Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2008-01-01

    When mothers engage in infant-directed (ID) speech, their voices change in a number of characteristic ways, including adopting a higher overall pitch. Studies have examined these acoustical cues and have tested infants' preferences for ID speech. However, little is known about how these cues change with maternal sensitivity to infant feedback in…

  14. Nutrition education and infant growth in rural Indian infants: narrowing the gender gap?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shanti; Kilaru, Asha; Ganapathy, Saraswathy

    2002-08-01

    Growth faltering and malnutrition are highly prevalent in most South Asian countries. Among the serious consequences of malnutrition are increased risks of morbidity and mortality in children as well as deficits in physical stature and lowered cognitive measures. Childhood malnutrition in poor households has been well documented in India, with the highest rates observed in those aged 12-23 months. Countrywide National Family Health Survey II (NFHS II) data show mean underweight prevalence increases from 11.9% among infants under six months of age to 58.4% at 12-23 months of age. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of a longitudinal community-based study of infant growth feeding and care practices in rural south India, for which data have been collected since 1997 and completed in May 2001. In 1998 an intervention began in which a monthly visit for nutrition counselling was made by a trained worker. Mothers were counselled about the need for exclusive breastfeeding for four to six months, choice of appropriate complementary foods, and feeding frequency. Infants enrolled in the study prior to 1998, did not receive this intervention in the first year of life. Using bivariate analysis and regression modelling, weight velocity and feeding practices for intervention and non-intervention infants, controlling for a range of socio-economic and demographic factors for infants aged 6 to 10 months, are compared. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses show a statistically significant positive association between intervention and weight velocity for female infants. The intervention group as a whole had improved feeding practices such as avoidance of feeding bottle and increased variety of foods. The implication of this association, in a culture where discrimination against females exists, is promising for the development of low-cost educational interventions to improve nutritional status without the need to provide supplementary food. PMID:12675178

  15. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  16. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table A. http://www. ... from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www. ...

  17. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... Share this: Page Content SIDS is the sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of ...

  18. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... many germs. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Wash your hands carefully with soap ... do: Breastfeed. Breastfeeding helps prevent many kinds of sicknesses among infants. Almost no cases of Cronobacter sickness ...

  19. The Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders Diagnostic Manual for Infants and Young Children – An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Stanley I.; Wieder, Serena

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders Diagnostic Manual for Infants and Young Children (ICDL-DMIC) created by representatives of the Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders. Method A description of the rationale of the different sections of the ICDL-DMIC dealing with infants and young children, focusing on a classification system which integrates all components of development and functioning which have been traditionally addressed by different disciplines. Results A description of an in-depth approach to mental health diagnosis for infants and young children that goes beyond simply a description of symptoms and captures the qualities of the individual. Conclusion The ICDL-DMIC presents an innovative approach to the assessment and diagnosis of infants and young children and their families, featuring a multi-dimensional classification system which uniquely considers the emerging functional emotional developmental capacities of the infant and young child and the developmental pathway to symptom patterns. PMID:18516310

  20. Characterization of the porcine CDKN3 gene as a potential candidate for congenital splay leg in piglets

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Congenital splay leg is a hereditary disease observed in newborn piglets. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanism of the disorder are still unknown. The gene for cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) was identified as a potential candidate gene in a differential display experiment. We analyzed the gene on sequence variations and compared its expression in M. biceps femoris between healthy and affected piglets. Comparative sequencing of the coding region of three healthy and four splay leg piglets revealed twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) resulting in six amino acid exchanges in the deduced sequences. However, all polymorphisms were observed in healthy as well as in splay leg piglets thus excluding structural differences of the gene as a cause of the disease. Besides full length transcripts, we found a variety of aberrantly transcribed cDNA in clones derived from M. biceps femoris of healthy as well as of splay leg piglets. All alternative transcripts coexist with normal cDNA. Expression analysis revealed a trend towards higher values in M. biceps femoris of splay leg piglets supporting the results obtained from a differential display. PMID:12927088

  1. Protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost vaccine candidate carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen against neonatal piglet colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Humoral immune responses and protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost cells carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbrial antigens for protection against piglet colibacillosis were studied. All groups were orally primed and boosted at 11 and 14 wk of pregnancy, respectively. Group A sows were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and groups B, C, and D sows were immunized with 2 × 10(9), 2 × 10(10), and 2 × 10(11) ghost cells, respectively. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and colostrum IgG and IgA levels of groups C and D sows were significantly higher than those of group A sows. In addition, serum IgG and IgA levels in group C and D piglets were significantly increased compared to those of group A piglets. After challenge with wild-type ETEC, diarrhea and mortality were not observed in group C and D piglets, while diarrhea was observed in 88.9% and 58.8% of groups A and B piglets, respectively, and 16.7% mortality was observed in group A piglets. These findings indicate that oral immunization of sows with 2 × 10(10) or 10(11) ghost cells can effectively protect their offspring from colibacillosis. PMID:27408340

  2. ORAL DELIVERY OF L-ARGININE STIMULATES PROSTAGLANDIN-DEPENDENT SECRETORY DIARRHEA IN C. PARVUM INFECTED NEONATAL PIGLETS

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Jody L.; Foster, Derek M.; Coccaro, Maria R.; Stauffer, Stephen H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine if oral supplementation with L-arginine could augment nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and promote epithelial defense in neonatal piglets infected with C. parvum. Methods Neonatal piglets were fed a liquid milk replacer and on day 3 of age infected or not with 108 C. parvum oocysts and the milk replacer supplemented with L-arginine or L-alanine. Milk consumption, body weight, fecal consistency, and oocyst excretion were recorded daily. On day 3 post-infection, piglets were euthanized, and serum concentration of NO metabolites and histological severity of villous atrophy and epithelial infection were quantified. Sheets of ileal mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of barrier function (transepithelial resistance (TER) and permeability) and short-circuit current (Isc; an indirect measurement of Cl− secretion in this tissue). Results C. parvum infected piglets had large numbers of epithelial parasites, villous atrophy, decreased barrier function, severe watery diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. L-arginine promoted synthesis of NO by infected piglets which was unaccompanied by improvement in severity of infection but rather promoted epithelial chloride secretion and diarrhea. Epithelial secretion by infected mucosa from L-arginine supplemented piglets was fully inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating that prostaglandin synthesis was responsible for this effect. Conclusions Results of these studies demonstrate that provision of additional NO substrate in the form of L-arginine incites prostaglandin-dependent secretory diarrhea and does not promote epithelial defense or barrier function of C. parvum infected neonatal ileum. PMID:18223372

  3. Effects of a simple or a complex starter microbiota on intestinal microbiota composition in caesarean derived piglets.

    PubMed

    Jansman, A J M; Zhang, J; Koopmans, S J; Dekker, R A; Smidt, H

    2012-12-01

    The present study was designed to develop a model in piglets that allows the investigation of the effects of postnatal association with a simple or a complex microbiota on gut health and development. Thirty piglets from 2 sows were obtained by caesarean delivery (day 0) and were equally divided over 2 treatment groups housed in separate clean, nonsterile rooms. All piglets received orally a simple microbiota consisting of Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium glycolicum, and Parabacteroides spp. on days 1, 2, and 3 after birth. On day 3 and 4 the piglets received either a complex microbiota by providing them with a fecal inoculant of an adult sow [complex association (CA)] or a placebo inoculant [simple association (SA)]. Fecal microbiota composition, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by pig intestinal tract chip (PITChip) analysis of 16S rRNA genes (days 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28), was less diverse in the SA group compared to the CA group. A difference in fecal microbiota composition between treatments persisted until the end of the study. It was concluded that the composition of microbiota in feces of cesarean delivery-derived piglets is influenced by bacterial association in the first days after birth. Differences in fecal microbiota composition between piglets exposed to a simple or complex inoculum at early age persisted for at least 3 wk. PMID:23365401

  4. Cellular changes and cytokine expression in the ilea of gnotobiotic piglets resulting from peroral Salmonella typhimurium challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Trebichavský, I; Dlabac, V; Reháková, Z; Zahradnícková, M; Splíchal, I

    1997-01-01

    Two stable rough mutants of Salmonella spp. were studied as live peroral vaccines. The SF1591 mutant of S. typhimurium (Ra chemotype) protected germ-free piglets against subsequent infection with virulent smooth S. typhimurium LT2, whereas a deep-rough mutant of S. minnesota mR595 (Re chemotype) did not. We investigated cytokine and leukocyte profiles in the ilea of gnotobiotic piglets colonized for 1 week either with rough mutants alone or with rough mutants followed by S. typhimurium LT2. The ileal mucosae of piglets associated with strain SF1591 alone were not inflamed. Villi contained activated macrophages, and enterocytes expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Subsequent infection of piglets with S. typhimurium LT2 resulted in immigration of alphabeta T cells and immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. In contrast, the ileal mucosae of piglets associated with strain mR595 alone expressed heat shock proteins and inflammatory cytokines but not TGF-beta. Acellular villi contained numerous gammadelta T cells but no alphabeta T cells. After subsequent challenge with the LT2 strain, most piglets died of sepsis. Intestinal mucosae contained IgG but no IgA. These findings suggest the importance of cytokine signals in the regulation of intestinal responses against Salmonella infection. PMID:9393822

  5. A comparison of combination dopamine and epinephrine treatment with high-dose dopamine alone in asphyxiated newborn piglets after resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Bigam, David L.; Churchill, Thomas; Rayner, David; Joynt, Chloe; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background When asphyxiated neonates require additional cardiovascular support to moderate doses of dopamine infusion, controversy exists on differential hemodynamic effects of two approaches (adding a second inotrope vs. increasing dopamine dosage). We hypothesized that high-dose dopamine (HD) would be detrimental on systemic and regional perfusion when compared with dopamine and epinephrine (D+E) combination therapy using a swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Methods Twenty-seven piglets (1–4 days, 1.5–2.5kg) were used for continuous monitoring of systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures, cardiac output (CI) and carotid (CAFI), superior mesenteric (SMAFI) and renal arterial flows. H-R piglets underwent 2h of hypoxia followed by 2h of reoxygenation prior to drug infusion (2h). Results The hemodynamics of H-R piglets deteriorated gradually after reoxygenation. HD and D+E infusions improved CI similarly (both groups vs. control; p<0.05). Both regimens increased MAP (p<0.05) but not PAP, with decreased PAP/MAP ratio in D+E piglets. Both regimens improved CAFI and SMAFI with decreased mesenteric vascular resistance in HD-treated piglets. No significant effect on renal perfusion was observed. Conclusion In H-R newborn piglets treated with a moderate dose of dopamine, adding epinephrine or further increasing dopamine improved systemic hemodynamics similarly, and have differential effects on the pulmonary and mesenteric circulations. PMID:23344679

  6. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations. PMID:25642921

  7. Effect of gut active carbohydrates on plasma IgG concentrations in piglets and calves.

    PubMed

    Lazarevic, M; Spring, P; Shabanovic, M; Tokic, V; Tucker, L A

    2010-06-01

    Improving immune status in neonates is crucial to health and production. Gut active carbohydrates (GAC) have been associated with increasing immunoglobin levels and immonucompetence development in mammals. The objective of the following studies was to evaluate whether GAC (mannan-oligosaccharides) applied orally to progeny immediately following parturition, improved blood plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) type G concentrations in piglets and calves. Three trials were conducted comparing control groups with those receiving GAC orally. The first two trials used piglets that were monitored for blood IgG at 2 days of age and for changes in body weight (BW), and the third trial monitored calf IgG from birth to 21 days of age. Piglets in the experimental group received 0.75 g GAC in 10 ml saline at birth and 24 h of age. The calf trial compared the control group against calves that received 22.5 g GAC mixed into 4.5 l of colostrum (to give 5 g/l) in the first 24 h after parturition. Blood serum samples were taken at 2 days post partum in piglets, and at several time points from 6 h to 21 days of age in calves, and were analysed for IgG levels by radial immunodiffusion. In the first piglet trial, significantly higher levels (32%) of IgG were observed for piglets fed GAC (P < 0.001), and in the second, IgG concentration was elevated by 23% (P < 0.01) and BW increased by 9% (P = 0.023) with GAC supplementation. Significant improvements for calves were recorded at all time points in those fed GAC (P < 0.05), with an increase in serum IgG observed after the first day, which was maintained throughout the sampling period, resulting in a difference of 39% at the end of the trial (21 d). These findings form a basis for further studies, which are required to investigate possible modes of action involved in enhancing blood immunoglobulin concentrations in young animals, and the longer-term effects this may have on the development of the immune response. PMID:22444266

  8. Long-term effects of colostrum intake in piglet mortality and performance.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the long-term effects of colostrum intake on performance and mortality in pigs. A total of 1,455 live-born piglets in 10 commercial herds were followed from birth until 22 wk of age. Pigs were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at onset (intermediate weight), and during the fattening period (finishing weight). Colostrum intake was calculated by the mechanistic model developed by Theil et al. (see text for citation). One linear mixed model was fitted to model the possible associations between colostrum intake and weight at the weaning, intermediate, and finishing periods. In addition to colostrum intake as the main predictor of interest, other predictor variables were also tested, namely birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and the interval between birth and first suckling (t). Colostrum intake and birth weight were positively associated with weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( < 0.001) weights. Furthermore, higher colostrum intake is more beneficial to weaning ( < 0.001), intermediate ( < 0.001), and finishing ( = 0.02) weights in piglets with low versus high birth weights. Birth order was positively associated with weight at each measurement time ( = 0.01). Sex affected only finishing weight ( < 0.001). Some breeds differed in piglets' weight at onset or during the fattening period. The association between t and weaning weight differed by breed. Three generalized linear mixed models were performed to model the probability of dying during the suckling, the nursery, or the fattening period. Colostrum intake, birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and t were tested. Preweaning mortality was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.004) and positively associated with t ( < 0.001). Mortality during the nursery period was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.002). The negative association between colostrum intake and mortality

  9. Abrasions and lameness in piglets born in different farrowing systems with different types of floor

    PubMed Central

    Zoric, Mate; Nilsson, Ebba; Mattsson, Sigbrit; Lundeheim, Nils; Wallgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Background The quality of the floor is essential to the welfare of piglets as abrasions often are recorded in newborn piglets, and such lesions may lead to lameness. Apart from animal suffering, lameness contributes to losses in form of dead piglets, decreased growth, and increased use of antibiotics and manual labour. Methods In a herd with three different farrowing systems, 37 litters (390 piglets) were studied until the age of 3 weeks with respect to presence of skin wounds and abrasions. Lameness was registered until the age of 7 weeks. Eight lame piglets were sacrificed before medical treatment and subjected to necropsy including histopathological and microbiological examinations. Isolates of streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli were tested with respect to antimicrobial resistance. Mastitis was observed in ten sows. Results The most severe abrasions at carpus and soles were seen in the system with a new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area. The lowest magnitude was observed in the deep litter system with peat. Sole bruising was more common in the systems with concrete floor compared to the deep litter system with peat, and the differce in prevalence was significant at all examination days. The lesions decreased with time and about 75% of the treatments for lameness were performed during the first three weeks of life. The overall prevalence of lameness was highest in the system with new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area (9.4%) followed by the old solid concrete floor (7.5%). A lower (p < 0.05) prevalence was seen in the deep litters system with peat (3.3%). No significant relationship between mastitis and abrasions or lameness in the offspring was observed. Conclusion There were large differences in the prevalence of abrasions and lameness between the floor types. The deep litter system with peat provided a soft and good floor for piglets. The overall prevalence of lameness was only diagnosed in every

  10. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  11. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  12. Generalized Vocal Imitation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of three infants whose parents presented vocal models for the infants to imitate. Parents presented vocal models both with and without social praise. Infants showed systematic increases in matching after praise was introduced. Nonmatching vocalizations did not increase with introduction of praise. Findings demonstrate generalized…

  13. Infant Affect and Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate relationship between infant affect and quality of home environment. Found that infant irritability was negatively correlated with quality of home environment in both low-risk and high-risk families. Infant positive affect was more strongly related to quality of care in…

  14. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  15. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their fragile. The infant who has osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has some special characteristics. The infant may have an unusually soft skull, startle very easily, have bone deformity and ...

  16. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  17. Development of infant oral feeding skills: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Lau, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    The hospital discharge of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. With immature physiologic functions, infants born prematurely cannot be expected to readily feed by mouth at the equivalent age of a third trimester of gestation as the majority of their term counterparts do. Consequently, it is crucial that health care professionals gain an adequate knowledge of the development of preterm infants' oral feeding skills so as to optimize their safety and competency as they transition to oral feeding. With a greater sensitivity toward their immature skills, we can offer these infants a safer and smoother transition to independent oral feeding than is currently observed. This review article is an overview of the evidence-based research undertaken over the past 2 decades on the development of very-low-birth-weight infants' oral feeding skills. The description of the different functional levels where these infants can encounter hurdles may assist caregivers in identifying a potential cause or causes for their individual patients' oral feeding difficulties. PMID:26791183

  18. Crawling and walking infants elicit different verbal responses from mothers.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses. PMID:24314018

  19. Competence and Responsiveness in Mothers of Late Preterm Infants Versus Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brenda; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Pickler, Rita; Jallo, Nancy; Cohen, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal competence and responsiveness in mothers of late preterm infants (LPIs) with mothers of full-term infants. Design A nonexperimental repeated-measures design was used to compare maternal competence and responsiveness in two groups of postpartum mothers and the relationship of the theoretical antecedents to these outcomes. Setting Urban academic medical center. Participants Mothers of late preterm infants (34–36, 6/7-weeks gestation) and mothers of term infants (≥37-weeks gestation), including primiparas and multiparas. Data were collected after delivery during the postpartum hospital stay and again at 6-weeks postpartum. Methods Descriptive and inferential analysis. Results A total of 70 mothers completed both data collection periods: 49 term mothers and 21 LPI mothers. There were no differences between the two groups related to their perception of competence or responsiveness at delivery or 6-weeks postpartum. At 6-weeks postpartum, none of the assessed factors in the model was significantly related to competence or responsiveness. Conclusions The results, which may have been limited by small sample size, demonstrated no difference in the perceptions of LPI and term mothers related to competence or responsiveness. Maternal stress and support were significantly related to other factors in the model of maternal competence and responsiveness. PMID:23601024

  20. Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

    2011-12-29

    Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts p<0.001). At the second sampling only 2.1% of the untreated animals and none of treated piglets excreted I. suis (p=0.083). Positive animals shed up to 8 × 10(3)OPG. There was an increased risk for infected piglets to develop diarrhea (odds ratio, OR 4.73) and poor health (OR 5.05) in untreated piglets, and poor hygiene without disinfection was identified as a risk factor for poor health (OR 1.90), diarrhea (OR 1.42) and oocyst excretion (OR 1.73). The risk of poor health (OR 2.89) and diarrhea (OR 1.44) was also increased for piglets under poor hygienic conditions receiving toltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis

  1. The effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab,ac on early-weaned piglets: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Goddeeris, B M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Janssens, S; Cox, E; Georges, M; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2013-03-15

    Diarrhoea in neonatal and early-weaned piglets due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all pigs suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. A region on SSC13 has been found to be in close linkage to the susceptibility of piglets for ETEC-F4ab,ac. Potential candidate genes on SSC13 have been examined and although some polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the phenotype, the causative mutation has not yet been found. In this study we are looking at the expression of porcine genes in relation to ETEC-F4ab,ac. With the aid of the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array we were able to find differentially expressed genes between ETEC-F4ab,ac receptor positive (Fab,acR(+)) piglets without diarrhoea and F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea or F4ab,acR(-) animals. Since the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ab,ac was described as a Mendelian trait, it is not so surprisingly that only two differentially expressed genes, transferrin receptor (TFRC) and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), came out of the analysis. Although both genes could pass for functional candidate genes only TFRC also mapped to the region on SSC13 associated with susceptibility for ETEC-F4, which makes TFRC a positional functional candidate gene. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of TFRC and TFF1. In piglets without diarrhoea, the expression of both genes was higher in F4ab,acR(+) than in F4ab,acR(-) piglets. Similarly, TFRC and TFF1 expression in F4ab,acR(+) piglets without diarrhoea was also higher than in F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea. Consequently, although both genes might not play a role as receptor for F4 fimbriae, they could be of great importance during an ETEC-F4 outbreak. An upregulation of TFRC can be a consequence of the piglets ability to raise an effective immune response. An elevation of TFF1, a

  2. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (P<0.05), so that piglets with a lowest rectal temperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows. PMID:26094618

  3. Influence of dietary electrolyte balance on feed preference and growth performance of postweaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, S A; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Manzanilla, E G; Pérez, J F

    2015-06-01

    A total of 672 male and female piglets (21 d postweaning; approximately 13 kg BW) were selected to be used in 3 different experiments to assess the influence of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB; Na + K - Cl, in mEq/kg of diet) on feed preference and growth performance. In Exp. 1, piglets were fed 4 isoenergetic diets differing in dEB level: 16, 133, 152, and 269 mEq/kg diets. Changes on dEB were obtained by changing the levels of sodium and chloride with calcium chloride, calcium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Piglets fed the 16 and 133 mEq/kg diets achieved a greater ADG (P < 0.04), BW (P < 0.04), and apparent total-tract digestibility of CP and Zn (P < 0.05) than did piglets fed the 269 mEq/kg diet. The 16 mEq/kg level also reduced blood total CO (P < 0.01), bicarbonate (P < 0.01), and base excess (P < 0.02) concentrations compared with the rest of the dietary treatments. Three diets differing in dEB were designed for Exp. 2 and 3: -16, 151, and 388 mEq/kg diets. In Exp. 2, greater ADFI (P = 0.03), BW (P = 0.02), ADG (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.01) were observed for piglets fed the -16 mEq/kg diet than those fed the 388 mEq/kg diet. Subsequently, their short-term preference for these diets was assessed by using a 2-d choice-test protocol (30 min). Piglets preferred (P < 0.001) the 388 mEq/kg diet to the -16 mEq/kg diet, independently of the dietary treatment they received before. Pigs also preferred (P < 0.001) the 151 mEq/kg diet when compared with the -16 mEq/kg diet. Experiment 3 assessed the long-term preference and short-term consumption of the -16 and 388 mEq/kg diets. Similar to Exp. 2, animals showed a greater (P < 0.001) intake of the 388 mEq/kg diet than they did of the -16 mEq/kg diet during both the preference (14 d) and 1-feeder (2 h) tests conducted. Results show that low rather than high dEB levels optimize growth performance of piglets. When they have the opportunity to choose, piglets are unable to select the diet that optimizes their

  4. Campylobacter coli pulsed field gel electrophoresis genotypic diversity among sows and piglets in a farrowing barn.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Droleskey, Robert E; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Harvey, Roger B

    2002-08-01

    Genotypes of Campylobacter coli isolates from feces of three sows and rectal swabs of 17 piglets were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All of the animals originated from a single farrowing barn of a farrow-to-finish swine operation. Five Campylobacter colonies were picked from a single agar plate for each sample after broth enrichment and growth on Campy-Cefex agar. Genotypes were examined by PFGE after genomic DNA digestion with SmaI and SacII restriction endonucleases. Twenty SmaI genotypes and 12 SacII genotypes were detected among 99 Campylobacter coli isolates. There was no pattern of shared genotypes between sows and their respective piglets, nor between littermates. Results indicate that a high number of Campylobacter genotypes may coexist in related pigs from a single housing facility. PMID:12070692

  5. Variance components for survival of piglets at farrowing using a reduced animal model

    PubMed Central

    White, Ian MS; Roehe, Rainer; Knap, Pieter W; Brotherstone, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Farrowing survival is usually analysed as a trait of the sow, but this precludes estimation of any direct genetic effects associated with individual piglets. In order to estimate these effects, which are particularly important for sire lines, it is necessary to fit an animal model. However this can be computationally very demanding. We show how direct and maternal genetic effects can be estimated with a simpler analysis based on the reduced animal model and we illustrate the method using farrowing survival information on 118 193 piglets in 10 314 litters. We achieve a 30% reduction in computing time and a 70% reduction in memory use, with no important loss of accuracy. This use of the reduced animal model is not only of interest for pig breeding but also for poultry and fish breeding where large full-sib families are performance tested. PMID:16790227

  6. Emergence of a Pseudorabies virus variant with increased virulence to piglets.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Hao; Liang, Chao; Zhou, Yan-jun; Jiang, Yi-feng; Shan, Tong-ling; Gao, Fei; Li, Guo-xin; Tong, Guang-zhi

    2015-12-31

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) causes Pseudorabies (PR), an economically important disease in domestic swine. PR outbreaks on pig farms caused by PRV variant strains in Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs have resulted in considerable economic losses in China since 2011. In this study, the pathogenicity of the PRV variant JS-2012 strain to pigs was investigated by experimentally inoculating piglets of different ages in comparison with a classic virulent PRV SC strain. The JS-2012 strain caused an earlier onset of clinical signs and higher mortality in 15, 30, and 60-day-old pigs, as compared with a classic virulent PRV SC strain. The Bartha-K61 vaccination provided complete protection against challenge with classical virulent PRV, but only partial protection against challenge with the JS-2012 strain in piglets. In conclusion, the increased virulence of the PRV variant may have partly contributed to the PR outbreak in China. PMID:26507829

  7. Carrageenan analysis. Part 2: Quantification in swine-adapted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, William R; Kwok, S Karina; Harding, Niles I

    2014-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was validated in accordance with 21CFR Part 58 Good Laboratory Practice for Non-clinical Laboratory Studies to measure the concentration of carrageenan in dose formulations used in a 28-day piglet dietary feeding study of swine-adapted infant formulations stabilised with carrageenan. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg⁻¹ formula. The method for the measurement of carrageenan was LC-MS/MS coupled with ESI in negative-ion mode for detection. Linearity was established over the range 1.00-7.50 µg ml⁻¹. Carrageenan dose formulation samples ranging from 0 to 2250 mg kg⁻¹ of carrageenan were diluted to within the linearity range for measurement. PMID:25164195

  8. Parent-Infant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  9. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

  10. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  11. [Infants and Toddlers].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains four articles which focus on the development of normal and handicapped infants in various settings. "The Baby's World," by Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen T. Small, emphasizes experiences of sensation and discovery in the first three years of life, noting the role of caregivers and the cultural context. "The…

  12. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  13. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. Design: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and energy deposition based on measured pr...

  14. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  15. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  16. Pareidolia in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants’ orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth. PMID:25689630

  17. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  18. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  19. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  20. Improving Infant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Vince L.

    This speech sketches a picture of post-natal health care in the United States, circa 1979. Between 1970 and 1976, post-natal infant deaths in the first week after birth dropped 32%. During the same period, the post-neonatal decline was just 12%. Statistics are presented which highlight areas of concern. Variation across states, high incidence in…

  1. Infant Phonotactic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatte, Victoria Anne

    2011-01-01

    For the past several decades, researchers have been investigating the stages infants go through on their way to acquiring their native language. Research into the question of the order in which, and time when, various facets of phonology are acquired has resulted in a basic timeline of development. Exploration of a second question, namely what…

  2. Infants Understand Others' Needs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Moritz; Ohmer, Xenia; Nguyen, Thanh Dung; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-04-01

    Infants begin to help other individuals in the second year of life. However, it is still unclear whether early helping behavior is based on an understanding of other individuals' needs and is thus motivated prosocially. In the present eye-tracking study, 9- to 18-month-old infants (N= 71) saw a character in need of help, unable to reach its goal because of an obstacle, and a second character that was able to achieve a goal on its own. When a third individual (a helper) initiated an action, the infants expected the helper to help the character in need (as indicated during the anticipatory-looking and violation-of-expectation phases). Their prosocial understanding did not differ between age groups and was not related to their helping behavior (measured in two behavioral tasks). Thus, infants understand other individuals' needs even before they start to help others themselves. This indicates that early helping may indeed be motivated prosocially and raises the question of which other competences underlie the ontogeny of helping behavior. PMID:26902106

  3. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  4. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation. PMID:24228909

  5. Neutrophils do not mediate the pathophysiological sequelae of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Zadrozny, Leah M; Stauffer, Stephen H; Armstrong, Martha U; Jones, Samuel L; Gookin, Jody L

    2006-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a minimally invasive protozoal pathogen of intestinal epithelium that results in villus atrophy, mucosal lipid peroxidation, diarrhea, and diminished barrier function. Influx of neutrophils is a consistent feature of human and animal cryptosporidiosis, and yet their contribution to the pathological sequelae of infection has not been investigated. Accordingly, we used an established neonatal piglet model of C. parvum infection to examine the role of neutrophils in disease pathogenesis by inhibiting their recruitment and activation in vivo using a monoclonal anti-CD18 antibody. Infected piglets were treated daily with anti-CD18 or isotype control immunoglobulin G and euthanized at peak infection, at which time neutrophil infiltrates, lipid peroxidation, severity of infection, and intestinal barrier function were quantified. C. parvum infection resulted in a significant increase in mucosal neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity that was prevented by treatment of piglets with anti-CD18 antibody. Neutrophil recruitment was dependent on mucosal superoxide formation (prevented by treatment of infected piglets with superoxide dismutase). Neutrophils did not contribute to peroxynitrite formation or peroxidative injury of C. parvum-infected mucosa and had no impact on the severity of epithelial infection, villus atrophy, or diarrhea. The presence of neutrophils in C. parvum-infected mucosa was associated with enhanced barrier function that could not be attributed to mucosal elaboration of prostaglandins or stimulation of their synthesis. These studies are the first to demonstrate that neutrophilic inflammation arising in response to infection by a noninvasive epithelial pathogen results in physiologic rather than pathological effects in vivo. PMID:16988224

  6. Neutrophils Do Not Mediate the Pathophysiological Sequelae of Cryptosporidium parvum Infection in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zadrozny, Leah M.; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Armstrong, Martha U.; Jones, Samuel L.; Gookin, Jody L.

    2006-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a minimally invasive protozoal pathogen of intestinal epithelium that results in villus atrophy, mucosal lipid peroxidation, diarrhea, and diminished barrier function. Influx of neutrophils is a consistent feature of human and animal cryptosporidiosis, and yet their contribution to the pathological sequelae of infection has not been investigated. Accordingly, we used an established neonatal piglet model of C. parvum infection to examine the role of neutrophils in disease pathogenesis by inhibiting their recruitment and activation in vivo using a monoclonal anti-CD18 antibody. Infected piglets were treated daily with anti-CD18 or isotype control immunoglobulin G and euthanized at peak infection, at which time neutrophil infiltrates, lipid peroxidation, severity of infection, and intestinal barrier function were quantified. C. parvum infection resulted in a significant increase in mucosal neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity that was prevented by treatment of piglets with anti-CD18 antibody. Neutrophil recruitment was dependent on mucosal superoxide formation (prevented by treatment of infected piglets with superoxide dismutase). Neutrophils did not contribute to peroxynitrite formation or peroxidative injury of C. parvum-infected mucosa and had no impact on the severity of epithelial infection, villus atrophy, or diarrhea. The presence of neutrophils in C. parvum-infected mucosa was associated with enhanced barrier function that could not be attributed to mucosal elaboration of prostaglandins or stimulation of their synthesis. These studies are the first to demonstrate that neutrophilic inflammation arising in response to infection by a noninvasive epithelial pathogen results in physiologic rather than pathological effects in vivo. PMID:16988224

  7. Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Findings Associated with Senecavirus A-Induced Lesions in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Leme, R A; Oliveira, T E S; Alfieri, A F; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6). Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for Senecavirus A (SenV-A) demonstrated immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus of the cerebrum, degenerate epithelium of ulcerative lesions of the tongue, the urothelium of the kidney and urinary bladder, and the superficial cells of the intestine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and/or quantitative PCR assays were used to investigate viral agents associated with vesicular and/or enteric diseases. Antigens and RNA of SenV-A were identified in multiple tissues of all piglets; molecular assays for all other viruses evaluated yielded negative results. These findings confirm the participation of SenV-A in the multiple lesions observed in these piglets. Several theories are proposed: SenV-A may be eliminated via the urinary system, neurological disease may occur due to initial invasion of choroid plexus, enteric disease may be related to atrophy and fusion of villi of the small intestine, and vertical transmission could be a form of dissemination. PMID:27473601

  8. Effects of soyabean meal- or whey-based diets on lipid metabolism in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Papadomichelakis, G; Tsiplakou, E; Lampidonis, A D; Chadio, S; Zervas, G; Politis, I

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary protein source influences lipid metabolism-related parameters weaned piglets. The effects of soyabean meal (SB) and whey proteins (WP) on gene expression of several genes involved in the lipogenic process in liver, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues, plasma insulin concentration and fatty acid (FA) profile were investigated in 18 weaned piglets. Weaned piglets were fed one of two diets containing either SB or WP as the main protein source. Following a 10-h fasting period, plasma insulin concentration and FA profile were assessed at 56 and 72 days of age, whereas gene expression in liver, VAT and SAT was assessed at 72 days of age. Plasma insulin concentration was not affected by diet, although it was 40% lower in SB fed pigs. The SB pigs had lower 14:0 (p < 0.01) and higher 18:3n-3 (p < 0.001) levels in plasma in comparison with WP pigs. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. Gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) in liver and VAT were lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) in SB compared to WP fed piglets, but no differences occurred in SAT. No changes were observed in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, liver X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mRNA levels, either in liver or in adipose tissues. In conclusion, dietary protein source, accompanied likely by side alterations in the dietary composition, affects lipid metabolism in pigs through the downregulation of SREBP-1, which is a crucial determinant of lipogenic process. PMID:24924522

  9. CARBON MONOXIDE CONTRIBUTES TO HYPOTENSION-INDUCED CEREBROVASCULAR VASODILATION IN PIGLETS

    PubMed Central

    Kanu, Alie; Whitfield, John; Leffler, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    The gaseous compound carbon monoxide (CO) has been identified as an important endogenous biological messenger in the brain and is a major component in regulation of cerebrovascular circulation in newborns. CO is produced endogenously by catabolism of heme to CO, free iron, and biliverdin during enzymatic degradation of heme by heme oxygenase (HO). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that endogenously produced CO contributes to hypotension-induced vasodilation of cerebral arterioles. Experiments used anesthetized piglets with implanted, closed cranial windows. Topical application of the HO substrate, heme-L-lysinate (HLL), caused dilation of pial arterioles that was blocked by a metal porphyrin inhibitor of HO, chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP). In normotensive piglets (arterial pressure 64±4 mm Hg), CrMP did not cause vasoconstriction of pial arterioles but rather a transient dilation. Hypotension (50% of basal blood pressure) increased cerebral CO production and dilated pial arterioles from 66±2μm to 92±7μm. In hypotensive piglets, topical CrMP or i.v. SnPP decreased cerebral CO production and produced pial arteriolar constriction to normotensive diameters. In additional experiments, since prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) are also key dilators that can contribute to cerebrovascular dilation, we held their levels constant. NO/prostacyclin clamp was accomplished with continuous, simultaneous application of indomethacin, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), and minimal dilatory concentrations of iloprost and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). With constant NO and prostacyclin, the transient dilator and prolonged constrictor responses to CrMP of normotensive and hypotensive piglets, respectively, were the same as when NO and prostaglandins were not held constant. These data suggest that endogenously produced CO contributes to cerebrovascular dilation in response to reduced perfusion pressure. PMID:16751286

  10. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  11. Infant memory for musical experiences.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Loman, M M; Robertson, R R

    2000-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that infants can remember words from stories over 2 week delays (Jusczyk, P. W., & Hohne, E. A. (1997). Infants' memory for spoken words. Science, 277, 1984-1986). Because music, like language, presents infants with a massively complex auditory learning task, it is possible that infant memory for musical stimuli is equally powerful. Seven-month-old infants heard two Mozart sonata movements daily for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week retention interval, the infants were tested on passages of the familiarized music, and passages taken from similar but novel music. Results from two experiments suggest that the infants retained the familiarized music in long-term memory, and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical contexts within which they were originally learned. PMID:10980255

  12. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  13. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  14. Great genetic diversity of rotaviruses detected in piglets with diarrhea in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Chuchaona, Watchaporn; Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Kongkaew, Aphisek; Vachirachewin, Ratchaya; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2016-10-01

    A total of 491 fecal specimens collected from diarrheic piglets in Thailand from January 2011 to March 2014 were screened for group A rotavirus by RT-PCR assay. The G and P genotypes of the detected rotaviruses were determined by multiplex PCR or nucleotide sequencing. Group A rotaviruses were detected in 113 out of 491 (23.0 %) fecal specimens. A wide variety of G-P genotype combinations were identified, and G4P[13] was the most prevalent genotype combination (29.2 %), followed by G4P[23] (14.1 %), G5P[23] (11.5 %), G4P[6] (9.7 %), G3P[23] (7.0 %), G5P[13] (6.1 %), G3P[13] (4.4 %), G3P[6] (2.7 %), and G5P[6] (2.7 %). In addition, the other G-P combinations were also detected at a low percentage, including G3P[19], G4P[7], G9P[19], G9P[23], G9P[7], G4P[19], and G11P[13] strains. This study indicated that group A rotaviruses are a common causes of diarrhea in piglets and a great diversity of G and P genotype combinations are circulating in piglets in Thailand. PMID:27412716

  15. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  16. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Song, Tengfei; Yu, Ying; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wang, Shujie; Rong, Fulong; Dong, Jianguo; Liu, He; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection compromises the host's innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune responses of piglets infected with highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV (HuN4 strain) with or without the immunization with CH-1R attenuated PRRSV vaccine. The response was evaluated for the clinical signs, pathological changes and virus load in immune organs, antibody responses and levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The result showed that in comparison with the piglets received the immunization, the piglets infected with HP-PRRSV alone had the thymus atrophy, decreased serum levels of IL-4 and increased serum levels of IL-10 and INF-γ. These results suggest that elevated IL-10 levels at the early stage of the infection may enhance virus survival and delay the induction of protective immunity, while increased levels of IL-4 induce the effective immune responses and increase the animals' health status. PMID:21612828

  17. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy. PMID:25910465

  18. [Calculation of therapeutic intensity for piglets and fattening pigs during the use of antibiotics in feed].

    PubMed

    Müntener, R C; Stebler, R; Horisberger, U; Althaus, R F; Gassner, B

    2013-06-01

    Oral treatments for groups of pigs via medicated feed must be prescribed on specific forms submitted to veterinary authorities. We analyzed 869 such prescription forms for the year 2009 representing the treatment of 69'863 piglets and 31'506 fattening pigs. Parameters under investigation were indication and quantity of antimicrobials prescribed. Most of the treatments took place at weaning with 10 - 14 kg and again at the beginning of the fattening period with 20 - 29 kg body weight. The average body weights at treatment were 16 kg (piglets) and 29 kg (fatteners). In analogy with the indicator DID of human medicine, we developed PIDvet describing the prescribed dose per 1000 individuals on given day in veterinary medicine. Calculated PIDvet on a given day was 180.9 for the whole population, 297.6 for piglets and 83.2 for fatteners. This shows PIDvet to be useful to stratify therapeutic intensity in different age classes and could represent a new tool to monitor the use of antibiotics. PMID:23732383

  19. A piglet Model of Acute gastroenteritis induced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwang-il; Zhang, Quanshun; Nunnari, John; Tzipori, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Background The lack of a standardized laboratory animal model that mimics key aspects of human shigellosis remains major obstacle to addressing questions on pathogenesis, screening therapeutics and evaluating vaccines. Methods We characterize a piglet model for Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Results Piglets developed acute diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration and often fatal, with severity depending on age and dose. Bacteria were apparent in the lumen and on surface epithelium throughout the gut initially, but severe mucosal damage and bacterial cellular invasion were most profound in the colon. Detached necrotic colonocytes were present in the lumen, with inflammatory cells outpouring from damaged mucosa. High levels of IL-8 and IL-12, were followed by other proinflammatory cytokines. Elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were detected in feces and in gut segments of infected animals. Bacteria were present inside epithelial cells and within colonic lamina propria. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking Shiga toxin, induced similar but milder symptoms, with moderate mucosal damage and lower cytokine levels. Conclusion We conclude that piglets are highly susceptible to shigellosis providing a useful tool to compare vaccine candidates for immunogenicity, reactogenicity and response to challenge, investigate the role of virulence factors and test the efficacy of microbial agents. PMID:20136414

  20. High frequency of Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus) infection in piglets from different geographic regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Aichivirus C infection in the three major industrial pig-producing regions of Brazil. This retrospective study evaluated 63 faecal samples that were collected between 2004 and 2011 from suckling piglets (1 to 3 weeks old) belonging to 46 pig herds located in the South, Southeast and Central-west regions of Brazil. The presence of Aichivirus C in the samples was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A 216-bp fragment of the aichivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene was amplified from 48 out of 63 (76.2 %) faecal samples. Aichivirus C was identified in all the evaluated regions, and variations in the frequency of virus detection among the different Brazilian regions were observed. Aichivirus C was detected at significantly higher rates in 2-week-old (18/20; 90.0 %) and 3-week-old (19/22; 86.4 %) piglets than in 1-week-old piglets (11/21; 52.4 %) (P < 0.05). The nucleotide sequences of three amplicons clustered together with other sequences previously isolated in Brazil, revealing that there were no phylogenetic differences in the strains of Aichivirus C by region or age. This study demonstrated that Aichivirus C has been present in Brazilian pig herds for years and has spread to the major pig-producing regions of the country. PMID:23765550

  1. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  2. Alterations in Daytime and Nighttime Activity in Piglets after Focal and Diffuse Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Olson, Emily; Badder, Carlie; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    We have developed and implemented a noninvasive, objective neurofunctional assessment for evaluating the sustained effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in piglets with both diffuse and focal injury types. Derived from commercial actigraphy methods in humans, this assessment continuously monitors the day/night activity of piglets using close-fitting jackets equipped with tri-axial accelerometers to monitor movements of the thorax. Acceleration metrics were correlated (N = 7 naïve piglets) with video images to define values associated with a range of activities, from recumbancy (rest) to running. Both focal (N = 8) and diffuse brain injury (N = 9) produced alterations in activity that were significant 4 days post-TBI. Compared to shams (N = 6) who acclimated to the animal facility 4 days after an anesthesia experience by blurring the distinction between day and night activity, post-TBI time-matched animals had larger fractions of inactive periods during the daytime than nighttime, and larger fractions of active time in the night were spent in high activity (e.g., constant walking, intermittent running) than during the day. These persistent disturbances in rest and activity are similar to those observed in human adults and children post-TBI, establishing actigraphy as a translational metric, used in both humans and large animals, for assessment of injury severity, progressions, and intervention. PMID:26414329

  3. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  4. Oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Lixiang; Yin, Yulong; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on expression of genes for hepatic lipid and nitrogen metabolism in piglets. A total of 24 newborn pigs were assigned randomly into one of four treatments (n = 6/group). The doses of oral MSG administration, given at 8:00 and 18:00 to sow-reared piglets between 0 and 21 days of age, were 0 (control), 0.06 (low dose), 0.5 (intermediate dose), and 1 (high dose) g/kg body weight/day. At the end of the 3-week treatment, serum concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intermediate dose group were elevated than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, insulin-like growth factor-1, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase were higher in the middle-dose group (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. MSG administration did not affect hepatic mRNA levels for hormone-sensitive lipase or carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1. We conclude that oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of certain genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets. PMID:24221354

  5. Immediate Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Brain Nitrotyrosine Formation in a Piglet Asphyxia Model

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Rudge, Brogan; Hughes, Michael P.; Rahim, Ahad A.; Hristova, Mariya; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention that could be administered as an alternative to cooling in cases of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In the current study we hypothesized that RIPostC in the piglet model of birth asphyxia confers protection by reducing nitrosative stress and subsequent nitrotyrosine formation, as well as having an effect on glial immunoreactivity. Postnatal day 1 (P1) piglets underwent HI brain injury and were randomised to HI (control) or HI + RIPostC. Immunohistochemistry assessment 48 hours after HI revealed a significant decrease in brain nitrotyrosine deposits in the RIPostC-treated group (p = 0.02). This was accompanied by a significant increase in eNOS expression (p < 0.0001) and decrease in iNOS (p = 0.010), with no alteration in nNOS activity. Interestingly, RIPostC treatment was associated with a significant increase in GFAP (p = 0.002) and IBA1 (p = 0.006), markers of astroglial and microglial activity, respectively. The current study demonstrates a beneficial effect of RIPostC therapy in the preclinical piglet model of neonatal asphyxia, which appears to be mediated by modulation of nitrosative stress, despite glial activation. PMID:27379176

  6. Infant neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Lester, Barry M; Miller, Robin J; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C; Padbury, James F

    2011-02-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a "baseline" of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  7. Effect of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic one-carbon unit associated gene expressions in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Bo; Chen, Dai-Wen; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiang-bing

    2011-08-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces alterations to hepatic gene expressions which might program poor postnatal growth and health status. Maternal folic acid supplementation was administered in gilt diets to test whether hepatic mRNA expressions of some important genes induced by IUGR could be rescued by folic acid supplementation. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts were allotted to two treatment groups of control (C folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or folic acid supplementation (FS folic acid 30 mg/kg) after mating, to study the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), obesity receptor (ob-R) and Acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) in the liver of IUGR and NBW piglets. Blood and liver samples were collected for determinations of serum folic acid and gene expressions. The total number of born piglets, number of piglets born alive, average birth weight and 21 days average weight were not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), and serum folic acid concentration of piglets was greater in FS than C groups (P<0.05). Real-time PCR indicated that gene expression of MAT1A, MAT2A and DNMT1 were lower in IUGR piglets but could be elevated by maternal folic acid supplementation. Transcript expression levels of PPARγ, GR and AOX were higher in IUGR piglets, but were decreased to the level of normal piglets by maternal folic acid supplementation. Our results suggested that maternal folic acid supplementation be an effective way to rescue the gene expressions negatively induced by IUGR. PMID:21108044

  8. Temporal changes in carbohydrate digestive capacity and growth rate of piglets in response to glucocorticoid administration and weaning age.

    PubMed

    Chapple, R P; Cuaron, J A; Easter, R A

    1989-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted that demonstrated that a single injection of hydrocortisone 21-acetate (HYD, 25 mg/kg BW) administered to 6-d-old nursing piglets resulted in a twofold elevation (P less than .02) of pancreatic amylase within 2 d; activity was unaffected by an injection of 15 IU adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/kg BW (P greater than .20). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activity tended to be elevated (P less than .20) 2 and 4 d postinjection with HYD but returned to normal (uninjected) levels by 14 d of age. The normal decline of intestinal lactase activity was delayed by at least 4 d in response to both hormones (P less than .10). Organ weights were not affected by either hormone. In a separate experiment, postweaning mortality was reduced (12 vs 27%) and growth rate was substantially improved by administration of HYD to piglets 4 and 2 d prior to weaning at 14 d of age. Hydrocortisone resulted in a faster rate of gain the 1st wk postweaning for pigs weaned at 21 or 28 d. Subsequent gain by control and HYD piglets weaned on d 21 was similar, but HYD subsequently impaired growth rate of piglets weaned at 28 d of age. Growth rates of control and ACTH piglets were similar at each postweaning period regardless of weaning age (weaning age [lin.] x week postweaning [quad.] x treatment, P less than .07). This differential treatment response of daily gain may be due in part to effects on feed intake (weaning age [lin.] x week postweaning [lin.] x treatment, P less than .10). We conclude that a single injection of HYD to 6-d-old piglets precociously induces pancreatic amylase and that the sensitivity of piglets to HYD is age-dependent. PMID:2556357

  9. Duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants followed at a secondary referral service

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Identify and analyze variables associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants. Methods: Retrospective cohort of premature infants followed up at secondary referral service in the period of 2010-2015. Inclusion: first appointment in the first month of corrected age and have undergone three or more consultations. Exclusion: diseases that impaired oral feeding. Outcome: duration of breastfeeding. A total of 103 preterm infants were evaluated, accounting for 28.8% of the preterm infants born in the municipality in that period, with a power of study of 80%. Descriptive analysis, t-test, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used. p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The median duration of breastfeeding among preterm infants was 5.0 months. The risk of breastfeeding discontinuation among preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks was 2.6-fold higher than for those born at 32 weeks or more and the risk of breastfeeding interruption in preterm infants who were receiving breastfeeding supplementation in the first outpatient visit was 3-fold higher when compared to those who were exclusively breastfed in the first consultation. Conclusions: The median duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants was below the recommended one and discontinuation was associated with gestational <32 weeks and the fact that the infant was no longer receiving exclusive breastfeeding in the first outpatient visit. When these two variables were associated, their negative effect on the median duration of breastfeeding was potentiated. PMID:26614258

  10. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swedish piglets with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlind, O; Thafvelin, B; Möllby, R

    1988-01-01

    Parenteral vaccination of sows against Escherichia coli diarrhea in their newborn piglets has become more common during the last decade in Sweden, and the vaccination has generally had positive effects. For more than 20 years we have investigated E. coli strains isolated from piglets and weaned pigs with enteric disorders, noting the presence of O groups, enterotoxins, and adhesins. There has been a continuous change in the frequency of these virulence factors. The present study was performed during 1983 and 1984 to follow this change, since such information is essential for the proper choice of vaccines. A total of 856 E. coli strains were obtained from 683 herds divided into three age groups: 1 to 6 days old, 1 to 6 weeks old, and weaned pigs. O group 149 still dominated in the last two age groups, while O group 101 was, for the first time, the most frequent O group in neonatal piglets. All but four O149 strains carried the K88 antigen, which was found in only one other strain (O group 8). K99 antigen was most often found in O groups 101 and 64, and among all the K99 strains ST mouse was the most common (44 of 57), followed by ST mouse-ST pig strains (12 of 57). The 987P antigen was demonstrated in 26 strains belonging to O groups 141 and OX46 and nontypable strains. Two strains belonging to O group 101 were positive for F41 antigen; one of them also carried the K99 antigen. Among all non-O149 strains, ST mouse was the most common type of enterotoxigenic E. coli ( n = 88), followed in decreasing order by ST mouse-ST pig strains ( n = 69) and ST pig strains ( n = 33). In 114 strains producing enterotoxins no adhesive factor was found. Thus, vaccination of the Swedish sow population for more than 5 years with vaccines containing O149 and K88 antigens has apparently changed the pattern of enterotoxigenic E. coli in neonatal diarrhea. The frequency of O149:K88 strains has been reduced, and O101:K99:ST mouse strains now dominate. However, O149 strains remain the

  11. Magnetic Resonance Three-dimensional Cube Technique in the Measurement of Piglet Femoral Anteversion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong-Mei; Pan, Shi-Nong; Wang, En-Bo; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Guo, Wen-Li; Fu, Xi-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The accurate measurement of the femoral anteversion (FA) angle is always a topic of much debate in the orthopedic surgery and radiology research. We aimed to explore a new FA measurement method to acquire accurate results without radiation damage using piglet model. Methods: A total of thirty piglets were assigned to two groups based on the age. Bilateral femora were imaged with 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) examinations on all piglets. FA was measured on MR-three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing software with a four-step method: initial validation of the femoral condylar axis, validation of the condylar plane, validation of the femoral neck axis, and line-plane angle measurement of FA. After MR and CT examinations, all piglets were sacrificed and their degree of FA was measured using their excised, dried femora. MR, CT, and dried-femur measurement results were analyzed statistically; MR and CT measurements were compared for accuracy against each other and against the gold standard dried femur measurement. Results: In both groups, the mean FA value measured by MR was lower than that measured by CT. A statistically significant difference was observed between CT- and dried-femur measurements but not between MR- and dried-femur measurements. A higher correlation (0.783 vs. 0.408) and a higher consistency (0.863 vs. 0.578) with dried-femur measurement results were seen for MR measurements than CT measurements in the 1-week age group. However, in the 8-week age group, similar correlations (0.707 vs. 0.669) and consistencies (0.864 vs. 0.821) were observed. Conclusions: Noninvasive MR-3D-Cube reconstruction was able to accurately measure FA in piglets. Particularly in the 1-week age group with a larger proportion of cartilaginous structures, the correlation and consistency between MR- and dried-femur measurement results were higher than those between CT- and dried-femur measurements, suggesting that MR may be a new useful

  12. Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Asahi; Imai, Satomi; Okitsu, Aya; Komiyama, Sonomi; Irimajiri, Mami; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Atusi; Hodate, Koich

    2012-01-01

    Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (4×10 m for every two sows) or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (1.9×2.2 m for every sow) were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509) and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640) in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (5.0±0.59 ng/ml vs. 11.6±0.91 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment), although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (53.3±3.54 ng/ml vs. 59.9±4.84 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment). When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (3.78±0.07 and −0.20±0.023), which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (5.03±0.16 and −0.13±0.009). Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important for animal

  13. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    PubMed

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough. PMID:27132293

  14. Characteristics of biter and victim piglets apparent before a tail-biting outbreak.

    PubMed

    Zonderland, J J; Schepers, F; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Kemp, B; Spoolder, H A M

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of biters and victims before the appearance of a tail-biting outbreak in groups of pigs. This study aimed to characterise biters and victims (according to gender and performance) and to quantify their behavioural development during the 6 days preceding the tail-biting outbreak. The hypotheses tested were: (a) biters are more often female, are the lighter pigs in the group, are more restless and perform more aggressive behaviour; and (b) victims are more often male, heavier and less active. Using video recordings we carried out a detailed study of 14 pens with a tail-biting outbreak among the weaned piglets. All piglets were individually marked and we observed the behaviour of biters, victims and control piglets (piglet types). In every pen, each piglet type was observed every other day from 6 days before (D-6) to the day of the first visible tail damage (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0). While the number of male biters (6 of the 14 biters) and male victims (11 of the 14 victims) was not significantly different (P = 0.13), this numerical contrast was considerable. The start weight of victims was significantly (P = 0.03) higher (8.6 kg) than those of biters (7.5 kg) and control piglets (8.0 kg). Biters tended (P = 0.08) to spend longer sitting/kneeling (3.1 min/h) than controls (1.7 min/h), but no differences were seen in the time spent lying or standing. Victims tended (P = 0.07) to change posture more often (restlessness) than controls and chased penmates more (P = 0.04) than biters. Victims also performed more (P = 0.04) aggressive behaviour than biters and controls. In contrast, biters tended (P = 0.08) to be chased by penmates more often and tended (P = 0.06) to receive more aggressive behaviour than controls. Furthermore, biters spent longer manipulating the enrichment device (P = 0.01) and the posterior/tail (P = 0.02) of their penmates than controls and tended (P = 0.06) to perform more tail bites than victims

  15. Effects of neoprene mat on diarrhea, mortality and foreleg abrasion of pre-weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhaobing; Xin, Hongwei; Wang, Chaoyuan; Shi, Zhengxiang; Liu, Zuohua; Yang, Feiyun; Lin, Baozhong; Wang, Chao; Li, Baoming

    2010-06-01

    Modern commercial swine farrowing crates are typically equipped with slatted iron floor to improve management efficiency (e.g., ease of manure handling, cleanliness of the farrowing crates and hence improved animal hygiene). However, the bare and hard floor surface can impair the welfare of the sow-litter because of some undesirable impacts on the pigs, such as foreleg abrasion, large temperature gradients between the cold floor surface and the abdomen of the piglets (hence higher susceptibility to diarrhea), and higher pre-weaning mortality or morbidity. Although straw bedding has been shown to be conducive to providing better environment for the sow-litter, use of straw creates challenges in terms of economics, hygiene and manure handling. This study investigates the use of neoprene mat (NM) in key areas of the farrowing crates - underneath the sow and in the piglet suckling area to improve the microenvironment and hence welfare of the sow-litter. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 12 sow-litters. The first experiment was to evaluate the thickness of a rectangular-shaped NM (7, 10 or 13 mm) vs. the slatted iron floor (control or Ctrl) and collect the corresponding animal response data; while the second follow-up experiment was to verify the benefits of supplying an improved, double concave (or H)-shaped NM with 10mm thick (CNM10) vs. Ctrl for the farrowing operation. Results of both experiments demonstrated considerable benefits of the NM placement in the farrowing crates. Specifically, the NM reduced the piglet foreleg lesion area and joint swellings (0% for NM vs. 8-10% for Ctrl during suckling periods in both Expts 1 and 2, P<0.001); reduced pre-weaning piglet crushing mortality (18.5+/-5.0%, 6.7+/-3.3% and 9.1+/-5.2% and for Ctrl, NM7 and NM10 and in Expt 1, P<0.05); and reduced piglet diarrhea morbidity (0.6+/-0.2% for CNM10 vs. 2.7+/-0.3% for Ctrl in Expt 2, P<0.01). Piglets in the NM litters had smaller temperature gradients between the abdomen

  16. Oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 favors intestinal development and alters the intestinal microbiota in formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Fengjuan; Thacker, Phil A; Zhang, Guolong; Qiao, Shiyan; Ma, Xi

    2014-01-29

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 on intestinal development and microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract using a neonatal piglet model. Full-term 4 day old piglets, fed with milk replacer, were divided into a control group (given placebo of 0.1% peptone water) and a L. fermentum I5007 group (dosed daily with 6 × 10(9) CFU/mL L. fermentum I5007). The experiment lasted 14 days. On day 14, a significant increase in the jejunum villous height (583 ± 33 vs 526 ± 18) and increases in the concentrations of butyrate (7.55 ± 0.55 vs 5.33 ± 0.39) and branched chain fatty acids in the colonic digesta were observed in piglets in the L. fermentum I5007 treatment (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of IL-1β (1.29 ± 0.29 vs. 0.62 ± 0.07) in the ileum were lower after 14 days of treatment with L. fermentum I5007. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that L. fermentum I5007 affected the colonic microbial communities on day 14 and, in particular, reduced numbers of Clostridium sp. L. fermentum I5007 play a positive role in gut development in neonatal piglets by modulating microbial composition, intestinal development, and immune status. L. fermentum I5007 may be useful as a probiotic for application in neonatal piglets. PMID:24404892

  17. [Effects of different growth rates in weaned piglets, starvation and hormonal action, on various metabolic parameters in the blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M

    1979-05-01

    Changes in concentrations of metabolites of the main nutrients in the blood plasma, caused by weaning and by different body weight gains, by starvation, exogenous adrenaline and ASTH administration were studied in 141 weaned piglets of the Large White breed at an age of 26 to 69 days. After weaning, the total protein level showed a faster decrease in the intensively growing piglets than in those with lower growth rates. This rapid decrease was induced by adrenaline. The post-weaning levels of glucose decreased irrespective of the growth rate of the piglets. Adrenaline caused hyperglycaemia and, after 48 hours of starvation, hypoglycaemia. Urea levels significantly increased after weaning. During starvation they remained unchanged, even under exposure to hormonal effects. Cholesterol concentration decreased after weaning, after ACTH and adrenaline administration also showed a decrease. The concentration of non-esterified fatty acids decreased after weaning, the decrease being more pronounced in the piglets with less intensive growth. The action of adrenaline, ACTH, together with an increased level of glucocorticoids, increased the concentration of these acids even in the state of starvation. It is assumed that early piglet weaning implies great metabolic changes which need not impair growth if their character is transient. The author evaluates the suitability of the starter used and parameters chosen for the determination of the metabolic profile of pigs. PMID:223271

  18. Colostral antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity contributes to innate and antigen-specific immunity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bandrick, Meggan; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Baidoo, Samuel K; Molitor, Thomas W

    2014-03-01

    Immunoglobulins and immune cells are critical components of colostral immunity; however, their transfer to and function in the neonate, especially maternal lymphocytes, is unclear. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity in sow blood and colostrum and piglet blood before (PS) and after (AS) suckling were assessed to investigate transfer and function of maternal immunity in the piglet. CD4, CD8, and γδ lymphocytes were found in sow blood and colostrum and piglet blood PS and AS; each had a unique T lymphocyte profile. Immunoglobulins were detected in sow blood, colostrum, and in piglet blood AS; the immunoglobulin profile of piglet serum AS mimicked that of sow serum. These results suggest selectivity in lymphocyte concentration into colostrum and subsequent lymphocyte transfer into the neonate, but that immunoglobulin transfer is unimpeded. Assessment of colostral natural killer activity and antigen-specific proliferation revealed that colostral cells are capable of influencing the innate and specific immune response of neonatal pigs. PMID:24252519

  19. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  20. Synbiotics suppress the release of lactate dehydrogenase, promote non-specific immunity and integrity of jejunum mucosa in piglets.

    PubMed

    Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Sopková, Drahomíra; Vlčková, Radoslava; Kulichová, Lucia; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Petrilla, Vladimír; Krešáková, Lenka

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to study how synbiotics are able to deal with the problems of post-weaning piglets. Lactobacillus plantarum - Biocenol(TM) LP96 (CCM 7512), Lactobacillus fermentum - Biocenol(TM) LF99 (CCM 7514) and flaxseed (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were administered to 36 conventional piglets from a problematic breed with confirmed presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Coronavirus. The experimental piglets were supplied with probiotic cheeses and crushed flax-seed in the period starting 10 days before weaning and lasting up to 14 days post-weaning. Piglets in the control group were supplied only control cheese. The impact of such additives on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; spectroscopic and electrophoretic assay), alteration of immunity (index of metabolic activity), jejunum histology (light microscopy), and health of conventional piglets from a problematic breed (monitoring of hematology, consistency and moisture of feces and body temperature) were examined. We found significant decrease in LDH leakage in the blood serum and tissue extracts, indicating better cell membrane integrity in the individual organs of animals. Probiotics and flaxseed applied together seem to be a good source of nutrients to improve the immune status and the integrity of jejunum mucosa during infection. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:27581561

  1. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response. PMID:27496737

  2. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  3. Measurement of the body composition of small piglets by quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of the growth of neonatal piglets it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo measurements of body composition of small piglets using QMR and DXA and to validate those results by chemical analysis. A...

  4. The “Immunocrit,” a Simple Measure of Passive Transfer, is a Useful Predictor of Nursing Ability and Preweaning Mortality of Piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of lactation and newborn piglet nursing ability are two factors that can influence preweaning mortality. We have developed the “immunocrit” that can assess both lactation initiation and neonatal piglet nursing ability based on the transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from the sow to the pig...

  5. [The development of weaned piglets experimentally infected with Isospora suis as a model for the effect of lasalocid and halofuginone on coccidia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Matuschka, F R; Männer, K

    1981-02-01

    Piglets which were early-weaned at the age of 21.7 days and experimentally monoinfected with oocysts of Isospora suis showed distinct reductions in zootechnical criteria during an experimental period of 4 weeks. The daily liveweight gains in the infected piglets (group B) was 19.7% lower than in the control group A, which was free of Coccidia. Comparative photographs with the REM showed serious lesions in the small intestine of infected piglets, which are thought to be mainly responsible for the reduced productivity. The application of 150 mg Lasalocid per kg of total feed to infected piglets caused the rate of weight gain to attain the same values as the noninfected controls (group A). Piglets receiving Lasalocid treatment passed oocysts with the faeces which were infectious. On the other hand, infected piglets which were treated with 6 mg Halofuginone per kg of total feed did not contain any oocysts in the faeces. Despite having a higher liveweight at the beginning of the experiment, this group only gained as much liveweight as the infected piglets (group B). This depression in liveweight gains could be explained by the significantly reduced uptake of feed, which was 21.1% lower than in the controls (group A). 6 weeks after the first infection, a re-infection resulted in the appearance of oocysts in the faeces of the piglets which had been treated with Halofuginone. On the other hand, the animals treated with Lasalocid had developed an efficient immunity to Isospora suis. PMID:7223136

  6. Development and enteral long-chain n-3 fatty acids differentially alters muscle intracellular pools of free amino acids in the neonate piglet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies suggest that feeding long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FA) in the diet may blunt the developmental reduction in insulin sensitivity and anabolism in the neonate piglet. To examine the effect of LCn-3FA on protein anabolism, 2-day-old piglets (n=28) were weaned and assigned to one of t...

  7. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XIX. Undiversified B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3s preferentially proliferate in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an extraordinary increase in the proportion of B cells resulting in lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and autoimmunity in neonatal piglets. Spectratypic analysis of B cells from neonatal isolator piglets show a non-Gaussia...

  8. Neurobiology of infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2005-11-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  9. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  10. The Role of Infant Cognitive Level in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; Jones, Freda A.

    Videotapes of mother/infant pairs were made to assess the influence of selected infant and maternal characteristics on parent/child interaction. Characteristics of interest were infant mental age, infant chronological age, infant gender, and parity. Subjects were 37 mothers (20 primiparous, 17 multiparous) and their infants (19 males, 18 females)…

  11. Infant feeding: a critical look at infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Motil, K J

    2000-10-01

    Commercially available infant formulas serve as the best alternative to human milk when breastfeeding is not possible. Infant formulas are designed specifically to mimic the composition of human milk or the functional aspects of human milk feeding. This review highlights the issues related to the composition of infant formulas. The most hotly debated issue currently is whether to add long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to infant formulas. Other controversial topics include the safety and efficacy of soy-based protein formulas, protein quantity and quality as they relate to the infant's nutritional needs and feeding tolerance, and the replacement of lactose with other carbohydrate sources for specialized infant formulas. Recent modifications in the fat blend of infant formulas have led to improved fat digestibility. However, the full spectrum of benefits associated with the addition of nucleotides awaits further study. Modifications to infant formulas are made when the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the compositional change will better meet the nutritional needs of the infant. PMID:11021413

  12. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying. PMID:21881008

  13. Initial Experience With a Miniaturized Multiplane Transesophageal Probe in Small Infants Undergoing Cardiac Operations

    PubMed Central

    Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Shirali, Girish S.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Bradley, Scott M.; Atz, Andrew M.; Cohen, Meryl S.; Graham, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has been reluctance to use intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in small infants. We assessed the utility and safety of a new miniaturized multiplane micro-TEE probe in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. Description Hemodynamic and ventilation variables were prospectively recorded before and after micro-TEE insertion and removal in infants weighing 5 kg or less undergoing cardiac operations. Evaluation The study included 42 patients with a mean weight of 3.6 ± 0.9 kg (range, 1.7 to 5 kg). All probe insertions were successful. There were no complications or clinically significant changes in hemodynamic or ventilation variables. Information provided by TEE resulted in surgical revision in 6 of the 42 patients. Conclusions The micro-TEE provides high quality, useful diagnostic images without hemodynamic or ventilation compromise in small infants undergoing cardiac operations. This advance is important with the growing trend towards complete repair of complex structural heart disease in small infants. PMID:20494062

  14. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  15. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  16. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  17. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  18. Systemic effects of whole-body cooling to 35°C, 33.5°C and 30°C in a piglet perinatal asphyxia model: implications for therapeutic hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Kerenyi, Aron; Kelen, Dorottya; Faulkner, Stuart D; Bainbridge, Alan; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Cady, Ernest B; Golay, Xavier; Robertson, Nicola J

    2014-01-01

    The precise temperature for optimal neuroprotection in infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unclear. Our aim was to assess systemic effects of whole-body cooling to 35°C, 33.5°C and 30°C in a piglet perinatal asphyxia model. Twenty-eight anesthetised male piglets aged <24h underwent hypoxia-ischemia and randomized to normothermia; or cooling to rectal temperature (Trec) 35°C, 33.5°C, or 30°C during 2-26 h post insult (groups n=7). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and Trec were recorded continuously. Five 30°C animals had fatal cardiac arrests. During 30°C cooling HR was lower vs normothermia (p<0.001). Although MABP did not vary between groups, more fluid boluses were needed at 30°C than normothermia (p<0.02); dopamine use was higher at 30°C than normothermia and 35°C (p=0.005, p=0.02). Base deficit was increased at 30°C at 12,24 and 36h vs all other groups (p<0.05), pH was acidotic at 36h vs normothermia (p=0.04) and blood glucose higher for 30°C at 12h vs normothermia and 35°C (p<0.05). Potassium was lower at 12h in the 30°C group vs 33.5°C and 35°C groups. Cortisol was no different between groups. Cooling to 30°C led to metabolic derangement, more cardiac arrests and deaths than cooling to 33.5°C or 35°C. Inadvertent overcooling should be avoided. PMID:22314664

  19. History of infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Barness, L A

    1987-07-01

    Human milk was the one successful infant food until the advent of scientific pediatrics, the invention of electric refrigeration, and the development of formulas containing the major nutrients in concentrations similar to human milk. Infants apparently thrive on artificial formulas but the current formulas represent only a stage in the journey to optimal nutrition for infants. Better analyses of the composition of human milk are likely to lead to an improved understanding of the infant's nutritional requirements and thus to better feeding practices. PMID:3300255

  20. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  1. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  2. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will digest breast ...

  3. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  5. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with <1 % difference between group mean body weights. Faecal samples from at least 10 % of litters on SD 14 demonstrated control of coccidiosis. Haemoglobin levels on SD 21 were lower in the oral toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events. PMID:26152420

  6. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. PMID:26960981

  7. Case-control study evaluating the sow's risk factors associated with stillbirth piglets in Midwestern in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gustavo Sousa; da Costa Lana, Marconni Victor; Dias, Geovanny Bruno Gonçalves; da Cruz, Raquel Aparecida Sales; Lopes, Leticya Lerner; Machado, Gustavo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Gava, Danielle; Souza, Marcos Almeida; Pescador, Caroline Argenta

    2015-02-01

    Reproductive failure in swine herds is often difficult to diagnose and is important to swine production. The present study aims to identify the potential risk factors (infectious/noninfectious) for stillborn piglets in two commercial swine farms situated in midwestern region of Brazil. The potential risk factors were included in a multivariable logistic model, and the dependent variable was defined as the presence of at least one stillborn piglet in a given litter (yes or no). In the best fit model, two variables from the multivariable analysis, total litter size (p = 0.01), and average birth weight (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the presence of stillborn piglets at the farms examined in this study. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was detected in 29.1 % of the litters. Neither parvovirus (PPV) nor leptospirosis infections were identified in this study, suggesting that they have a minor impact on reproductive disease. PMID:25516004

  8. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  9. Transport of Particles in Intestinal Mucus under Simulated Infant and Adult Physiological Conditions: Impact of Mucus Structure and Extracellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R.; Bajka, Balazs H.; Rigby, Neil M.; Nau, Françoise; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal) small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake. PMID:24755941

  10. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed. PMID:27553395

  11. Population dynamics and intra-litter transmission patterns of Isospora suis in suckling piglets under on-farm conditions.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Roepstorff, A; Nielsen, J P; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Enøe, C; Boes, J; Murrell, K D; Thamsborg, S M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-litter infection dynamics of Isospora suis under natural conditions, and to study any association between parasite transmission and the contamination level of the farrowing pen by applying different interventions in order to reduce the transmission of I. suis infection within the litter. The study was divided in 2 trials including in total 22 litters (254 piglets). The first trial included 4 litters (where standard procedures practiced routinely on the farm piglets were applied) and the piglets were followed coprologically from farrowing until 2 weeks after weaning. The sows of those litters were also examined at various intervals before and after farrowing. The second trial included the application of 3 different management procedures: (A) standard farm hygiene and management procedures, (B) standard farm hygiene and management procedures+the first piglets found to excrete I. suis oocysts in each pen were removed from the pen, and (C) reduced cleaning. Each procedure was studied in 2 litters. This was replicated 3 times to yield a total of 18 litters. The results suggested that (i) the sow does not play an important role in transmission of I. suis in the farrowing pen; (ii) in natural infections, both the age of the piglet age at onset of oocyst excretion and the oocyst excretion patterns may vary considerably; (iii) the course of oocyst excretion or development of diarrhoea is related to the time of initial infection and (iii) piglets, which are heavy at birth, are more prone to acquire I. suis infection. Moreover, it was demonstrated that cleaning could be an effective means of restricting the spread of the parasite within the litter and thus the development of diarrhoea. PMID:18021464

  12. NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species at different stages of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Kathleen E.; Aschner, J. L.; Milatovic, D.; Schmidt, J. W.; Aschner, M.; Kaplowitz, M. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) contribute to aberrant responses in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295: L881–L888, 2008). An objective of the present study was to determine whether NOX-derived ROS also contribute to altered PRA responses at a more advanced stage of pulmonary hypertension, after 10 days of hypoxia. We further wished to advance knowledge about the specific NOX and antioxidant enzymes that are altered at early and later stages of pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Using a cannulated artery technique, we found that treatments with agents that inhibit NOX (apocynin) or remove ROS [an SOD mimetic (M40403) + polyethylene glycol-catalase] diminished responses to ACh in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Western blot analysis showed an increase in expression of NOX1 and the membrane fraction of p67phox. Expression of NOX4, SOD2, and catalase were unchanged, whereas expression of SOD1 was reduced, in arteries from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Markers of oxidant stress, F2-isoprostanes, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were increased in PRAs from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, but not 10 days. We conclude that ROS derived from some, but not all, NOX family members, as well as alterations in the antioxidant enzyme SOD1, contribute to aberrant PRA responses at an early and a more progressive stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. PMID:19592458

  13. Milrinone is preferred to levosimendan for mesenteric perfusion in hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets treated with dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Bigam, David L.; Churchill, Thomas; Joynt, Chloe; Vento, Maximo; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is little information regarding the comparative hemodynamic effects of adding milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine infusion in hypoxia-reoxygenated (H-R) newborns. RESULTS Severely hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock with depressed cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The hemodynamics deteriorated gradually after initial recovery upon reoxygenation. Heart rate and CI improved with milrinone (D+M) and levosimendan (D+L) administration (P < 0.05 vs. control). Both regimens improved carotid arterial flow and carotid vascular resistance; D+M additionally improved superior mesentric arterial flow (all P < 0.05 vs. control). No effect was found on renal arterial flow or elevated lactate state with either regimen. D+M piglets also had a lower myocardial oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio (P < 0.05 vs. control). DISCUSSION In conclusion, adding milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine similarly improved systemic hemodynamics in H-R newborn piglets. Milrinone also improved mesenteric perfusion and attenuated myocardial oxidative stress. METHODS Twenty-eight piglets (1–4 d, 1.5–2.5 kg) were instrumented for continuous monitoring of systemic MAP and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), CI, and carotid, superior mesenteric, and renal arterial flows. Piglets were randomized with blinding to sham-operated, H-R control (saline), and H-R dopamine (10 μg/kg/min) with D+M or D+L groups. H-R piglets underwent H-R followed by 2 h of drug infusion after reoxygenation. Tissue was collected for biochemical/oxidative stress testing and histological analysis. PMID:22337258

  14. Evaluation of CO2 anaesthesia applied by a commercial device for the castration of male suckling piglets under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Langhoff, Rebecca; Auer, Ulrike; Maneng, Julia; Hochgerner, Agnes; Ritzmann, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinical and behavioural parameters of piglets castrated with the use of CO2 anaesthesia by using the commercial available device MS Pigsleeper. 80 male piglets with three to six days of age were allocated to four groups, and were castrated or left uncastrated either after receiving 70% CO2/30% O02, or without anaesthesia. Defensive movements and heart rates were measured during induction and castration phase. At castration phase the dewclaw reflex was tested and piglets were monitored for vocalisation. During recovery and the subsequent five minutes conspicuous behaviours were recorded. Intensity of defensive movements was significantly higher in groups with CO2 anaesthesia during induction phase. Defensive movements were significantly lower in groups with CO2, but also not fully absent, during castration phase. Surgical tolerance was only reached by 20% (4/20) of piglets castrated under anaesthesia. Heart rates were above physiological levels at the beginning of induction phase and dropped significantly thereafter. Dropping of heart rates was more pronounced in anaesthetised groups leading to significant differences compared to non-anaesthetised groups. A minimum heart rate of 20 beats per minute was measured. Conspicuous behaviours as spasms, gasping and licking were described for pigs after CO2 anaesthesia. Measured parameters implicated stress and discomfort during induction and recovery phase and severe cardiovascular depression during CO2 anaesthesia. Surgical tolerance was reached by only a small proportion of anaesthetised piglets. Therefore, welfare aspects were not met using CO2 anaesthesia for piglet castration in general and especially by applying the gas anaesthesia with the commercial device MS Pigsleeper. PMID:27529989

  15. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  16. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  17. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  18. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  19. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P < 0.05). The total number and average body weight (BW) of fetuses at 70 DIP, the number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P < 0.05). The increased expressions of P53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and decreased expression of Bcl-2 were observed in the uterus and placenta of sows at 70 DIP, the placenta and fetal uterus at farrowing, and the piglet uterus at weaning (P < 0.05). Adding 1% MHNTs decreased the residue of ZEN in maternal and fetal tissues. The number of fetuses and the average fetus BW at 70 DIP, the total number of piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0

  20. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P < 0.01), increased age at puberty (P < 0.01), reduced number born alive (P < 0.05), reduced litter average immunocrit (P < 0.05), and reduced litter average preweaning growth rate